Abstract

A comprehensive comparison on the data transmission performance of photonic crystal structured micro light-emitting diodes (PC-µLEDs) with different aperture sizes is realized for high-speed visible light communication application. The 120×120-µm2 large PC-µLED exhibits the largest optical power of 580 µW and the highest external quantum efficiency of 2.5%; however, it also demonstrates the lowest analog modulation bandwidth of only 72 MHz. By contrast, the smallest PC-µLED with 20×20-µm2 aperture emits the lowest optical power of 37 µW but provides the highest 3-dB bandwidth of 162 MHz. After optimizing the operating parameters for data transmission, the trade-off between output power and encoding bandwidth is observed to improve the transmission performance. The PC-µLED with mesa length of 60–80 µm can transmit on-off keying (OOK) data format at 500 Mbit/s under error-free BER criterion. In particular, the device with a mesa area of 80×80-µm2 successfully carries the 300-MBaud 4-level pulse amplitude modulation (PAM-4) data with corresponding data rate of 600 Mbit/s under KP4 forward error correction (FEC) required BER. Furthermore, the quadrature-amplitude-modulation (QAM) orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) data transmission is also performed, and the highest data rate of 2 Gbit/s under FEC criterion is allowable by using the PC-µLED with a mesa aperture of 80×80-µm2.

© 2020 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2020 (1)

C.-Y. Huang, H.-Y. Wang, C.-H. Wu, C.-H. Cheng, C.-T. Tsai, C.-H. Wu, M. Feng, and G.-R. Lin, “Comparison of high-speed PAM4 and QAM-OFDM data transmission using single-mode VCSEL in OM5 and OM4 MMF links,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 1–10 (2020)..
[Crossref]

2018 (5)

H.-Y. Kao, C.-T. Tsai, S.-F. Leong, C.-Y. Peng, Y.-C. Chi, H.-Y. Wang, H.-C. Kuo, C.-H. Wu, W.-H. Cheng, and G.-R. Lin, “Single-mode VCSEL for pre-emphasis PAM-4 transmission up to 64 Gbit/s over 100–300 m in OM4 MMF,” Photonics Res. 6(7), 666–673 (2018).
[Crossref]

T.-C. Lin, Y.-T. Chen, Y.-F. Yin, Z.-X. You, H.-Y. Kao, C.-Y. Huang, Y.-H. Lin, C.-T. Tsai, G.-R. Lin, and J.-J. Huang, “Large-signal modulation performance of light-emitting diodes with photonic crystals for visible light communication,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 65(10), 4375–4380 (2018).
[Crossref]

W.-C. Wang, H.-Y. Wang, and G.-R. Lin, “Ultrahigh-speed violet laser diode based free-space optical communication beyond 25 Gbit/s,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 13142 (2018).
[Crossref]

Z. Zhou, B. Yan, X. Ma, D. Teng, L. Liu, and G. Wang, “GaN-based mid-power flip-chip light-emitting diode with high -3 dB bandwidth for visible light communications,” Appl. Opt. 57(11), 2773–2779 (2018).
[Crossref]

H.-Y. Lan, I.-C. Tseng, H.-Y. Kao, Y. H. Lin, G.-R. Lin, and C.-H. Wu, “752-MHz modulation bandwidth of high-speed blue micro light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 54, 1 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (3)

T.-C. Wu, Y.-C. Chi, H.-Y. Wang, C.-T. Tsai, and G.-R. Lin, “Blue laser diode enables underwater communication at 12.4 Gbps,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 40480 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y.-F. Huang, Y.-C. Chi, H.-Y. Kao, C.-T. Tsai, H.-Y. Wang, H.-C. Kuo, S. Nakamura, D.-W. Huang, and G.-R. Lin, “Blue laser diode based free-space optical data transmission elevated to 18 Gbps over 16 m,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 10478 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y.-F. Yin, W.-Y. Lan, T.-C. Lin, C. Wang, M. Feng, and J.-J. Huang, “High-speed visible light communication using GaN-based light-emitting diodes with photonic crystals,” J. Lightwave Technol. 35(2), 258–264 (2017).
[Crossref]

2015 (2)

C. A. Hurni, A. David, M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, B. Ellis, K. Huang, A. Tyagi, R.-A. DeLille, M.-D. Craven, F.-M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “Bulk GaN flip-chip violet light-emitting diodes with optimized efficiency for high-power operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 031101 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y.-C. Chi, D.-H. Hsieh, C.-T. Tsai, H.-Y. Chen, H.-C. Kuo, and G.-R. Lin, “450-nm GaN laser diode enables high-speed visible light communication with 9-Gbps QAM-OFDM,” Opt. Express 23(10), 13051–13059 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (3)

H. Li, X. Chen, J. Guo, D. Tang, B. Huang, and H. Chen, “200 Mb/s visible optical wireless transmission based on NRZ-OOK modulation of phosphorescent white LED and a pre-emphasis circuit,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 12(10), 100604 (2014).
[Crossref]

W. Yang, S. Zhang, J.-J. McKendry, J. Herrnsdorf, P. Tian, Z. Gong, and L. Feng, “Size-dependent capacitance study on InGaN-based micro-light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 116(4), 044512 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J.-J. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A.-E. Kelly, M.-D. Dawson, and H. Haas, “A 3-Gb/s single-LED OFDM-based wireless VLC link using a gallium nitride µLED,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(7), 637–640 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (4)

A.-H. Azhar, T. Tran, and D. O’Brien, “A gigabit/s indoor wireless transmission using MIMO-OFDM visible-light communications,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(2), 171–174 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y.-F. Yin, Y.-C. Lin, T.-H. Tsai, Y.-C. Shen, and J.-J. Huang, “Far-field self-focusing and-defocusing radiation behaviors of the electroluminescent light sources due to negative refraction,” Opt. Lett. 38(2), 184–186 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y.-F. Yin, Y.-C. Lin, Y.-C. Liu, Y.-C. Shen, H.-P. Chiang, and J.-J. Huang, “Correlation of angular light profiles of light-emitting diodes to spatial spontaneous emissions from photonic crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(14), 143104 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Moudakir, F. Genty, M. Kunzer, P. Börner, T. Passow, S. Suresh, G. Patriarche, K. Köhler, W. Pletschen, J. Wagner, and A. Ougazzaden, “Design, fabrication, and characterization of near-milliwatt-power RCLEDs emitting at 390 nm,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(6), 8400709 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

J.-J. McKendry, D. Massoubre, S. Zhang, B. R. Rae, R. P. Green, E. Gu, R. Henderson, A.-E. Kelly, and M.-D. Dawson, “Visible-light communications using a CMOS-controlled micro-light-emitting-diode array,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(1), 61–67 (2012).
[Crossref]

A.-M. Khalid, G. Cossu, R. Corsini, P. Choudhury, and E. Ciaramella, “1-Gb/s transmission over a phosphorescent white LED by using rate-adaptive discrete multitone modulation,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(5), 1465–1473 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

R. Haitz and J.-Y. Tsao, “Solid-state lighting:‘The case’10 years after and future prospects,” Phys. Status Solidi A 208(1), 17–29 (2011).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

Y.-J. Lee, J.-M. Hwang, T.-C. Hsu, M.-H. Hsieh, M.-J. Jou, B.-J. Lee, H.-C. Lu, H.-C. Kuo, and S.-C. Wang, “Enhancing the output power of GaN-based LEDs grown on wet-etched patterned sapphire substrates,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(10), 1152–1154 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

D. Wulich, “Definition of efficient PAPR in OFDM,” IEEE Commun. Lett. 9(9), 832–834 (2005).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

A.-R. Bahai, M. Singh, A.-J. Goldsmith, and B.-R. Saltzberg, “A new approach for evaluating clipping distortion in multicarrier systems,” IEEE J. Select. Areas Commun. 20(5), 1037–1046 (2002).
[Crossref]

Aldaz, R. I.

C. A. Hurni, A. David, M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, B. Ellis, K. Huang, A. Tyagi, R.-A. DeLille, M.-D. Craven, F.-M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “Bulk GaN flip-chip violet light-emitting diodes with optimized efficiency for high-power operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 031101 (2015).
[Crossref]

Azhar, A.-H.

A.-H. Azhar, T. Tran, and D. O’Brien, “A gigabit/s indoor wireless transmission using MIMO-OFDM visible-light communications,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(2), 171–174 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bahai, A.-R.

A.-R. Bahai, M. Singh, A.-J. Goldsmith, and B.-R. Saltzberg, “A new approach for evaluating clipping distortion in multicarrier systems,” IEEE J. Select. Areas Commun. 20(5), 1037–1046 (2002).
[Crossref]

Börner, P.

T. Moudakir, F. Genty, M. Kunzer, P. Börner, T. Passow, S. Suresh, G. Patriarche, K. Köhler, W. Pletschen, J. Wagner, and A. Ougazzaden, “Design, fabrication, and characterization of near-milliwatt-power RCLEDs emitting at 390 nm,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(6), 8400709 (2013).
[Crossref]

Büttner, A.

J. Vučić, C. Kottke, S. Nerreter, K. Habel, A. Büttner, K.-D. Langer, and J.-W. Walewski, “230 Mbit/s via a wireless visible-light link based on OOK modulation of phosphorescent white LEDs. In Optical Fiber Communication,” in Conference on Optical Fiber Communication (OFC/NFOEC) collocated National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, San Diego, CA, USA (2010), p. OThH3.

Chen, H.

Chen, H.-Y.

Chen, X.

Chen, Y.-T.

T.-C. Lin, Y.-T. Chen, Y.-F. Yin, Z.-X. You, H.-Y. Kao, C.-Y. Huang, Y.-H. Lin, C.-T. Tsai, G.-R. Lin, and J.-J. Huang, “Large-signal modulation performance of light-emitting diodes with photonic crystals for visible light communication,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 65(10), 4375–4380 (2018).
[Crossref]

Cheng, C.-H.

C.-Y. Huang, H.-Y. Wang, C.-H. Wu, C.-H. Cheng, C.-T. Tsai, C.-H. Wu, M. Feng, and G.-R. Lin, “Comparison of high-speed PAM4 and QAM-OFDM data transmission using single-mode VCSEL in OM5 and OM4 MMF links,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 1–10 (2020)..
[Crossref]

Cheng, W.-H.

H.-Y. Kao, C.-T. Tsai, S.-F. Leong, C.-Y. Peng, Y.-C. Chi, H.-Y. Wang, H.-C. Kuo, C.-H. Wu, W.-H. Cheng, and G.-R. Lin, “Single-mode VCSEL for pre-emphasis PAM-4 transmission up to 64 Gbit/s over 100–300 m in OM4 MMF,” Photonics Res. 6(7), 666–673 (2018).
[Crossref]

Chi, Y.-C.

H.-Y. Kao, C.-T. Tsai, S.-F. Leong, C.-Y. Peng, Y.-C. Chi, H.-Y. Wang, H.-C. Kuo, C.-H. Wu, W.-H. Cheng, and G.-R. Lin, “Single-mode VCSEL for pre-emphasis PAM-4 transmission up to 64 Gbit/s over 100–300 m in OM4 MMF,” Photonics Res. 6(7), 666–673 (2018).
[Crossref]

T.-C. Wu, Y.-C. Chi, H.-Y. Wang, C.-T. Tsai, and G.-R. Lin, “Blue laser diode enables underwater communication at 12.4 Gbps,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 40480 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y.-F. Huang, Y.-C. Chi, H.-Y. Kao, C.-T. Tsai, H.-Y. Wang, H.-C. Kuo, S. Nakamura, D.-W. Huang, and G.-R. Lin, “Blue laser diode based free-space optical data transmission elevated to 18 Gbps over 16 m,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 10478 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y.-C. Chi, D.-H. Hsieh, C.-T. Tsai, H.-Y. Chen, H.-C. Kuo, and G.-R. Lin, “450-nm GaN laser diode enables high-speed visible light communication with 9-Gbps QAM-OFDM,” Opt. Express 23(10), 13051–13059 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chiang, H.-P.

Y.-F. Yin, Y.-C. Lin, Y.-C. Liu, Y.-C. Shen, H.-P. Chiang, and J.-J. Huang, “Correlation of angular light profiles of light-emitting diodes to spatial spontaneous emissions from photonic crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(14), 143104 (2013).
[Crossref]

Choudhury, P.

A.-M. Khalid, G. Cossu, R. Corsini, P. Choudhury, and E. Ciaramella, “1-Gb/s transmission over a phosphorescent white LED by using rate-adaptive discrete multitone modulation,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(5), 1465–1473 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chun, H.

D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J.-J. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A.-E. Kelly, M.-D. Dawson, and H. Haas, “A 3-Gb/s single-LED OFDM-based wireless VLC link using a gallium nitride µLED,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(7), 637–640 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ciaramella, E.

A.-M. Khalid, G. Cossu, R. Corsini, P. Choudhury, and E. Ciaramella, “1-Gb/s transmission over a phosphorescent white LED by using rate-adaptive discrete multitone modulation,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(5), 1465–1473 (2012).
[Crossref]

Cich, M. J.

C. A. Hurni, A. David, M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, B. Ellis, K. Huang, A. Tyagi, R.-A. DeLille, M.-D. Craven, F.-M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “Bulk GaN flip-chip violet light-emitting diodes with optimized efficiency for high-power operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 031101 (2015).
[Crossref]

Corsini, R.

A.-M. Khalid, G. Cossu, R. Corsini, P. Choudhury, and E. Ciaramella, “1-Gb/s transmission over a phosphorescent white LED by using rate-adaptive discrete multitone modulation,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(5), 1465–1473 (2012).
[Crossref]

Cossu, G.

A.-M. Khalid, G. Cossu, R. Corsini, P. Choudhury, and E. Ciaramella, “1-Gb/s transmission over a phosphorescent white LED by using rate-adaptive discrete multitone modulation,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(5), 1465–1473 (2012).
[Crossref]

Craven, M.-D.

C. A. Hurni, A. David, M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, B. Ellis, K. Huang, A. Tyagi, R.-A. DeLille, M.-D. Craven, F.-M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “Bulk GaN flip-chip violet light-emitting diodes with optimized efficiency for high-power operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 031101 (2015).
[Crossref]

Cunningham, D.-G.

L. Geng, J. Wei, R.-V. Penty, I. White, and D.-G. Cunningham, “3 Gbit/s LED-based step index plastic optical fiber link using multilevel pulse amplitude modulation,” in Conference on Optical Fiber Communication (OFC/NFOEC) collocated National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, Anaheim, CA, USA (2013), p. OTh4A–1.

David, A.

C. A. Hurni, A. David, M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, B. Ellis, K. Huang, A. Tyagi, R.-A. DeLille, M.-D. Craven, F.-M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “Bulk GaN flip-chip violet light-emitting diodes with optimized efficiency for high-power operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 031101 (2015).
[Crossref]

Dawson, M.-D.

D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J.-J. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A.-E. Kelly, M.-D. Dawson, and H. Haas, “A 3-Gb/s single-LED OFDM-based wireless VLC link using a gallium nitride µLED,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(7), 637–640 (2014).
[Crossref]

J.-J. McKendry, D. Massoubre, S. Zhang, B. R. Rae, R. P. Green, E. Gu, R. Henderson, A.-E. Kelly, and M.-D. Dawson, “Visible-light communications using a CMOS-controlled micro-light-emitting-diode array,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(1), 61–67 (2012).
[Crossref]

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N. Fujimoto and H. Mochizuki, “477 Mbit/s visible light transmission based on OOK-NRZ modulation using a single commercially available visible LED and a practical LED driver with a pre-emphasis circuit,” in Conference on Optical Fiber Communication (OFC/NFOEC) collocated National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, Anaheim, CA, USA (2013), p. JTh2A–73.

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T. Moudakir, F. Genty, M. Kunzer, P. Börner, T. Passow, S. Suresh, G. Patriarche, K. Köhler, W. Pletschen, J. Wagner, and A. Ougazzaden, “Design, fabrication, and characterization of near-milliwatt-power RCLEDs emitting at 390 nm,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(6), 8400709 (2013).
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Gu, E.

D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J.-J. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A.-E. Kelly, M.-D. Dawson, and H. Haas, “A 3-Gb/s single-LED OFDM-based wireless VLC link using a gallium nitride µLED,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(7), 637–640 (2014).
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J.-J. McKendry, D. Massoubre, S. Zhang, B. R. Rae, R. P. Green, E. Gu, R. Henderson, A.-E. Kelly, and M.-D. Dawson, “Visible-light communications using a CMOS-controlled micro-light-emitting-diode array,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(1), 61–67 (2012).
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Haas, H.

D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J.-J. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A.-E. Kelly, M.-D. Dawson, and H. Haas, “A 3-Gb/s single-LED OFDM-based wireless VLC link using a gallium nitride µLED,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(7), 637–640 (2014).
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J. Vučić, C. Kottke, S. Nerreter, K. Habel, A. Büttner, K.-D. Langer, and J.-W. Walewski, “230 Mbit/s via a wireless visible-light link based on OOK modulation of phosphorescent white LEDs. In Optical Fiber Communication,” in Conference on Optical Fiber Communication (OFC/NFOEC) collocated National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, San Diego, CA, USA (2010), p. OThH3.

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D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J.-J. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A.-E. Kelly, M.-D. Dawson, and H. Haas, “A 3-Gb/s single-LED OFDM-based wireless VLC link using a gallium nitride µLED,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(7), 637–640 (2014).
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Herrnsdorf, J.

W. Yang, S. Zhang, J.-J. McKendry, J. Herrnsdorf, P. Tian, Z. Gong, and L. Feng, “Size-dependent capacitance study on InGaN-based micro-light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 116(4), 044512 (2014).
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Hsieh, M.-H.

Y.-J. Lee, J.-M. Hwang, T.-C. Hsu, M.-H. Hsieh, M.-J. Jou, B.-J. Lee, H.-C. Lu, H.-C. Kuo, and S.-C. Wang, “Enhancing the output power of GaN-based LEDs grown on wet-etched patterned sapphire substrates,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(10), 1152–1154 (2006).
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Y.-J. Lee, J.-M. Hwang, T.-C. Hsu, M.-H. Hsieh, M.-J. Jou, B.-J. Lee, H.-C. Lu, H.-C. Kuo, and S.-C. Wang, “Enhancing the output power of GaN-based LEDs grown on wet-etched patterned sapphire substrates,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(10), 1152–1154 (2006).
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Huang, B.

Huang, C.-Y.

C.-Y. Huang, H.-Y. Wang, C.-H. Wu, C.-H. Cheng, C.-T. Tsai, C.-H. Wu, M. Feng, and G.-R. Lin, “Comparison of high-speed PAM4 and QAM-OFDM data transmission using single-mode VCSEL in OM5 and OM4 MMF links,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 1–10 (2020)..
[Crossref]

T.-C. Lin, Y.-T. Chen, Y.-F. Yin, Z.-X. You, H.-Y. Kao, C.-Y. Huang, Y.-H. Lin, C.-T. Tsai, G.-R. Lin, and J.-J. Huang, “Large-signal modulation performance of light-emitting diodes with photonic crystals for visible light communication,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 65(10), 4375–4380 (2018).
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Huang, D.-W.

Y.-F. Huang, Y.-C. Chi, H.-Y. Kao, C.-T. Tsai, H.-Y. Wang, H.-C. Kuo, S. Nakamura, D.-W. Huang, and G.-R. Lin, “Blue laser diode based free-space optical data transmission elevated to 18 Gbps over 16 m,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 10478 (2017).
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Huang, J.-J.

T.-C. Lin, Y.-T. Chen, Y.-F. Yin, Z.-X. You, H.-Y. Kao, C.-Y. Huang, Y.-H. Lin, C.-T. Tsai, G.-R. Lin, and J.-J. Huang, “Large-signal modulation performance of light-emitting diodes with photonic crystals for visible light communication,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 65(10), 4375–4380 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y.-F. Yin, W.-Y. Lan, T.-C. Lin, C. Wang, M. Feng, and J.-J. Huang, “High-speed visible light communication using GaN-based light-emitting diodes with photonic crystals,” J. Lightwave Technol. 35(2), 258–264 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y.-F. Yin, Y.-C. Lin, T.-H. Tsai, Y.-C. Shen, and J.-J. Huang, “Far-field self-focusing and-defocusing radiation behaviors of the electroluminescent light sources due to negative refraction,” Opt. Lett. 38(2), 184–186 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y.-F. Yin, Y.-C. Lin, Y.-C. Liu, Y.-C. Shen, H.-P. Chiang, and J.-J. Huang, “Correlation of angular light profiles of light-emitting diodes to spatial spontaneous emissions from photonic crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(14), 143104 (2013).
[Crossref]

Huang, K.

C. A. Hurni, A. David, M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, B. Ellis, K. Huang, A. Tyagi, R.-A. DeLille, M.-D. Craven, F.-M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “Bulk GaN flip-chip violet light-emitting diodes with optimized efficiency for high-power operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 031101 (2015).
[Crossref]

Huang, Y.-F.

Y.-F. Huang, Y.-C. Chi, H.-Y. Kao, C.-T. Tsai, H.-Y. Wang, H.-C. Kuo, S. Nakamura, D.-W. Huang, and G.-R. Lin, “Blue laser diode based free-space optical data transmission elevated to 18 Gbps over 16 m,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 10478 (2017).
[Crossref]

Hurni, C. A.

C. A. Hurni, A. David, M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, B. Ellis, K. Huang, A. Tyagi, R.-A. DeLille, M.-D. Craven, F.-M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “Bulk GaN flip-chip violet light-emitting diodes with optimized efficiency for high-power operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 031101 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hwang, J.-M.

Y.-J. Lee, J.-M. Hwang, T.-C. Hsu, M.-H. Hsieh, M.-J. Jou, B.-J. Lee, H.-C. Lu, H.-C. Kuo, and S.-C. Wang, “Enhancing the output power of GaN-based LEDs grown on wet-etched patterned sapphire substrates,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(10), 1152–1154 (2006).
[Crossref]

Jou, M.-J.

Y.-J. Lee, J.-M. Hwang, T.-C. Hsu, M.-H. Hsieh, M.-J. Jou, B.-J. Lee, H.-C. Lu, H.-C. Kuo, and S.-C. Wang, “Enhancing the output power of GaN-based LEDs grown on wet-etched patterned sapphire substrates,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(10), 1152–1154 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kao, H.-Y.

H.-Y. Kao, C.-T. Tsai, S.-F. Leong, C.-Y. Peng, Y.-C. Chi, H.-Y. Wang, H.-C. Kuo, C.-H. Wu, W.-H. Cheng, and G.-R. Lin, “Single-mode VCSEL for pre-emphasis PAM-4 transmission up to 64 Gbit/s over 100–300 m in OM4 MMF,” Photonics Res. 6(7), 666–673 (2018).
[Crossref]

T.-C. Lin, Y.-T. Chen, Y.-F. Yin, Z.-X. You, H.-Y. Kao, C.-Y. Huang, Y.-H. Lin, C.-T. Tsai, G.-R. Lin, and J.-J. Huang, “Large-signal modulation performance of light-emitting diodes with photonic crystals for visible light communication,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 65(10), 4375–4380 (2018).
[Crossref]

H.-Y. Lan, I.-C. Tseng, H.-Y. Kao, Y. H. Lin, G.-R. Lin, and C.-H. Wu, “752-MHz modulation bandwidth of high-speed blue micro light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 54, 1 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y.-F. Huang, Y.-C. Chi, H.-Y. Kao, C.-T. Tsai, H.-Y. Wang, H.-C. Kuo, S. Nakamura, D.-W. Huang, and G.-R. Lin, “Blue laser diode based free-space optical data transmission elevated to 18 Gbps over 16 m,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 10478 (2017).
[Crossref]

Kelly, A.-E.

D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J.-J. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A.-E. Kelly, M.-D. Dawson, and H. Haas, “A 3-Gb/s single-LED OFDM-based wireless VLC link using a gallium nitride µLED,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(7), 637–640 (2014).
[Crossref]

J.-J. McKendry, D. Massoubre, S. Zhang, B. R. Rae, R. P. Green, E. Gu, R. Henderson, A.-E. Kelly, and M.-D. Dawson, “Visible-light communications using a CMOS-controlled micro-light-emitting-diode array,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(1), 61–67 (2012).
[Crossref]

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A.-M. Khalid, G. Cossu, R. Corsini, P. Choudhury, and E. Ciaramella, “1-Gb/s transmission over a phosphorescent white LED by using rate-adaptive discrete multitone modulation,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(5), 1465–1473 (2012).
[Crossref]

Köhler, K.

T. Moudakir, F. Genty, M. Kunzer, P. Börner, T. Passow, S. Suresh, G. Patriarche, K. Köhler, W. Pletschen, J. Wagner, and A. Ougazzaden, “Design, fabrication, and characterization of near-milliwatt-power RCLEDs emitting at 390 nm,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(6), 8400709 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kottke, C.

J. Vučić, C. Kottke, S. Nerreter, K. Habel, A. Büttner, K.-D. Langer, and J.-W. Walewski, “230 Mbit/s via a wireless visible-light link based on OOK modulation of phosphorescent white LEDs. In Optical Fiber Communication,” in Conference on Optical Fiber Communication (OFC/NFOEC) collocated National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, San Diego, CA, USA (2010), p. OThH3.

Krames, M. R.

C. A. Hurni, A. David, M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, B. Ellis, K. Huang, A. Tyagi, R.-A. DeLille, M.-D. Craven, F.-M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “Bulk GaN flip-chip violet light-emitting diodes with optimized efficiency for high-power operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 031101 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kunzer, M.

T. Moudakir, F. Genty, M. Kunzer, P. Börner, T. Passow, S. Suresh, G. Patriarche, K. Köhler, W. Pletschen, J. Wagner, and A. Ougazzaden, “Design, fabrication, and characterization of near-milliwatt-power RCLEDs emitting at 390 nm,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(6), 8400709 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kuo, H.-C.

H.-Y. Kao, C.-T. Tsai, S.-F. Leong, C.-Y. Peng, Y.-C. Chi, H.-Y. Wang, H.-C. Kuo, C.-H. Wu, W.-H. Cheng, and G.-R. Lin, “Single-mode VCSEL for pre-emphasis PAM-4 transmission up to 64 Gbit/s over 100–300 m in OM4 MMF,” Photonics Res. 6(7), 666–673 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y.-F. Huang, Y.-C. Chi, H.-Y. Kao, C.-T. Tsai, H.-Y. Wang, H.-C. Kuo, S. Nakamura, D.-W. Huang, and G.-R. Lin, “Blue laser diode based free-space optical data transmission elevated to 18 Gbps over 16 m,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 10478 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y.-C. Chi, D.-H. Hsieh, C.-T. Tsai, H.-Y. Chen, H.-C. Kuo, and G.-R. Lin, “450-nm GaN laser diode enables high-speed visible light communication with 9-Gbps QAM-OFDM,” Opt. Express 23(10), 13051–13059 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y.-J. Lee, J.-M. Hwang, T.-C. Hsu, M.-H. Hsieh, M.-J. Jou, B.-J. Lee, H.-C. Lu, H.-C. Kuo, and S.-C. Wang, “Enhancing the output power of GaN-based LEDs grown on wet-etched patterned sapphire substrates,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(10), 1152–1154 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lan, H.-Y.

H.-Y. Lan, I.-C. Tseng, H.-Y. Kao, Y. H. Lin, G.-R. Lin, and C.-H. Wu, “752-MHz modulation bandwidth of high-speed blue micro light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 54, 1 (2018).
[Crossref]

Lan, W.-Y.

Langer, K.-D.

J. Vučić, C. Kottke, S. Nerreter, K. Habel, A. Büttner, K.-D. Langer, and J.-W. Walewski, “230 Mbit/s via a wireless visible-light link based on OOK modulation of phosphorescent white LEDs. In Optical Fiber Communication,” in Conference on Optical Fiber Communication (OFC/NFOEC) collocated National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, San Diego, CA, USA (2010), p. OThH3.

Lee, B.-J.

Y.-J. Lee, J.-M. Hwang, T.-C. Hsu, M.-H. Hsieh, M.-J. Jou, B.-J. Lee, H.-C. Lu, H.-C. Kuo, and S.-C. Wang, “Enhancing the output power of GaN-based LEDs grown on wet-etched patterned sapphire substrates,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(10), 1152–1154 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lee, Y.-J.

Y.-J. Lee, J.-M. Hwang, T.-C. Hsu, M.-H. Hsieh, M.-J. Jou, B.-J. Lee, H.-C. Lu, H.-C. Kuo, and S.-C. Wang, “Enhancing the output power of GaN-based LEDs grown on wet-etched patterned sapphire substrates,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(10), 1152–1154 (2006).
[Crossref]

Leong, S.-F.

H.-Y. Kao, C.-T. Tsai, S.-F. Leong, C.-Y. Peng, Y.-C. Chi, H.-Y. Wang, H.-C. Kuo, C.-H. Wu, W.-H. Cheng, and G.-R. Lin, “Single-mode VCSEL for pre-emphasis PAM-4 transmission up to 64 Gbit/s over 100–300 m in OM4 MMF,” Photonics Res. 6(7), 666–673 (2018).
[Crossref]

Li, H.

Lin, G.-R.

C.-Y. Huang, H.-Y. Wang, C.-H. Wu, C.-H. Cheng, C.-T. Tsai, C.-H. Wu, M. Feng, and G.-R. Lin, “Comparison of high-speed PAM4 and QAM-OFDM data transmission using single-mode VCSEL in OM5 and OM4 MMF links,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 1–10 (2020)..
[Crossref]

H.-Y. Lan, I.-C. Tseng, H.-Y. Kao, Y. H. Lin, G.-R. Lin, and C.-H. Wu, “752-MHz modulation bandwidth of high-speed blue micro light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 54, 1 (2018).
[Crossref]

T.-C. Lin, Y.-T. Chen, Y.-F. Yin, Z.-X. You, H.-Y. Kao, C.-Y. Huang, Y.-H. Lin, C.-T. Tsai, G.-R. Lin, and J.-J. Huang, “Large-signal modulation performance of light-emitting diodes with photonic crystals for visible light communication,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 65(10), 4375–4380 (2018).
[Crossref]

H.-Y. Kao, C.-T. Tsai, S.-F. Leong, C.-Y. Peng, Y.-C. Chi, H.-Y. Wang, H.-C. Kuo, C.-H. Wu, W.-H. Cheng, and G.-R. Lin, “Single-mode VCSEL for pre-emphasis PAM-4 transmission up to 64 Gbit/s over 100–300 m in OM4 MMF,” Photonics Res. 6(7), 666–673 (2018).
[Crossref]

W.-C. Wang, H.-Y. Wang, and G.-R. Lin, “Ultrahigh-speed violet laser diode based free-space optical communication beyond 25 Gbit/s,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 13142 (2018).
[Crossref]

T.-C. Wu, Y.-C. Chi, H.-Y. Wang, C.-T. Tsai, and G.-R. Lin, “Blue laser diode enables underwater communication at 12.4 Gbps,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 40480 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y.-F. Huang, Y.-C. Chi, H.-Y. Kao, C.-T. Tsai, H.-Y. Wang, H.-C. Kuo, S. Nakamura, D.-W. Huang, and G.-R. Lin, “Blue laser diode based free-space optical data transmission elevated to 18 Gbps over 16 m,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 10478 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y.-C. Chi, D.-H. Hsieh, C.-T. Tsai, H.-Y. Chen, H.-C. Kuo, and G.-R. Lin, “450-nm GaN laser diode enables high-speed visible light communication with 9-Gbps QAM-OFDM,” Opt. Express 23(10), 13051–13059 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lin, T.-C.

T.-C. Lin, Y.-T. Chen, Y.-F. Yin, Z.-X. You, H.-Y. Kao, C.-Y. Huang, Y.-H. Lin, C.-T. Tsai, G.-R. Lin, and J.-J. Huang, “Large-signal modulation performance of light-emitting diodes with photonic crystals for visible light communication,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 65(10), 4375–4380 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y.-F. Yin, W.-Y. Lan, T.-C. Lin, C. Wang, M. Feng, and J.-J. Huang, “High-speed visible light communication using GaN-based light-emitting diodes with photonic crystals,” J. Lightwave Technol. 35(2), 258–264 (2017).
[Crossref]

Lin, Y. H.

H.-Y. Lan, I.-C. Tseng, H.-Y. Kao, Y. H. Lin, G.-R. Lin, and C.-H. Wu, “752-MHz modulation bandwidth of high-speed blue micro light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 54, 1 (2018).
[Crossref]

Lin, Y.-C.

Y.-F. Yin, Y.-C. Lin, Y.-C. Liu, Y.-C. Shen, H.-P. Chiang, and J.-J. Huang, “Correlation of angular light profiles of light-emitting diodes to spatial spontaneous emissions from photonic crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(14), 143104 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y.-F. Yin, Y.-C. Lin, T.-H. Tsai, Y.-C. Shen, and J.-J. Huang, “Far-field self-focusing and-defocusing radiation behaviors of the electroluminescent light sources due to negative refraction,” Opt. Lett. 38(2), 184–186 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lin, Y.-H.

T.-C. Lin, Y.-T. Chen, Y.-F. Yin, Z.-X. You, H.-Y. Kao, C.-Y. Huang, Y.-H. Lin, C.-T. Tsai, G.-R. Lin, and J.-J. Huang, “Large-signal modulation performance of light-emitting diodes with photonic crystals for visible light communication,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 65(10), 4375–4380 (2018).
[Crossref]

Liu, L.

Liu, Y.-C.

Y.-F. Yin, Y.-C. Lin, Y.-C. Liu, Y.-C. Shen, H.-P. Chiang, and J.-J. Huang, “Correlation of angular light profiles of light-emitting diodes to spatial spontaneous emissions from photonic crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(14), 143104 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lu, H.-C.

Y.-J. Lee, J.-M. Hwang, T.-C. Hsu, M.-H. Hsieh, M.-J. Jou, B.-J. Lee, H.-C. Lu, H.-C. Kuo, and S.-C. Wang, “Enhancing the output power of GaN-based LEDs grown on wet-etched patterned sapphire substrates,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(10), 1152–1154 (2006).
[Crossref]

Ma, X.

Massoubre, D.

McKendry, J.-J.

D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J.-J. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A.-E. Kelly, M.-D. Dawson, and H. Haas, “A 3-Gb/s single-LED OFDM-based wireless VLC link using a gallium nitride µLED,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(7), 637–640 (2014).
[Crossref]

W. Yang, S. Zhang, J.-J. McKendry, J. Herrnsdorf, P. Tian, Z. Gong, and L. Feng, “Size-dependent capacitance study on InGaN-based micro-light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 116(4), 044512 (2014).
[Crossref]

J.-J. McKendry, D. Massoubre, S. Zhang, B. R. Rae, R. P. Green, E. Gu, R. Henderson, A.-E. Kelly, and M.-D. Dawson, “Visible-light communications using a CMOS-controlled micro-light-emitting-diode array,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(1), 61–67 (2012).
[Crossref]

Mochizuki, H.

N. Fujimoto and H. Mochizuki, “477 Mbit/s visible light transmission based on OOK-NRZ modulation using a single commercially available visible LED and a practical LED driver with a pre-emphasis circuit,” in Conference on Optical Fiber Communication (OFC/NFOEC) collocated National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, Anaheim, CA, USA (2013), p. JTh2A–73.

Moudakir, T.

T. Moudakir, F. Genty, M. Kunzer, P. Börner, T. Passow, S. Suresh, G. Patriarche, K. Köhler, W. Pletschen, J. Wagner, and A. Ougazzaden, “Design, fabrication, and characterization of near-milliwatt-power RCLEDs emitting at 390 nm,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(6), 8400709 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nakamura, S.

Y.-F. Huang, Y.-C. Chi, H.-Y. Kao, C.-T. Tsai, H.-Y. Wang, H.-C. Kuo, S. Nakamura, D.-W. Huang, and G.-R. Lin, “Blue laser diode based free-space optical data transmission elevated to 18 Gbps over 16 m,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 10478 (2017).
[Crossref]

Nerreter, S.

J. Vučić, C. Kottke, S. Nerreter, K. Habel, A. Büttner, K.-D. Langer, and J.-W. Walewski, “230 Mbit/s via a wireless visible-light link based on OOK modulation of phosphorescent white LEDs. In Optical Fiber Communication,” in Conference on Optical Fiber Communication (OFC/NFOEC) collocated National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, San Diego, CA, USA (2010), p. OThH3.

O’Brien, D.

A.-H. Azhar, T. Tran, and D. O’Brien, “A gigabit/s indoor wireless transmission using MIMO-OFDM visible-light communications,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(2), 171–174 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ougazzaden, A.

T. Moudakir, F. Genty, M. Kunzer, P. Börner, T. Passow, S. Suresh, G. Patriarche, K. Köhler, W. Pletschen, J. Wagner, and A. Ougazzaden, “Design, fabrication, and characterization of near-milliwatt-power RCLEDs emitting at 390 nm,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(6), 8400709 (2013).
[Crossref]

Passow, T.

T. Moudakir, F. Genty, M. Kunzer, P. Börner, T. Passow, S. Suresh, G. Patriarche, K. Köhler, W. Pletschen, J. Wagner, and A. Ougazzaden, “Design, fabrication, and characterization of near-milliwatt-power RCLEDs emitting at 390 nm,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(6), 8400709 (2013).
[Crossref]

Patriarche, G.

T. Moudakir, F. Genty, M. Kunzer, P. Börner, T. Passow, S. Suresh, G. Patriarche, K. Köhler, W. Pletschen, J. Wagner, and A. Ougazzaden, “Design, fabrication, and characterization of near-milliwatt-power RCLEDs emitting at 390 nm,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(6), 8400709 (2013).
[Crossref]

Peng, C.-Y.

H.-Y. Kao, C.-T. Tsai, S.-F. Leong, C.-Y. Peng, Y.-C. Chi, H.-Y. Wang, H.-C. Kuo, C.-H. Wu, W.-H. Cheng, and G.-R. Lin, “Single-mode VCSEL for pre-emphasis PAM-4 transmission up to 64 Gbit/s over 100–300 m in OM4 MMF,” Photonics Res. 6(7), 666–673 (2018).
[Crossref]

Penty, R.-V.

L. Geng, J. Wei, R.-V. Penty, I. White, and D.-G. Cunningham, “3 Gbit/s LED-based step index plastic optical fiber link using multilevel pulse amplitude modulation,” in Conference on Optical Fiber Communication (OFC/NFOEC) collocated National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, Anaheim, CA, USA (2013), p. OTh4A–1.

Pletschen, W.

T. Moudakir, F. Genty, M. Kunzer, P. Börner, T. Passow, S. Suresh, G. Patriarche, K. Köhler, W. Pletschen, J. Wagner, and A. Ougazzaden, “Design, fabrication, and characterization of near-milliwatt-power RCLEDs emitting at 390 nm,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(6), 8400709 (2013).
[Crossref]

Rae, B. R.

Rajbhandari, S.

D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J.-J. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A.-E. Kelly, M.-D. Dawson, and H. Haas, “A 3-Gb/s single-LED OFDM-based wireless VLC link using a gallium nitride µLED,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(7), 637–640 (2014).
[Crossref]

Saltzberg, B.-R.

A.-R. Bahai, M. Singh, A.-J. Goldsmith, and B.-R. Saltzberg, “A new approach for evaluating clipping distortion in multicarrier systems,” IEEE J. Select. Areas Commun. 20(5), 1037–1046 (2002).
[Crossref]

Series, G.

G. Series, “Transmission systems and media, digital systems and networks [Online],” Available: http://www.certificate.net/Portals/1/Standards/ITU/g-107.doc

Shen, Y.-C.

Y.-F. Yin, Y.-C. Lin, T.-H. Tsai, Y.-C. Shen, and J.-J. Huang, “Far-field self-focusing and-defocusing radiation behaviors of the electroluminescent light sources due to negative refraction,” Opt. Lett. 38(2), 184–186 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y.-F. Yin, Y.-C. Lin, Y.-C. Liu, Y.-C. Shen, H.-P. Chiang, and J.-J. Huang, “Correlation of angular light profiles of light-emitting diodes to spatial spontaneous emissions from photonic crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(14), 143104 (2013).
[Crossref]

Shieh, W.

W. Shieh and I. Djordjevic, OFDM for optical communications, Academic Press, Cambridge, MA, USA (2009).

Singh, M.

A.-R. Bahai, M. Singh, A.-J. Goldsmith, and B.-R. Saltzberg, “A new approach for evaluating clipping distortion in multicarrier systems,” IEEE J. Select. Areas Commun. 20(5), 1037–1046 (2002).
[Crossref]

Steranka, F.-M.

C. A. Hurni, A. David, M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, B. Ellis, K. Huang, A. Tyagi, R.-A. DeLille, M.-D. Craven, F.-M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “Bulk GaN flip-chip violet light-emitting diodes with optimized efficiency for high-power operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 031101 (2015).
[Crossref]

Suresh, S.

T. Moudakir, F. Genty, M. Kunzer, P. Börner, T. Passow, S. Suresh, G. Patriarche, K. Köhler, W. Pletschen, J. Wagner, and A. Ougazzaden, “Design, fabrication, and characterization of near-milliwatt-power RCLEDs emitting at 390 nm,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(6), 8400709 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tang, D.

Teng, D.

Tian, P.

W. Yang, S. Zhang, J.-J. McKendry, J. Herrnsdorf, P. Tian, Z. Gong, and L. Feng, “Size-dependent capacitance study on InGaN-based micro-light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 116(4), 044512 (2014).
[Crossref]

Tran, T.

A.-H. Azhar, T. Tran, and D. O’Brien, “A gigabit/s indoor wireless transmission using MIMO-OFDM visible-light communications,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(2), 171–174 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tsai, C.-T.

C.-Y. Huang, H.-Y. Wang, C.-H. Wu, C.-H. Cheng, C.-T. Tsai, C.-H. Wu, M. Feng, and G.-R. Lin, “Comparison of high-speed PAM4 and QAM-OFDM data transmission using single-mode VCSEL in OM5 and OM4 MMF links,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 1–10 (2020)..
[Crossref]

T.-C. Lin, Y.-T. Chen, Y.-F. Yin, Z.-X. You, H.-Y. Kao, C.-Y. Huang, Y.-H. Lin, C.-T. Tsai, G.-R. Lin, and J.-J. Huang, “Large-signal modulation performance of light-emitting diodes with photonic crystals for visible light communication,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 65(10), 4375–4380 (2018).
[Crossref]

H.-Y. Kao, C.-T. Tsai, S.-F. Leong, C.-Y. Peng, Y.-C. Chi, H.-Y. Wang, H.-C. Kuo, C.-H. Wu, W.-H. Cheng, and G.-R. Lin, “Single-mode VCSEL for pre-emphasis PAM-4 transmission up to 64 Gbit/s over 100–300 m in OM4 MMF,” Photonics Res. 6(7), 666–673 (2018).
[Crossref]

T.-C. Wu, Y.-C. Chi, H.-Y. Wang, C.-T. Tsai, and G.-R. Lin, “Blue laser diode enables underwater communication at 12.4 Gbps,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 40480 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y.-F. Huang, Y.-C. Chi, H.-Y. Kao, C.-T. Tsai, H.-Y. Wang, H.-C. Kuo, S. Nakamura, D.-W. Huang, and G.-R. Lin, “Blue laser diode based free-space optical data transmission elevated to 18 Gbps over 16 m,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 10478 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y.-C. Chi, D.-H. Hsieh, C.-T. Tsai, H.-Y. Chen, H.-C. Kuo, and G.-R. Lin, “450-nm GaN laser diode enables high-speed visible light communication with 9-Gbps QAM-OFDM,” Opt. Express 23(10), 13051–13059 (2015).
[Crossref]

Tsai, T.-H.

Tsao, J.-Y.

R. Haitz and J.-Y. Tsao, “Solid-state lighting:‘The case’10 years after and future prospects,” Phys. Status Solidi A 208(1), 17–29 (2011).
[Crossref]

Tseng, I.-C.

H.-Y. Lan, I.-C. Tseng, H.-Y. Kao, Y. H. Lin, G.-R. Lin, and C.-H. Wu, “752-MHz modulation bandwidth of high-speed blue micro light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 54, 1 (2018).
[Crossref]

Tsonev, D.

D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J.-J. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A.-E. Kelly, M.-D. Dawson, and H. Haas, “A 3-Gb/s single-LED OFDM-based wireless VLC link using a gallium nitride µLED,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(7), 637–640 (2014).
[Crossref]

Tyagi, A.

C. A. Hurni, A. David, M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, B. Ellis, K. Huang, A. Tyagi, R.-A. DeLille, M.-D. Craven, F.-M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “Bulk GaN flip-chip violet light-emitting diodes with optimized efficiency for high-power operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 031101 (2015).
[Crossref]

Videv, S.

D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J.-J. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A.-E. Kelly, M.-D. Dawson, and H. Haas, “A 3-Gb/s single-LED OFDM-based wireless VLC link using a gallium nitride µLED,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(7), 637–640 (2014).
[Crossref]

Vucic, J.

J. Vučić, C. Kottke, S. Nerreter, K. Habel, A. Büttner, K.-D. Langer, and J.-W. Walewski, “230 Mbit/s via a wireless visible-light link based on OOK modulation of phosphorescent white LEDs. In Optical Fiber Communication,” in Conference on Optical Fiber Communication (OFC/NFOEC) collocated National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, San Diego, CA, USA (2010), p. OThH3.

Wagner, J.

T. Moudakir, F. Genty, M. Kunzer, P. Börner, T. Passow, S. Suresh, G. Patriarche, K. Köhler, W. Pletschen, J. Wagner, and A. Ougazzaden, “Design, fabrication, and characterization of near-milliwatt-power RCLEDs emitting at 390 nm,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(6), 8400709 (2013).
[Crossref]

Walewski, J.-W.

J. Vučić, C. Kottke, S. Nerreter, K. Habel, A. Büttner, K.-D. Langer, and J.-W. Walewski, “230 Mbit/s via a wireless visible-light link based on OOK modulation of phosphorescent white LEDs. In Optical Fiber Communication,” in Conference on Optical Fiber Communication (OFC/NFOEC) collocated National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, San Diego, CA, USA (2010), p. OThH3.

Wang, C.

Wang, G.

Wang, H.-Y.

C.-Y. Huang, H.-Y. Wang, C.-H. Wu, C.-H. Cheng, C.-T. Tsai, C.-H. Wu, M. Feng, and G.-R. Lin, “Comparison of high-speed PAM4 and QAM-OFDM data transmission using single-mode VCSEL in OM5 and OM4 MMF links,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 1–10 (2020)..
[Crossref]

W.-C. Wang, H.-Y. Wang, and G.-R. Lin, “Ultrahigh-speed violet laser diode based free-space optical communication beyond 25 Gbit/s,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 13142 (2018).
[Crossref]

H.-Y. Kao, C.-T. Tsai, S.-F. Leong, C.-Y. Peng, Y.-C. Chi, H.-Y. Wang, H.-C. Kuo, C.-H. Wu, W.-H. Cheng, and G.-R. Lin, “Single-mode VCSEL for pre-emphasis PAM-4 transmission up to 64 Gbit/s over 100–300 m in OM4 MMF,” Photonics Res. 6(7), 666–673 (2018).
[Crossref]

T.-C. Wu, Y.-C. Chi, H.-Y. Wang, C.-T. Tsai, and G.-R. Lin, “Blue laser diode enables underwater communication at 12.4 Gbps,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 40480 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y.-F. Huang, Y.-C. Chi, H.-Y. Kao, C.-T. Tsai, H.-Y. Wang, H.-C. Kuo, S. Nakamura, D.-W. Huang, and G.-R. Lin, “Blue laser diode based free-space optical data transmission elevated to 18 Gbps over 16 m,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 10478 (2017).
[Crossref]

Wang, S.-C.

Y.-J. Lee, J.-M. Hwang, T.-C. Hsu, M.-H. Hsieh, M.-J. Jou, B.-J. Lee, H.-C. Lu, H.-C. Kuo, and S.-C. Wang, “Enhancing the output power of GaN-based LEDs grown on wet-etched patterned sapphire substrates,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(10), 1152–1154 (2006).
[Crossref]

Wang, W.-C.

W.-C. Wang, H.-Y. Wang, and G.-R. Lin, “Ultrahigh-speed violet laser diode based free-space optical communication beyond 25 Gbit/s,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 13142 (2018).
[Crossref]

Watson, S.

D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J.-J. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A.-E. Kelly, M.-D. Dawson, and H. Haas, “A 3-Gb/s single-LED OFDM-based wireless VLC link using a gallium nitride µLED,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(7), 637–640 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wei, J.

L. Geng, J. Wei, R.-V. Penty, I. White, and D.-G. Cunningham, “3 Gbit/s LED-based step index plastic optical fiber link using multilevel pulse amplitude modulation,” in Conference on Optical Fiber Communication (OFC/NFOEC) collocated National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, Anaheim, CA, USA (2013), p. OTh4A–1.

White, I.

L. Geng, J. Wei, R.-V. Penty, I. White, and D.-G. Cunningham, “3 Gbit/s LED-based step index plastic optical fiber link using multilevel pulse amplitude modulation,” in Conference on Optical Fiber Communication (OFC/NFOEC) collocated National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, Anaheim, CA, USA (2013), p. OTh4A–1.

Wu, C.-H.

C.-Y. Huang, H.-Y. Wang, C.-H. Wu, C.-H. Cheng, C.-T. Tsai, C.-H. Wu, M. Feng, and G.-R. Lin, “Comparison of high-speed PAM4 and QAM-OFDM data transmission using single-mode VCSEL in OM5 and OM4 MMF links,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 1–10 (2020)..
[Crossref]

C.-Y. Huang, H.-Y. Wang, C.-H. Wu, C.-H. Cheng, C.-T. Tsai, C.-H. Wu, M. Feng, and G.-R. Lin, “Comparison of high-speed PAM4 and QAM-OFDM data transmission using single-mode VCSEL in OM5 and OM4 MMF links,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 1–10 (2020)..
[Crossref]

H.-Y. Lan, I.-C. Tseng, H.-Y. Kao, Y. H. Lin, G.-R. Lin, and C.-H. Wu, “752-MHz modulation bandwidth of high-speed blue micro light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 54, 1 (2018).
[Crossref]

H.-Y. Kao, C.-T. Tsai, S.-F. Leong, C.-Y. Peng, Y.-C. Chi, H.-Y. Wang, H.-C. Kuo, C.-H. Wu, W.-H. Cheng, and G.-R. Lin, “Single-mode VCSEL for pre-emphasis PAM-4 transmission up to 64 Gbit/s over 100–300 m in OM4 MMF,” Photonics Res. 6(7), 666–673 (2018).
[Crossref]

Wu, T.-C.

T.-C. Wu, Y.-C. Chi, H.-Y. Wang, C.-T. Tsai, and G.-R. Lin, “Blue laser diode enables underwater communication at 12.4 Gbps,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 40480 (2017).
[Crossref]

Wulich, D.

D. Wulich, “Definition of efficient PAPR in OFDM,” IEEE Commun. Lett. 9(9), 832–834 (2005).
[Crossref]

Yamamoto, S.

N. Fujimoto and S. Yamamoto, “The fastest visible light transmissions of 662 Mb/s by a blue LED, 600 Mb/s by a red LED, and 520 Mb/s by a green LED based on simple OOK-NRZ modulation of a commercially available RGB-type white LED using pre-emphasis and post-equalizing techniques,” in the European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC), Cannes, France (2014), p. 1–3.

Yan, B.

Yang, W.

W. Yang, S. Zhang, J.-J. McKendry, J. Herrnsdorf, P. Tian, Z. Gong, and L. Feng, “Size-dependent capacitance study on InGaN-based micro-light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 116(4), 044512 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yin, Y.-F.

T.-C. Lin, Y.-T. Chen, Y.-F. Yin, Z.-X. You, H.-Y. Kao, C.-Y. Huang, Y.-H. Lin, C.-T. Tsai, G.-R. Lin, and J.-J. Huang, “Large-signal modulation performance of light-emitting diodes with photonic crystals for visible light communication,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 65(10), 4375–4380 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y.-F. Yin, W.-Y. Lan, T.-C. Lin, C. Wang, M. Feng, and J.-J. Huang, “High-speed visible light communication using GaN-based light-emitting diodes with photonic crystals,” J. Lightwave Technol. 35(2), 258–264 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y.-F. Yin, Y.-C. Lin, T.-H. Tsai, Y.-C. Shen, and J.-J. Huang, “Far-field self-focusing and-defocusing radiation behaviors of the electroluminescent light sources due to negative refraction,” Opt. Lett. 38(2), 184–186 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y.-F. Yin, Y.-C. Lin, Y.-C. Liu, Y.-C. Shen, H.-P. Chiang, and J.-J. Huang, “Correlation of angular light profiles of light-emitting diodes to spatial spontaneous emissions from photonic crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(14), 143104 (2013).
[Crossref]

You, Z.-X.

T.-C. Lin, Y.-T. Chen, Y.-F. Yin, Z.-X. You, H.-Y. Kao, C.-Y. Huang, Y.-H. Lin, C.-T. Tsai, G.-R. Lin, and J.-J. Huang, “Large-signal modulation performance of light-emitting diodes with photonic crystals for visible light communication,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 65(10), 4375–4380 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zhang, S.

W. Yang, S. Zhang, J.-J. McKendry, J. Herrnsdorf, P. Tian, Z. Gong, and L. Feng, “Size-dependent capacitance study on InGaN-based micro-light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 116(4), 044512 (2014).
[Crossref]

J.-J. McKendry, D. Massoubre, S. Zhang, B. R. Rae, R. P. Green, E. Gu, R. Henderson, A.-E. Kelly, and M.-D. Dawson, “Visible-light communications using a CMOS-controlled micro-light-emitting-diode array,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(1), 61–67 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhou, Z.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

C. A. Hurni, A. David, M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, B. Ellis, K. Huang, A. Tyagi, R.-A. DeLille, M.-D. Craven, F.-M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “Bulk GaN flip-chip violet light-emitting diodes with optimized efficiency for high-power operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 031101 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chin. Opt. Lett. (1)

IEEE Commun. Lett. (1)

D. Wulich, “Definition of efficient PAPR in OFDM,” IEEE Commun. Lett. 9(9), 832–834 (2005).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

H.-Y. Lan, I.-C. Tseng, H.-Y. Kao, Y. H. Lin, G.-R. Lin, and C.-H. Wu, “752-MHz modulation bandwidth of high-speed blue micro light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 54, 1 (2018).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

C.-Y. Huang, H.-Y. Wang, C.-H. Wu, C.-H. Cheng, C.-T. Tsai, C.-H. Wu, M. Feng, and G.-R. Lin, “Comparison of high-speed PAM4 and QAM-OFDM data transmission using single-mode VCSEL in OM5 and OM4 MMF links,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 1–10 (2020)..
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Select. Areas Commun. (1)

A.-R. Bahai, M. Singh, A.-J. Goldsmith, and B.-R. Saltzberg, “A new approach for evaluating clipping distortion in multicarrier systems,” IEEE J. Select. Areas Commun. 20(5), 1037–1046 (2002).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics J. (2)

A.-M. Khalid, G. Cossu, R. Corsini, P. Choudhury, and E. Ciaramella, “1-Gb/s transmission over a phosphorescent white LED by using rate-adaptive discrete multitone modulation,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(5), 1465–1473 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Moudakir, F. Genty, M. Kunzer, P. Börner, T. Passow, S. Suresh, G. Patriarche, K. Köhler, W. Pletschen, J. Wagner, and A. Ougazzaden, “Design, fabrication, and characterization of near-milliwatt-power RCLEDs emitting at 390 nm,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(6), 8400709 (2013).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (3)

D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J.-J. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A.-E. Kelly, M.-D. Dawson, and H. Haas, “A 3-Gb/s single-LED OFDM-based wireless VLC link using a gallium nitride µLED,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(7), 637–640 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y.-J. Lee, J.-M. Hwang, T.-C. Hsu, M.-H. Hsieh, M.-J. Jou, B.-J. Lee, H.-C. Lu, H.-C. Kuo, and S.-C. Wang, “Enhancing the output power of GaN-based LEDs grown on wet-etched patterned sapphire substrates,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(10), 1152–1154 (2006).
[Crossref]

A.-H. Azhar, T. Tran, and D. O’Brien, “A gigabit/s indoor wireless transmission using MIMO-OFDM visible-light communications,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(2), 171–174 (2013).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Electron Devices (1)

T.-C. Lin, Y.-T. Chen, Y.-F. Yin, Z.-X. You, H.-Y. Kao, C.-Y. Huang, Y.-H. Lin, C.-T. Tsai, G.-R. Lin, and J.-J. Huang, “Large-signal modulation performance of light-emitting diodes with photonic crystals for visible light communication,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 65(10), 4375–4380 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

Y.-F. Yin, Y.-C. Lin, Y.-C. Liu, Y.-C. Shen, H.-P. Chiang, and J.-J. Huang, “Correlation of angular light profiles of light-emitting diodes to spatial spontaneous emissions from photonic crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(14), 143104 (2013).
[Crossref]

W. Yang, S. Zhang, J.-J. McKendry, J. Herrnsdorf, P. Tian, Z. Gong, and L. Feng, “Size-dependent capacitance study on InGaN-based micro-light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 116(4), 044512 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Photonics Res. (1)

H.-Y. Kao, C.-T. Tsai, S.-F. Leong, C.-Y. Peng, Y.-C. Chi, H.-Y. Wang, H.-C. Kuo, C.-H. Wu, W.-H. Cheng, and G.-R. Lin, “Single-mode VCSEL for pre-emphasis PAM-4 transmission up to 64 Gbit/s over 100–300 m in OM4 MMF,” Photonics Res. 6(7), 666–673 (2018).
[Crossref]

Phys. Status Solidi A (1)

R. Haitz and J.-Y. Tsao, “Solid-state lighting:‘The case’10 years after and future prospects,” Phys. Status Solidi A 208(1), 17–29 (2011).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (3)

W.-C. Wang, H.-Y. Wang, and G.-R. Lin, “Ultrahigh-speed violet laser diode based free-space optical communication beyond 25 Gbit/s,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 13142 (2018).
[Crossref]

T.-C. Wu, Y.-C. Chi, H.-Y. Wang, C.-T. Tsai, and G.-R. Lin, “Blue laser diode enables underwater communication at 12.4 Gbps,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 40480 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y.-F. Huang, Y.-C. Chi, H.-Y. Kao, C.-T. Tsai, H.-Y. Wang, H.-C. Kuo, S. Nakamura, D.-W. Huang, and G.-R. Lin, “Blue laser diode based free-space optical data transmission elevated to 18 Gbps over 16 m,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 10478 (2017).
[Crossref]

Other (6)

G. Series, “Transmission systems and media, digital systems and networks [Online],” Available: http://www.certificate.net/Portals/1/Standards/ITU/g-107.doc

W. Shieh and I. Djordjevic, OFDM for optical communications, Academic Press, Cambridge, MA, USA (2009).

J. Vučić, C. Kottke, S. Nerreter, K. Habel, A. Büttner, K.-D. Langer, and J.-W. Walewski, “230 Mbit/s via a wireless visible-light link based on OOK modulation of phosphorescent white LEDs. In Optical Fiber Communication,” in Conference on Optical Fiber Communication (OFC/NFOEC) collocated National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, San Diego, CA, USA (2010), p. OThH3.

L. Geng, J. Wei, R.-V. Penty, I. White, and D.-G. Cunningham, “3 Gbit/s LED-based step index plastic optical fiber link using multilevel pulse amplitude modulation,” in Conference on Optical Fiber Communication (OFC/NFOEC) collocated National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, Anaheim, CA, USA (2013), p. OTh4A–1.

N. Fujimoto and H. Mochizuki, “477 Mbit/s visible light transmission based on OOK-NRZ modulation using a single commercially available visible LED and a practical LED driver with a pre-emphasis circuit,” in Conference on Optical Fiber Communication (OFC/NFOEC) collocated National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, Anaheim, CA, USA (2013), p. JTh2A–73.

N. Fujimoto and S. Yamamoto, “The fastest visible light transmissions of 662 Mb/s by a blue LED, 600 Mb/s by a red LED, and 520 Mb/s by a green LED based on simple OOK-NRZ modulation of a commercially available RGB-type white LED using pre-emphasis and post-equalizing techniques,” in the European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC), Cannes, France (2014), p. 1–3.

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a)The OM images of top-view PC-µLED with different mesa size. (b) 3-D structure of PC-µLED chip. (c) Experimental setup of the PC-µLED chip based 16QAM-OFDM and PAM-4 data transmission.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) The eye diagram of OOK and PAM-4 data format and the electrical data waveform in time domain (b) The schematic diagram of the pre-emphasis for OOK and PAM-4 data.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) L-I curve, (b) differential resistance, (c) C-V characteristics, and (d) the cut-off frequency versus bias voltage of PC-µLED with different mesa size.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. The small-signal frequency response of PC-µLED chip with the mesa length of 20, 40, 60, 80 and 120 µm under different biased current.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. The eye diagrams of different-size PC-µLEDs carried with OOK data stream at 300 Mbit/s with and without pre-emphasis.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. (a) BERs of pre-emphasized OOK data at different data rates for different-size PC-µLED with (b) Eye diagrams of the pre-emphasized OOK data at 0.2, 0.5, 0.5 and 0.4 Gbit/s carried by the PC-µLED with mesa lengths of 40, 60, 80 and 120 µm, respectively.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. (a) BERs and (b) eye diagrams of pre-emphasized PAM-4 data at different Baud rates for different-size PC-µLED. (C) Bathtub curves of 200-MBaud PAM-4 data for the PC-µLED with mesa length of 60, 80 and 120 µm.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. The SNR with corresponding constellation plots and BER response of PC-µLEDs with mesa length of 40/60/80/120 µm carrying with 0.2/0.3/0.3/0.2-GHz 16-QAM OFDM data at different biased current.
Fig. 9.
Fig. 9. (a) RF spectra, (b) CCDFs of PAPR, and (c) BER response for the PC-µLEDs with mesa length of 40/60/80/120 µm carrying with 0.2/0.3/0.3/0.2-GHz 16QAM OFDM data at different output amplitude of AWG.
Fig. 10.
Fig. 10. (a) The time-domain waveform, (b) the probability as a function of PAPR, (c) the RF spectra, (d) the constellation plots and (e) the SNRs of subcarriers for PC-µLEDs with mesa length of 40/60/80/120 µm carrying with 16-QAM OFDM data at 0.8 Gbit/s. (f) The BtB transmitted average BER of different-bandwidth 16-QAM OFDM data for different-size PC-µLEDs.
Fig. 11.
Fig. 11. (a) The SNR responses of OFDM subcarriers, (b) the average BERs and (c) the constellation plots of transmitted 1/2/1.8/1.8-Gbit/s 16-QAM OFDM data carried by the PC-µLEDs with mesa length of 40/60/80/120 µm with pre-leveling the OFDM subcarrier amplitude with a dP/df slope ranging from 0 to 0.6 dB/GHz.

Tables (2)

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Table 1. Parameters of basic performance and data rate of OOK, PAM-4 and OFDM for five size.

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Table 2. Transmission performances of the LED and LD based QAM-OFDM transmission

Equations (2)

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f 3 d B = 1 2 π τ s s B ( P 0 + 2 n D C ) 2 π ,
P A P R = M a x 0 t T | s ( t ) | 2 E { 1 T 0 T | s ( t ) | 2 d t } ,

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