Abstract

The famous demonstration of optical rogue waves (RWs), a powerful tool to reveal the fundamental physics in different laser scenarios, opened a flourishing time for temporal statistics. Random fiber laser (RFL) has likewise attracted wide attention due to its great potential in multidisciplinary demonstrations and promising applications. However, owing to the distinctive cavity-free structure, it is a scientific challenge to achieve temporal localized RWs in RFLs, whose feedback arises from multiple scattering in disordered medium. Here, we report the exploration of RW in the highly skewed, transient intensity of an incoherently pumped RFL for the first time, to our knowledge, and unfold the involved kinetics successfully. The corresponding frequency domain measurements demonstrate that the RW event arises from a crucial sustained stimulated Brillouin scattering process with intrinsic stochastic nature. This investigation highlights a novel path to fully understanding the complex physics, such as photon propagation and localization, in disordered media.

© 2019 Chinese Laser Press

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References

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2019 (1)

2018 (3)

2017 (8)

S. V. Sergeyev, H. Kbashi, N. Tarasov, Y. Loiko, and S. A. Kolpakov, “Vector-resonance-multimode instability,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 033904 (2017).
[Crossref]

B. C. Lima, P. I. R. Pincheira, E. P. Raposo, L. d. S. Menezes, C. B. de Araújo, A. S. L. Gomes, and R. Kashyap, “Extreme-value statistics of intensities in a cw-pumped random fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. A 96, 013834 (2017).
[Crossref]

P. H. Hanzard, M. Talbi, D. Mallek, A. Kellou, H. Leblond, F. Sanchez, T. Godin, and A. Hideur, “Brillouin scattering-induced rogue waves in self-pulsing fiber lasers,” Sci. Rep. 7, 45868 (2017).
[Crossref]

B. Abaie, E. Mobini, S. Karbasi, J. Ballato, and A. Mafi, “Random lasing in an Anderson localizing optical fiber,” Light Sci. Appl. 6, e17041 (2017).
[Crossref]

I. R. R. González, B. C. Lima, P. I. R. Pincheira, A. A. Brum, A. M. S. Macêdo, G. L. Vasconcelos, L. de S. Menezes, E. P. Raposo, A. S. L. Gomes, and R. Kashyap, “Turbulence hierarchy in a random fibre laser,” Nat. Commun. 8, 15731 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Sugavanam, M. Sorokina, and D. V. Churkin, “Spectral correlations in a random distributed feedback fibre laser,” Nat. Commun. 8, 15514 (2017).
[Crossref]

G. Ruocco, B. Abaie, W. Schirmacher, A. Mafi, and M. Leonetti, “Disorder-induced single-mode transmission,” Nat. Commun. 8, 14571 (2017).
[Crossref]

B. C. Lima, A. S. L. Gomes, P. I. R. Pincheira, A. L. Moura, M. Gagné, E. P. Raposo, C. B. de Araújo, and R. Kashyap, “Observation of Lévy statistics in one-dimensional erbium-based random fiber laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 34, 293–299 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (4)

S. A. Kolpakov, H. Kbashi, and S. V. Sergeyev, “Dynamics of vector rogue waves in a fiber laser with a ring cavity,” Optica 3, 870–875 (2016).
[Crossref]

N. Akhmediev, B. Kibler, F. Baronio, M. Belić, W.-P. Zhong, Y. Zhang, W. Chang, J. M. Soto-Crespo, P. Vouzas, P. Grelu, C. Lecaplain, K. Hammani, S. Rica, A. Picozzi, M. Tlidi, K. Panajotov, A. Mussot, A. Bendahmane, P. Szriftgiser, G. Genty, J. Dudley, A. Kudlinski, A. Demircan, U. Morgner, S. Amiraranashvili, C. Bree, G. Steinmeyer, C. Masoller, N. G. R. Broderick, A. F. J. Runge, M. Erkintalo, S. Residori, U. Bortolozzo, F. T. Arecchi, S. Wabnitz, C. G. Tiofack, S. Coulibaly, and M. Taki, “Roadmap on optical rogue waves and extreme events,” J. Opt. 18, 063001 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. S. L. Gomes, E. P. Raposo, A. L. Moura, S. I. Fewo, P. I. R. Pincheira, V. Jerez, L. J. Q. Maia, and C. B. de Araújo, “Observation of Lévy distribution and replica symmetry breaking in random lasers from a single set of measurements,” Sci. Rep. 6, 27987 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. V. Sergeyev, S. A. Kolpakov, C. Mou, G. Jacobsen, S. Popov, and V. Kalashnikov, “Slow deterministic vector rogue waves,” Proc. SPIE 9732, 97320K (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (6)

2014 (3)

A. F. J. Runge, C. Aguergaray, N. G. R. Broderick, and M. Erkintalo, “Raman rogue waves in a partially mode-locked fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 39, 319–322 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. K. Turitsyn, S. A. Babin, D. V. Churkin, I. D. Vatnikc, M. Nikulinc, and E. V. Podivilov, “Random distributed feedback fibre lasers,” Phys. Rep. 542, 133–193 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. M. Dudley, F. Dias, M. Erkintalo, and G. Genty, “Instabilities, breathers and rogue waves in optics,” Nat. Photonics 8, 755–764 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

N. Akhmediev, J. M. Dudley, D. R. Solli, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Recent progress in investigating optical rogue waves,” J. Opt. 15, 060201 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Onorato, S. Residori, U. Bortolozzo, A. Montina, and F. T. Arecchi, “Rogue waves and their generating mechanisms in different physical contexts,” Phys. Rep. 528, 47–89 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

C. Lecaplain, P. Grelu, J. M. Soto-Crespo, and N. Akhmediev, “Dissipative rogue waves generated by chaotic pulse bunching in a mode-locked laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 233901 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

J. Andreasen, A. A. Asatryan, L. C. Botten, M. A. Byrne, H. Cao, L. Ge, L. Labonté, P. Sebbah, A. D. Stone, H. E. Türeci, and C. Vanneste, “Modes of random lasers,” Adv. Opt. Photon. 3, 88–127 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. N. Pisarchik, R. Jaimes-Reátegui, R. Sevilla-Escoboza, G. Huerta-Cuellar, and M. Taki, “Rogue waves in a multistable system,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 274101 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. Bonatto, M. Feyereisen, S. Barland, M. Giudici, C. Masoller, J. Leite, and J. Tredicce, “Deterministic optical rogue waves,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 053901 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (3)

D. V. Churkin, S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, S. I. Kablukov, V. Karalekas, J. D. Ania-Castañón, E. V. Podivilov, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Raman fiber lasers with a random distributed feedback based on Rayleigh scattering,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 033828 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. K. Turitsyn, S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, D. V. Churkin, S. I. Kablukov, J. D. Ania-Castañón, V. Karalekas, and E. V. Podivilov, “Random distributed feedback fibre laser,” Nat. Photonics 4, 231–235 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. Kobyakov, M. Sauer, and D. Chowdhury, “Stimulated Brillouin scattering in optical fibers,” Adv. Opt. Photon. 2, 1–59 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

S. K. Turitsyn, J. D. Ania-Castañón, S. A. Babin, V. Karalekas, P. Harper, D. Churkin, and V. K. Mezentsev, “270-km ultralong Raman fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 133901 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

H. E. Türeci, L. Ge, S. Rotter, and A. D. Stone, “Strong interactions in multimode random lasers,” Science 320, 643–646 (2008).
[Crossref]

D. S. Wiersma, “The physics and applications of random lasers,” Nat. Phys. 4, 359–367 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

D. R. Solli, C. Ropers, P. Koonath, and B. Jalali, “Optical rogue waves,” Nature 450, 1054–1057 (2007).
[Crossref]

Z. Zhu, D. J. Gauthier, and R. W. Boyd, “Stored light in an optical fiber via stimulated Brillouin scattering,” Science 318, 1748–1750 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

P. Dainese, P. S. J. Russell, N. Joly, J. C. Knight, G. S. Wiederhecker, H. L. Fragnito, V. Laude, and A. Khelif, “Stimulated Brillouin scattering from multi-GHz-guided acoustic phonons in nanostructured photonic crystal fibres,” Nat. Phys. 2, 388–392 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

V. Milner and A. Z. Genack, “Photon localization laser: low-threshold lasing in a random amplifying layered medium via wave localization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 073901 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

J. W. Lou, F. K. Fatemi, and M. Currie, “Brillouin fibre laser enhanced by Raman amplification,” Electron. Lett. 40, 1044–1046 (2004).
[Crossref]

G. Ravet, A. A. Fotiadi, M. Blondel, and P. Mégret, “Passive Q-switching in all-fibre Raman laser with distributed Rayleigh feedback,” Electron. Lett. 40, 528–529 (2004).
[Crossref]

2002 (2)

V. M. Apalkov, M. E. Raikh, and B. Shapiro, “Random resonators and prelocalized modes in disordered dielectric films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 016802 (2002).
[Crossref]

M. Salhi, A. Hideur, T. Chartier, M. Brunel, G. Martel, C. Ozkul, and F. Sanchez, “Evidence of Brillouin scattering in an ytterbium-doped double-clad fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 27, 1294–1296 (2002).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

N. M. Lawandy, R. M. Balachandran, A. S. L. Gomes, and E. Sauvain, “Laser action in strongly scattering media,” Nature 368, 436–438 (1994).
[Crossref]

1966 (1)

R. Ambartsumyan, N. Basov, P. Kryukov, and V. Letokhov, “A laser with a nonresonant feedback,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 2, 442–446 (1966).
[Crossref]

Abaie, B.

B. Abaie, E. Mobini, S. Karbasi, J. Ballato, and A. Mafi, “Random lasing in an Anderson localizing optical fiber,” Light Sci. Appl. 6, e17041 (2017).
[Crossref]

G. Ruocco, B. Abaie, W. Schirmacher, A. Mafi, and M. Leonetti, “Disorder-induced single-mode transmission,” Nat. Commun. 8, 14571 (2017).
[Crossref]

Aguergaray, C.

Akhmediev, N.

N. Akhmediev, B. Kibler, F. Baronio, M. Belić, W.-P. Zhong, Y. Zhang, W. Chang, J. M. Soto-Crespo, P. Vouzas, P. Grelu, C. Lecaplain, K. Hammani, S. Rica, A. Picozzi, M. Tlidi, K. Panajotov, A. Mussot, A. Bendahmane, P. Szriftgiser, G. Genty, J. Dudley, A. Kudlinski, A. Demircan, U. Morgner, S. Amiraranashvili, C. Bree, G. Steinmeyer, C. Masoller, N. G. R. Broderick, A. F. J. Runge, M. Erkintalo, S. Residori, U. Bortolozzo, F. T. Arecchi, S. Wabnitz, C. G. Tiofack, S. Coulibaly, and M. Taki, “Roadmap on optical rogue waves and extreme events,” J. Opt. 18, 063001 (2016).
[Crossref]

N. Akhmediev, J. M. Dudley, D. R. Solli, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Recent progress in investigating optical rogue waves,” J. Opt. 15, 060201 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Lecaplain, P. Grelu, J. M. Soto-Crespo, and N. Akhmediev, “Dissipative rogue waves generated by chaotic pulse bunching in a mode-locked laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 233901 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ambartsumyan, R.

R. Ambartsumyan, N. Basov, P. Kryukov, and V. Letokhov, “A laser with a nonresonant feedback,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 2, 442–446 (1966).
[Crossref]

Amiraranashvili, S.

N. Akhmediev, B. Kibler, F. Baronio, M. Belić, W.-P. Zhong, Y. Zhang, W. Chang, J. M. Soto-Crespo, P. Vouzas, P. Grelu, C. Lecaplain, K. Hammani, S. Rica, A. Picozzi, M. Tlidi, K. Panajotov, A. Mussot, A. Bendahmane, P. Szriftgiser, G. Genty, J. Dudley, A. Kudlinski, A. Demircan, U. Morgner, S. Amiraranashvili, C. Bree, G. Steinmeyer, C. Masoller, N. G. R. Broderick, A. F. J. Runge, M. Erkintalo, S. Residori, U. Bortolozzo, F. T. Arecchi, S. Wabnitz, C. G. Tiofack, S. Coulibaly, and M. Taki, “Roadmap on optical rogue waves and extreme events,” J. Opt. 18, 063001 (2016).
[Crossref]

Andreasen, J.

Ania-Castañón, J. D.

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S. A. Kolpakov, H. Kbashi, and S. V. Sergeyev, “Dynamics of vector rogue waves in a fiber laser with a ring cavity,” Optica 3, 870–875 (2016).
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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Operating principle and output characteristics of the incoherently pumped random fiber laser (not to scale).
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Output characteristics of the incoherently pumped random fiber laser. (a) Output powers of first-order Stokes light and residual pump light as functions of pump power. (b) Typical spectra of the backward first-order Stokes light at different pump levels. The spectra are recorded with a resolution of 0.02 nm. (c) FWHM linewidth of backward spectral envelope as a function of injected pump power. The circles indicate the average FWHM linewidth of 20 measurements. The corresponding error bars mark the variation range of FWHM linewidth at fixed pump level.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Temporal characteristics and statistical features of output random laser. (a) and (b) Typical temporal trace of the output random laser around threshold. (c) Histograms (log scale) showing the distribution of optical intensity maxima for 105 trace events. The peak intensities are normalized by the corresponding SWH values. The vertical dashed lines indicate 2×SWH and thus mark the limit for a pulse to be considered as an optical RW. (d) Evolution of consecutive traces around optical RW events at threshold. (e) Pulse shapes of typical normal and optical RW events.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Long-term average power stabilities of output lasers and injected pump. The average powers are measured by power meters with 1 s/point resolution and half-hour recorded length.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. RF spectra of output random laser. (a) Long-span RF spectra (measured with a resolution of 1 kHz). (b) RF spectral envelopes corresponding to SBS effect (recorded with a resolution of 10 Hz). (c) Evolution of spectra from mass independent peaks to quasi-cw envelopes (measured with a resolution of 1 Hz). (d) Enlarged view of selected RF peaks around the lasing threshold.

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