Abstract

Bipolar phototransistors have higher optical responsivity than photodiodes and play an important role in the field of photoelectric conversion. Two-dimensional materials offer a good optical responsivity and have the potential advantages of heterogeneous integration, but mass-production is difficult. In this study, a bipolar phototransistor is presented based on a vertical Au/graphene/MoS2 van der Waals heterojunction that can be mass-produced with a silicon semiconductor process using a simple photolithography process. Au is used as the emitter, which is a functional material used not just for the electrodes, MoS2 is used for the collector, and graphene in used for the base of the bipolar phototransistor. In the bipolar phototransistor, the electric field of the dipole formed by the Au and graphene contact is in the same direction as the external electric field and thus enhances the photocurrent, and a maximum photocurrent gain of 18 is demonstrated. A mechanism for enhancing the photocurrent of the graphene/MoS2 photodiode by contacting Au with graphene is also described. Additionally, the maximum responsivity is calculated to be 16,458 A/W, and the generation speed of the photocurrent is 1.48×104 A/s.

© 2019 Chinese Laser Press

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2019 (5)

F. Davoodi and N. Granpayeh, “Nonlinear graphene-transition metal dichalcogenides heterostructure refractive index sensor,” IEEE Sens. J. 19, 4435–4442 (2019).
[Crossref]

H. W. Liu, D. Li, C. Ma, X. H. Zhang, X. X. Sun, C. G. Zhu, B. Y. Zheng, Z. X. Zou, Z. Y. Luo, X. L. Zhu, X. Wang, and A. L. Pan, “Van der Waals epitaxial growth of vertically stacked Sb2Te3/MoS2 p-n heterojunctions for high performance optoelectronics,” Nano Energy 59, 66–74 (2019).
[Crossref]

R. Cao, H. D. Wang, Z. N. Guo, D. K. Sang, L. Y. Zhang, Q. L. Xiao, Y. P. Zhang, D. Y. Fan, J. Q. Li, and H. Zhang, “Black phosphorous/indium selenide photoconductive detector for visible and near-infrared light with high sensitivity,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 7, 1900020 (2019).
[Crossref]

S. S. Chee, D. Seo, H. Kim, H. Jang, S. Lee, S. P. Moon, K. H. Lee, S. W. Kim, H. Choi, and M. H. Ham, “Lowering the Schottky barrier height by graphene/Ag electrodes for high-mobility MoS2 field-effect transistors,” Adv. Mater. 31, 1804422 (2019).
[Crossref]

F. Y. Liu, W. T. Navaraj, N. Yogeswaran, D. H. Gregory, and R. Dahiya, “Van der Waals contact engineering of graphene field-effect transistors for large-area flexible electronics,” ACS Nano 13, 3257–3268 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (8)

A. Di Bartolomeo, A. Grillo, F. Urban, L. Iemmo, F. Giubileo, G. Luongo, G. Amato, L. Croin, L. F. Sun, S. J. Liang, and L. K. Ang, “Asymmetric Schottky contacts in bilayer MoS2 field effect transistors,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 28, 1800657 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Y. Wu, Y. T. Chun, S. P. Li, T. Zhang, and D. P. Chu, “Electrical rectifying and photosensing property of schottky diode based on MoS2,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 10, 24613–24619 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. Katumba, M. Freiberger, F. Laporte, A. Lugnan, S. Sackesyn, C. H. Ma, J. Dambre, and P. Bienstman, “Neuromorphic computing based on silicon photonics and reservoir computing,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24, 8300310 (2018).
[Crossref]

B. Kang, Y. Kim, W. J. Yoo, and C. Lee, “Ultrahigh photoresponsive device based on ReS2/graphene heterostructure,” Small 14, 1802593 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. T. Lee, J. H. Kang, K. Kwak, J. Ahn, H. T. Choi, B. K. Ju, S. H. Shokouh, S. Im, M. C. Park, and D. K. Hwang, “High-performance 2D MoS2 phototransistor for photo logic gate and image sensor,” ACS Photon. 5, 4745–4750 (2018).
[Crossref]

Q. D. Ou, Y. P. Zhang, Z. Y. Wang, J. A. Yuwono, R. B. Wang, Z. G. Dai, W. Li, C. X. Zheng, Z. Q. Xu, X. Qi, S. Duhm, N. V. Medhekar, H. Zhang, and Q. L. Bao, “Strong depletion in hybrid perovskite p-n junctions induced by local electronic doping,” Adv. Mater. 30, 1705792 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Xie, Y. Wang, Z. X. Zhang, D. Wang, and L. B. Luo, “Graphene/semiconductor hybrid heterostructures for optoelectronic device applications,” Nano Today 19, 41–83 (2018).
[Crossref]

X. Yan, D. W. Zhang, C. S. Liu, W. Z. Bao, S. Y. Wang, S. J. Ding, G. F. Zheng, and P. Zhou, “High performance amplifier element realization via MoS2/GaTe heterostructures,” Adv. Sci. 5, 1700830 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (8)

G. G. Naumis, S. Barraza-Lopez, M. Oliva-Leyva, and H. Terrones, “Electronic and optical properties of strained graphene and other strained 2D materials: a review,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 80, 096501 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. H. Yoon, S. Jung, G. Choi, J. Kim, Y. Jeon, Y. S. Kim, H. Y. Jeong, K. Kim, S. Y. Kwon, and K. Park, “Strong fermi-level pinning at metal/n-Si(001) interface ensured by forming an intact Schottky contact with a graphene insertion layer,” Nano Lett. 17, 44–49 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. J. Tan, W. S. Xu, Y. W. Sheng, C. S. Lau, Y. Fan, Q. Chen, M. Tweedie, X. C. Wang, Y. Q. Zhou, and J. H. Warner, “Lateral graphene-contacted vertically stacked WS2/MoS2 hybrid photodetectors with large gain,” Adv. Mater. 29, 1702917 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Wang, R. Fullon, M. Acerce, C. E. Petoukhoff, J. Yang, C. G. Chen, S. N. Du, S. K. Lai, S. P. Lau, D. Voiry, D. O’Carroll, G. Gupta, A. D. Mohite, S. D. Zhang, H. Zhou, and M. Chhowalla, “Solution-processed MoS2/organolead trihalide perovskite photodetectors,” Adv. Mater. 29, 1603995 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Li, L. Ye, and J. B. Xu, “High-performance broadband floating-base bipolar phototransistor based on WSe2/BP/MoS2 heterostructure,” ACS Photon. 4, 823–829 (2017).
[Crossref]

N. J. Huo and G. Konstantatos, “Ultrasensitive all-2D MoS2 phototransistors enabled by an out-of-plane MoS2 PN homojunction,” Nat. Commun. 8, 6 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Xie, B. Zhang, S. Wang, D. Wang, A. Wang, Z. Wang, H. Yu, H. Zhang, Y. Chen, M. Zhao, B. Huang, L. Mei, and J. Wang, “Ultrabroadband MoS2 photodetector with spectral response from 445 to 2717  nm,” Adv. Mater. 29, 1605972 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. F. Song, Z. M. Liang, H. Zhang, Q. Zhang, L. M. Zhao, D. Y. Shen, and D. Y. Tang, “Period-doubling and quadrupling bifurcation of vector soliton bunches in a graphene mode locked fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. J. 9, 4502308 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (10)

Y. F. Song, H. Zhang, L. M. Zhao, D. Y. Shen, and D. Y. Tang, “Coexistence and interaction of vector and bound vector solitons in a dispersion-managed fiber laser mode locked by graphene,” Opt. Express 24, 1814–1822 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. Agnihotri, P. Dhakras, and J. U. Lee, “Bipolar junction transistors in two-dimensional WSe2 with large current and photocurrent gains,” Nano Lett. 16, 4355–4360 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. De Fazio, I. Goykhman, D. Yoon, M. Bruna, A. Eiden, S. Milana, U. Sassi, M. Barbone, D. Dumcenco, K. Marinov, A. Kis, and A. C. Ferrari, “High responsivity, large-area graphene/MoS2 flexible photodetectors,” ACS Nano 10, 8252–8262 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Namgung, J. Shaver, S. H. Oh, and S. J. Koester, “Multimodal photodiode and phototransistor device based on two-dimensional materials,” ACS Nano 10, 10500–10506 (2016).
[Crossref]

F. Ruffino, G. Meli, and M. G. Grimaldi, “Nanoscale electrical characteristics of metal (Au, Pd)-graphene-metal (Cu) contacts,” Solid State Commun. 225, 1–6 (2016).
[Crossref]

W. J. Su, H. C. Chang, Y. T. Shih, Y. P. Wang, H. P. Hsu, Y. S. Huang, and K. Y. Lee, “Two dimensional MoS2/graphene p-n heterojunction diode: fabrication and electronic characteristics,” J. Alloy. Compd. 671, 276–282 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Z. Xue, Y. P. Zhang, Y. Liu, H. T. Liu, J. C. Song, J. Sophia, J. Y. Liu, Z. Q. Xu, Q. Y. Xu, Z. Y. Wang, J. L. Zheng, Y. Q. Liu, S. J. Li, and Q. L. Bao, “Scalable production of a few-layer MoS2/WS2 vertical heterojunction array and its application for photodetectors,” ACS Nano 10, 573–580 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Xu, C. Cheng, S. C. Du, J. Y. Yang, B. Yu, J. Luo, W. Y. Yin, E. P. Li, S. R. Dong, P. D. Ye, and X. F. Duan, “Contacts between two- and three-dimensional materials: Ohmic, Schottky, and p-n heterojunctions,” ACS Nano 10, 4895–4919 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Liu, N. O. Weiss, X. D. Duan, H. C. Cheng, Y. Huang, and X. F. Duan, “Van der Waals heterostructures and devices,” Nat. Rev. Mater. 1, 16042 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. H. Lee, T. H. Kim, H. J. Shin, and S. W. Kim, “Highly efficient photocurrent generation from nanocrystalline graphene-molybdenum disulfide lateral interfaces,” Adv. Mater. 28, 1793–1798 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (1)

F. Wang, Z. X. Wang, K. Xu, F. M. Wang, Q. S. Wang, Y. Huang, L. Yin, and J. He, “Tunable GaTe-MoS2 van der Waals p-n junctions with novel optoelectronic performance,” Nano Lett. 15, 7558–7566 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

H. Xu, J. X. Wu, Q. L. Feng, N. N. Mao, C. M. Wang, and J. Zhang, “High responsivity and gate tunable graphene-MoS2 hybrid phototransistor,” Small 10, 2300–2306 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (6)

K. Roy, M. Padmanabhan, S. Goswami, T. P. Sai, G. Ramalingam, S. Raghavan, and A. Ghosh, “Graphene-MoS2 hybrid structures for multifunctional photoresponsive memory devices,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8, 826–830 (2013).
[Crossref]

W. J. Yu, Z. Li, H. L. Zhou, Y. Chen, Y. Wang, Y. Huang, and X. F. Duan, “Vertically stacked multi-heterostructures of layered materials for logic transistors and complementary inverters,” Nat. Mater. 12, 246–252 (2013).
[Crossref]

W. J. Yu, Y. Liu, H. L. Zhou, A. X. Yin, Z. Li, Y. Huang, and X. F. Duan, “Highly efficient gate-tunable photocurrent generation in vertical heterostructures of layered materials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8, 952–958 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Das, H. Y. Chen, A. V. Penumatcha, and J. Appenzeller, “High performance multilayer MoS2 transistors with scandium contacts,” Nano Lett. 13, 100–105 (2013).
[Crossref]

O. Lopez-Sanchez, D. Lembke, M. Kayci, A. Radenovic, and A. Kis, “Ultrasensitive photodetectors based on monolayer MoS2,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8, 497–501 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. F. Song, L. Li, H. Zhang, D. Y. Shen, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Vector multi-soliton operation and interaction in a graphene mode-locked fiber laser,” Opt. Express 21, 10010–10018 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

G. Konstantatos, M. Badioli, L. Gaudreau, J. Osmond, M. Bernechea, F. P. G. de Arquer, F. Gatti, and F. H. L. Koppens, “Hybrid graphene-quantum dot phototransistors with ultrahigh gain,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7, 363–368 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

F. N. Xia, V. Perebeinos, Y. M. Lin, Y. Q. Wu, and P. Avouris, “The origins and limits of metal-graphene junction resistance,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6, 179–184 (2011).
[Crossref]

B. Radisavljevic, A. Radenovic, J. Brivio, V. Giacometti, and A. Kis, “Single-layer MoS2 transistors,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6, 147–150 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

K. F. Mak, C. Lee, J. Hone, J. Shan, and T. F. Heinz, “Atomically thin MoS2: a new direct-gap semiconductor,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 136805 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

Y. M. Lin, K. A. Jenkins, A. Valdes-Garcia, J. P. Small, D. B. Farmer, and P. Avouris, “Operation of graphene transistors at gigahertz frequencies,” Nano Lett. 9, 422–426 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

G. Giovannetti, P. A. Khomyakov, G. Brocks, V. M. Karpan, J. van den Brink, and P. J. Kelly, “Doping graphene with metal contacts,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 026803 (2008).
[Crossref]

Acerce, M.

Y. Wang, R. Fullon, M. Acerce, C. E. Petoukhoff, J. Yang, C. G. Chen, S. N. Du, S. K. Lai, S. P. Lau, D. Voiry, D. O’Carroll, G. Gupta, A. D. Mohite, S. D. Zhang, H. Zhou, and M. Chhowalla, “Solution-processed MoS2/organolead trihalide perovskite photodetectors,” Adv. Mater. 29, 1603995 (2017).
[Crossref]

Agnihotri, P.

P. Agnihotri, P. Dhakras, and J. U. Lee, “Bipolar junction transistors in two-dimensional WSe2 with large current and photocurrent gains,” Nano Lett. 16, 4355–4360 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ahn, J.

Y. T. Lee, J. H. Kang, K. Kwak, J. Ahn, H. T. Choi, B. K. Ju, S. H. Shokouh, S. Im, M. C. Park, and D. K. Hwang, “High-performance 2D MoS2 phototransistor for photo logic gate and image sensor,” ACS Photon. 5, 4745–4750 (2018).
[Crossref]

Amato, G.

A. Di Bartolomeo, A. Grillo, F. Urban, L. Iemmo, F. Giubileo, G. Luongo, G. Amato, L. Croin, L. F. Sun, S. J. Liang, and L. K. Ang, “Asymmetric Schottky contacts in bilayer MoS2 field effect transistors,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 28, 1800657 (2018).
[Crossref]

Ang, L. K.

A. Di Bartolomeo, A. Grillo, F. Urban, L. Iemmo, F. Giubileo, G. Luongo, G. Amato, L. Croin, L. F. Sun, S. J. Liang, and L. K. Ang, “Asymmetric Schottky contacts in bilayer MoS2 field effect transistors,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 28, 1800657 (2018).
[Crossref]

Appenzeller, J.

S. Das, H. Y. Chen, A. V. Penumatcha, and J. Appenzeller, “High performance multilayer MoS2 transistors with scandium contacts,” Nano Lett. 13, 100–105 (2013).
[Crossref]

Avouris, P.

F. N. Xia, V. Perebeinos, Y. M. Lin, Y. Q. Wu, and P. Avouris, “The origins and limits of metal-graphene junction resistance,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6, 179–184 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. M. Lin, K. A. Jenkins, A. Valdes-Garcia, J. P. Small, D. B. Farmer, and P. Avouris, “Operation of graphene transistors at gigahertz frequencies,” Nano Lett. 9, 422–426 (2009).
[Crossref]

Badioli, M.

G. Konstantatos, M. Badioli, L. Gaudreau, J. Osmond, M. Bernechea, F. P. G. de Arquer, F. Gatti, and F. H. L. Koppens, “Hybrid graphene-quantum dot phototransistors with ultrahigh gain,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7, 363–368 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bao, Q. L.

Q. D. Ou, Y. P. Zhang, Z. Y. Wang, J. A. Yuwono, R. B. Wang, Z. G. Dai, W. Li, C. X. Zheng, Z. Q. Xu, X. Qi, S. Duhm, N. V. Medhekar, H. Zhang, and Q. L. Bao, “Strong depletion in hybrid perovskite p-n junctions induced by local electronic doping,” Adv. Mater. 30, 1705792 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Z. Xue, Y. P. Zhang, Y. Liu, H. T. Liu, J. C. Song, J. Sophia, J. Y. Liu, Z. Q. Xu, Q. Y. Xu, Z. Y. Wang, J. L. Zheng, Y. Q. Liu, S. J. Li, and Q. L. Bao, “Scalable production of a few-layer MoS2/WS2 vertical heterojunction array and its application for photodetectors,” ACS Nano 10, 573–580 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bao, W. Z.

X. Yan, D. W. Zhang, C. S. Liu, W. Z. Bao, S. Y. Wang, S. J. Ding, G. F. Zheng, and P. Zhou, “High performance amplifier element realization via MoS2/GaTe heterostructures,” Adv. Sci. 5, 1700830 (2018).
[Crossref]

Barbone, M.

D. De Fazio, I. Goykhman, D. Yoon, M. Bruna, A. Eiden, S. Milana, U. Sassi, M. Barbone, D. Dumcenco, K. Marinov, A. Kis, and A. C. Ferrari, “High responsivity, large-area graphene/MoS2 flexible photodetectors,” ACS Nano 10, 8252–8262 (2016).
[Crossref]

Barraza-Lopez, S.

G. G. Naumis, S. Barraza-Lopez, M. Oliva-Leyva, and H. Terrones, “Electronic and optical properties of strained graphene and other strained 2D materials: a review,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 80, 096501 (2017).
[Crossref]

Bera, K. P.

K. P. Bera, G. Haider, Y.-T. Huang, P. K. Roy, C. R. Paul Inbaraj, Y.-M. Liao, H.-I. Lin, C.-H. Lu, C. Shen, W. Y. Shih, W.-H. Shih, and Y.-F. Chen, “Graphene sandwich stable perovskite quantum-dot light-emissive ultrasensitive and ultrafast broadband vertical phototransistors,” ACS Nano13, 12540–12552 (2019).
[Crossref]

Bernechea, M.

G. Konstantatos, M. Badioli, L. Gaudreau, J. Osmond, M. Bernechea, F. P. G. de Arquer, F. Gatti, and F. H. L. Koppens, “Hybrid graphene-quantum dot phototransistors with ultrahigh gain,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7, 363–368 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bienstman, P.

A. Katumba, M. Freiberger, F. Laporte, A. Lugnan, S. Sackesyn, C. H. Ma, J. Dambre, and P. Bienstman, “Neuromorphic computing based on silicon photonics and reservoir computing,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24, 8300310 (2018).
[Crossref]

Brivio, J.

B. Radisavljevic, A. Radenovic, J. Brivio, V. Giacometti, and A. Kis, “Single-layer MoS2 transistors,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6, 147–150 (2011).
[Crossref]

Brocks, G.

G. Giovannetti, P. A. Khomyakov, G. Brocks, V. M. Karpan, J. van den Brink, and P. J. Kelly, “Doping graphene with metal contacts,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 026803 (2008).
[Crossref]

Bruna, M.

D. De Fazio, I. Goykhman, D. Yoon, M. Bruna, A. Eiden, S. Milana, U. Sassi, M. Barbone, D. Dumcenco, K. Marinov, A. Kis, and A. C. Ferrari, “High responsivity, large-area graphene/MoS2 flexible photodetectors,” ACS Nano 10, 8252–8262 (2016).
[Crossref]

Cao, R.

R. Cao, H. D. Wang, Z. N. Guo, D. K. Sang, L. Y. Zhang, Q. L. Xiao, Y. P. Zhang, D. Y. Fan, J. Q. Li, and H. Zhang, “Black phosphorous/indium selenide photoconductive detector for visible and near-infrared light with high sensitivity,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 7, 1900020 (2019).
[Crossref]

Chang, H. C.

W. J. Su, H. C. Chang, Y. T. Shih, Y. P. Wang, H. P. Hsu, Y. S. Huang, and K. Y. Lee, “Two dimensional MoS2/graphene p-n heterojunction diode: fabrication and electronic characteristics,” J. Alloy. Compd. 671, 276–282 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chee, S. S.

S. S. Chee, D. Seo, H. Kim, H. Jang, S. Lee, S. P. Moon, K. H. Lee, S. W. Kim, H. Choi, and M. H. Ham, “Lowering the Schottky barrier height by graphene/Ag electrodes for high-mobility MoS2 field-effect transistors,” Adv. Mater. 31, 1804422 (2019).
[Crossref]

Chen, C. G.

Y. Wang, R. Fullon, M. Acerce, C. E. Petoukhoff, J. Yang, C. G. Chen, S. N. Du, S. K. Lai, S. P. Lau, D. Voiry, D. O’Carroll, G. Gupta, A. D. Mohite, S. D. Zhang, H. Zhou, and M. Chhowalla, “Solution-processed MoS2/organolead trihalide perovskite photodetectors,” Adv. Mater. 29, 1603995 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chen, H. Y.

S. Das, H. Y. Chen, A. V. Penumatcha, and J. Appenzeller, “High performance multilayer MoS2 transistors with scandium contacts,” Nano Lett. 13, 100–105 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chen, Q.

H. J. Tan, W. S. Xu, Y. W. Sheng, C. S. Lau, Y. Fan, Q. Chen, M. Tweedie, X. C. Wang, Y. Q. Zhou, and J. H. Warner, “Lateral graphene-contacted vertically stacked WS2/MoS2 hybrid photodetectors with large gain,” Adv. Mater. 29, 1702917 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.

Y. Xie, B. Zhang, S. Wang, D. Wang, A. Wang, Z. Wang, H. Yu, H. Zhang, Y. Chen, M. Zhao, B. Huang, L. Mei, and J. Wang, “Ultrabroadband MoS2 photodetector with spectral response from 445 to 2717  nm,” Adv. Mater. 29, 1605972 (2017).
[Crossref]

W. J. Yu, Z. Li, H. L. Zhou, Y. Chen, Y. Wang, Y. Huang, and X. F. Duan, “Vertically stacked multi-heterostructures of layered materials for logic transistors and complementary inverters,” Nat. Mater. 12, 246–252 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.-F.

K. P. Bera, G. Haider, Y.-T. Huang, P. K. Roy, C. R. Paul Inbaraj, Y.-M. Liao, H.-I. Lin, C.-H. Lu, C. Shen, W. Y. Shih, W.-H. Shih, and Y.-F. Chen, “Graphene sandwich stable perovskite quantum-dot light-emissive ultrasensitive and ultrafast broadband vertical phototransistors,” ACS Nano13, 12540–12552 (2019).
[Crossref]

Cheng, C.

Y. Xu, C. Cheng, S. C. Du, J. Y. Yang, B. Yu, J. Luo, W. Y. Yin, E. P. Li, S. R. Dong, P. D. Ye, and X. F. Duan, “Contacts between two- and three-dimensional materials: Ohmic, Schottky, and p-n heterojunctions,” ACS Nano 10, 4895–4919 (2016).
[Crossref]

Cheng, H. C.

Y. Liu, N. O. Weiss, X. D. Duan, H. C. Cheng, Y. Huang, and X. F. Duan, “Van der Waals heterostructures and devices,” Nat. Rev. Mater. 1, 16042 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chhowalla, M.

Y. Wang, R. Fullon, M. Acerce, C. E. Petoukhoff, J. Yang, C. G. Chen, S. N. Du, S. K. Lai, S. P. Lau, D. Voiry, D. O’Carroll, G. Gupta, A. D. Mohite, S. D. Zhang, H. Zhou, and M. Chhowalla, “Solution-processed MoS2/organolead trihalide perovskite photodetectors,” Adv. Mater. 29, 1603995 (2017).
[Crossref]

Choi, G.

H. H. Yoon, S. Jung, G. Choi, J. Kim, Y. Jeon, Y. S. Kim, H. Y. Jeong, K. Kim, S. Y. Kwon, and K. Park, “Strong fermi-level pinning at metal/n-Si(001) interface ensured by forming an intact Schottky contact with a graphene insertion layer,” Nano Lett. 17, 44–49 (2017).
[Crossref]

Choi, H.

S. S. Chee, D. Seo, H. Kim, H. Jang, S. Lee, S. P. Moon, K. H. Lee, S. W. Kim, H. Choi, and M. H. Ham, “Lowering the Schottky barrier height by graphene/Ag electrodes for high-mobility MoS2 field-effect transistors,” Adv. Mater. 31, 1804422 (2019).
[Crossref]

Choi, H. T.

Y. T. Lee, J. H. Kang, K. Kwak, J. Ahn, H. T. Choi, B. K. Ju, S. H. Shokouh, S. Im, M. C. Park, and D. K. Hwang, “High-performance 2D MoS2 phototransistor for photo logic gate and image sensor,” ACS Photon. 5, 4745–4750 (2018).
[Crossref]

Chu, D. P.

J. Y. Wu, Y. T. Chun, S. P. Li, T. Zhang, and D. P. Chu, “Electrical rectifying and photosensing property of schottky diode based on MoS2,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 10, 24613–24619 (2018).
[Crossref]

Chun, Y. T.

J. Y. Wu, Y. T. Chun, S. P. Li, T. Zhang, and D. P. Chu, “Electrical rectifying and photosensing property of schottky diode based on MoS2,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 10, 24613–24619 (2018).
[Crossref]

Croin, L.

A. Di Bartolomeo, A. Grillo, F. Urban, L. Iemmo, F. Giubileo, G. Luongo, G. Amato, L. Croin, L. F. Sun, S. J. Liang, and L. K. Ang, “Asymmetric Schottky contacts in bilayer MoS2 field effect transistors,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 28, 1800657 (2018).
[Crossref]

Dahiya, R.

F. Y. Liu, W. T. Navaraj, N. Yogeswaran, D. H. Gregory, and R. Dahiya, “Van der Waals contact engineering of graphene field-effect transistors for large-area flexible electronics,” ACS Nano 13, 3257–3268 (2019).
[Crossref]

Dai, Z. G.

Q. D. Ou, Y. P. Zhang, Z. Y. Wang, J. A. Yuwono, R. B. Wang, Z. G. Dai, W. Li, C. X. Zheng, Z. Q. Xu, X. Qi, S. Duhm, N. V. Medhekar, H. Zhang, and Q. L. Bao, “Strong depletion in hybrid perovskite p-n junctions induced by local electronic doping,” Adv. Mater. 30, 1705792 (2018).
[Crossref]

Dambre, J.

A. Katumba, M. Freiberger, F. Laporte, A. Lugnan, S. Sackesyn, C. H. Ma, J. Dambre, and P. Bienstman, “Neuromorphic computing based on silicon photonics and reservoir computing,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24, 8300310 (2018).
[Crossref]

Das, S.

S. Das, H. Y. Chen, A. V. Penumatcha, and J. Appenzeller, “High performance multilayer MoS2 transistors with scandium contacts,” Nano Lett. 13, 100–105 (2013).
[Crossref]

Davoodi, F.

F. Davoodi and N. Granpayeh, “Nonlinear graphene-transition metal dichalcogenides heterostructure refractive index sensor,” IEEE Sens. J. 19, 4435–4442 (2019).
[Crossref]

de Arquer, F. P. G.

G. Konstantatos, M. Badioli, L. Gaudreau, J. Osmond, M. Bernechea, F. P. G. de Arquer, F. Gatti, and F. H. L. Koppens, “Hybrid graphene-quantum dot phototransistors with ultrahigh gain,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7, 363–368 (2012).
[Crossref]

De Fazio, D.

D. De Fazio, I. Goykhman, D. Yoon, M. Bruna, A. Eiden, S. Milana, U. Sassi, M. Barbone, D. Dumcenco, K. Marinov, A. Kis, and A. C. Ferrari, “High responsivity, large-area graphene/MoS2 flexible photodetectors,” ACS Nano 10, 8252–8262 (2016).
[Crossref]

Dhakras, P.

P. Agnihotri, P. Dhakras, and J. U. Lee, “Bipolar junction transistors in two-dimensional WSe2 with large current and photocurrent gains,” Nano Lett. 16, 4355–4360 (2016).
[Crossref]

Di Bartolomeo, A.

A. Di Bartolomeo, A. Grillo, F. Urban, L. Iemmo, F. Giubileo, G. Luongo, G. Amato, L. Croin, L. F. Sun, S. J. Liang, and L. K. Ang, “Asymmetric Schottky contacts in bilayer MoS2 field effect transistors,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 28, 1800657 (2018).
[Crossref]

Ding, S. J.

X. Yan, D. W. Zhang, C. S. Liu, W. Z. Bao, S. Y. Wang, S. J. Ding, G. F. Zheng, and P. Zhou, “High performance amplifier element realization via MoS2/GaTe heterostructures,” Adv. Sci. 5, 1700830 (2018).
[Crossref]

Dong, S. R.

Y. Xu, C. Cheng, S. C. Du, J. Y. Yang, B. Yu, J. Luo, W. Y. Yin, E. P. Li, S. R. Dong, P. D. Ye, and X. F. Duan, “Contacts between two- and three-dimensional materials: Ohmic, Schottky, and p-n heterojunctions,” ACS Nano 10, 4895–4919 (2016).
[Crossref]

Du, S. C.

Y. Xu, C. Cheng, S. C. Du, J. Y. Yang, B. Yu, J. Luo, W. Y. Yin, E. P. Li, S. R. Dong, P. D. Ye, and X. F. Duan, “Contacts between two- and three-dimensional materials: Ohmic, Schottky, and p-n heterojunctions,” ACS Nano 10, 4895–4919 (2016).
[Crossref]

Du, S. N.

Y. Wang, R. Fullon, M. Acerce, C. E. Petoukhoff, J. Yang, C. G. Chen, S. N. Du, S. K. Lai, S. P. Lau, D. Voiry, D. O’Carroll, G. Gupta, A. D. Mohite, S. D. Zhang, H. Zhou, and M. Chhowalla, “Solution-processed MoS2/organolead trihalide perovskite photodetectors,” Adv. Mater. 29, 1603995 (2017).
[Crossref]

Duan, X. D.

Y. Liu, N. O. Weiss, X. D. Duan, H. C. Cheng, Y. Huang, and X. F. Duan, “Van der Waals heterostructures and devices,” Nat. Rev. Mater. 1, 16042 (2016).
[Crossref]

Duan, X. F.

Y. Liu, N. O. Weiss, X. D. Duan, H. C. Cheng, Y. Huang, and X. F. Duan, “Van der Waals heterostructures and devices,” Nat. Rev. Mater. 1, 16042 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Xu, C. Cheng, S. C. Du, J. Y. Yang, B. Yu, J. Luo, W. Y. Yin, E. P. Li, S. R. Dong, P. D. Ye, and X. F. Duan, “Contacts between two- and three-dimensional materials: Ohmic, Schottky, and p-n heterojunctions,” ACS Nano 10, 4895–4919 (2016).
[Crossref]

W. J. Yu, Y. Liu, H. L. Zhou, A. X. Yin, Z. Li, Y. Huang, and X. F. Duan, “Highly efficient gate-tunable photocurrent generation in vertical heterostructures of layered materials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8, 952–958 (2013).
[Crossref]

W. J. Yu, Z. Li, H. L. Zhou, Y. Chen, Y. Wang, Y. Huang, and X. F. Duan, “Vertically stacked multi-heterostructures of layered materials for logic transistors and complementary inverters,” Nat. Mater. 12, 246–252 (2013).
[Crossref]

Duhm, S.

Q. D. Ou, Y. P. Zhang, Z. Y. Wang, J. A. Yuwono, R. B. Wang, Z. G. Dai, W. Li, C. X. Zheng, Z. Q. Xu, X. Qi, S. Duhm, N. V. Medhekar, H. Zhang, and Q. L. Bao, “Strong depletion in hybrid perovskite p-n junctions induced by local electronic doping,” Adv. Mater. 30, 1705792 (2018).
[Crossref]

Dumcenco, D.

D. De Fazio, I. Goykhman, D. Yoon, M. Bruna, A. Eiden, S. Milana, U. Sassi, M. Barbone, D. Dumcenco, K. Marinov, A. Kis, and A. C. Ferrari, “High responsivity, large-area graphene/MoS2 flexible photodetectors,” ACS Nano 10, 8252–8262 (2016).
[Crossref]

Eiden, A.

D. De Fazio, I. Goykhman, D. Yoon, M. Bruna, A. Eiden, S. Milana, U. Sassi, M. Barbone, D. Dumcenco, K. Marinov, A. Kis, and A. C. Ferrari, “High responsivity, large-area graphene/MoS2 flexible photodetectors,” ACS Nano 10, 8252–8262 (2016).
[Crossref]

Fan, D. Y.

R. Cao, H. D. Wang, Z. N. Guo, D. K. Sang, L. Y. Zhang, Q. L. Xiao, Y. P. Zhang, D. Y. Fan, J. Q. Li, and H. Zhang, “Black phosphorous/indium selenide photoconductive detector for visible and near-infrared light with high sensitivity,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 7, 1900020 (2019).
[Crossref]

Fan, Y.

H. J. Tan, W. S. Xu, Y. W. Sheng, C. S. Lau, Y. Fan, Q. Chen, M. Tweedie, X. C. Wang, Y. Q. Zhou, and J. H. Warner, “Lateral graphene-contacted vertically stacked WS2/MoS2 hybrid photodetectors with large gain,” Adv. Mater. 29, 1702917 (2017).
[Crossref]

Farmer, D. B.

Y. M. Lin, K. A. Jenkins, A. Valdes-Garcia, J. P. Small, D. B. Farmer, and P. Avouris, “Operation of graphene transistors at gigahertz frequencies,” Nano Lett. 9, 422–426 (2009).
[Crossref]

Feng, Q. L.

H. Xu, J. X. Wu, Q. L. Feng, N. N. Mao, C. M. Wang, and J. Zhang, “High responsivity and gate tunable graphene-MoS2 hybrid phototransistor,” Small 10, 2300–2306 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ferrari, A. C.

D. De Fazio, I. Goykhman, D. Yoon, M. Bruna, A. Eiden, S. Milana, U. Sassi, M. Barbone, D. Dumcenco, K. Marinov, A. Kis, and A. C. Ferrari, “High responsivity, large-area graphene/MoS2 flexible photodetectors,” ACS Nano 10, 8252–8262 (2016).
[Crossref]

Freiberger, M.

A. Katumba, M. Freiberger, F. Laporte, A. Lugnan, S. Sackesyn, C. H. Ma, J. Dambre, and P. Bienstman, “Neuromorphic computing based on silicon photonics and reservoir computing,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24, 8300310 (2018).
[Crossref]

Fullon, R.

Y. Wang, R. Fullon, M. Acerce, C. E. Petoukhoff, J. Yang, C. G. Chen, S. N. Du, S. K. Lai, S. P. Lau, D. Voiry, D. O’Carroll, G. Gupta, A. D. Mohite, S. D. Zhang, H. Zhou, and M. Chhowalla, “Solution-processed MoS2/organolead trihalide perovskite photodetectors,” Adv. Mater. 29, 1603995 (2017).
[Crossref]

Gatti, F.

G. Konstantatos, M. Badioli, L. Gaudreau, J. Osmond, M. Bernechea, F. P. G. de Arquer, F. Gatti, and F. H. L. Koppens, “Hybrid graphene-quantum dot phototransistors with ultrahigh gain,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7, 363–368 (2012).
[Crossref]

Gaudreau, L.

G. Konstantatos, M. Badioli, L. Gaudreau, J. Osmond, M. Bernechea, F. P. G. de Arquer, F. Gatti, and F. H. L. Koppens, “Hybrid graphene-quantum dot phototransistors with ultrahigh gain,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7, 363–368 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ghosh, A.

K. Roy, M. Padmanabhan, S. Goswami, T. P. Sai, G. Ramalingam, S. Raghavan, and A. Ghosh, “Graphene-MoS2 hybrid structures for multifunctional photoresponsive memory devices,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8, 826–830 (2013).
[Crossref]

Giacometti, V.

B. Radisavljevic, A. Radenovic, J. Brivio, V. Giacometti, and A. Kis, “Single-layer MoS2 transistors,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6, 147–150 (2011).
[Crossref]

Giovannetti, G.

G. Giovannetti, P. A. Khomyakov, G. Brocks, V. M. Karpan, J. van den Brink, and P. J. Kelly, “Doping graphene with metal contacts,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 026803 (2008).
[Crossref]

Giubileo, F.

A. Di Bartolomeo, A. Grillo, F. Urban, L. Iemmo, F. Giubileo, G. Luongo, G. Amato, L. Croin, L. F. Sun, S. J. Liang, and L. K. Ang, “Asymmetric Schottky contacts in bilayer MoS2 field effect transistors,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 28, 1800657 (2018).
[Crossref]

Goswami, S.

K. Roy, M. Padmanabhan, S. Goswami, T. P. Sai, G. Ramalingam, S. Raghavan, and A. Ghosh, “Graphene-MoS2 hybrid structures for multifunctional photoresponsive memory devices,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8, 826–830 (2013).
[Crossref]

Goykhman, I.

D. De Fazio, I. Goykhman, D. Yoon, M. Bruna, A. Eiden, S. Milana, U. Sassi, M. Barbone, D. Dumcenco, K. Marinov, A. Kis, and A. C. Ferrari, “High responsivity, large-area graphene/MoS2 flexible photodetectors,” ACS Nano 10, 8252–8262 (2016).
[Crossref]

Granpayeh, N.

F. Davoodi and N. Granpayeh, “Nonlinear graphene-transition metal dichalcogenides heterostructure refractive index sensor,” IEEE Sens. J. 19, 4435–4442 (2019).
[Crossref]

Gregory, D. H.

F. Y. Liu, W. T. Navaraj, N. Yogeswaran, D. H. Gregory, and R. Dahiya, “Van der Waals contact engineering of graphene field-effect transistors for large-area flexible electronics,” ACS Nano 13, 3257–3268 (2019).
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J. Y. Wu, Y. T. Chun, S. P. Li, T. Zhang, and D. P. Chu, “Electrical rectifying and photosensing property of schottky diode based on MoS2,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 10, 24613–24619 (2018).
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Y. Xie, B. Zhang, S. Wang, D. Wang, A. Wang, Z. Wang, H. Yu, H. Zhang, Y. Chen, M. Zhao, B. Huang, L. Mei, and J. Wang, “Ultrabroadband MoS2 photodetector with spectral response from 445 to 2717  nm,” Adv. Mater. 29, 1605972 (2017).
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R. Cao, H. D. Wang, Z. N. Guo, D. K. Sang, L. Y. Zhang, Q. L. Xiao, Y. P. Zhang, D. Y. Fan, J. Q. Li, and H. Zhang, “Black phosphorous/indium selenide photoconductive detector for visible and near-infrared light with high sensitivity,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 7, 1900020 (2019).
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J. Y. Wu, Y. T. Chun, S. P. Li, T. Zhang, and D. P. Chu, “Electrical rectifying and photosensing property of schottky diode based on MoS2,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 10, 24613–24619 (2018).
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R. Cao, H. D. Wang, Z. N. Guo, D. K. Sang, L. Y. Zhang, Q. L. Xiao, Y. P. Zhang, D. Y. Fan, J. Q. Li, and H. Zhang, “Black phosphorous/indium selenide photoconductive detector for visible and near-infrared light with high sensitivity,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 7, 1900020 (2019).
[Crossref]

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C. Xie, Y. Wang, Z. X. Zhang, D. Wang, and L. B. Luo, “Graphene/semiconductor hybrid heterostructures for optoelectronic device applications,” Nano Today 19, 41–83 (2018).
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[Crossref]

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Y. Xie, B. Zhang, S. Wang, D. Wang, A. Wang, Z. Wang, H. Yu, H. Zhang, Y. Chen, M. Zhao, B. Huang, L. Mei, and J. Wang, “Ultrabroadband MoS2 photodetector with spectral response from 445 to 2717  nm,” Adv. Mater. 29, 1605972 (2017).
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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) Optical microscope image of the phototransistor device array and the grayscale image of a device. (b) Raman spectrum of the graphene/MoS2 heterojunction under excitation by a 532 nm laser.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Production process of the Au/graphene/MoS2 vdWHs bipolar phototransistor.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) IV characteristic curve of Au-graphene junction. The Au is the cathode and the graphene layer is the anode. (b) IV characteristic curve of graphene-MoS2 junction. The graphene is the cathode and the MoS2 is the anode. Band diagrams of the Au/graphene/MoS2 vdWHs (c) in their original state, (d) with forward bias and irradiation.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (a) Schematic of the Au/graphene/MoS2 bipolar phototransistor and its equivalent structure. (b) IV characteristics in darkness and under different irradiance intensity values (VG=0). (c) ICE versus laser power density under different VCE at VG=0  V. (d) VG versus ICE at different VCE with 1.05  mW/cm2 irradiance intensity. The wavelength of the laser is 405 nm.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. (a) Responsivity of the device as a function of VCE under different VG. (b) Responsivity of the device as a function of laser power density at different VCE. (c) Relationship between photocurrent and dark current, normalized by the ratio Ilaser/Idark, and the detectivity of the bipolar phototransistor at different VCE values (irradiation under 405 nm 0.25  mW/cm2 irradiance intensity and VG=0  V). (d) Responsivity curves of Au/graphene/MoS2 vdWHs under different wavelengths of laser radiation with same laser power density 1.05  mW/cm2.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. (a) Transient response of the Au/graphene/MoS2 bipolar phototransistor. (b) A section between 80 s and 90 s of (a) with a rise time of 20 ms and a fall time of 92 ms. (c) IV characteristic curves of graphene/MoS2 vdWHs under irradiation. (d) The photocurrent density of the Au/graphene/MoS2 bipolar phototransistor and graphene/MoS2 photodiode under the same laser power density and the amplification coefficient β depends on the bias voltages. (Irradiation under 405 nm 0.45  mW/cm2 irradiance intensity, VCE=17  V and VG=0  V.)
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Summary of comparison of the responsivity performance and generation speed of photocurrent of our Au/graphene/MoS2 vdWH with other 2D heterostructures based on MoS2, showing that our device achieves the highest generation speed of photocurrent.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Summary of Comparison of the Au/graphene/MoS2 vdWHs with Other 2D Materials Heterostructures Based on Graphene or MoS2

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