Abstract

We demonstrate the abundant dynamics of dye-doped liquid crystal (DD-LC) lasers through the variation of geometric shape and rubbing polyimide (PI) of glass cells. Not only the operation states, that is, Fabry–Perot lasers (FPLs) or random lasers (RLs), were manipulated by using a parallel or wedge cell, but also the output polarizations, that is, linearly polarized or unpolarized DD-LC lasers, were determined by the rubbing PI on an output glass plate. From the α-stable distribution, the distinctive operation state of the different configurations of the DD-LC laser can be quantitatively distinguished to reveal the Gaussian and Lévy distributions of the FPLs and RLs, respectively. The obviously different output characteristics are attributed to the recurrent light scattering within the LC mixtures at the output plate of the DD-LC lasers and were quantified by the transport mean free path through the measurement of the coherent backscattering technique. An unpolarized RL, outputted from a wedge cell without PI rubbing, revealed relatively low spatial coherence from interference patterns through Young’s double-slit experiment and showed low contrast monochromatic speckle patterns of about 0.039.

© 2018 Chinese Laser Press

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2017 (3)

T. C. Chiang, C. Y. Chiu, T. F. Dai, Y. J. Hung, and H. C. Hsu, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced band-edge emission and lasing behaviors of Au-decorated ZnO microstructures,” Opt. Mater. Express 7, 313–319 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. H. Lin, S. C. Chang, Y. H. Li, C. Y. Chien, C. H. Chen, Y. C. Lin, and Y. H. Chen, “Investigation of laser speckle noise suppression by using polymer-stabilized liquid crystals within twisted nematic cell,” Appl. Phys. Express 10, 031701 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. H. Lin, P. Y. Chen, Y. H. Li, C. H. Chen, J. H. Lin, Y. H. Chen, and J. J. Wu, “Manipulation of polarized random lasers from dye-doped twisted nematic liquid crystals within wedge cells,” IEEE Photon. J. 9, 1502208 (2017).
[Crossref]

2015 (6)

A. Varanytsia, H. Nagai, K. Urayama, and P. P. Muhoray, “Tunable lasing in cholesteric liquid crystal elastomers with accurate measurements of strain,” Sci. Rep. 5, 17739 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. H. Lin, K. C. Liao, L. H. Jian, S. Y. Tsay, J. J. Wu, and Y. G. Duann, “Spatially tunable emissions of dye-doped liquid crystal lasers between the cholesteric and smectic phases,” Opt. Mater. Express 5, 2142–2149 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Luan, B. Gu, A. S. Gomes, K. T. Yong, S. Wen, and P. N. Prasad, “Lasing in nanocomposite random media,” Nano Today 10, 168–192 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Nakamura, S. Sonoda, T. Yamamoto, and S. Adachi, “Discrete-mode ZnO microparticle random laser,” Opt. Lett. 40, 2661–2664 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Yakunin, L. Protesescu, F. Krieg, M. I. Bodnarchuk, G. Nedelcu, M. Humer, and M. V. Kovalenko, “Low-threshold amplified spontaneous emission and lasing from colloidal nanocrystals of caesium lead halide perovskites,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8056 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. H. Lin, Y. L. Hsiao, B. Y. Ciou, S. H. Lin, Y. H. Chen, and J. J. Wu, “Manipulation of random lasing action from dye-doped liquid crystals infilling two-dimensional confinement single core capillary,” IEEE Photon. J. 7, 1501809 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (6)

2013 (1)

2012 (3)

R. Uppu, A. K. Tiwari, and S. Mujumdar, “Identification of statistical regimes and crossovers in coherent random laser emission,” Opt. Lett. 37, 662–664 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. M. Morris, D. J. Gardiner, P. J. Hands, M. M. Qasim, T. D. Wilkinson, I. H. White, and H. J. Coles, “Electrically switchable random to photonic band-edge laser emission in chiral nematic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 071110 (2012).
[Crossref]

B. Redding, M. A. Choma, and H. Cao, “Speckle-free laser imaging using random laser illumination,” Nat. Photonics 6, 355–359 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

2010 (1)

A. Tulek, R. C. Polson, and Z. V. Vardeny, “Naturally occurring resonators in random lasing of π-conjugated polymer films,” Nat. Phys. 6, 303–310 (2010).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

C. J. de Matos, L. D. S. Menezes, A. M. Brito-Silva, M. M. Gamez, A. S. Gomes, and C. B. de Araujo, “Random fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 153903 (2007).
[Crossref]

P. Vukusic, B. Hallam, and J. Noyes, “Brilliant whiteness in ultrathin beetle scales,” Science 315, 348 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

T. H. Lin, H. C. Jau, C. H. Chen, Y. J. Chen, T. H. Wei, C. W. Chen, and A. Y. G. Fuh, “Electrically controllable laser based on cholesteric liquid crystal with negative dielectric anisotropy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061122 (2006).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

R. C. Polson and Z. V. Vardeny, “Random lasing in human tissues,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1289–1291 (2004).
[Crossref]

P. V. Shibaev, J. Madsen, and A. Z. Genack, “Lasing and narrowing of spontaneous emission from responsive cholesteric films,” Chem. Mater. 16, 1397–1399 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

2001 (1)

H. Finkelmann, S. T. Kim, A. Muoz, P. P. Muhoray, and B. Taheri, “Tunable mirrorless lasing in cholesteric liquid crystalline elastomers,” Adv. Mater. 13, 1069–1072 (2001).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, “Random laser action in semiconductor powder,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2278–2281 (1999).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

J. P. Nolan, “Numerical calculation of stable densities and distribution functions,” Commun. Stat. Stoch. Models 13, 759–774 (1997).
[Crossref]

1986 (1)

E. Akkermans, P. E. Wolf, and R. Maynard, “Coherent backscattering of light by disordered media: analysis of the peak line shape,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 1471–1474 (1986).
[Crossref]

1968 (1)

V. S. Letokhov, “Quantum statistics of multi-mode radiation from an ensemble of atoms,” Sov. Phys. J. Exp. Theor. Phys. 26, 835–840 (1968).

Adachi, S.

Akkermans, E.

E. Akkermans, P. E. Wolf, and R. Maynard, “Coherent backscattering of light by disordered media: analysis of the peak line shape,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 1471–1474 (1986).
[Crossref]

Bahoura, M.

Bian, H. T.

Bodnarchuk, M. I.

S. Yakunin, L. Protesescu, F. Krieg, M. I. Bodnarchuk, G. Nedelcu, M. Humer, and M. V. Kovalenko, “Low-threshold amplified spontaneous emission and lasing from colloidal nanocrystals of caesium lead halide perovskites,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8056 (2015).
[Crossref]

Brito-Silva, A. M.

C. J. de Matos, L. D. S. Menezes, A. M. Brito-Silva, M. M. Gamez, A. S. Gomes, and C. B. de Araujo, “Random fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 153903 (2007).
[Crossref]

Cao, H.

B. Redding, M. A. Choma, and H. Cao, “Speckle-free laser imaging using random laser illumination,” Nat. Photonics 6, 355–359 (2012).
[Crossref]

B. Redding, M. A. Choma, and H. Cao, “Spatial coherence of random laser emission,” Opt. Lett. 36, 3404–3406 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, “Random laser action in semiconductor powder,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2278–2281 (1999).
[Crossref]

Carvalho, M. T.

Chang, R. P. H.

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, “Random laser action in semiconductor powder,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2278–2281 (1999).
[Crossref]

Chang, S. C.

J. H. Lin, S. C. Chang, Y. H. Li, C. Y. Chien, C. H. Chen, Y. C. Lin, and Y. H. Chen, “Investigation of laser speckle noise suppression by using polymer-stabilized liquid crystals within twisted nematic cell,” Appl. Phys. Express 10, 031701 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chang, T. Y.

C. S. Wang, T. Y. Chang, T. Y. Lin, and Y. F. Chen, “Biologically inspired flexible quasi-single-mode random laser: an integration of Pieris canidia butterfly wing and semiconductors,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6736 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, B. Y.

Chen, C. H.

J. H. Lin, S. C. Chang, Y. H. Li, C. Y. Chien, C. H. Chen, Y. C. Lin, and Y. H. Chen, “Investigation of laser speckle noise suppression by using polymer-stabilized liquid crystals within twisted nematic cell,” Appl. Phys. Express 10, 031701 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. H. Lin, P. Y. Chen, Y. H. Li, C. H. Chen, J. H. Lin, Y. H. Chen, and J. J. Wu, “Manipulation of polarized random lasers from dye-doped twisted nematic liquid crystals within wedge cells,” IEEE Photon. J. 9, 1502208 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. H. Lin, H. C. Jau, C. H. Chen, Y. J. Chen, T. H. Wei, C. W. Chen, and A. Y. G. Fuh, “Electrically controllable laser based on cholesteric liquid crystal with negative dielectric anisotropy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061122 (2006).
[Crossref]

Chen, C. W.

T. H. Lin, H. C. Jau, C. H. Chen, Y. J. Chen, T. H. Wei, C. W. Chen, and A. Y. G. Fuh, “Electrically controllable laser based on cholesteric liquid crystal with negative dielectric anisotropy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061122 (2006).
[Crossref]

Chen, P. Y.

S. H. Lin, P. Y. Chen, Y. H. Li, C. H. Chen, J. H. Lin, Y. H. Chen, and J. J. Wu, “Manipulation of polarized random lasers from dye-doped twisted nematic liquid crystals within wedge cells,” IEEE Photon. J. 9, 1502208 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. H. Lin, P. Y. Chen, and J. J. Wu, “Mode competition of two bandedge lasing from dye doped cholesteric liquid crystal laser,” Opt. Express 22, 9932–9941 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, T. J.

Chen, Y. F.

C. S. Wang, T. Y. Chang, T. Y. Lin, and Y. F. Chen, “Biologically inspired flexible quasi-single-mode random laser: an integration of Pieris canidia butterfly wing and semiconductors,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6736 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y. H.

J. H. Lin, S. C. Chang, Y. H. Li, C. Y. Chien, C. H. Chen, Y. C. Lin, and Y. H. Chen, “Investigation of laser speckle noise suppression by using polymer-stabilized liquid crystals within twisted nematic cell,” Appl. Phys. Express 10, 031701 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. H. Lin, P. Y. Chen, Y. H. Li, C. H. Chen, J. H. Lin, Y. H. Chen, and J. J. Wu, “Manipulation of polarized random lasers from dye-doped twisted nematic liquid crystals within wedge cells,” IEEE Photon. J. 9, 1502208 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. H. Lin, Y. L. Hsiao, B. Y. Ciou, S. H. Lin, Y. H. Chen, and J. J. Wu, “Manipulation of random lasing action from dye-doped liquid crystals infilling two-dimensional confinement single core capillary,” IEEE Photon. J. 7, 1501809 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y. J.

T. H. Lin, H. C. Jau, C. H. Chen, Y. J. Chen, T. H. Wei, C. W. Chen, and A. Y. G. Fuh, “Electrically controllable laser based on cholesteric liquid crystal with negative dielectric anisotropy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061122 (2006).
[Crossref]

Chiang, T. C.

Chien, C. Y.

J. H. Lin, S. C. Chang, Y. H. Li, C. Y. Chien, C. H. Chen, Y. C. Lin, and Y. H. Chen, “Investigation of laser speckle noise suppression by using polymer-stabilized liquid crystals within twisted nematic cell,” Appl. Phys. Express 10, 031701 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chiu, C. Y.

Choma, M. A.

B. Redding, M. A. Choma, and H. Cao, “Speckle-free laser imaging using random laser illumination,” Nat. Photonics 6, 355–359 (2012).
[Crossref]

B. Redding, M. A. Choma, and H. Cao, “Spatial coherence of random laser emission,” Opt. Lett. 36, 3404–3406 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ciou, B. Y.

J. H. Lin, Y. L. Hsiao, B. Y. Ciou, S. H. Lin, Y. H. Chen, and J. J. Wu, “Manipulation of random lasing action from dye-doped liquid crystals infilling two-dimensional confinement single core capillary,” IEEE Photon. J. 7, 1501809 (2015).
[Crossref]

Coles, H. J.

S. M. Morris, D. J. Gardiner, P. J. Hands, M. M. Qasim, T. D. Wilkinson, I. H. White, and H. J. Coles, “Electrically switchable random to photonic band-edge laser emission in chiral nematic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 071110 (2012).
[Crossref]

Dai, T. F.

de Araujo, C. B.

de Matos, C. J.

C. J. de Matos, L. D. S. Menezes, A. M. Brito-Silva, M. M. Gamez, A. S. Gomes, and C. B. de Araujo, “Random fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 153903 (2007).
[Crossref]

Dominguez, C. T.

Duann, Y. G.

Finkelmann, H.

H. Finkelmann, S. T. Kim, A. Muoz, P. P. Muhoray, and B. Taheri, “Tunable mirrorless lasing in cholesteric liquid crystalline elastomers,” Adv. Mater. 13, 1069–1072 (2001).
[Crossref]

Fuh, A. Y. G.

T. H. Lin, H. C. Jau, C. H. Chen, Y. J. Chen, T. H. Wei, C. W. Chen, and A. Y. G. Fuh, “Electrically controllable laser based on cholesteric liquid crystal with negative dielectric anisotropy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061122 (2006).
[Crossref]

Gamez, M. M.

C. J. de Matos, L. D. S. Menezes, A. M. Brito-Silva, M. M. Gamez, A. S. Gomes, and C. B. de Araujo, “Random fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 153903 (2007).
[Crossref]

Gardiner, D. J.

S. M. Morris, D. J. Gardiner, P. J. Hands, M. M. Qasim, T. D. Wilkinson, I. H. White, and H. J. Coles, “Electrically switchable random to photonic band-edge laser emission in chiral nematic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 071110 (2012).
[Crossref]

Genack, A. Z.

P. V. Shibaev, J. Madsen, and A. Z. Genack, “Lasing and narrowing of spontaneous emission from responsive cholesteric films,” Chem. Mater. 16, 1397–1399 (2004).
[Crossref]

Gomes, A. S.

F. Luan, B. Gu, A. S. Gomes, K. T. Yong, S. Wen, and P. N. Prasad, “Lasing in nanocomposite random media,” Nano Today 10, 168–192 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. S. Gomes, M. T. Carvalho, C. T. Dominguez, C. B. de Araujo, and P. N. Prasad, “Direct three-photon excitation of upconversion random laser emission in a weakly scattering organic colloidal system,” Opt. Express 22, 14305–14310 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. J. de Matos, L. D. S. Menezes, A. M. Brito-Silva, M. M. Gamez, A. S. Gomes, and C. B. de Araujo, “Random fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 153903 (2007).
[Crossref]

Gu, B.

F. Luan, B. Gu, A. S. Gomes, K. T. Yong, S. Wen, and P. N. Prasad, “Lasing in nanocomposite random media,” Nano Today 10, 168–192 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hallam, B.

P. Vukusic, B. Hallam, and J. Noyes, “Brilliant whiteness in ultrathin beetle scales,” Science 315, 348 (2007).
[Crossref]

Hands, P. J.

S. M. Morris, D. J. Gardiner, P. J. Hands, M. M. Qasim, T. D. Wilkinson, I. H. White, and H. J. Coles, “Electrically switchable random to photonic band-edge laser emission in chiral nematic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 071110 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ho, S. T.

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, “Random laser action in semiconductor powder,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2278–2281 (1999).
[Crossref]

Hsiao, Y. L.

J. H. Lin, Y. L. Hsiao, B. Y. Ciou, S. H. Lin, Y. H. Chen, and J. J. Wu, “Manipulation of random lasing action from dye-doped liquid crystals infilling two-dimensional confinement single core capillary,” IEEE Photon. J. 7, 1501809 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. H. Lin and Y. L. Hsiao, “Manipulation of the resonance characteristics of random lasers from dye-doped polymer dispersed liquid crystals in capillary tubes,” Opt. Mater. Express 4, 1555–1563 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hsu, H. C.

Humer, M.

S. Yakunin, L. Protesescu, F. Krieg, M. I. Bodnarchuk, G. Nedelcu, M. Humer, and M. V. Kovalenko, “Low-threshold amplified spontaneous emission and lasing from colloidal nanocrystals of caesium lead halide perovskites,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8056 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hung, Y. J.

Jau, H. C.

T. H. Lin, H. C. Jau, C. H. Chen, Y. J. Chen, T. H. Wei, C. W. Chen, and A. Y. G. Fuh, “Electrically controllable laser based on cholesteric liquid crystal with negative dielectric anisotropy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061122 (2006).
[Crossref]

Jian, L. H.

Kim, S. T.

H. Finkelmann, S. T. Kim, A. Muoz, P. P. Muhoray, and B. Taheri, “Tunable mirrorless lasing in cholesteric liquid crystalline elastomers,” Adv. Mater. 13, 1069–1072 (2001).
[Crossref]

Kovalenko, M. V.

S. Yakunin, L. Protesescu, F. Krieg, M. I. Bodnarchuk, G. Nedelcu, M. Humer, and M. V. Kovalenko, “Low-threshold amplified spontaneous emission and lasing from colloidal nanocrystals of caesium lead halide perovskites,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8056 (2015).
[Crossref]

Krieg, F.

S. Yakunin, L. Protesescu, F. Krieg, M. I. Bodnarchuk, G. Nedelcu, M. Humer, and M. V. Kovalenko, “Low-threshold amplified spontaneous emission and lasing from colloidal nanocrystals of caesium lead halide perovskites,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8056 (2015).
[Crossref]

Letokhov, V. S.

V. S. Letokhov, “Quantum statistics of multi-mode radiation from an ensemble of atoms,” Sov. Phys. J. Exp. Theor. Phys. 26, 835–840 (1968).

Li, Y. H.

J. H. Lin, S. C. Chang, Y. H. Li, C. Y. Chien, C. H. Chen, Y. C. Lin, and Y. H. Chen, “Investigation of laser speckle noise suppression by using polymer-stabilized liquid crystals within twisted nematic cell,” Appl. Phys. Express 10, 031701 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. H. Lin, P. Y. Chen, Y. H. Li, C. H. Chen, J. H. Lin, Y. H. Chen, and J. J. Wu, “Manipulation of polarized random lasers from dye-doped twisted nematic liquid crystals within wedge cells,” IEEE Photon. J. 9, 1502208 (2017).
[Crossref]

Liao, K. C.

Lin, G. J.

Lin, J. H.

J. H. Lin, S. C. Chang, Y. H. Li, C. Y. Chien, C. H. Chen, Y. C. Lin, and Y. H. Chen, “Investigation of laser speckle noise suppression by using polymer-stabilized liquid crystals within twisted nematic cell,” Appl. Phys. Express 10, 031701 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. H. Lin, P. Y. Chen, Y. H. Li, C. H. Chen, J. H. Lin, Y. H. Chen, and J. J. Wu, “Manipulation of polarized random lasers from dye-doped twisted nematic liquid crystals within wedge cells,” IEEE Photon. J. 9, 1502208 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. H. Lin, K. C. Liao, L. H. Jian, S. Y. Tsay, J. J. Wu, and Y. G. Duann, “Spatially tunable emissions of dye-doped liquid crystal lasers between the cholesteric and smectic phases,” Opt. Mater. Express 5, 2142–2149 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. H. Lin, Y. L. Hsiao, B. Y. Ciou, S. H. Lin, Y. H. Chen, and J. J. Wu, “Manipulation of random lasing action from dye-doped liquid crystals infilling two-dimensional confinement single core capillary,” IEEE Photon. J. 7, 1501809 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. H. Lin and Y. L. Hsiao, “Manipulation of the resonance characteristics of random lasers from dye-doped polymer dispersed liquid crystals in capillary tubes,” Opt. Mater. Express 4, 1555–1563 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. H. Lin, P. Y. Chen, and J. J. Wu, “Mode competition of two bandedge lasing from dye doped cholesteric liquid crystal laser,” Opt. Express 22, 9932–9941 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lin, S. H.

S. H. Lin, P. Y. Chen, Y. H. Li, C. H. Chen, J. H. Lin, Y. H. Chen, and J. J. Wu, “Manipulation of polarized random lasers from dye-doped twisted nematic liquid crystals within wedge cells,” IEEE Photon. J. 9, 1502208 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. H. Lin, Y. L. Hsiao, B. Y. Ciou, S. H. Lin, Y. H. Chen, and J. J. Wu, “Manipulation of random lasing action from dye-doped liquid crystals infilling two-dimensional confinement single core capillary,” IEEE Photon. J. 7, 1501809 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lin, T. H.

T. H. Lin, H. C. Jau, C. H. Chen, Y. J. Chen, T. H. Wei, C. W. Chen, and A. Y. G. Fuh, “Electrically controllable laser based on cholesteric liquid crystal with negative dielectric anisotropy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061122 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lin, T. Y.

C. S. Wang, T. Y. Chang, T. Y. Lin, and Y. F. Chen, “Biologically inspired flexible quasi-single-mode random laser: an integration of Pieris canidia butterfly wing and semiconductors,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6736 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lin, Y. C.

J. H. Lin, S. C. Chang, Y. H. Li, C. Y. Chien, C. H. Chen, Y. C. Lin, and Y. H. Chen, “Investigation of laser speckle noise suppression by using polymer-stabilized liquid crystals within twisted nematic cell,” Appl. Phys. Express 10, 031701 (2017).
[Crossref]

Luan, F.

F. Luan, B. Gu, A. S. Gomes, K. T. Yong, S. Wen, and P. N. Prasad, “Lasing in nanocomposite random media,” Nano Today 10, 168–192 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lv, Z. W.

Madsen, J.

P. V. Shibaev, J. Madsen, and A. Z. Genack, “Lasing and narrowing of spontaneous emission from responsive cholesteric films,” Chem. Mater. 16, 1397–1399 (2004).
[Crossref]

Maynard, R.

E. Akkermans, P. E. Wolf, and R. Maynard, “Coherent backscattering of light by disordered media: analysis of the peak line shape,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 1471–1474 (1986).
[Crossref]

Menezes, L. D. S.

C. J. de Matos, L. D. S. Menezes, A. M. Brito-Silva, M. M. Gamez, A. S. Gomes, and C. B. de Araujo, “Random fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 153903 (2007).
[Crossref]

Morris, S. M.

S. M. Morris, D. J. Gardiner, P. J. Hands, M. M. Qasim, T. D. Wilkinson, I. H. White, and H. J. Coles, “Electrically switchable random to photonic band-edge laser emission in chiral nematic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 071110 (2012).
[Crossref]

Muhoray, P. P.

A. Varanytsia, H. Nagai, K. Urayama, and P. P. Muhoray, “Tunable lasing in cholesteric liquid crystal elastomers with accurate measurements of strain,” Sci. Rep. 5, 17739 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Finkelmann, S. T. Kim, A. Muoz, P. P. Muhoray, and B. Taheri, “Tunable mirrorless lasing in cholesteric liquid crystalline elastomers,” Adv. Mater. 13, 1069–1072 (2001).
[Crossref]

Mujumdar, S.

R. Uppu and S. Mujumdar, “Lévy exponents as universal identifiers of threshold and criticality in random lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 90, 025801 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Uppu, A. K. Tiwari, and S. Mujumdar, “Identification of statistical regimes and crossovers in coherent random laser emission,” Opt. Lett. 37, 662–664 (2012).
[Crossref]

Muoz, A.

H. Finkelmann, S. T. Kim, A. Muoz, P. P. Muhoray, and B. Taheri, “Tunable mirrorless lasing in cholesteric liquid crystalline elastomers,” Adv. Mater. 13, 1069–1072 (2001).
[Crossref]

Nagai, H.

A. Varanytsia, H. Nagai, K. Urayama, and P. P. Muhoray, “Tunable lasing in cholesteric liquid crystal elastomers with accurate measurements of strain,” Sci. Rep. 5, 17739 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nakamura, T.

Nedelcu, G.

S. Yakunin, L. Protesescu, F. Krieg, M. I. Bodnarchuk, G. Nedelcu, M. Humer, and M. V. Kovalenko, “Low-threshold amplified spontaneous emission and lasing from colloidal nanocrystals of caesium lead halide perovskites,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8056 (2015).
[Crossref]

Noginov, M. A.

Nolan, J. P.

J. P. Nolan, “Numerical calculation of stable densities and distribution functions,” Commun. Stat. Stoch. Models 13, 759–774 (1997).
[Crossref]

Noyes, J.

P. Vukusic, B. Hallam, and J. Noyes, “Brilliant whiteness in ultrathin beetle scales,” Science 315, 348 (2007).
[Crossref]

Pei, Y. B.

Polson, R. C.

A. Tulek, R. C. Polson, and Z. V. Vardeny, “Naturally occurring resonators in random lasing of π-conjugated polymer films,” Nat. Phys. 6, 303–310 (2010).
[Crossref]

R. C. Polson and Z. V. Vardeny, “Random lasing in human tissues,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1289–1291 (2004).
[Crossref]

Prasad, P. N.

Protesescu, L.

S. Yakunin, L. Protesescu, F. Krieg, M. I. Bodnarchuk, G. Nedelcu, M. Humer, and M. V. Kovalenko, “Low-threshold amplified spontaneous emission and lasing from colloidal nanocrystals of caesium lead halide perovskites,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8056 (2015).
[Crossref]

Qasim, M. M.

S. M. Morris, D. J. Gardiner, P. J. Hands, M. M. Qasim, T. D. Wilkinson, I. H. White, and H. J. Coles, “Electrically switchable random to photonic band-edge laser emission in chiral nematic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 071110 (2012).
[Crossref]

Redding, B.

B. Redding, M. A. Choma, and H. Cao, “Speckle-free laser imaging using random laser illumination,” Nat. Photonics 6, 355–359 (2012).
[Crossref]

B. Redding, M. A. Choma, and H. Cao, “Spatial coherence of random laser emission,” Opt. Lett. 36, 3404–3406 (2011).
[Crossref]

Seelig, E. W.

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, “Random laser action in semiconductor powder,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2278–2281 (1999).
[Crossref]

Shibaev, P. V.

P. V. Shibaev, J. Madsen, and A. Z. Genack, “Lasing and narrowing of spontaneous emission from responsive cholesteric films,” Chem. Mater. 16, 1397–1399 (2004).
[Crossref]

Sonoda, S.

Sun, X. D.

Taheri, B.

H. Finkelmann, S. T. Kim, A. Muoz, P. P. Muhoray, and B. Taheri, “Tunable mirrorless lasing in cholesteric liquid crystalline elastomers,” Adv. Mater. 13, 1069–1072 (2001).
[Crossref]

Tiwari, A. K.

Tsay, S. Y.

Tulek, A.

A. Tulek, R. C. Polson, and Z. V. Vardeny, “Naturally occurring resonators in random lasing of π-conjugated polymer films,” Nat. Phys. 6, 303–310 (2010).
[Crossref]

Uppu, R.

R. Uppu and S. Mujumdar, “Lévy exponents as universal identifiers of threshold and criticality in random lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 90, 025801 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Uppu, A. K. Tiwari, and S. Mujumdar, “Identification of statistical regimes and crossovers in coherent random laser emission,” Opt. Lett. 37, 662–664 (2012).
[Crossref]

Urayama, K.

A. Varanytsia, H. Nagai, K. Urayama, and P. P. Muhoray, “Tunable lasing in cholesteric liquid crystal elastomers with accurate measurements of strain,” Sci. Rep. 5, 17739 (2015).
[Crossref]

Varanytsia, A.

A. Varanytsia, H. Nagai, K. Urayama, and P. P. Muhoray, “Tunable lasing in cholesteric liquid crystal elastomers with accurate measurements of strain,” Sci. Rep. 5, 17739 (2015).
[Crossref]

Vardeny, Z. V.

A. Tulek, R. C. Polson, and Z. V. Vardeny, “Naturally occurring resonators in random lasing of π-conjugated polymer films,” Nat. Phys. 6, 303–310 (2010).
[Crossref]

R. C. Polson and Z. V. Vardeny, “Random lasing in human tissues,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1289–1291 (2004).
[Crossref]

Vukusic, P.

P. Vukusic, B. Hallam, and J. Noyes, “Brilliant whiteness in ultrathin beetle scales,” Science 315, 348 (2007).
[Crossref]

Wang, C. S.

C. S. Wang, T. Y. Chang, T. Y. Lin, and Y. F. Chen, “Biologically inspired flexible quasi-single-mode random laser: an integration of Pieris canidia butterfly wing and semiconductors,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6736 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wang, Q. H.

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, “Random laser action in semiconductor powder,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2278–2281 (1999).
[Crossref]

Wei, T. H.

T. H. Lin, H. C. Jau, C. H. Chen, Y. J. Chen, T. H. Wei, C. W. Chen, and A. Y. G. Fuh, “Electrically controllable laser based on cholesteric liquid crystal with negative dielectric anisotropy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061122 (2006).
[Crossref]

Wen, S.

F. Luan, B. Gu, A. S. Gomes, K. T. Yong, S. Wen, and P. N. Prasad, “Lasing in nanocomposite random media,” Nano Today 10, 168–192 (2015).
[Crossref]

White, I. H.

S. M. Morris, D. J. Gardiner, P. J. Hands, M. M. Qasim, T. D. Wilkinson, I. H. White, and H. J. Coles, “Electrically switchable random to photonic band-edge laser emission in chiral nematic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 071110 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wilkinson, T. D.

S. M. Morris, D. J. Gardiner, P. J. Hands, M. M. Qasim, T. D. Wilkinson, I. H. White, and H. J. Coles, “Electrically switchable random to photonic band-edge laser emission in chiral nematic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 071110 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wolf, P. E.

E. Akkermans, P. E. Wolf, and R. Maynard, “Coherent backscattering of light by disordered media: analysis of the peak line shape,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 1471–1474 (1986).
[Crossref]

Wu, J. J.

S. H. Lin, P. Y. Chen, Y. H. Li, C. H. Chen, J. H. Lin, Y. H. Chen, and J. J. Wu, “Manipulation of polarized random lasers from dye-doped twisted nematic liquid crystals within wedge cells,” IEEE Photon. J. 9, 1502208 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. H. Lin, K. C. Liao, L. H. Jian, S. Y. Tsay, J. J. Wu, and Y. G. Duann, “Spatially tunable emissions of dye-doped liquid crystal lasers between the cholesteric and smectic phases,” Opt. Mater. Express 5, 2142–2149 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. H. Lin, Y. L. Hsiao, B. Y. Ciou, S. H. Lin, Y. H. Chen, and J. J. Wu, “Manipulation of random lasing action from dye-doped liquid crystals infilling two-dimensional confinement single core capillary,” IEEE Photon. J. 7, 1501809 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. J. Lin, T. J. Chen, B. Y. Chen, J. J. Wu, and Y. J. Yang, “Enhanced electro-optical properties of vertically aligned in-plane-switching liquid crystal displays employing polymer networks,” Opt. Mater. Express 4, 1657–1667 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. H. Lin, P. Y. Chen, and J. J. Wu, “Mode competition of two bandedge lasing from dye doped cholesteric liquid crystal laser,” Opt. Express 22, 9932–9941 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yakunin, S.

S. Yakunin, L. Protesescu, F. Krieg, M. I. Bodnarchuk, G. Nedelcu, M. Humer, and M. V. Kovalenko, “Low-threshold amplified spontaneous emission and lasing from colloidal nanocrystals of caesium lead halide perovskites,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8056 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yamamoto, T.

Yang, Y. J.

Yao, F. F.

Yong, K. T.

F. Luan, B. Gu, A. S. Gomes, K. T. Yong, S. Wen, and P. N. Prasad, “Lasing in nanocomposite random media,” Nano Today 10, 168–192 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Y.

Zhao, Y. G.

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, “Random laser action in semiconductor powder,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2278–2281 (1999).
[Crossref]

Zhou, W. L.

Adv. Mater. (1)

H. Finkelmann, S. T. Kim, A. Muoz, P. P. Muhoray, and B. Taheri, “Tunable mirrorless lasing in cholesteric liquid crystalline elastomers,” Adv. Mater. 13, 1069–1072 (2001).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Express (1)

J. H. Lin, S. C. Chang, Y. H. Li, C. Y. Chien, C. H. Chen, Y. C. Lin, and Y. H. Chen, “Investigation of laser speckle noise suppression by using polymer-stabilized liquid crystals within twisted nematic cell,” Appl. Phys. Express 10, 031701 (2017).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

T. H. Lin, H. C. Jau, C. H. Chen, Y. J. Chen, T. H. Wei, C. W. Chen, and A. Y. G. Fuh, “Electrically controllable laser based on cholesteric liquid crystal with negative dielectric anisotropy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061122 (2006).
[Crossref]

S. M. Morris, D. J. Gardiner, P. J. Hands, M. M. Qasim, T. D. Wilkinson, I. H. White, and H. J. Coles, “Electrically switchable random to photonic band-edge laser emission in chiral nematic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 071110 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. C. Polson and Z. V. Vardeny, “Random lasing in human tissues,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1289–1291 (2004).
[Crossref]

Chem. Mater. (1)

P. V. Shibaev, J. Madsen, and A. Z. Genack, “Lasing and narrowing of spontaneous emission from responsive cholesteric films,” Chem. Mater. 16, 1397–1399 (2004).
[Crossref]

Commun. Stat. Stoch. Models (1)

J. P. Nolan, “Numerical calculation of stable densities and distribution functions,” Commun. Stat. Stoch. Models 13, 759–774 (1997).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. J. (2)

J. H. Lin, Y. L. Hsiao, B. Y. Ciou, S. H. Lin, Y. H. Chen, and J. J. Wu, “Manipulation of random lasing action from dye-doped liquid crystals infilling two-dimensional confinement single core capillary,” IEEE Photon. J. 7, 1501809 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. H. Lin, P. Y. Chen, Y. H. Li, C. H. Chen, J. H. Lin, Y. H. Chen, and J. J. Wu, “Manipulation of polarized random lasers from dye-doped twisted nematic liquid crystals within wedge cells,” IEEE Photon. J. 9, 1502208 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Nano Today (1)

F. Luan, B. Gu, A. S. Gomes, K. T. Yong, S. Wen, and P. N. Prasad, “Lasing in nanocomposite random media,” Nano Today 10, 168–192 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nat. Commun. (1)

S. Yakunin, L. Protesescu, F. Krieg, M. I. Bodnarchuk, G. Nedelcu, M. Humer, and M. V. Kovalenko, “Low-threshold amplified spontaneous emission and lasing from colloidal nanocrystals of caesium lead halide perovskites,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8056 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (1)

B. Redding, M. A. Choma, and H. Cao, “Speckle-free laser imaging using random laser illumination,” Nat. Photonics 6, 355–359 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nat. Phys. (1)

A. Tulek, R. C. Polson, and Z. V. Vardeny, “Naturally occurring resonators in random lasing of π-conjugated polymer films,” Nat. Phys. 6, 303–310 (2010).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Opt. Mater. Express (4)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

R. Uppu and S. Mujumdar, “Lévy exponents as universal identifiers of threshold and criticality in random lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 90, 025801 (2014).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

E. Akkermans, P. E. Wolf, and R. Maynard, “Coherent backscattering of light by disordered media: analysis of the peak line shape,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 1471–1474 (1986).
[Crossref]

C. J. de Matos, L. D. S. Menezes, A. M. Brito-Silva, M. M. Gamez, A. S. Gomes, and C. B. de Araujo, “Random fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 153903 (2007).
[Crossref]

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, “Random laser action in semiconductor powder,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2278–2281 (1999).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (2)

C. S. Wang, T. Y. Chang, T. Y. Lin, and Y. F. Chen, “Biologically inspired flexible quasi-single-mode random laser: an integration of Pieris canidia butterfly wing and semiconductors,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6736 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Varanytsia, H. Nagai, K. Urayama, and P. P. Muhoray, “Tunable lasing in cholesteric liquid crystal elastomers with accurate measurements of strain,” Sci. Rep. 5, 17739 (2015).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

P. Vukusic, B. Hallam, and J. Noyes, “Brilliant whiteness in ultrathin beetle scales,” Science 315, 348 (2007).
[Crossref]

Sov. Phys. J. Exp. Theor. Phys. (1)

V. S. Letokhov, “Quantum statistics of multi-mode radiation from an ensemble of atoms,” Sov. Phys. J. Exp. Theor. Phys. 26, 835–840 (1968).

Other (1)

“Laser display devices. Part 1-2: Vocabulary and letter symbols,” (2015).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Side view of alignment of LCs in (a) normal cell which comprised two parallel glass plates with coating of antiparallel rubbing PI on both of them, and (b) wedge cell which comprised two nonparallel glass plates with only one side coating of rubbing PI on the R-plate. The wedge angle is 0.31°. The experimental setup for the generation of RL in (c) Sample-I, and (d) Sample-II. The pictures shown in the inset of (c) and (d) reveal the projected pattern from the output beam of FPL and RL.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. POM images of DD-LCs from (a) parallel cell and (b) R-plate as well as (c) UR-plate of the wedge cell. The emission spectrum of the DD-LC laser reveals (d) FP characteristic from Sample-I and random lasing characteristic from (e) R-plate, and (f) UR-plate of Sample-II, respectively. The inset shows the polar plots of the output spectrum component from each DD-LC cell.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) Output intensity as a function of pump energy from three output plates of the DD-LC laser, and the histograms of intensity distribution of the DD-LC RL from the UR-plate of Sample-II with pump energy (b) below the lasing threshold (E=1.4  μJ), (c) around the threshold (E=2.6  μJ), and (d) above the threshold (E=3.5  μJ), in which the red curves indicate the α-stable fit.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (a) Intensity fluctuation from three output plates of DD-LC lasers with a central wavelength λ=572  nm, and the corresponding statistics of intensity distribution from (b) Sample-I (α=2.00; Gaussian distribution), (c) R-plate (α=1.77; Lévy distribution), and (d) UR-plate of Sample-II (α=1.11, strong Lévy distribution), in which the red curves indicate the α-stable fit.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. (a) Schematic setup for CBS measurements using a continuous-wave green laser with a central wavelength of 532 nm. The measured CBS cone from three output plates of DD-LC lasers including (b) Sample-I, (c) R-plate, and (d) UR-plate of Sample-II, respectively.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Projected interference fringe images from (a) Sample-I, (b) R-plate, and (c) UR-plate of Sample-II, respectively. One dimensional intensity distributions of interference fringes from (d) Sample-I, (e) R-plate, and (f) UR-plate of Sample-II, respectively. The images of the monochromatic speckle pattern from (g) Sample-I, (h) R-plate, and (i) UR-plate of Sample-II.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

α(θ)=38π{1+2z0lt+1(1+qlt)2[1+1exp(2z0q)ltq]}.
γ=ImaxIminImax+Imin,

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