Abstract

We introduced strain-compensated thin-barrier indium gallium nitride (InGaN)/aluminum nitride (AlN)/gallium nitride (GaN) multiple quantum wells (MQWs) to replace thin-barrier InGaN/GaN MQWs. The AlN insert layers would effectively compensate the strain of the thin-barrier InGaN/GaN MQWs to improve the opto-electrical properties of light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The 120-mA light output power of thin-barrier InGaN/GaN MQW LEDs could be improved from 31.9 mW to 35.3 mW by introducing 20-s-growth AlN insert layers, possibly reaching almost the same 120-mA light output power of traditional thick-barrier InGaN/GaN MQWs. Moreover, the current dependent external quantum efficiency (EQE) of the thin-barrier InGaN/AlN/GaN MQW LEDs with 20-s-growth AlN insert layers also indicated the largest peak EQE, showing high efficiency in low current injection. The severe carrier overflow effect that degrades the light output efficiency of the thin-barrier InGaN/GaN MQW LED in high current injection can be suppressed by introducing thin-barrier InGaN/AlN/GaN MQW with 20-s-growth AlN insert layers.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]

2018 (1)

T. T. Luong, Y. T. Ho, Y. Y. Wong, S. Chang, and E.-Y. Chang, “Phase separation-suppressed and strain-modulated improvement of crystalline quality of AlGaN epitaxial layer grown by MOCVD,” Microelectron. Reliab. 83, 286–292 (2018).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

K. S. Kim, D. P. Han, H. S. Kim, and J. I. Shim, “Analysis of dominant carrier recombination mechanisms depending on injection current in InGaN green light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(9), 091110 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. I. Hwang, R. Hashimoto, S. Saito, and S. Nunoue, “Development of InGaN-based red LED grown on (0001) polar surface,” Appl. Phys. Express 7(7), 071003 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (4)

T. Doi, Y. Honda, M. Yamaguchi, and H. Amano, “Strain-compensated effect on the growth of InGaN/AlGaN multi-quantum well by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 52(8S), 08JB14 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Saito, R. Hashimoto, J. Hwang, and S. Nunoue, “InGaN light-emitting diodes on c-face sapphire substrates in green gap spectral range,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(11), 111004 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. H. Gu, D. H. Jang, K. B. Nam, and C. G. Park, “Composition fluctuation of In and well-width fluctuation in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells in light-emitting diode devices,” Microsc. Microanal. 19(S5), 99–104 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. F. Yu, R. M. Lin, S. J. Chang, J. R. Chen, J. Y. Chu, C. T. Kuo, and Z. Y. Jiao, “Improved carrier distributions by varying barrier thickness for InGaN/GaN LEDs,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(4), 239–243 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

D. A. Zakheim, A. S. Pavluchenko, D. A. Bauman, K. A. Bulashevich, O. V. Khokhlev, and S. Y. Karpov, “Efficiency droop suppression in InGaN-based blue LEDs: Experiment and numerical modelling,” Phys. Stat. Solidi A 209(3), 456–460 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (4)

B. C. Chen, C. Y. Chang, Y. K. Fu, K. F. Huang, Y. H. Lu, and Y. K. Su, “Improved performance of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with thin intermediate barriers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(22), 1682–1684 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. C. Tsai, S. H. Yen, Y. C. Lu, and Y. K. Kuo, “Numerical study of blue InGaN light-emitting diodes with varied barrier thicknesses,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(2), 76–78 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. Li, S. You, M. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, and C. Wetzel, “Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(15), 151102 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. M. Lu and G. X. Chen, “Design strategies for mitigating the influence of polarization effects on GaN-based multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(9), 093102 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

Y. K. Ee, X. H. Li, J. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Abbreviated MOVPE nucleation of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nano-patterned sapphire,” J. Cryst. Growth 312(8), 1311–1315 (2010).
[Crossref]

W. C. Lai, Y. Y. Yang, L. C. Peng, S. W. Yang, Y. R. Lin, and J. K. Sheu, “GaN-based light emitting diodes with embedded SiO2 pillars and air gap array structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(8), 081103 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (3)

Y. K. Ee, J. M. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Metalorganic Vapor Phase Epitaxy of III-Nitride Light-Emitting Diodes on Nanopatterned AGOG Sapphire Substrate by Abbreviated Growth Mode,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1066–1072 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. Zhao, R. A. Arif, Y. Ee, and N. Tansu, “Self-consistent analysis of strain-compensated InGaN–AlGaN quantum wells for lasers and light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45(1), 66–78 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Benaissa, L. Gu, M. Korytov, T. Huault, P. A. van Aken, J. Brault, and P. Vennéguès, “Phase separation in GaN/AlGaN quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(14), 141901 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

M. Meneghini, L. B. Trevisanello, G. Meneghesso, and E. Zanoni, “A review on the reliability of GaN-based LEDs,” IEEE Trans. Dev. Mater. Reliab. 8(2), 323–331 (2008).
[Crossref]

X. Ni, Q. Fan, R. Shimada, Ü Özgür, and H. Morkoç, “Reduction of efficiency droop in InGaN light emitting diodes by coupled quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(17), 171113 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

N. F. Gardner, G. O. Muller, Y. C. Shen, G. Chen, S. Watanabe, W. Gotz, and M. R. Kranes, “Blue-emitting InGaN–GaN double-heterostructure light-emitting diodes reaching maximum quantum efficiency above 200 A/cm2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(24), 243506 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (3)

J. K. Kim, T. Gessmann, E. F. Schubert, J. Q. Xi, H. Luo, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “GaInN light-emitting diode with conductive omnidirectional reflector having a low-refractive-index indium-tin oxide layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(1), 013501 (2006).
[Crossref]

H. Y. Ryu, K. H. Ha, J. H. Chae, K. S. Kim, J. K. Son, O. H. Nam, and Y. Park, “Evaluation of radiative efficiency in InGaN blue-violet laser-diode structures using electroluminescence characteristics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(17), 171106 (2006).
[Crossref]

S. Pereira, “On the interpretation of structural and light emitting properties of InGaN/GaN epitaxial layers grown above and below the critical layer thickness,” Thin Solid Films 515(1), 164–169 (2006).
[Crossref]

2003 (2)

T. Mukai, S. agahama, M. Sano, T. Yanamoto, D. Morita, T. Mitani, Y. Narukawa, S. Yamamoto, I. Niki, M. Yamada, S. Sonobe, S. Shioji, K. Deguchi, T. Nau, H. Tamaki, Y. Murazaki, and M. Kameshima, “Recent progress of nitride-based light emitting devices,” Phys. Stat. Solidi A 200(1), 52–57 (2003).
[Crossref]

A. Dussaigne, B. Damilano, N. Grandjean, and J. Massies, “In surface segregation in InGaN/GaN quantum wells,” J. Cryst. Growth 251(1-4), 471–475 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

X. A. Cao, E. B. Stokes, P. M. Sandvik, S. F. LeBoeuf, J. Kretchmer, and D. Walker, “Diffusion and tunneling currents in GaN/InGaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Electron. Dev. Lett. 23(9), 535–537 (2002).
[Crossref]

2000 (3)

O. Mayrock, H.-J. Wünsche, and F. Henneberger, “Polarization charge screening and indium surface segregation in (In,Ga)N/GaN single and multiple quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 62(24), 16870–16880 (2000).
[Crossref]

N. Duxbury, U. Bangert, P. Dawson, E. J. Trush, W. Van der Stricht, K. Jacobs, and I. Moerman, “Indium segregation in InGaN quantum-well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(12), 1600–1602 (2000).
[Crossref]

Y.-L. Li, E. F. Schubert, J. W. Graff, A. Osinsky, and W. F. Schaff, “Low-resistance ohmic contacts to p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(19), 2728–2730 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

J. E. Northrup, L. T. Romano, and J. Neugebauer, “Surface energetics, pit formation, and chemical ordering in InGaN alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(16), 2319–2321 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

Z. Z. Bandic, P. M. Bridger, E. C. Piquette, and T. C. McGill, “Minority carrier diffusion length and lifetime in GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(24), 3166–3168 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

C. Kisielowski, Z. Liliental-Weber, and S. Nakamura, “Atomic scale indium distribution in a GaN/In0.43Ga0.57N/Al0.1Ga0.9N quantum well structure,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36(Part 1), 6932–6936 (1997).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, N. Iwasa, S. Nagahama, T. Yamada, and T. Mukai, “Superbright Green InGaN Single-Quantum-Well-Structure Light-Emitting Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34(Part 2), L1332–L1335 (1995).
[Crossref]

agahama, S.

T. Mukai, S. agahama, M. Sano, T. Yanamoto, D. Morita, T. Mitani, Y. Narukawa, S. Yamamoto, I. Niki, M. Yamada, S. Sonobe, S. Shioji, K. Deguchi, T. Nau, H. Tamaki, Y. Murazaki, and M. Kameshima, “Recent progress of nitride-based light emitting devices,” Phys. Stat. Solidi A 200(1), 52–57 (2003).
[Crossref]

Amano, H.

T. Doi, Y. Honda, M. Yamaguchi, and H. Amano, “Strain-compensated effect on the growth of InGaN/AlGaN multi-quantum well by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 52(8S), 08JB14 (2013).
[Crossref]

Arif, R. A.

H. Zhao, R. A. Arif, Y. Ee, and N. Tansu, “Self-consistent analysis of strain-compensated InGaN–AlGaN quantum wells for lasers and light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45(1), 66–78 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bandic, Z. Z.

Z. Z. Bandic, P. M. Bridger, E. C. Piquette, and T. C. McGill, “Minority carrier diffusion length and lifetime in GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(24), 3166–3168 (1998).
[Crossref]

Bangert, U.

N. Duxbury, U. Bangert, P. Dawson, E. J. Trush, W. Van der Stricht, K. Jacobs, and I. Moerman, “Indium segregation in InGaN quantum-well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(12), 1600–1602 (2000).
[Crossref]

Bauman, D. A.

D. A. Zakheim, A. S. Pavluchenko, D. A. Bauman, K. A. Bulashevich, O. V. Khokhlev, and S. Y. Karpov, “Efficiency droop suppression in InGaN-based blue LEDs: Experiment and numerical modelling,” Phys. Stat. Solidi A 209(3), 456–460 (2012).
[Crossref]

Benaissa, M.

M. Benaissa, L. Gu, M. Korytov, T. Huault, P. A. van Aken, J. Brault, and P. Vennéguès, “Phase separation in GaN/AlGaN quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(14), 141901 (2009).
[Crossref]

Biser, J.

Y. K. Ee, X. H. Li, J. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Abbreviated MOVPE nucleation of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nano-patterned sapphire,” J. Cryst. Growth 312(8), 1311–1315 (2010).
[Crossref]

Biser, J. M.

Y. K. Ee, J. M. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Metalorganic Vapor Phase Epitaxy of III-Nitride Light-Emitting Diodes on Nanopatterned AGOG Sapphire Substrate by Abbreviated Growth Mode,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1066–1072 (2009).
[Crossref]

Brault, J.

M. Benaissa, L. Gu, M. Korytov, T. Huault, P. A. van Aken, J. Brault, and P. Vennéguès, “Phase separation in GaN/AlGaN quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(14), 141901 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bridger, P. M.

Z. Z. Bandic, P. M. Bridger, E. C. Piquette, and T. C. McGill, “Minority carrier diffusion length and lifetime in GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(24), 3166–3168 (1998).
[Crossref]

Bulashevich, K. A.

D. A. Zakheim, A. S. Pavluchenko, D. A. Bauman, K. A. Bulashevich, O. V. Khokhlev, and S. Y. Karpov, “Efficiency droop suppression in InGaN-based blue LEDs: Experiment and numerical modelling,” Phys. Stat. Solidi A 209(3), 456–460 (2012).
[Crossref]

Cao, W.

Y. K. Ee, X. H. Li, J. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Abbreviated MOVPE nucleation of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nano-patterned sapphire,” J. Cryst. Growth 312(8), 1311–1315 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. K. Ee, J. M. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Metalorganic Vapor Phase Epitaxy of III-Nitride Light-Emitting Diodes on Nanopatterned AGOG Sapphire Substrate by Abbreviated Growth Mode,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1066–1072 (2009).
[Crossref]

Cao, X. A.

X. A. Cao, E. B. Stokes, P. M. Sandvik, S. F. LeBoeuf, J. Kretchmer, and D. Walker, “Diffusion and tunneling currents in GaN/InGaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Electron. Dev. Lett. 23(9), 535–537 (2002).
[Crossref]

Chae, J. H.

H. Y. Ryu, K. H. Ha, J. H. Chae, K. S. Kim, J. K. Son, O. H. Nam, and Y. Park, “Evaluation of radiative efficiency in InGaN blue-violet laser-diode structures using electroluminescence characteristics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(17), 171106 (2006).
[Crossref]

Chan, H. M.

Y. K. Ee, X. H. Li, J. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Abbreviated MOVPE nucleation of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nano-patterned sapphire,” J. Cryst. Growth 312(8), 1311–1315 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. K. Ee, J. M. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Metalorganic Vapor Phase Epitaxy of III-Nitride Light-Emitting Diodes on Nanopatterned AGOG Sapphire Substrate by Abbreviated Growth Mode,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1066–1072 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chang, C. Y.

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N. F. Gardner, G. O. Muller, Y. C. Shen, G. Chen, S. Watanabe, W. Gotz, and M. R. Kranes, “Blue-emitting InGaN–GaN double-heterostructure light-emitting diodes reaching maximum quantum efficiency above 200 A/cm2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(24), 243506 (2007).
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H. M. Lu and G. X. Chen, “Design strategies for mitigating the influence of polarization effects on GaN-based multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(9), 093102 (2011).
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Chen, J. R.

S. F. Yu, R. M. Lin, S. J. Chang, J. R. Chen, J. Y. Chu, C. T. Kuo, and Z. Y. Jiao, “Improved carrier distributions by varying barrier thickness for InGaN/GaN LEDs,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(4), 239–243 (2013).
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J. K. Kim, T. Gessmann, E. F. Schubert, J. Q. Xi, H. Luo, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “GaInN light-emitting diode with conductive omnidirectional reflector having a low-refractive-index indium-tin oxide layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(1), 013501 (2006).
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Chu, J. Y.

S. F. Yu, R. M. Lin, S. J. Chang, J. R. Chen, J. Y. Chu, C. T. Kuo, and Z. Y. Jiao, “Improved carrier distributions by varying barrier thickness for InGaN/GaN LEDs,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(4), 239–243 (2013).
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N. Duxbury, U. Bangert, P. Dawson, E. J. Trush, W. Van der Stricht, K. Jacobs, and I. Moerman, “Indium segregation in InGaN quantum-well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(12), 1600–1602 (2000).
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T. Mukai, S. agahama, M. Sano, T. Yanamoto, D. Morita, T. Mitani, Y. Narukawa, S. Yamamoto, I. Niki, M. Yamada, S. Sonobe, S. Shioji, K. Deguchi, T. Nau, H. Tamaki, Y. Murazaki, and M. Kameshima, “Recent progress of nitride-based light emitting devices,” Phys. Stat. Solidi A 200(1), 52–57 (2003).
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A. Dussaigne, B. Damilano, N. Grandjean, and J. Massies, “In surface segregation in InGaN/GaN quantum wells,” J. Cryst. Growth 251(1-4), 471–475 (2003).
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N. Duxbury, U. Bangert, P. Dawson, E. J. Trush, W. Van der Stricht, K. Jacobs, and I. Moerman, “Indium segregation in InGaN quantum-well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(12), 1600–1602 (2000).
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Y. K. Ee, X. H. Li, J. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Abbreviated MOVPE nucleation of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nano-patterned sapphire,” J. Cryst. Growth 312(8), 1311–1315 (2010).
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Y. K. Ee, J. M. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Metalorganic Vapor Phase Epitaxy of III-Nitride Light-Emitting Diodes on Nanopatterned AGOG Sapphire Substrate by Abbreviated Growth Mode,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1066–1072 (2009).
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X. Ni, Q. Fan, R. Shimada, Ü Özgür, and H. Morkoç, “Reduction of efficiency droop in InGaN light emitting diodes by coupled quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(17), 171113 (2008).
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Fu, Y. K.

B. C. Chen, C. Y. Chang, Y. K. Fu, K. F. Huang, Y. H. Lu, and Y. K. Su, “Improved performance of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with thin intermediate barriers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(22), 1682–1684 (2011).
[Crossref]

Gardner, N. F.

N. F. Gardner, G. O. Muller, Y. C. Shen, G. Chen, S. Watanabe, W. Gotz, and M. R. Kranes, “Blue-emitting InGaN–GaN double-heterostructure light-emitting diodes reaching maximum quantum efficiency above 200 A/cm2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(24), 243506 (2007).
[Crossref]

Gessmann, T.

J. K. Kim, T. Gessmann, E. F. Schubert, J. Q. Xi, H. Luo, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “GaInN light-emitting diode with conductive omnidirectional reflector having a low-refractive-index indium-tin oxide layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(1), 013501 (2006).
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Gotz, W.

N. F. Gardner, G. O. Muller, Y. C. Shen, G. Chen, S. Watanabe, W. Gotz, and M. R. Kranes, “Blue-emitting InGaN–GaN double-heterostructure light-emitting diodes reaching maximum quantum efficiency above 200 A/cm2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(24), 243506 (2007).
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Y.-L. Li, E. F. Schubert, J. W. Graff, A. Osinsky, and W. F. Schaff, “Low-resistance ohmic contacts to p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(19), 2728–2730 (2000).
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A. Dussaigne, B. Damilano, N. Grandjean, and J. Massies, “In surface segregation in InGaN/GaN quantum wells,” J. Cryst. Growth 251(1-4), 471–475 (2003).
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G. H. Gu, D. H. Jang, K. B. Nam, and C. G. Park, “Composition fluctuation of In and well-width fluctuation in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells in light-emitting diode devices,” Microsc. Microanal. 19(S5), 99–104 (2013).
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M. Benaissa, L. Gu, M. Korytov, T. Huault, P. A. van Aken, J. Brault, and P. Vennéguès, “Phase separation in GaN/AlGaN quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(14), 141901 (2009).
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H. Y. Ryu, K. H. Ha, J. H. Chae, K. S. Kim, J. K. Son, O. H. Nam, and Y. Park, “Evaluation of radiative efficiency in InGaN blue-violet laser-diode structures using electroluminescence characteristics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(17), 171106 (2006).
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Han, D. P.

K. S. Kim, D. P. Han, H. S. Kim, and J. I. Shim, “Analysis of dominant carrier recombination mechanisms depending on injection current in InGaN green light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(9), 091110 (2014).
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Hashimoto, R.

J. I. Hwang, R. Hashimoto, S. Saito, and S. Nunoue, “Development of InGaN-based red LED grown on (0001) polar surface,” Appl. Phys. Express 7(7), 071003 (2014).
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S. Saito, R. Hashimoto, J. Hwang, and S. Nunoue, “InGaN light-emitting diodes on c-face sapphire substrates in green gap spectral range,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(11), 111004 (2013).
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O. Mayrock, H.-J. Wünsche, and F. Henneberger, “Polarization charge screening and indium surface segregation in (In,Ga)N/GaN single and multiple quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 62(24), 16870–16880 (2000).
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Ho, Y. T.

T. T. Luong, Y. T. Ho, Y. Y. Wong, S. Chang, and E.-Y. Chang, “Phase separation-suppressed and strain-modulated improvement of crystalline quality of AlGaN epitaxial layer grown by MOCVD,” Microelectron. Reliab. 83, 286–292 (2018).
[Crossref]

Honda, Y.

T. Doi, Y. Honda, M. Yamaguchi, and H. Amano, “Strain-compensated effect on the growth of InGaN/AlGaN multi-quantum well by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 52(8S), 08JB14 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hou, W.

Y. Li, S. You, M. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, and C. Wetzel, “Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(15), 151102 (2011).
[Crossref]

Huang, K. F.

B. C. Chen, C. Y. Chang, Y. K. Fu, K. F. Huang, Y. H. Lu, and Y. K. Su, “Improved performance of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with thin intermediate barriers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(22), 1682–1684 (2011).
[Crossref]

Huault, T.

M. Benaissa, L. Gu, M. Korytov, T. Huault, P. A. van Aken, J. Brault, and P. Vennéguès, “Phase separation in GaN/AlGaN quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(14), 141901 (2009).
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Hwang, J.

S. Saito, R. Hashimoto, J. Hwang, and S. Nunoue, “InGaN light-emitting diodes on c-face sapphire substrates in green gap spectral range,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(11), 111004 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hwang, J. I.

J. I. Hwang, R. Hashimoto, S. Saito, and S. Nunoue, “Development of InGaN-based red LED grown on (0001) polar surface,” Appl. Phys. Express 7(7), 071003 (2014).
[Crossref]

Iwasa, N.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, N. Iwasa, S. Nagahama, T. Yamada, and T. Mukai, “Superbright Green InGaN Single-Quantum-Well-Structure Light-Emitting Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34(Part 2), L1332–L1335 (1995).
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N. Duxbury, U. Bangert, P. Dawson, E. J. Trush, W. Van der Stricht, K. Jacobs, and I. Moerman, “Indium segregation in InGaN quantum-well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(12), 1600–1602 (2000).
[Crossref]

Jang, D. H.

G. H. Gu, D. H. Jang, K. B. Nam, and C. G. Park, “Composition fluctuation of In and well-width fluctuation in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells in light-emitting diode devices,” Microsc. Microanal. 19(S5), 99–104 (2013).
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Jiao, Z. Y.

S. F. Yu, R. M. Lin, S. J. Chang, J. R. Chen, J. Y. Chu, C. T. Kuo, and Z. Y. Jiao, “Improved carrier distributions by varying barrier thickness for InGaN/GaN LEDs,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(4), 239–243 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kameshima, M.

T. Mukai, S. agahama, M. Sano, T. Yanamoto, D. Morita, T. Mitani, Y. Narukawa, S. Yamamoto, I. Niki, M. Yamada, S. Sonobe, S. Shioji, K. Deguchi, T. Nau, H. Tamaki, Y. Murazaki, and M. Kameshima, “Recent progress of nitride-based light emitting devices,” Phys. Stat. Solidi A 200(1), 52–57 (2003).
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D. A. Zakheim, A. S. Pavluchenko, D. A. Bauman, K. A. Bulashevich, O. V. Khokhlev, and S. Y. Karpov, “Efficiency droop suppression in InGaN-based blue LEDs: Experiment and numerical modelling,” Phys. Stat. Solidi A 209(3), 456–460 (2012).
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Kim, H. S.

K. S. Kim, D. P. Han, H. S. Kim, and J. I. Shim, “Analysis of dominant carrier recombination mechanisms depending on injection current in InGaN green light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(9), 091110 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kim, J. K.

J. K. Kim, T. Gessmann, E. F. Schubert, J. Q. Xi, H. Luo, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “GaInN light-emitting diode with conductive omnidirectional reflector having a low-refractive-index indium-tin oxide layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(1), 013501 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kim, K. S.

K. S. Kim, D. P. Han, H. S. Kim, and J. I. Shim, “Analysis of dominant carrier recombination mechanisms depending on injection current in InGaN green light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(9), 091110 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Y. Ryu, K. H. Ha, J. H. Chae, K. S. Kim, J. K. Son, O. H. Nam, and Y. Park, “Evaluation of radiative efficiency in InGaN blue-violet laser-diode structures using electroluminescence characteristics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(17), 171106 (2006).
[Crossref]

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C. Kisielowski, Z. Liliental-Weber, and S. Nakamura, “Atomic scale indium distribution in a GaN/In0.43Ga0.57N/Al0.1Ga0.9N quantum well structure,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36(Part 1), 6932–6936 (1997).
[Crossref]

Korytov, M.

M. Benaissa, L. Gu, M. Korytov, T. Huault, P. A. van Aken, J. Brault, and P. Vennéguès, “Phase separation in GaN/AlGaN quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(14), 141901 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kranes, M. R.

N. F. Gardner, G. O. Muller, Y. C. Shen, G. Chen, S. Watanabe, W. Gotz, and M. R. Kranes, “Blue-emitting InGaN–GaN double-heterostructure light-emitting diodes reaching maximum quantum efficiency above 200 A/cm2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(24), 243506 (2007).
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X. A. Cao, E. B. Stokes, P. M. Sandvik, S. F. LeBoeuf, J. Kretchmer, and D. Walker, “Diffusion and tunneling currents in GaN/InGaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Electron. Dev. Lett. 23(9), 535–537 (2002).
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S. F. Yu, R. M. Lin, S. J. Chang, J. R. Chen, J. Y. Chu, C. T. Kuo, and Z. Y. Jiao, “Improved carrier distributions by varying barrier thickness for InGaN/GaN LEDs,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(4), 239–243 (2013).
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Kuo, Y. K.

M. C. Tsai, S. H. Yen, Y. C. Lu, and Y. K. Kuo, “Numerical study of blue InGaN light-emitting diodes with varied barrier thicknesses,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(2), 76–78 (2011).
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W. C. Lai, Y. Y. Yang, L. C. Peng, S. W. Yang, Y. R. Lin, and J. K. Sheu, “GaN-based light emitting diodes with embedded SiO2 pillars and air gap array structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(8), 081103 (2010).
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X. A. Cao, E. B. Stokes, P. M. Sandvik, S. F. LeBoeuf, J. Kretchmer, and D. Walker, “Diffusion and tunneling currents in GaN/InGaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Electron. Dev. Lett. 23(9), 535–537 (2002).
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Li, X. H.

Y. K. Ee, X. H. Li, J. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Abbreviated MOVPE nucleation of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nano-patterned sapphire,” J. Cryst. Growth 312(8), 1311–1315 (2010).
[Crossref]

Li, Y.

Y. Li, S. You, M. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, and C. Wetzel, “Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(15), 151102 (2011).
[Crossref]

Li, Y.-L.

Y.-L. Li, E. F. Schubert, J. W. Graff, A. Osinsky, and W. F. Schaff, “Low-resistance ohmic contacts to p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(19), 2728–2730 (2000).
[Crossref]

Liliental-Weber, Z.

C. Kisielowski, Z. Liliental-Weber, and S. Nakamura, “Atomic scale indium distribution in a GaN/In0.43Ga0.57N/Al0.1Ga0.9N quantum well structure,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36(Part 1), 6932–6936 (1997).
[Crossref]

Lin, R. M.

S. F. Yu, R. M. Lin, S. J. Chang, J. R. Chen, J. Y. Chu, C. T. Kuo, and Z. Y. Jiao, “Improved carrier distributions by varying barrier thickness for InGaN/GaN LEDs,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(4), 239–243 (2013).
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Lin, Y. R.

W. C. Lai, Y. Y. Yang, L. C. Peng, S. W. Yang, Y. R. Lin, and J. K. Sheu, “GaN-based light emitting diodes with embedded SiO2 pillars and air gap array structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(8), 081103 (2010).
[Crossref]

Lu, H. M.

H. M. Lu and G. X. Chen, “Design strategies for mitigating the influence of polarization effects on GaN-based multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(9), 093102 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lu, Y. C.

M. C. Tsai, S. H. Yen, Y. C. Lu, and Y. K. Kuo, “Numerical study of blue InGaN light-emitting diodes with varied barrier thicknesses,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(2), 76–78 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lu, Y. H.

B. C. Chen, C. Y. Chang, Y. K. Fu, K. F. Huang, Y. H. Lu, and Y. K. Su, “Improved performance of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with thin intermediate barriers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(22), 1682–1684 (2011).
[Crossref]

Luo, H.

J. K. Kim, T. Gessmann, E. F. Schubert, J. Q. Xi, H. Luo, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “GaInN light-emitting diode with conductive omnidirectional reflector having a low-refractive-index indium-tin oxide layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(1), 013501 (2006).
[Crossref]

Luong, T. T.

T. T. Luong, Y. T. Ho, Y. Y. Wong, S. Chang, and E.-Y. Chang, “Phase separation-suppressed and strain-modulated improvement of crystalline quality of AlGaN epitaxial layer grown by MOCVD,” Microelectron. Reliab. 83, 286–292 (2018).
[Crossref]

Massies, J.

A. Dussaigne, B. Damilano, N. Grandjean, and J. Massies, “In surface segregation in InGaN/GaN quantum wells,” J. Cryst. Growth 251(1-4), 471–475 (2003).
[Crossref]

Mayrock, O.

O. Mayrock, H.-J. Wünsche, and F. Henneberger, “Polarization charge screening and indium surface segregation in (In,Ga)N/GaN single and multiple quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 62(24), 16870–16880 (2000).
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M. Meneghini, L. B. Trevisanello, G. Meneghesso, and E. Zanoni, “A review on the reliability of GaN-based LEDs,” IEEE Trans. Dev. Mater. Reliab. 8(2), 323–331 (2008).
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Mitani, T.

T. Mukai, S. agahama, M. Sano, T. Yanamoto, D. Morita, T. Mitani, Y. Narukawa, S. Yamamoto, I. Niki, M. Yamada, S. Sonobe, S. Shioji, K. Deguchi, T. Nau, H. Tamaki, Y. Murazaki, and M. Kameshima, “Recent progress of nitride-based light emitting devices,” Phys. Stat. Solidi A 200(1), 52–57 (2003).
[Crossref]

Moerman, I.

N. Duxbury, U. Bangert, P. Dawson, E. J. Trush, W. Van der Stricht, K. Jacobs, and I. Moerman, “Indium segregation in InGaN quantum-well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(12), 1600–1602 (2000).
[Crossref]

Morita, D.

T. Mukai, S. agahama, M. Sano, T. Yanamoto, D. Morita, T. Mitani, Y. Narukawa, S. Yamamoto, I. Niki, M. Yamada, S. Sonobe, S. Shioji, K. Deguchi, T. Nau, H. Tamaki, Y. Murazaki, and M. Kameshima, “Recent progress of nitride-based light emitting devices,” Phys. Stat. Solidi A 200(1), 52–57 (2003).
[Crossref]

Morkoç, H.

X. Ni, Q. Fan, R. Shimada, Ü Özgür, and H. Morkoç, “Reduction of efficiency droop in InGaN light emitting diodes by coupled quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(17), 171113 (2008).
[Crossref]

Mukai, T.

T. Mukai, S. agahama, M. Sano, T. Yanamoto, D. Morita, T. Mitani, Y. Narukawa, S. Yamamoto, I. Niki, M. Yamada, S. Sonobe, S. Shioji, K. Deguchi, T. Nau, H. Tamaki, Y. Murazaki, and M. Kameshima, “Recent progress of nitride-based light emitting devices,” Phys. Stat. Solidi A 200(1), 52–57 (2003).
[Crossref]

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, N. Iwasa, S. Nagahama, T. Yamada, and T. Mukai, “Superbright Green InGaN Single-Quantum-Well-Structure Light-Emitting Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34(Part 2), L1332–L1335 (1995).
[Crossref]

Muller, G. O.

N. F. Gardner, G. O. Muller, Y. C. Shen, G. Chen, S. Watanabe, W. Gotz, and M. R. Kranes, “Blue-emitting InGaN–GaN double-heterostructure light-emitting diodes reaching maximum quantum efficiency above 200 A/cm2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(24), 243506 (2007).
[Crossref]

Murazaki, Y.

T. Mukai, S. agahama, M. Sano, T. Yanamoto, D. Morita, T. Mitani, Y. Narukawa, S. Yamamoto, I. Niki, M. Yamada, S. Sonobe, S. Shioji, K. Deguchi, T. Nau, H. Tamaki, Y. Murazaki, and M. Kameshima, “Recent progress of nitride-based light emitting devices,” Phys. Stat. Solidi A 200(1), 52–57 (2003).
[Crossref]

Nagahama, S.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, N. Iwasa, S. Nagahama, T. Yamada, and T. Mukai, “Superbright Green InGaN Single-Quantum-Well-Structure Light-Emitting Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34(Part 2), L1332–L1335 (1995).
[Crossref]

Nakamura, S.

C. Kisielowski, Z. Liliental-Weber, and S. Nakamura, “Atomic scale indium distribution in a GaN/In0.43Ga0.57N/Al0.1Ga0.9N quantum well structure,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36(Part 1), 6932–6936 (1997).
[Crossref]

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, N. Iwasa, S. Nagahama, T. Yamada, and T. Mukai, “Superbright Green InGaN Single-Quantum-Well-Structure Light-Emitting Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34(Part 2), L1332–L1335 (1995).
[Crossref]

Nam, K. B.

G. H. Gu, D. H. Jang, K. B. Nam, and C. G. Park, “Composition fluctuation of In and well-width fluctuation in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells in light-emitting diode devices,” Microsc. Microanal. 19(S5), 99–104 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nam, O. H.

H. Y. Ryu, K. H. Ha, J. H. Chae, K. S. Kim, J. K. Son, O. H. Nam, and Y. Park, “Evaluation of radiative efficiency in InGaN blue-violet laser-diode structures using electroluminescence characteristics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(17), 171106 (2006).
[Crossref]

Narukawa, Y.

T. Mukai, S. agahama, M. Sano, T. Yanamoto, D. Morita, T. Mitani, Y. Narukawa, S. Yamamoto, I. Niki, M. Yamada, S. Sonobe, S. Shioji, K. Deguchi, T. Nau, H. Tamaki, Y. Murazaki, and M. Kameshima, “Recent progress of nitride-based light emitting devices,” Phys. Stat. Solidi A 200(1), 52–57 (2003).
[Crossref]

Nau, T.

T. Mukai, S. agahama, M. Sano, T. Yanamoto, D. Morita, T. Mitani, Y. Narukawa, S. Yamamoto, I. Niki, M. Yamada, S. Sonobe, S. Shioji, K. Deguchi, T. Nau, H. Tamaki, Y. Murazaki, and M. Kameshima, “Recent progress of nitride-based light emitting devices,” Phys. Stat. Solidi A 200(1), 52–57 (2003).
[Crossref]

Neugebauer, J.

J. E. Northrup, L. T. Romano, and J. Neugebauer, “Surface energetics, pit formation, and chemical ordering in InGaN alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(16), 2319–2321 (1999).
[Crossref]

Ni, X.

X. Ni, Q. Fan, R. Shimada, Ü Özgür, and H. Morkoç, “Reduction of efficiency droop in InGaN light emitting diodes by coupled quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(17), 171113 (2008).
[Crossref]

Niki, I.

T. Mukai, S. agahama, M. Sano, T. Yanamoto, D. Morita, T. Mitani, Y. Narukawa, S. Yamamoto, I. Niki, M. Yamada, S. Sonobe, S. Shioji, K. Deguchi, T. Nau, H. Tamaki, Y. Murazaki, and M. Kameshima, “Recent progress of nitride-based light emitting devices,” Phys. Stat. Solidi A 200(1), 52–57 (2003).
[Crossref]

Northrup, J. E.

J. E. Northrup, L. T. Romano, and J. Neugebauer, “Surface energetics, pit formation, and chemical ordering in InGaN alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(16), 2319–2321 (1999).
[Crossref]

Nunoue, S.

J. I. Hwang, R. Hashimoto, S. Saito, and S. Nunoue, “Development of InGaN-based red LED grown on (0001) polar surface,” Appl. Phys. Express 7(7), 071003 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Saito, R. Hashimoto, J. Hwang, and S. Nunoue, “InGaN light-emitting diodes on c-face sapphire substrates in green gap spectral range,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(11), 111004 (2013).
[Crossref]

Osinsky, A.

Y.-L. Li, E. F. Schubert, J. W. Graff, A. Osinsky, and W. F. Schaff, “Low-resistance ohmic contacts to p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(19), 2728–2730 (2000).
[Crossref]

Özgür, Ü

X. Ni, Q. Fan, R. Shimada, Ü Özgür, and H. Morkoç, “Reduction of efficiency droop in InGaN light emitting diodes by coupled quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(17), 171113 (2008).
[Crossref]

Park, C. G.

G. H. Gu, D. H. Jang, K. B. Nam, and C. G. Park, “Composition fluctuation of In and well-width fluctuation in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells in light-emitting diode devices,” Microsc. Microanal. 19(S5), 99–104 (2013).
[Crossref]

Park, Y.

J. K. Kim, T. Gessmann, E. F. Schubert, J. Q. Xi, H. Luo, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “GaInN light-emitting diode with conductive omnidirectional reflector having a low-refractive-index indium-tin oxide layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(1), 013501 (2006).
[Crossref]

H. Y. Ryu, K. H. Ha, J. H. Chae, K. S. Kim, J. K. Son, O. H. Nam, and Y. Park, “Evaluation of radiative efficiency in InGaN blue-violet laser-diode structures using electroluminescence characteristics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(17), 171106 (2006).
[Crossref]

Pavluchenko, A. S.

D. A. Zakheim, A. S. Pavluchenko, D. A. Bauman, K. A. Bulashevich, O. V. Khokhlev, and S. Y. Karpov, “Efficiency droop suppression in InGaN-based blue LEDs: Experiment and numerical modelling,” Phys. Stat. Solidi A 209(3), 456–460 (2012).
[Crossref]

Peng, L. C.

W. C. Lai, Y. Y. Yang, L. C. Peng, S. W. Yang, Y. R. Lin, and J. K. Sheu, “GaN-based light emitting diodes with embedded SiO2 pillars and air gap array structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(8), 081103 (2010).
[Crossref]

Pereira, S.

S. Pereira, “On the interpretation of structural and light emitting properties of InGaN/GaN epitaxial layers grown above and below the critical layer thickness,” Thin Solid Films 515(1), 164–169 (2006).
[Crossref]

Piquette, E. C.

Z. Z. Bandic, P. M. Bridger, E. C. Piquette, and T. C. McGill, “Minority carrier diffusion length and lifetime in GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(24), 3166–3168 (1998).
[Crossref]

Romano, L. T.

J. E. Northrup, L. T. Romano, and J. Neugebauer, “Surface energetics, pit formation, and chemical ordering in InGaN alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(16), 2319–2321 (1999).
[Crossref]

Ryu, H. Y.

H. Y. Ryu, K. H. Ha, J. H. Chae, K. S. Kim, J. K. Son, O. H. Nam, and Y. Park, “Evaluation of radiative efficiency in InGaN blue-violet laser-diode structures using electroluminescence characteristics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(17), 171106 (2006).
[Crossref]

Saito, S.

J. I. Hwang, R. Hashimoto, S. Saito, and S. Nunoue, “Development of InGaN-based red LED grown on (0001) polar surface,” Appl. Phys. Express 7(7), 071003 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Saito, R. Hashimoto, J. Hwang, and S. Nunoue, “InGaN light-emitting diodes on c-face sapphire substrates in green gap spectral range,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(11), 111004 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sandvik, P. M.

X. A. Cao, E. B. Stokes, P. M. Sandvik, S. F. LeBoeuf, J. Kretchmer, and D. Walker, “Diffusion and tunneling currents in GaN/InGaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Electron. Dev. Lett. 23(9), 535–537 (2002).
[Crossref]

Sano, M.

T. Mukai, S. agahama, M. Sano, T. Yanamoto, D. Morita, T. Mitani, Y. Narukawa, S. Yamamoto, I. Niki, M. Yamada, S. Sonobe, S. Shioji, K. Deguchi, T. Nau, H. Tamaki, Y. Murazaki, and M. Kameshima, “Recent progress of nitride-based light emitting devices,” Phys. Stat. Solidi A 200(1), 52–57 (2003).
[Crossref]

Schaff, W. F.

Y.-L. Li, E. F. Schubert, J. W. Graff, A. Osinsky, and W. F. Schaff, “Low-resistance ohmic contacts to p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(19), 2728–2730 (2000).
[Crossref]

Schubert, E. F.

J. K. Kim, T. Gessmann, E. F. Schubert, J. Q. Xi, H. Luo, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “GaInN light-emitting diode with conductive omnidirectional reflector having a low-refractive-index indium-tin oxide layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(1), 013501 (2006).
[Crossref]

Y.-L. Li, E. F. Schubert, J. W. Graff, A. Osinsky, and W. F. Schaff, “Low-resistance ohmic contacts to p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(19), 2728–2730 (2000).
[Crossref]

Senoh, M.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, N. Iwasa, S. Nagahama, T. Yamada, and T. Mukai, “Superbright Green InGaN Single-Quantum-Well-Structure Light-Emitting Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34(Part 2), L1332–L1335 (1995).
[Crossref]

Shen, Y. C.

N. F. Gardner, G. O. Muller, Y. C. Shen, G. Chen, S. Watanabe, W. Gotz, and M. R. Kranes, “Blue-emitting InGaN–GaN double-heterostructure light-emitting diodes reaching maximum quantum efficiency above 200 A/cm2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(24), 243506 (2007).
[Crossref]

Sheu, J. K.

W. C. Lai, Y. Y. Yang, L. C. Peng, S. W. Yang, Y. R. Lin, and J. K. Sheu, “GaN-based light emitting diodes with embedded SiO2 pillars and air gap array structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(8), 081103 (2010).
[Crossref]

Shim, J. I.

K. S. Kim, D. P. Han, H. S. Kim, and J. I. Shim, “Analysis of dominant carrier recombination mechanisms depending on injection current in InGaN green light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(9), 091110 (2014).
[Crossref]

Shimada, R.

X. Ni, Q. Fan, R. Shimada, Ü Özgür, and H. Morkoç, “Reduction of efficiency droop in InGaN light emitting diodes by coupled quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(17), 171113 (2008).
[Crossref]

Shioji, S.

T. Mukai, S. agahama, M. Sano, T. Yanamoto, D. Morita, T. Mitani, Y. Narukawa, S. Yamamoto, I. Niki, M. Yamada, S. Sonobe, S. Shioji, K. Deguchi, T. Nau, H. Tamaki, Y. Murazaki, and M. Kameshima, “Recent progress of nitride-based light emitting devices,” Phys. Stat. Solidi A 200(1), 52–57 (2003).
[Crossref]

Son, J. K.

H. Y. Ryu, K. H. Ha, J. H. Chae, K. S. Kim, J. K. Son, O. H. Nam, and Y. Park, “Evaluation of radiative efficiency in InGaN blue-violet laser-diode structures using electroluminescence characteristics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(17), 171106 (2006).
[Crossref]

Sone, C.

J. K. Kim, T. Gessmann, E. F. Schubert, J. Q. Xi, H. Luo, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “GaInN light-emitting diode with conductive omnidirectional reflector having a low-refractive-index indium-tin oxide layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(1), 013501 (2006).
[Crossref]

Sonobe, S.

T. Mukai, S. agahama, M. Sano, T. Yanamoto, D. Morita, T. Mitani, Y. Narukawa, S. Yamamoto, I. Niki, M. Yamada, S. Sonobe, S. Shioji, K. Deguchi, T. Nau, H. Tamaki, Y. Murazaki, and M. Kameshima, “Recent progress of nitride-based light emitting devices,” Phys. Stat. Solidi A 200(1), 52–57 (2003).
[Crossref]

Stokes, E. B.

X. A. Cao, E. B. Stokes, P. M. Sandvik, S. F. LeBoeuf, J. Kretchmer, and D. Walker, “Diffusion and tunneling currents in GaN/InGaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Electron. Dev. Lett. 23(9), 535–537 (2002).
[Crossref]

Su, Y. K.

B. C. Chen, C. Y. Chang, Y. K. Fu, K. F. Huang, Y. H. Lu, and Y. K. Su, “Improved performance of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with thin intermediate barriers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(22), 1682–1684 (2011).
[Crossref]

Tamaki, H.

T. Mukai, S. agahama, M. Sano, T. Yanamoto, D. Morita, T. Mitani, Y. Narukawa, S. Yamamoto, I. Niki, M. Yamada, S. Sonobe, S. Shioji, K. Deguchi, T. Nau, H. Tamaki, Y. Murazaki, and M. Kameshima, “Recent progress of nitride-based light emitting devices,” Phys. Stat. Solidi A 200(1), 52–57 (2003).
[Crossref]

Tamura, N.

Y. Li, S. You, M. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, and C. Wetzel, “Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(15), 151102 (2011).
[Crossref]

Tanaka, S.

Y. Li, S. You, M. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, and C. Wetzel, “Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(15), 151102 (2011).
[Crossref]

Taniguchi, Y.

Y. Li, S. You, M. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, and C. Wetzel, “Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(15), 151102 (2011).
[Crossref]

Tansu, N.

Y. K. Ee, X. H. Li, J. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Abbreviated MOVPE nucleation of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nano-patterned sapphire,” J. Cryst. Growth 312(8), 1311–1315 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. K. Ee, J. M. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Metalorganic Vapor Phase Epitaxy of III-Nitride Light-Emitting Diodes on Nanopatterned AGOG Sapphire Substrate by Abbreviated Growth Mode,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1066–1072 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. Zhao, R. A. Arif, Y. Ee, and N. Tansu, “Self-consistent analysis of strain-compensated InGaN–AlGaN quantum wells for lasers and light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45(1), 66–78 (2009).
[Crossref]

Trevisanello, L. B.

M. Meneghini, L. B. Trevisanello, G. Meneghesso, and E. Zanoni, “A review on the reliability of GaN-based LEDs,” IEEE Trans. Dev. Mater. Reliab. 8(2), 323–331 (2008).
[Crossref]

Trush, E. J.

N. Duxbury, U. Bangert, P. Dawson, E. J. Trush, W. Van der Stricht, K. Jacobs, and I. Moerman, “Indium segregation in InGaN quantum-well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(12), 1600–1602 (2000).
[Crossref]

Tsai, M. C.

M. C. Tsai, S. H. Yen, Y. C. Lu, and Y. K. Kuo, “Numerical study of blue InGaN light-emitting diodes with varied barrier thicknesses,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(2), 76–78 (2011).
[Crossref]

van Aken, P. A.

M. Benaissa, L. Gu, M. Korytov, T. Huault, P. A. van Aken, J. Brault, and P. Vennéguès, “Phase separation in GaN/AlGaN quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(14), 141901 (2009).
[Crossref]

Van der Stricht, W.

N. Duxbury, U. Bangert, P. Dawson, E. J. Trush, W. Van der Stricht, K. Jacobs, and I. Moerman, “Indium segregation in InGaN quantum-well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(12), 1600–1602 (2000).
[Crossref]

Vennéguès, P.

M. Benaissa, L. Gu, M. Korytov, T. Huault, P. A. van Aken, J. Brault, and P. Vennéguès, “Phase separation in GaN/AlGaN quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(14), 141901 (2009).
[Crossref]

Vinci, R. P.

Y. K. Ee, X. H. Li, J. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Abbreviated MOVPE nucleation of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nano-patterned sapphire,” J. Cryst. Growth 312(8), 1311–1315 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. K. Ee, J. M. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Metalorganic Vapor Phase Epitaxy of III-Nitride Light-Emitting Diodes on Nanopatterned AGOG Sapphire Substrate by Abbreviated Growth Mode,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1066–1072 (2009).
[Crossref]

Walker, D.

X. A. Cao, E. B. Stokes, P. M. Sandvik, S. F. LeBoeuf, J. Kretchmer, and D. Walker, “Diffusion and tunneling currents in GaN/InGaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Electron. Dev. Lett. 23(9), 535–537 (2002).
[Crossref]

Watanabe, S.

N. F. Gardner, G. O. Muller, Y. C. Shen, G. Chen, S. Watanabe, W. Gotz, and M. R. Kranes, “Blue-emitting InGaN–GaN double-heterostructure light-emitting diodes reaching maximum quantum efficiency above 200 A/cm2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(24), 243506 (2007).
[Crossref]

Wetzel, C.

Y. Li, S. You, M. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, and C. Wetzel, “Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(15), 151102 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wong, Y. Y.

T. T. Luong, Y. T. Ho, Y. Y. Wong, S. Chang, and E.-Y. Chang, “Phase separation-suppressed and strain-modulated improvement of crystalline quality of AlGaN epitaxial layer grown by MOCVD,” Microelectron. Reliab. 83, 286–292 (2018).
[Crossref]

Wünsche, H.-J.

O. Mayrock, H.-J. Wünsche, and F. Henneberger, “Polarization charge screening and indium surface segregation in (In,Ga)N/GaN single and multiple quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 62(24), 16870–16880 (2000).
[Crossref]

Xi, J. Q.

J. K. Kim, T. Gessmann, E. F. Schubert, J. Q. Xi, H. Luo, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “GaInN light-emitting diode with conductive omnidirectional reflector having a low-refractive-index indium-tin oxide layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(1), 013501 (2006).
[Crossref]

Yamada, M.

T. Mukai, S. agahama, M. Sano, T. Yanamoto, D. Morita, T. Mitani, Y. Narukawa, S. Yamamoto, I. Niki, M. Yamada, S. Sonobe, S. Shioji, K. Deguchi, T. Nau, H. Tamaki, Y. Murazaki, and M. Kameshima, “Recent progress of nitride-based light emitting devices,” Phys. Stat. Solidi A 200(1), 52–57 (2003).
[Crossref]

Yamada, T.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, N. Iwasa, S. Nagahama, T. Yamada, and T. Mukai, “Superbright Green InGaN Single-Quantum-Well-Structure Light-Emitting Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34(Part 2), L1332–L1335 (1995).
[Crossref]

Yamaguchi, M.

T. Doi, Y. Honda, M. Yamaguchi, and H. Amano, “Strain-compensated effect on the growth of InGaN/AlGaN multi-quantum well by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 52(8S), 08JB14 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yamamoto, S.

T. Mukai, S. agahama, M. Sano, T. Yanamoto, D. Morita, T. Mitani, Y. Narukawa, S. Yamamoto, I. Niki, M. Yamada, S. Sonobe, S. Shioji, K. Deguchi, T. Nau, H. Tamaki, Y. Murazaki, and M. Kameshima, “Recent progress of nitride-based light emitting devices,” Phys. Stat. Solidi A 200(1), 52–57 (2003).
[Crossref]

Yanamoto, T.

T. Mukai, S. agahama, M. Sano, T. Yanamoto, D. Morita, T. Mitani, Y. Narukawa, S. Yamamoto, I. Niki, M. Yamada, S. Sonobe, S. Shioji, K. Deguchi, T. Nau, H. Tamaki, Y. Murazaki, and M. Kameshima, “Recent progress of nitride-based light emitting devices,” Phys. Stat. Solidi A 200(1), 52–57 (2003).
[Crossref]

Yang, S. W.

W. C. Lai, Y. Y. Yang, L. C. Peng, S. W. Yang, Y. R. Lin, and J. K. Sheu, “GaN-based light emitting diodes with embedded SiO2 pillars and air gap array structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(8), 081103 (2010).
[Crossref]

Yang, Y. Y.

W. C. Lai, Y. Y. Yang, L. C. Peng, S. W. Yang, Y. R. Lin, and J. K. Sheu, “GaN-based light emitting diodes with embedded SiO2 pillars and air gap array structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(8), 081103 (2010).
[Crossref]

Yen, S. H.

M. C. Tsai, S. H. Yen, Y. C. Lu, and Y. K. Kuo, “Numerical study of blue InGaN light-emitting diodes with varied barrier thicknesses,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(2), 76–78 (2011).
[Crossref]

You, S.

Y. Li, S. You, M. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, and C. Wetzel, “Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(15), 151102 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yu, S. F.

S. F. Yu, R. M. Lin, S. J. Chang, J. R. Chen, J. Y. Chu, C. T. Kuo, and Z. Y. Jiao, “Improved carrier distributions by varying barrier thickness for InGaN/GaN LEDs,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(4), 239–243 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zakheim, D. A.

D. A. Zakheim, A. S. Pavluchenko, D. A. Bauman, K. A. Bulashevich, O. V. Khokhlev, and S. Y. Karpov, “Efficiency droop suppression in InGaN-based blue LEDs: Experiment and numerical modelling,” Phys. Stat. Solidi A 209(3), 456–460 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zanoni, E.

M. Meneghini, L. B. Trevisanello, G. Meneghesso, and E. Zanoni, “A review on the reliability of GaN-based LEDs,” IEEE Trans. Dev. Mater. Reliab. 8(2), 323–331 (2008).
[Crossref]

Zhao, H.

H. Zhao, R. A. Arif, Y. Ee, and N. Tansu, “Self-consistent analysis of strain-compensated InGaN–AlGaN quantum wells for lasers and light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45(1), 66–78 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zhao, L.

Y. Li, S. You, M. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, and C. Wetzel, “Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(15), 151102 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zhu, M.

Y. Li, S. You, M. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, and C. Wetzel, “Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(15), 151102 (2011).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Express (2)

S. Saito, R. Hashimoto, J. Hwang, and S. Nunoue, “InGaN light-emitting diodes on c-face sapphire substrates in green gap spectral range,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(11), 111004 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. I. Hwang, R. Hashimoto, S. Saito, and S. Nunoue, “Development of InGaN-based red LED grown on (0001) polar surface,” Appl. Phys. Express 7(7), 071003 (2014).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (12)

Z. Z. Bandic, P. M. Bridger, E. C. Piquette, and T. C. McGill, “Minority carrier diffusion length and lifetime in GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(24), 3166–3168 (1998).
[Crossref]

H. Y. Ryu, K. H. Ha, J. H. Chae, K. S. Kim, J. K. Son, O. H. Nam, and Y. Park, “Evaluation of radiative efficiency in InGaN blue-violet laser-diode structures using electroluminescence characteristics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(17), 171106 (2006).
[Crossref]

K. S. Kim, D. P. Han, H. S. Kim, and J. I. Shim, “Analysis of dominant carrier recombination mechanisms depending on injection current in InGaN green light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(9), 091110 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Benaissa, L. Gu, M. Korytov, T. Huault, P. A. van Aken, J. Brault, and P. Vennéguès, “Phase separation in GaN/AlGaN quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(14), 141901 (2009).
[Crossref]

W. C. Lai, Y. Y. Yang, L. C. Peng, S. W. Yang, Y. R. Lin, and J. K. Sheu, “GaN-based light emitting diodes with embedded SiO2 pillars and air gap array structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(8), 081103 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. K. Kim, T. Gessmann, E. F. Schubert, J. Q. Xi, H. Luo, J. Cho, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “GaInN light-emitting diode with conductive omnidirectional reflector having a low-refractive-index indium-tin oxide layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(1), 013501 (2006).
[Crossref]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. I-V characteristics of all LED samples, which were measured by HP4156C semiconductor parameter analyzer.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Characteristics of current dependent light output power and external quantum efficiency of all LED samples. The injection current was supplied by Keithley 2400 source meter.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Current dependent power of S (S-I curves) and (inset) enlarged S-I curves of all LED samples for current less than 20 mA.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra of LED I, II, and IV.

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