Abstract

AlGaN is the material of choice for high-efficiency deep UV light sources, which is the only alternative technology to replace mercury lamps for water purification and disinfection. At present, however, AlGaN-based mid- and deep UV LEDs exhibit very low efficiency. Here, we report a detailed investigation of the epitaxy and characterization of LEDs utilizing an AlGaN/GaN/AlGaN tunnel junction structure, operating at 265  nm, which have the potential to break the efficiency bottleneck of deep UV photonics. A thin GaN layer was incorporated between p+ and n+-AlGaN to reduce the tunneling barrier. By optimizing the thickness of the GaN layer and thickness of the top n-AlGaN contact layer, we demonstrate AlGaN deep UV LEDs with a maximum external quantum efficiency of 11% and wall-plug efficiency of 7.6% for direct on-wafer measurement. It is also observed that the devices exhibit severe efficiency droop under low current densities, which is explained by the low hole mobility, due to the hole hopping conduction in the Mg impurity band and the resulting electron overflow.

© 2020 Chinese Laser Press

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2019 (5)

M. Guttmann, F. Mehnke, B. Belde, F. Wolf, C. Reich, L. Sulmoni, T. Wernicke, and M. Kneissl, “Optical light polarization and light extraction efficiency of AlGaN-based LEDs emitting between 264 and 220 nm,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 58, SCCB20 (2019).
[Crossref]

C. Kuhn, L. Sulmoni, M. Guttmann, J. Glaab, N. Susilo, T. Wernicke, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “MOVPE-grown AlGaN-based tunnel heterojunctions enabling fully transparent UVC LEDs,” Photon. Res. 7, B7–B11 (2019).
[Crossref]

A. Pandey, X. Liu, Z. Deng, W. Shin, D. Laleyan, K. Mashooq, E. Reid, E. Kioupakis, P. Bhattacharya, and Z. Mi, “Enhanced doping efficiency of ultrawide band gap semiconductors by metal-semiconductor junction assisted epitaxy,” Phys. Rev. Mater. 3, 053401 (2019).
[Crossref]

V. Fan Arcara, B. Damilano, G. Feuillet, S. Vézian, K. Ayadi, S. Chenot, and J.-Y. Duboz, “Ge doped GaN and Al0.5Ga0.5N-based tunnel junctions on top of visible and UV light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 126, 224503 (2019).
[Crossref]

X. Hai, R. Rashid, S. Sadaf, Z. Mi, and S. Zhao, “Effect of low hole mobility on the efficiency droop of AlGaN nanowire deep ultraviolet light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 114, 101104 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (10)

X. Liu, A. Pandey, D. A. Laleyan, K. Mashooq, E. T. Reid, W. J. Shin, and Z. Mi, “Charge carrier transport properties of Mg-doped Al0.6Ga0.4N grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 33, 085005 (2018).
[Crossref]

F. Nippert, M. Tollabi Mazraehno, M. J. Davies, M. P. Hoffmann, H.-J. Lugauer, T. Kure, M. Kneissl, A. Hoffmann, and M. R. Wagner, “Auger recombination in AlGaN quantum wells for UV light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 113, 071107 (2018).
[Crossref]

E. Vadiee, E. A. Clinton, H. McFavilen, A. S. Weidenbach, Z. Engel, C. Matthews, C. Zhang, C. Arena, R. R. King, and C. B. Honsberg, “InGaN solar cells with regrown GaN homojunction tunnel contacts,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 11, 082304 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Lee, C. A. Forman, C. Lee, J. Kearns, E. C. Young, J. T. Leonard, D. A. Cohen, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “GaN-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with tunnel junction contacts grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 11, 062703 (2018).
[Crossref]

X. Liu, K. Mashooq, T. Szkopek, and Z. Mi, “Improving the efficiency of transverse magnetic polarized emission from AlGaN based LEDs by using nanowire photonic crystal,” IEEE Photon. J. 10, 4501211 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Kashima, N. Maeda, E. Matsuura, M. Jo, T. Iwai, T. Morita, M. Kokubo, T. Tashiro, R. Kamimura, Y. Osada, H. Takagi, and H. Hirayama, “High external quantum efficiency (10%) AlGaN-based deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes achieved by using highly reflective photonic crystal on p-AlGaN contact layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 11,012101 (2018).
[Crossref]

N. Susilo, S. Hagedorn, D. Jaeger, H. Miyake, U. Zeimer, C. Reich, B. Neuschulz, L. Sulmoni, M. Guttmann, F. Mehnke, C. Kuhn, T. Wernicke, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “AlGaN-based deep UV LEDs grown on sputtered and high temperature annealed AlN/sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112, 041110 (2018).
[Crossref]

N. Maeda, M. Jo, and H. Hirayama, “Improving the efficiency of AlGaN deep-UV LEDs by using highly reflective Ni/Al p-type electrodes,” Phys. Status Solidi A 215, 1700435 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhang, Z. Jamal-Eddine, F. Akyol, S. Bajaj, J. M. Johnson, G. Calderon, A. A. Allerman, M. W. Moseley, A. M. Armstrong, J. Hwang, and S. Rajan, “Tunnel-injected sub 290 nm ultra-violet light emitting diodes with 2.8% external quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112, 071107 (2018).
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E. A. Clinton, E. Vadiee, S.-C. Shen, K. Mehta, P. D. Yoder, and W. A. Doolittle, “Negative differential resistance in GaN homojunction tunnel diodes and low voltage loss tunnel contacts,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112, 252103 (2018).
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2017 (6)

Y. Zhang, S. Krishnamoorthy, F. Akyol, J. M. Johnson, A. A. Allerman, M. W. Moseley, A. M. Armstrong, J. Hwang, and S. Rajan, “Reflective metal/semiconductor tunnel junctions for hole injection in AlGaN UV LEDs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111, 051104 (2017).
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S.-I. Inoue, N. Tamari, and M. Taniguchi, “150 mW deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with large-area AlN nanophotonic light-extraction structure emitting at 265 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110, 141106 (2017).
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G.-D. Hao, N. Tamari, T. Obata, T. Kinoshita, and S.-I. Inoue, “Electrical determination of current injection and internal quantum efficiencies in AlGaN-based deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 25, A639–A648 (2017).
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T. Takano, T. Mino, J. Sakai, N. Noguchi, K. Tsubaki, and H. Hirayama, “Deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with external quantum efficiency higher than 20% at 275 nm achieved by improving light-extraction efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 10, 031002 (2017).
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Y. Zhang, S. Krishnamoorthy, F. Akyol, S. Bajaj, A. A. Allerman, M. W. Moseley, A. M. Armstrong, and S. Rajan, “Tunnel-injected sub-260 nm ultraviolet light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110, 201102 (2017).
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N. H. Tran, B. H. Le, S. Zhao, and Z. Mi, “On the mechanism of highly efficient p-type conduction of Mg-doped ultra-wide-bandgap AlN nanostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110, 032102 (2017).
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2016 (5)

Y. Zhang, S. Krishnamoorthy, F. Akyol, A. A. Allerman, M. W. Moseley, A. M. Armstrong, and S. Rajan, “Design and demonstration of ultra-wide bandgap AlGaN tunnel junctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 121102 (2016).
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E. C. Young, B. P. Yonkee, F. Wu, S. H. Oh, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and J. S. Speck, “Hybrid tunnel junction contacts to III-nitride light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 9, 022102 (2016).
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Y. Zhang, S. Krishnamoorthy, F. Akyol, A. A. Allerman, M. W. Moseley, A. M. Armstrong, and S. Rajan, “Design of p-type cladding layers for tunnel-injected UV-A light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 191105 (2016).
[Crossref]

F. Akyol, S. Krishnamoorthy, Y. Zhang, J. Johnson, J. Hwang, and S. Rajan, “Low-resistance GaN tunnel homojunctions with 150 kA/cm2 current and repeatable negative differential resistance,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108, 131103 (2016).
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M. Djavid and Z. Mi, “Enhancing the light extraction efficiency of AlGaN deep ultraviolet light emitting diodes by using nanowire structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108, 051102 (2016).
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2015 (4)

S. Zhao, H. P. Nguyen, M. G. Kibria, and Z. Mi, “III-Nitride nanowire optoelectronics,” Progr. Quantum Electron. 44, 14–68 (2015).
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S.-I. Inoue, T. Naoki, T. Kinoshita, T. Obata, and H. Yanagi, “Light extraction enhancement of 265 nm deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with over 90 mW output power via an AlN hybrid nanostructure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 131104 (2015).
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J. Yun, J.-I. Shim, and H. Hirayama, “Analysis of efficiency droop in 280-nm AlGaN multiple-quantum-well light-emitting diodes based on carrier rate equation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 8, 022104 (2015).
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S. Karpov, “ABC-model for interpretation of internal quantum efficiency and its droop in III-nitride LEDs: a review,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 47, 1293–1303 (2015).
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2014 (2)

M. Auf der Maur, B. Galler, I. Pietzonka, M. Strassburg, H. Lugauer, and A. Di Carlo, “Trap-assisted tunneling in InGaN/GaN single-quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 133504 (2014).
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H. Hirayama, N. Maeda, S. Fujikawa, S. Toyoda, and N. Kamata, “Recent progress and future prospects of AlGaN-based high-efficiency deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 53, 100209 (2014).
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2013 (3)

P. Dong, J. Yan, J. Wang, Y. Zhang, C. Geng, T. Wei, P. Cong, Y. Zhang, J. Zeng, Y. Tian, L. Sun, Q. Yan, J. Li, S. Fan, and Z. Qin, “282-nm AlGaN-based deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with improved performance on nano-patterned sapphire substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 241113 (2013).
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Z.-H. Zhang, S. Tiam Tan, Z. Kyaw, Y. Ji, W. Liu, Z. Ju, N. Hasanov, X. Wei Sun, and H. Volkan Demir, “InGaN/GaN light-emitting diode with a polarization tunnel junction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 193508 (2013).
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J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, and J. K. Kim, “Efficiency droop in light-emitting diodes: challenges and countermeasures,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7, 408–421 (2013).
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2012 (4)

J. Northrup, C. Chua, Z. Yang, T. Wunderer, M. Kneissl, N. Johnson, and T. Kolbe, “Effect of strain and barrier composition on the polarization of light emission from AlGaN/AlN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 021101 (2012).
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P. Zhao, L. Han, M. R. McGoogan, and H. Zhao, “Analysis of TM mode light extraction efficiency enhancement for deep ultraviolet AlGaN quantum wells light-emitting diodes with III-nitride micro-domes,” Opt. Mater. Express 2, 1397–1406 (2012).
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Y. Liao, C. Kao, C. Thomidis, A. Moldawer, J. Woodward, D. Bhattarai, and T. Moustakas, “Recent progress of efficient deep UV-LEDs by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy,” Phys. Status Solidi C 9, 798–801 (2012).
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G.-B. Lin, D. Meyaard, J. Cho, E. Fred Schubert, H. Shim, and C. Sone, “Analytic model for the efficiency droop in semiconductors with asymmetric carrier-transport properties based on drift-induced reduction of injection efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 161106 (2012).
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2011 (5)

K. Ban, J.-I. Yamamoto, K. Takeda, K. Ide, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, I. Akasaki, and H. Amano, “Internal quantum efficiency of whole-composition-range AlGaN multiquantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 4, 052101 (2011).
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E. Kioupakis, P. Rinke, K. T. Delaney, and C. G. Van de Walle, “Indirect Auger recombination as a cause of efficiency droop in nitride light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 161107 (2011).
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R. Collazo, S. Mita, J. Xie, A. Rice, J. Tweedie, R. Dalmau, and Z. Sitar, “Progress on n-type doping of AlGaN alloys on AlN single crystal substrates for UV optoelectronic applications,” Phys. Status Solidi C 8, 2031–2033 (2011).
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D. S. Meyaard, G.-B. Lin, Q. Shan, J. Cho, E. Fred Schubert, H. Shim, M.-H. Kim, and C. Sone, “Asymmetry of carrier transport leading to efficiency droop in GaInN based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 251115 (2011).
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Y. Liao, C. Thomidis, C.-K. Kao, and T. D. Moustakas, “AlGaN based deep ultraviolet light emitting diodes with high internal quantum efficiency grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 081110 (2011).
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2010 (7)

S. Krishnamoorthy, D. N. Nath, F. Akyol, P. S. Park, M. Esposto, and S. Rajan, “Polarization-engineered GaN/InGaN/GaN tunnel diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 203502 (2010).
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J. Simon, V. Protasenko, C. Lian, H. Xing, and D. Jena, “Polarization-induced hole doping in wide-band-gap uniaxial semiconductor heterostructures,” Science 327, 60–64 (2010).
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C. Bayram, Z. Vashaei, and M. Razeghi, “Reliability in room-temperature negative differential resistance characteristics of low-aluminum content AlGaN/GaN double-barrier resonant tunneling diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 181109 (2010).
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Y.-J. Lee, C.-H. Chen, and C.-J. Lee, “Reduction in the efficiency-droop effect of InGaN green light-emitting diodes using gradual quantum wells,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1506–1508 (2010).
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J. Piprek, “Efficiency droop in nitride-based light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi A 207, 2217–2225 (2010).
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H. Hirayama, Y. Tsukada, T. Maeda, and N. Kamata, “Marked enhancement in the efficiency of deep-ultraviolet AlGaN light-emitting diodes by using a multiquantum-barrier electron blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 3, 031002 (2010).
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W. Sun, M. Shatalov, J. Deng, X. Hu, J. Yang, A. Lunev, Y. Bilenko, M. Shur, and R. Gaska, “Efficiency droop in 245–247 nm AlGaN light-emitting diodes with continuous wave 2 mW output power,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 061102 (2010).
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2009 (5)

S. Vilhunen, H. Särkkä, and M. Sillanpää, “Ultraviolet light-emitting diodes in water disinfection,” Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. 16, 439–442 (2009).
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H. Hirayama, S. Fujikawa, N. Noguchi, J. Norimatsu, T. Takano, K. Tsubaki, and N. Kamata, “222–282 nm AlGaN and InAlGaN-based deep-UV LEDs fabricated on high-quality AlN on sapphire,” Phys. Status Solidi A 206, 1176–1182 (2009).
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M. S. Shur and R. Gaska, “Deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 57, 12–25 (2009).
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A. Bhattacharyya, T. Moustakas, L. Zhou, D. J. Smith, and W. Hug, “Deep ultraviolet emitting AlGaN quantum wells with high internal quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 181907 (2009).
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J. Simon, Z. Zhang, K. Goodman, H. Xing, T. Kosel, P. Fay, and D. Jena, “Polarization-induced Zener tunnel junctions in wide-band-gap heterostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 026801 (2009).
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2008 (1)

J. Zhang, Y. Zhu, T. Egawa, S. Sumiya, M. Miyoshi, and M. Tanaka, “Influence of pulse width on electroluminescence and junction temperature of AlInGaN deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 191917 (2008).
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2007 (3)

H. Hirayama, T. Yatabe, N. Noguchi, T. Ohashi, and N. Kamata, “231–261 nm AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes fabricated on AlN multilayer buffers grown by ammonia pulse-flow method on sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 071901 (2007).
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M.-H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 183507 (2007).
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M. J. Grundmann and U. K. Mishra, “Multi-color light emitting diode using polarization-induced tunnel junctions,” Phys. Status Solidi C 4, 2830–2833 (2007).
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2006 (4)

Y. Gu, N. Narendran, T. Dong, and H. Wu, “Spectral and luminous efficacy change of high-power LEDs under different dimming methods,” Proc. SPIE 6337, 63370J (2006).
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Y. Wang, A. S. Özcan, K. F. Ludwig, A. Bhattacharyya, T. Moustakas, L. Zhou, and D. J. Smith, “Complex and incommensurate ordering in Al0.72Ga0.28N thin films grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 181915 (2006).
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M. Nakarmi, N. Nepal, C. Ugolini, T. Altahtamouni, J. Lin, and H. Jiang, “Correlation between optical and electrical properties of Mg-doped AlN epilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 152120 (2006).
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Y. Taniyasu, M. Kasu, and T. Makimoto, “An aluminium nitride light-emitting diode with a wavelength of 210 nanometres,” Nature 441, 325–328 (2006).
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2005 (2)

V. Mymrin, K. Bulashevich, N. Podolskaya, and S. Y. Karpov, “Bandgap engineering of electronic and optoelectronic devices on native AlN and GaN substrates: a modelling insight,” J. Cryst. Growth 281, 115–124 (2005).
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J. Shakya, K. Knabe, K. Kim, J. Li, J. Lin, and H. Jiang, “Polarization of III-nitride blue and ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 091107 (2005).
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2004 (1)

J. Zhang, X. Hu, Y. Bilenko, J. Deng, A. Lunev, M. Shur, R. Gaska, M. Shatalov, J. Yang, and M. A. Khan, “AlGaN-based 280 nm light-emitting diodes with continuous-wave power exceeding 1 mW at 25 mA,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5532–5534 (2004).
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2002 (3)

C. Stampfl and C. Van de Walle, “Theoretical investigation of native defects, impurities, and complexes in aluminum nitride,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 155212 (2002).
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A. Chitnis, J. Sun, V. Mandavilli, R. Pachipulusu, S. Wu, M. Gaevski, V. Adivarahan, J. Zhang, M. A. Khan, A. Sarua, and M. Kuball, “Self-heating effects at high pump currents in deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes at 324 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3491–3493 (2002).
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X. Cao, E. Stokes, P. Sandvik, S. LeBoeuf, J. Kretchmer, and D. Walker, “Diffusion and tunneling currents in GaN/InGaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 23, 535–537 (2002).
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2001 (3)

M. Diagne, Y. He, H. Zhou, E. Makarona, A. Nurmikko, J. Han, K. Waldrip, J. Figiel, T. Takeuchi, and M. Krames, “Vertical cavity violet light emitting diode incorporating an aluminum gallium nitride distributed Bragg mirror and a tunnel junction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3720–3722 (2001).
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T. Takeuchi, G. Hasnain, S. Corzine, M. Hueschen, R. P. Schneider, C. Kocot, M. Blomqvist, Y.-l. Chang, D. Lefforge, and M. R. Krames, “GaN-based light emitting diodes with tunnel junctions,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, L861–L863 (2001).
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S.-R. Jeon, Y.-H. Song, H.-J. Jang, G. M. Yang, S. W. Hwang, and S. J. Son, “Lateral current spreading in GaN-based light-emitting diodes utilizing tunnel contact junctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 3265–3267 (2001).
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2000 (1)

O. Ambacher, B. Foutz, J. Smart, J. Shealy, N. Weimann, K. Chu, M. Murphy, A. Sierakowski, W. Schaff, L. Eastman, R. Dimitrov, A. Mitchell, and M. Stutzmann, “Two dimensional electron gases induced by spontaneous and piezoelectric polarization in undoped and doped AlGaN/GaN heterostructures,” J. Appl. Phys. 87, 334–344 (2000).
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Adivarahan, V.

A. Chitnis, J. Sun, V. Mandavilli, R. Pachipulusu, S. Wu, M. Gaevski, V. Adivarahan, J. Zhang, M. A. Khan, A. Sarua, and M. Kuball, “Self-heating effects at high pump currents in deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes at 324 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3491–3493 (2002).
[Crossref]

Akasaki, I.

K. Ban, J.-I. Yamamoto, K. Takeda, K. Ide, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, I. Akasaki, and H. Amano, “Internal quantum efficiency of whole-composition-range AlGaN multiquantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 4, 052101 (2011).
[Crossref]

Akyol, F.

Y. Zhang, Z. Jamal-Eddine, F. Akyol, S. Bajaj, J. M. Johnson, G. Calderon, A. A. Allerman, M. W. Moseley, A. M. Armstrong, J. Hwang, and S. Rajan, “Tunnel-injected sub 290 nm ultra-violet light emitting diodes with 2.8% external quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112, 071107 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhang, S. Krishnamoorthy, F. Akyol, J. M. Johnson, A. A. Allerman, M. W. Moseley, A. M. Armstrong, J. Hwang, and S. Rajan, “Reflective metal/semiconductor tunnel junctions for hole injection in AlGaN UV LEDs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111, 051104 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhang, S. Krishnamoorthy, F. Akyol, S. Bajaj, A. A. Allerman, M. W. Moseley, A. M. Armstrong, and S. Rajan, “Tunnel-injected sub-260 nm ultraviolet light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110, 201102 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhang, S. Krishnamoorthy, F. Akyol, A. A. Allerman, M. W. Moseley, A. M. Armstrong, and S. Rajan, “Design of p-type cladding layers for tunnel-injected UV-A light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 191105 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhang, S. Krishnamoorthy, F. Akyol, A. A. Allerman, M. W. Moseley, A. M. Armstrong, and S. Rajan, “Design and demonstration of ultra-wide bandgap AlGaN tunnel junctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 121102 (2016).
[Crossref]

F. Akyol, S. Krishnamoorthy, Y. Zhang, J. Johnson, J. Hwang, and S. Rajan, “Low-resistance GaN tunnel homojunctions with 150 kA/cm2 current and repeatable negative differential resistance,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108, 131103 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Krishnamoorthy, D. N. Nath, F. Akyol, P. S. Park, M. Esposto, and S. Rajan, “Polarization-engineered GaN/InGaN/GaN tunnel diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 203502 (2010).
[Crossref]

Allerman, A. A.

Y. Zhang, Z. Jamal-Eddine, F. Akyol, S. Bajaj, J. M. Johnson, G. Calderon, A. A. Allerman, M. W. Moseley, A. M. Armstrong, J. Hwang, and S. Rajan, “Tunnel-injected sub 290 nm ultra-violet light emitting diodes with 2.8% external quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112, 071107 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhang, S. Krishnamoorthy, F. Akyol, J. M. Johnson, A. A. Allerman, M. W. Moseley, A. M. Armstrong, J. Hwang, and S. Rajan, “Reflective metal/semiconductor tunnel junctions for hole injection in AlGaN UV LEDs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111, 051104 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhang, S. Krishnamoorthy, F. Akyol, S. Bajaj, A. A. Allerman, M. W. Moseley, A. M. Armstrong, and S. Rajan, “Tunnel-injected sub-260 nm ultraviolet light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110, 201102 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhang, S. Krishnamoorthy, F. Akyol, A. A. Allerman, M. W. Moseley, A. M. Armstrong, and S. Rajan, “Design of p-type cladding layers for tunnel-injected UV-A light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 191105 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhang, S. Krishnamoorthy, F. Akyol, A. A. Allerman, M. W. Moseley, A. M. Armstrong, and S. Rajan, “Design and demonstration of ultra-wide bandgap AlGaN tunnel junctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 121102 (2016).
[Crossref]

Altahtamouni, T.

M. Nakarmi, N. Nepal, C. Ugolini, T. Altahtamouni, J. Lin, and H. Jiang, “Correlation between optical and electrical properties of Mg-doped AlN epilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 152120 (2006).
[Crossref]

Amano, H.

K. Ban, J.-I. Yamamoto, K. Takeda, K. Ide, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, I. Akasaki, and H. Amano, “Internal quantum efficiency of whole-composition-range AlGaN multiquantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 4, 052101 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ambacher, O.

O. Ambacher, B. Foutz, J. Smart, J. Shealy, N. Weimann, K. Chu, M. Murphy, A. Sierakowski, W. Schaff, L. Eastman, R. Dimitrov, A. Mitchell, and M. Stutzmann, “Two dimensional electron gases induced by spontaneous and piezoelectric polarization in undoped and doped AlGaN/GaN heterostructures,” J. Appl. Phys. 87, 334–344 (2000).
[Crossref]

Arena, C.

E. Vadiee, E. A. Clinton, H. McFavilen, A. S. Weidenbach, Z. Engel, C. Matthews, C. Zhang, C. Arena, R. R. King, and C. B. Honsberg, “InGaN solar cells with regrown GaN homojunction tunnel contacts,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 11, 082304 (2018).
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Armstrong, A. M.

Y. Zhang, Z. Jamal-Eddine, F. Akyol, S. Bajaj, J. M. Johnson, G. Calderon, A. A. Allerman, M. W. Moseley, A. M. Armstrong, J. Hwang, and S. Rajan, “Tunnel-injected sub 290 nm ultra-violet light emitting diodes with 2.8% external quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112, 071107 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhang, S. Krishnamoorthy, F. Akyol, J. M. Johnson, A. A. Allerman, M. W. Moseley, A. M. Armstrong, J. Hwang, and S. Rajan, “Reflective metal/semiconductor tunnel junctions for hole injection in AlGaN UV LEDs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111, 051104 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhang, S. Krishnamoorthy, F. Akyol, S. Bajaj, A. A. Allerman, M. W. Moseley, A. M. Armstrong, and S. Rajan, “Tunnel-injected sub-260 nm ultraviolet light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110, 201102 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhang, S. Krishnamoorthy, F. Akyol, A. A. Allerman, M. W. Moseley, A. M. Armstrong, and S. Rajan, “Design of p-type cladding layers for tunnel-injected UV-A light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 191105 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhang, S. Krishnamoorthy, F. Akyol, A. A. Allerman, M. W. Moseley, A. M. Armstrong, and S. Rajan, “Design and demonstration of ultra-wide bandgap AlGaN tunnel junctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 121102 (2016).
[Crossref]

Auf der Maur, M.

M. Auf der Maur, B. Galler, I. Pietzonka, M. Strassburg, H. Lugauer, and A. Di Carlo, “Trap-assisted tunneling in InGaN/GaN single-quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 133504 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ayadi, K.

V. Fan Arcara, B. Damilano, G. Feuillet, S. Vézian, K. Ayadi, S. Chenot, and J.-Y. Duboz, “Ge doped GaN and Al0.5Ga0.5N-based tunnel junctions on top of visible and UV light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 126, 224503 (2019).
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Bajaj, S.

Y. Zhang, Z. Jamal-Eddine, F. Akyol, S. Bajaj, J. M. Johnson, G. Calderon, A. A. Allerman, M. W. Moseley, A. M. Armstrong, J. Hwang, and S. Rajan, “Tunnel-injected sub 290 nm ultra-violet light emitting diodes with 2.8% external quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112, 071107 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhang, S. Krishnamoorthy, F. Akyol, S. Bajaj, A. A. Allerman, M. W. Moseley, A. M. Armstrong, and S. Rajan, “Tunnel-injected sub-260 nm ultraviolet light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110, 201102 (2017).
[Crossref]

Ban, K.

K. Ban, J.-I. Yamamoto, K. Takeda, K. Ide, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, I. Akasaki, and H. Amano, “Internal quantum efficiency of whole-composition-range AlGaN multiquantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 4, 052101 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bayram, C.

C. Bayram, Z. Vashaei, and M. Razeghi, “Reliability in room-temperature negative differential resistance characteristics of low-aluminum content AlGaN/GaN double-barrier resonant tunneling diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 181109 (2010).
[Crossref]

Belde, B.

M. Guttmann, F. Mehnke, B. Belde, F. Wolf, C. Reich, L. Sulmoni, T. Wernicke, and M. Kneissl, “Optical light polarization and light extraction efficiency of AlGaN-based LEDs emitting between 264 and 220 nm,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 58, SCCB20 (2019).
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Bhattacharya, P.

A. Pandey, X. Liu, Z. Deng, W. Shin, D. Laleyan, K. Mashooq, E. Reid, E. Kioupakis, P. Bhattacharya, and Z. Mi, “Enhanced doping efficiency of ultrawide band gap semiconductors by metal-semiconductor junction assisted epitaxy,” Phys. Rev. Mater. 3, 053401 (2019).
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Bhattacharyya, A.

A. Bhattacharyya, T. Moustakas, L. Zhou, D. J. Smith, and W. Hug, “Deep ultraviolet emitting AlGaN quantum wells with high internal quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 181907 (2009).
[Crossref]

Y. Wang, A. S. Özcan, K. F. Ludwig, A. Bhattacharyya, T. Moustakas, L. Zhou, and D. J. Smith, “Complex and incommensurate ordering in Al0.72Ga0.28N thin films grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 181915 (2006).
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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) Schematic illustration of the tunnel junction LED structures. (b) Simulated equilibrium band diagram for a representative LED using a 5 nm GaN layer within the tunnel junction. The different layers used in the structure are labelled and shown with different colors.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) HAADF-STEM overview of cross-sectional AlGaN multilayers shows the complete device structure consistent with the device design. (b) High-resolution HAADF-STEM of the p-AlGaN/GaN/n-AlGaN tunnel junction shows crystalline epitaxial growth with sharp interfaces for enhanced hole injection by tunneling. (c) Atomic-resolution HAADF-STEM of Al0.6Ga0.4N quantum wells coupled to Al0.85Ga0.15N barriers with sharp epitaxial interfaces for carrier confinement.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) IV characteristics of tunnel junction LED Samples A and B, with 2.5 nm GaN layer width and different thicknesses, 50 and 150 nm respectively, of top n+-AlGaN contact layer. (b) IV characteristics of Samples B, C, and D grown with the same thickness of top n+-AlGaN but different GaN layer widths of 2.5, 5, and 10 nm, respectively. Variations of (c) EQE and (d) WPE with injected current density, for Samples B, C, and D.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. IV characteristics of an optimized tunnel junction LED from Sample E with a GaN layer thickness of 5 nm and top n-AlGaN contact layer thickness 480  nm.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. (a) Electroluminescence spectra measured at different injection currents for a representative tunnel junction LED. Inset shows an electroluminescence spectrum measured at 25  A/cm2 current density with the intensity in log scale. (b) Variations of peak position (red circles) and spectral linewidth (black squares) versus injected current density.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Variations of (a) EQE and (b) WPE with injected current density for an LED from Sample E.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Parameters of Tunnel Junction LED Structures

Equations (1)

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IHAADF=t·[(fGaZGa+fAlZAl)γ+ZNγ],

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