Abstract

Ultrafast fiber lasers are in great demand for various applications, such as optical communication, spectroscopy, biomedical diagnosis, and industrial fabrication. Here, we report the highly stable femtosecond pulse generation from a MXene mode-locked fiber laser. We have prepared the high-quality Ti3C2Tx nanosheets via the etching method, and characterized their ultrafast dynamics and broadband nonlinear optical responses. The obvious intensity- and wavelength-dependent nonlinear responses have been observed and investigated. In addition, a highly stable femtosecond fiber laser with signal-to-noise ratio up to 70.7 dB and central wavelength of 1567.3 nm has been delivered. The study may provide some valuable design guidelines for the development of ultrafast, broadband nonlinear optical modulators, and open new avenues toward advanced photonic devices based on MXenes.

© 2019 Chinese Laser Press

Full Article  |  PDF Article
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References

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  11. S. Chen, L. Miao, X. Chen, Y. Chen, C. Zhao, S. Datta, Y. Li, Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Liu, S. Wen, and D. Fan, “Few-layer topological insulator for all-optical signal processing using the nonlinear Kerr effect,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3, 1769–1778 (2015).
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    [Crossref]
  19. H. Lin, X. Wang, L. Yu, Y. Chen, and J. Shi, “Two-dimensional ultrathin MXene ceramic nanosheets for photothermal conversion,” Nano Lett. 17, 384–391 (2017).
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    [Crossref]
  21. J. Guo, Y. Sun, B. Liu, Q. Zhang, and Q. Peng, “Two-dimensional scandium-based carbides (MXene): band gap modulation and optical properties,” J. Alloys Compd. 712, 752–759 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  22. B. Anasori, M. R. Lukatskaya, and Y. Gogotsi, “2D metal carbides and nitrides (MXenes) for energy storage,” Nat. Rev. Mater. 2, 16098 (2017).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  24. G. R. Berdiyorov, “Optical properties of functionalized Ti3C2T2 (T = F, O, OH) MXene: first-principles calculations,” AIP Adv. 6, 055105 (2016).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  26. Y. I. Jhon, J. Koo, B. Anasori, M. Seo, J. H. Lee, Y. Gogotsi, and Y. M. Jhon, “Metallic MXene saturable absorber for femtosecond mode-locked lasers,” Adv. Mater. 29, 1702496 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  27. X. Jiang, S. Liu, W. Liang, S. Luo, Z. He, Y. Ge, H. Wang, R. Cao, F. Zhang, Q. Wen, J. Li, Q. Bao, D. Fan, and H. Zhang, “Broadband nonlinear photonics in few-layer MXene Ti3C2Tx (T = F, O, or OH),” Laser Photon. Rev. 12, 1700229 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  28. M. Tuo, C. Xu, H. Mu, X. Bao, Y. Wang, S. Xiao, W. Ma, L. Li, D. Tang, H. Zhang, M. Premaratne, B. Sun, H.-M. Cheng, S. Li, W. Ren, and Q. Bao, “Ultrathin 2D transition metal carbides for ultrafast pulsed fiber lasers,” ACS Photon. 5, 1808–1816 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  29. Y. Dong, S. Chertopalov, K. Maleski, B. Anasori, L. Hu, S. Bhattacharya, A. M. Rao, Y. Gogotsi, V. N. Mochalin, and R. Podila, “Saturable absorption in 2D Ti3C2 MXene thin films for passive photonic diodes,” Adv. Mater. 30, 1705714 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  30. X. Wang and Y. Zhou, “Solid-liquid reaction synthesis of layered machinable Ti3AlC2 ceramic,” J. Mater. Chem. 12, 455–460 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  31. C. Shi, M. Beidaghi, M. Naguib, O. Mashtalir, Y. Gogotsi, and S. J. Billinge, “Structure of nanocrystalline Ti3C2 MXene using atomic pair distribution function,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 125501 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  32. R. Berera, R. van Grondelle, and J. T. Kennis, “Ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy: principles and application to photosynthetic systems,” Photosynth. Res. 101, 105–118 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  33. M. Holler, F. Schapper, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Attosecond electron wave-packet interference observed by transient absorption,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 123601 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  34. I. H. van Stokkum, D. S. Larsen, and R. van Grondelle, “Global and target analysis of time-resolved spectra,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1657, 82–104 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  35. E. Garmire, “Resonant optical nonlinearities in semiconductors,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 1094–1110 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  36. H. Zhang, S. B. Lu, J. Zheng, J. Du, S. C. Wen, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) as a broadband saturable absorber for ultra-fast photonics,” Opt. Express 22, 7249–7260 (2014).
    [Crossref]

2018 (6)

M. Okubo, A. Sugahara, S. Kajiyama, and A. Yamada, “MXene as a charge storage host,” Acc. Chem. Res. 51, 591–599 (2018).
[Crossref]

G. Choi, F. Shahzad, Y.-M. Bahk, Y. M. Jhon, H. Park, M. Alhabeb, B. Anasori, D.-S. Kim, C. M. Koo, Y. Gogotsi, and M. Seo, “Enhanced terahertz shielding of MXenes with nano-metamaterials,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6, 1701076 (2018).
[Crossref]

X. Jiang, S. Liu, W. Liang, S. Luo, Z. He, Y. Ge, H. Wang, R. Cao, F. Zhang, Q. Wen, J. Li, Q. Bao, D. Fan, and H. Zhang, “Broadband nonlinear photonics in few-layer MXene Ti3C2Tx (T = F, O, or OH),” Laser Photon. Rev. 12, 1700229 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Tuo, C. Xu, H. Mu, X. Bao, Y. Wang, S. Xiao, W. Ma, L. Li, D. Tang, H. Zhang, M. Premaratne, B. Sun, H.-M. Cheng, S. Li, W. Ren, and Q. Bao, “Ultrathin 2D transition metal carbides for ultrafast pulsed fiber lasers,” ACS Photon. 5, 1808–1816 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Dong, S. Chertopalov, K. Maleski, B. Anasori, L. Hu, S. Bhattacharya, A. M. Rao, Y. Gogotsi, V. N. Mochalin, and R. Podila, “Saturable absorption in 2D Ti3C2 MXene thin films for passive photonic diodes,” Adv. Mater. 30, 1705714 (2018).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, Q. Bao, and Z. Sun, “Introduction to two-dimensional layered materials for ultrafast lasers,” Photon. Res. 6, TDL1–TDL2 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (7)

Z. Bai, G. Tao, Y. Li, J. He, K. Wang, G. Wang, X. Jiang, J. Wang, W. Blau, and L. Zhang, “Fabrication and near-infrared optical responses of 2D periodical Au/ITO nanocomposite arrays,” Photon. Res. 5, 280–286 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. I. Jhon, J. Koo, B. Anasori, M. Seo, J. H. Lee, Y. Gogotsi, and Y. M. Jhon, “Metallic MXene saturable absorber for femtosecond mode-locked lasers,” Adv. Mater. 29, 1702496 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Ran, G. Gao, F. T. Li, T. Y. Ma, A. Du, and S. Z. Qiao, “Ti3C2 MXene co-catalyst on metal sulfide photo-absorbers for enhanced visible-light photocatalytic hydrogen production,” Nat. Commun. 8, 13907 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Lin, X. Wang, L. Yu, Y. Chen, and J. Shi, “Two-dimensional ultrathin MXene ceramic nanosheets for photothermal conversion,” Nano Lett. 17, 384–391 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Guo, Y. Sun, B. Liu, Q. Zhang, and Q. Peng, “Two-dimensional scandium-based carbides (MXene): band gap modulation and optical properties,” J. Alloys Compd. 712, 752–759 (2017).
[Crossref]

B. Anasori, M. R. Lukatskaya, and Y. Gogotsi, “2D metal carbides and nitrides (MXenes) for energy storage,” Nat. Rev. Mater. 2, 16098 (2017).
[Crossref]

R. Li, L. Zhang, L. Shi, and P. Wang, “MXene Ti3C2: an effective 2D light-to-heat conversion material,” ACS Nano 11, 3752–3759 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (3)

G. R. Berdiyorov, “Optical properties of functionalized Ti3C2T2 (T = F, O, OH) MXene: first-principles calculations,” AIP Adv. 6, 055105 (2016).
[Crossref]

Z. Sun, A. Martinez, and F. Wang, “Optical modulators with 2D layered materials,” Nat. Photonics 10, 227–238 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Malinauskas, A. Zukauskas, S. Hasegawa, Y. Hayasaki, V. Mizeikis, R. Buividas, and S. Juodkazis, “Ultrafast laser processing of materials: from science to industry,” Light Sci. Appl. 5, e16133 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (3)

Y. Chen, G. Jiang, S. Chen, Z. Guo, X. Yu, C. Zhao, H. Zhang, Q. Bao, S. Wen, D. Tang, and D. Fan, “Mechanically exfoliated black phosphorus as a new saturable absorber for both Q-switching and mode-locking laser operation,” Opt. Express 23, 12823–12833 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Chen, L. Miao, X. Chen, Y. Chen, C. Zhao, S. Datta, Y. Li, Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Liu, S. Wen, and D. Fan, “Few-layer topological insulator for all-optical signal processing using the nonlinear Kerr effect,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3, 1769–1778 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Wang, S. Kajiyama, H. Iinuma, E. Hosono, S. Oro, I. Moriguchi, M. Okubo, and A. Yamada, “Pseudocapacitance of MXene nanosheets for high-power sodium-ion hybrid capacitors,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6544 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (3)

M. Naguib, V. N. Mochalin, M. W. Barsoum, and Y. Gogotsi, “25th anniversary article: MXenes: a new family of two-dimensional materials,” Adv. Mater. 26, 992–1005 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, S. B. Lu, J. Zheng, J. Du, S. C. Wen, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) as a broadband saturable absorber for ultra-fast photonics,” Opt. Express 22, 7249–7260 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Shi, M. Beidaghi, M. Naguib, O. Mashtalir, Y. Gogotsi, and S. J. Billinge, “Structure of nanocrystalline Ti3C2 MXene using atomic pair distribution function,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 125501 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

A. Martinez and Z. Sun, “Nanotube and graphene saturable absorbers for fiber lasers,” Nat. Photonics 7, 842–845 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

C. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 211106 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

R. Osellame, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, G. Cerullo, and M. Pollnau, “Femtosecond laser microstructuring: an enabling tool for optofluidic lab-on-chips,” Laser Photon. Rev. 5, 442–463 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Holler, F. Schapper, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Attosecond electron wave-packet interference observed by transient absorption,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 123601 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Naguib, M. Kurtoglu, V. Presser, J. Lun, J. Niu, M. Heon, L. Hultman, Y. Gogotsi, and M. W. Barsoum, “Two-dimensional nanocrystals produced by exfoliation of Ti3AlC2,” Adv. Mater. 23, 4248–4253 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

Z. Sun, D. Popa, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, F. Wang, E. J. R. Kelleher, J. C. Travers, V. Nicolosi, and A. C. Ferrari, “A stable, wideband tunable, near transform-limited, graphene-mode-locked, ultrafast laser,” Nano Res. 3, 653–660 (2010).
[Crossref]

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4, 611–622 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

A. K. Geim, “Graphene: status and prospects,” Science 324, 1530–1534 (2009).
[Crossref]

R. Berera, R. van Grondelle, and J. T. Kennis, “Ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy: principles and application to photosynthetic systems,” Photosynth. Res. 101, 105–118 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

W. Yang, P. G. Kazansky, and Y. P. Svirko, “Non-reciprocal ultrafast laser writing,” Nat. Photonics 2, 99–104 (2008).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

I. H. van Stokkum, D. S. Larsen, and R. van Grondelle, “Global and target analysis of time-resolved spectra,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1657, 82–104 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

U. Keller, “Recent developments in compact ultrafast lasers,” Nature 424, 831–838 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

X. Wang and Y. Zhou, “Solid-liquid reaction synthesis of layered machinable Ti3AlC2 ceramic,” J. Mater. Chem. 12, 455–460 (2002).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

E. Garmire, “Resonant optical nonlinearities in semiconductors,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 1094–1110 (2000).
[Crossref]

Alhabeb, M.

G. Choi, F. Shahzad, Y.-M. Bahk, Y. M. Jhon, H. Park, M. Alhabeb, B. Anasori, D.-S. Kim, C. M. Koo, Y. Gogotsi, and M. Seo, “Enhanced terahertz shielding of MXenes with nano-metamaterials,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6, 1701076 (2018).
[Crossref]

Anasori, B.

G. Choi, F. Shahzad, Y.-M. Bahk, Y. M. Jhon, H. Park, M. Alhabeb, B. Anasori, D.-S. Kim, C. M. Koo, Y. Gogotsi, and M. Seo, “Enhanced terahertz shielding of MXenes with nano-metamaterials,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6, 1701076 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Dong, S. Chertopalov, K. Maleski, B. Anasori, L. Hu, S. Bhattacharya, A. M. Rao, Y. Gogotsi, V. N. Mochalin, and R. Podila, “Saturable absorption in 2D Ti3C2 MXene thin films for passive photonic diodes,” Adv. Mater. 30, 1705714 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. I. Jhon, J. Koo, B. Anasori, M. Seo, J. H. Lee, Y. Gogotsi, and Y. M. Jhon, “Metallic MXene saturable absorber for femtosecond mode-locked lasers,” Adv. Mater. 29, 1702496 (2017).
[Crossref]

B. Anasori, M. R. Lukatskaya, and Y. Gogotsi, “2D metal carbides and nitrides (MXenes) for energy storage,” Nat. Rev. Mater. 2, 16098 (2017).
[Crossref]

Bahk, Y.-M.

G. Choi, F. Shahzad, Y.-M. Bahk, Y. M. Jhon, H. Park, M. Alhabeb, B. Anasori, D.-S. Kim, C. M. Koo, Y. Gogotsi, and M. Seo, “Enhanced terahertz shielding of MXenes with nano-metamaterials,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6, 1701076 (2018).
[Crossref]

Bai, Z.

Bao, Q.

H. Zhang, Q. Bao, and Z. Sun, “Introduction to two-dimensional layered materials for ultrafast lasers,” Photon. Res. 6, TDL1–TDL2 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Tuo, C. Xu, H. Mu, X. Bao, Y. Wang, S. Xiao, W. Ma, L. Li, D. Tang, H. Zhang, M. Premaratne, B. Sun, H.-M. Cheng, S. Li, W. Ren, and Q. Bao, “Ultrathin 2D transition metal carbides for ultrafast pulsed fiber lasers,” ACS Photon. 5, 1808–1816 (2018).
[Crossref]

X. Jiang, S. Liu, W. Liang, S. Luo, Z. He, Y. Ge, H. Wang, R. Cao, F. Zhang, Q. Wen, J. Li, Q. Bao, D. Fan, and H. Zhang, “Broadband nonlinear photonics in few-layer MXene Ti3C2Tx (T = F, O, or OH),” Laser Photon. Rev. 12, 1700229 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, G. Jiang, S. Chen, Z. Guo, X. Yu, C. Zhao, H. Zhang, Q. Bao, S. Wen, D. Tang, and D. Fan, “Mechanically exfoliated black phosphorus as a new saturable absorber for both Q-switching and mode-locking laser operation,” Opt. Express 23, 12823–12833 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Chen, L. Miao, X. Chen, Y. Chen, C. Zhao, S. Datta, Y. Li, Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Liu, S. Wen, and D. Fan, “Few-layer topological insulator for all-optical signal processing using the nonlinear Kerr effect,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3, 1769–1778 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bao, X.

M. Tuo, C. Xu, H. Mu, X. Bao, Y. Wang, S. Xiao, W. Ma, L. Li, D. Tang, H. Zhang, M. Premaratne, B. Sun, H.-M. Cheng, S. Li, W. Ren, and Q. Bao, “Ultrathin 2D transition metal carbides for ultrafast pulsed fiber lasers,” ACS Photon. 5, 1808–1816 (2018).
[Crossref]

Barsoum, M. W.

M. Naguib, V. N. Mochalin, M. W. Barsoum, and Y. Gogotsi, “25th anniversary article: MXenes: a new family of two-dimensional materials,” Adv. Mater. 26, 992–1005 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Naguib, M. Kurtoglu, V. Presser, J. Lun, J. Niu, M. Heon, L. Hultman, Y. Gogotsi, and M. W. Barsoum, “Two-dimensional nanocrystals produced by exfoliation of Ti3AlC2,” Adv. Mater. 23, 4248–4253 (2011).
[Crossref]

Beidaghi, M.

C. Shi, M. Beidaghi, M. Naguib, O. Mashtalir, Y. Gogotsi, and S. J. Billinge, “Structure of nanocrystalline Ti3C2 MXene using atomic pair distribution function,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 125501 (2014).
[Crossref]

Berdiyorov, G. R.

G. R. Berdiyorov, “Optical properties of functionalized Ti3C2T2 (T = F, O, OH) MXene: first-principles calculations,” AIP Adv. 6, 055105 (2016).
[Crossref]

Berera, R.

R. Berera, R. van Grondelle, and J. T. Kennis, “Ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy: principles and application to photosynthetic systems,” Photosynth. Res. 101, 105–118 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bhattacharya, S.

Y. Dong, S. Chertopalov, K. Maleski, B. Anasori, L. Hu, S. Bhattacharya, A. M. Rao, Y. Gogotsi, V. N. Mochalin, and R. Podila, “Saturable absorption in 2D Ti3C2 MXene thin films for passive photonic diodes,” Adv. Mater. 30, 1705714 (2018).
[Crossref]

Billinge, S. J.

C. Shi, M. Beidaghi, M. Naguib, O. Mashtalir, Y. Gogotsi, and S. J. Billinge, “Structure of nanocrystalline Ti3C2 MXene using atomic pair distribution function,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 125501 (2014).
[Crossref]

Blau, W.

Bonaccorso, F.

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4, 611–622 (2010).
[Crossref]

Buividas, R.

M. Malinauskas, A. Zukauskas, S. Hasegawa, Y. Hayasaki, V. Mizeikis, R. Buividas, and S. Juodkazis, “Ultrafast laser processing of materials: from science to industry,” Light Sci. Appl. 5, e16133 (2016).
[Crossref]

Cao, R.

X. Jiang, S. Liu, W. Liang, S. Luo, Z. He, Y. Ge, H. Wang, R. Cao, F. Zhang, Q. Wen, J. Li, Q. Bao, D. Fan, and H. Zhang, “Broadband nonlinear photonics in few-layer MXene Ti3C2Tx (T = F, O, or OH),” Laser Photon. Rev. 12, 1700229 (2018).
[Crossref]

Cerullo, G.

R. Osellame, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, G. Cerullo, and M. Pollnau, “Femtosecond laser microstructuring: an enabling tool for optofluidic lab-on-chips,” Laser Photon. Rev. 5, 442–463 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chen, S.

S. Chen, L. Miao, X. Chen, Y. Chen, C. Zhao, S. Datta, Y. Li, Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Liu, S. Wen, and D. Fan, “Few-layer topological insulator for all-optical signal processing using the nonlinear Kerr effect,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3, 1769–1778 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, G. Jiang, S. Chen, Z. Guo, X. Yu, C. Zhao, H. Zhang, Q. Bao, S. Wen, D. Tang, and D. Fan, “Mechanically exfoliated black phosphorus as a new saturable absorber for both Q-switching and mode-locking laser operation,” Opt. Express 23, 12823–12833 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, X.

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Z. Sun, D. Popa, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, F. Wang, E. J. R. Kelleher, J. C. Travers, V. Nicolosi, and A. C. Ferrari, “A stable, wideband tunable, near transform-limited, graphene-mode-locked, ultrafast laser,” Nano Res. 3, 653–660 (2010).
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M. Naguib, M. Kurtoglu, V. Presser, J. Lun, J. Niu, M. Heon, L. Hultman, Y. Gogotsi, and M. W. Barsoum, “Two-dimensional nanocrystals produced by exfoliation of Ti3AlC2,” Adv. Mater. 23, 4248–4253 (2011).
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M. Okubo, A. Sugahara, S. Kajiyama, and A. Yamada, “MXene as a charge storage host,” Acc. Chem. Res. 51, 591–599 (2018).
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X. Wang, S. Kajiyama, H. Iinuma, E. Hosono, S. Oro, I. Moriguchi, M. Okubo, and A. Yamada, “Pseudocapacitance of MXene nanosheets for high-power sodium-ion hybrid capacitors,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6544 (2015).
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X. Wang, S. Kajiyama, H. Iinuma, E. Hosono, S. Oro, I. Moriguchi, M. Okubo, and A. Yamada, “Pseudocapacitance of MXene nanosheets for high-power sodium-ion hybrid capacitors,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6544 (2015).
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J. Guo, Y. Sun, B. Liu, Q. Zhang, and Q. Peng, “Two-dimensional scandium-based carbides (MXene): band gap modulation and optical properties,” J. Alloys Compd. 712, 752–759 (2017).
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Tao, G.

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Wang, K.

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R. Li, L. Zhang, L. Shi, and P. Wang, “MXene Ti3C2: an effective 2D light-to-heat conversion material,” ACS Nano 11, 3752–3759 (2017).
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H. Lin, X. Wang, L. Yu, Y. Chen, and J. Shi, “Two-dimensional ultrathin MXene ceramic nanosheets for photothermal conversion,” Nano Lett. 17, 384–391 (2017).
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M. Tuo, C. Xu, H. Mu, X. Bao, Y. Wang, S. Xiao, W. Ma, L. Li, D. Tang, H. Zhang, M. Premaratne, B. Sun, H.-M. Cheng, S. Li, W. Ren, and Q. Bao, “Ultrathin 2D transition metal carbides for ultrafast pulsed fiber lasers,” ACS Photon. 5, 1808–1816 (2018).
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M. Okubo, A. Sugahara, S. Kajiyama, and A. Yamada, “MXene as a charge storage host,” Acc. Chem. Res. 51, 591–599 (2018).
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S. Chen, L. Miao, X. Chen, Y. Chen, C. Zhao, S. Datta, Y. Li, Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Liu, S. Wen, and D. Fan, “Few-layer topological insulator for all-optical signal processing using the nonlinear Kerr effect,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3, 1769–1778 (2015).
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J. Guo, Y. Sun, B. Liu, Q. Zhang, and Q. Peng, “Two-dimensional scandium-based carbides (MXene): band gap modulation and optical properties,” J. Alloys Compd. 712, 752–759 (2017).
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Y. Chen, G. Jiang, S. Chen, Z. Guo, X. Yu, C. Zhao, H. Zhang, Q. Bao, S. Wen, D. Tang, and D. Fan, “Mechanically exfoliated black phosphorus as a new saturable absorber for both Q-switching and mode-locking laser operation,” Opt. Express 23, 12823–12833 (2015).
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C. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 211106 (2012).
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M. Okubo, A. Sugahara, S. Kajiyama, and A. Yamada, “MXene as a charge storage host,” Acc. Chem. Res. 51, 591–599 (2018).
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ACS Nano (1)

R. Li, L. Zhang, L. Shi, and P. Wang, “MXene Ti3C2: an effective 2D light-to-heat conversion material,” ACS Nano 11, 3752–3759 (2017).
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ACS Photon. (1)

M. Tuo, C. Xu, H. Mu, X. Bao, Y. Wang, S. Xiao, W. Ma, L. Li, D. Tang, H. Zhang, M. Premaratne, B. Sun, H.-M. Cheng, S. Li, W. Ren, and Q. Bao, “Ultrathin 2D transition metal carbides for ultrafast pulsed fiber lasers,” ACS Photon. 5, 1808–1816 (2018).
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Adv. Opt. Mater. (2)

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) XRD patterns of the Ti3C2Tx and Ti3AlC2. (b) Linear absorption spectrum of Ti3C2Tx. (c), (d) SEM images of delaminated Ti3C2Tx after HF etching under different magnifications. (e) Interlayer distance is measured to be 9.85 Å. (f) TEM image of the Ti3C2Tx flakes.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Ultrafast dynamic process of the Ti3C2Tx sample. (a) Transient absorption curve of the sample and (b) photodynamic curve of the sample.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Experiment setup of open aperture Z-scan measurements with the Ti3C2Tx sample.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Broadband nonlinear saturable absorption properties of Ti3C2Tx. Open aperture Z-scan measurements of Ti3C2Tx sample under different intensities at (a) 400 nm, (c) 800 nm, and (e) 1560 nm, respectively; relationship between transmittance and input intensity at (b) 400 nm, (d) 800 nm, and (f) 1560 nm, respectively.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Experimental setup of the Ti3C2Tx-based mode-locked erbium-doped fiber laser.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Results of mode locking. (a) Pulse train, (b) spectrum of mode locking, (c) autocorrelation trace, and (d) RF spectrum.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Output power versus pump power.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. Output spectra collection across 7 h.

Equations (1)

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T=1(αs1+I/Isat+αns),

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