Abstract

In this paper, we proposed and demonstrated a new optical design scheme for vehicle forward lighting with a high-contrast cut-off line. We first presented a design of a reflector to meet that meets one regulation (e.g., K-mark) but fails in the other regulation (e.g. ECE R113 class A). The design starts from a general approach in forming the cut-off line but with a narrower light pattern to fit the first regulation. Then an optimized cylindrical lens array (CLA) is used to laterally spread the light pattern. The introduction of the CLA can increase the linearity of the cut-off line, and most importantly, suppress the illuminance in the dark zone so that contrast across the cut-off line can be effectively increased. As a result, the headlamp can pass the severer regulation without redesigning the reflector. Additionally, the CLA can compensate for the optical effect by lens/reflector deformation in the manufacture process so that the manufacturing tolerance can be enlarged and the design scheme of forward lighting becomes easier and more robust in practical manufacturing.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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    [Crossref]
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2017 (1)

2015 (2)

2014 (2)

2013 (3)

2012 (1)

Y. C. Lo, J. Y. Cai, C. W. Chen, and C. C. Sun, “A compact bike head lamp design based on a white LED operated at one watt,” Opt. Laser Technol. 44(4), 1172–1175 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

P. Brick and T. Schmid, “Automotive headlamp concepts with low-beam and high-beam out of a single LED,” Proc. SPIE 8170, 817008 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

2007 (1)

2006 (2)

2002 (1)

J. F. V. Derlofske and M. McClogan, “White LED sources for vehicle forward lighting,” Proc. SPIE 4776, 195–205 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

Albou, P.

P. Albou, “LED modules for front lighting applications,” in Proceedings of the 5th International Symposium on Progress in Automobile Lighting, H.-J. Schmidt-Clausen, ed. (Herbert Utz Verlag GmbH, 2003), Vol. 10, pp. 37–51.

Benitez, P.

Brick, P.

P. Brick and T. Schmid, “Automotive headlamp concepts with low-beam and high-beam out of a single LED,” Proc. SPIE 8170, 817008 (2011).
[Crossref]

Cai, J.

Cai, J. Y.

Caska, R.

A. Zukauskas, M. S. Shur, and R. Caska, Introduction to Solid-State Lighting (John Wiley & Sons, 2002).

Chaves, J.

Chen, C. W.

Y. C. Lo, J. Y. Cai, C. W. Chen, and C. C. Sun, “A compact bike head lamp design based on a white LED operated at one watt,” Opt. Laser Technol. 44(4), 1172–1175 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chen, F.

Chen, H. C.

Chen, Z.

Chien, W. T.

Chu, P. Y.

Cvetkovic, A.

Derlofske, J. F. V.

J. F. V. Derlofske and M. McClogan, “White LED sources for vehicle forward lighting,” Proc. SPIE 4776, 195–205 (2002).
[Crossref]

Dross, O.

Du, Z.

Ge, A.

Ge, P.

Hsieh, C. C.

Huang, S. M.

Hung, C. C.

Ishida, H.

M. Tatsukawa, H. Ishida, and K. Sazuka, “Vehicle headlamp,” U.S. patent 6,891,333 B2 (May10, 2005).

Karlicek, B.

B. Karlicek, C. C. Sun, G. Zissis, and R. Ma, Handbook of Advanced Lighting Technology (Springer, 2017).

Lee, S. J.

Lee, T. X.

Lee, X. H.

Lee, Y. L.

Li, Y.

Li, Y. H.

Liu, S.

Lo, W. C.

Lo, Y. C.

Luce, T.

T. Luce, “Customized LED light sources for automotive applications,” in Proceedings of the 5th International Symposium on Progress in Automobile Lighting, H.-J. Schmidt-Clausen, ed. (Herbert Utz Verlag GmbH, 2003), Vol. 10, pp. 614–620.

Luo, X.

Ma, R.

B. Karlicek, C. C. Sun, G. Zissis, and R. Ma, Handbook of Advanced Lighting Technology (Springer, 2017).

Ma, S. H.

McClogan, M.

J. F. V. Derlofske and M. McClogan, “White LED sources for vehicle forward lighting,” Proc. SPIE 4776, 195–205 (2002).
[Crossref]

Miñano, J. C.

Moeller, N.

N. Moeller, “Design aspects and headlamp performance - the left and right headlamp are not the same,” in Proceedings of the 5th International Symposium on Progress in Automobile Lighting, H.-J. Schmidt-Clausen, ed. (Herbert Utz Verlag GmbH, 2003), Vol. 10, pp. 686–697.

Mohedano, R.

Moreno, I.

Qin, Z.

Qiu, P.

Sazuka, K.

M. Tatsukawa, H. Ishida, and K. Sazuka, “Vehicle headlamp,” U.S. patent 6,891,333 B2 (May10, 2005).

Schmid, T.

P. Brick and T. Schmid, “Automotive headlamp concepts with low-beam and high-beam out of a single LED,” Proc. SPIE 8170, 817008 (2011).
[Crossref]

Shur, M. S.

A. Zukauskas, M. S. Shur, and R. Caska, Introduction to Solid-State Lighting (John Wiley & Sons, 2002).

Sun, C. C.

Sun, W. S.

Tasi, M. S.

Tasi, Z. Y.

Tatsukawa, M.

M. Tatsukawa, H. Ishida, and K. Sazuka, “Vehicle headlamp,” U.S. patent 6,891,333 B2 (May10, 2005).

Tien, C. L.

Wang, H.

Wang, J.

Wang, K.

Wang, W.

Wang, X.

Wu, D.

Zhou, J. H.

Zhou, Y.

Zissis, G.

B. Karlicek, C. C. Sun, G. Zissis, and R. Ma, Handbook of Advanced Lighting Technology (Springer, 2017).

Zukauskas, A.

A. Zukauskas, M. S. Shur, and R. Caska, Introduction to Solid-State Lighting (John Wiley & Sons, 2002).

Appl. Opt. (7)

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Laser Technol. (1)

Y. C. Lo, J. Y. Cai, C. W. Chen, and C. C. Sun, “A compact bike head lamp design based on a white LED operated at one watt,” Opt. Laser Technol. 44(4), 1172–1175 (2012).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. SPIE (2)

J. F. V. Derlofske and M. McClogan, “White LED sources for vehicle forward lighting,” Proc. SPIE 4776, 195–205 (2002).
[Crossref]

P. Brick and T. Schmid, “Automotive headlamp concepts with low-beam and high-beam out of a single LED,” Proc. SPIE 8170, 817008 (2011).
[Crossref]

Other (9)

P. Albou, “LED modules for front lighting applications,” in Proceedings of the 5th International Symposium on Progress in Automobile Lighting, H.-J. Schmidt-Clausen, ed. (Herbert Utz Verlag GmbH, 2003), Vol. 10, pp. 37–51.

T. Luce, “Customized LED light sources for automotive applications,” in Proceedings of the 5th International Symposium on Progress in Automobile Lighting, H.-J. Schmidt-Clausen, ed. (Herbert Utz Verlag GmbH, 2003), Vol. 10, pp. 614–620.

N. Moeller, “Design aspects and headlamp performance - the left and right headlamp are not the same,” in Proceedings of the 5th International Symposium on Progress in Automobile Lighting, H.-J. Schmidt-Clausen, ed. (Herbert Utz Verlag GmbH, 2003), Vol. 10, pp. 686–697.

M. Tatsukawa, H. Ishida, and K. Sazuka, “Vehicle headlamp,” U.S. patent 6,891,333 B2 (May10, 2005).

“Verkehrsblatt,” http://www.verkehrsblatt.de/docs/index.php .

“StVZO, 22A No.23,” http://www.enhydralutris.de/Fahrrad/Beleuchtung/node403.html .

“UNECE,” http://www.unece.org/trans/main/wp29/wp29regs101-120.html .

A. Zukauskas, M. S. Shur, and R. Caska, Introduction to Solid-State Lighting (John Wiley & Sons, 2002).

B. Karlicek, C. C. Sun, G. Zissis, and R. Ma, Handbook of Advanced Lighting Technology (Springer, 2017).

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) The K-mark regulation. (b) The ECE 113 Class A regulation.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) The structure of the white LED. (b) The downward reflector. (c) The light pattern by the simulation. (d) The check list for the K-mark regulation, and all values meet the criteria in the regulation.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) The regulation table. (b) The check values in the regulation. (c) The G value in the lateral direction. (d) The linearity of the cut-off line.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. The energy distribution on the roadway in the simulation.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. (a) The structure of the CLA plate. (b) The illustration of the three key factors of each cylindrical lens.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. The simulation of the optical efficiency with respect to R.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. A table list of the light pattern by the CLA with various K and R.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. The simulated light pattern.
Fig. 9.
Fig. 9. (a) The headlamp with a CLA in the experiment. (b) The measured illuminance at the specific locations, where the first value is without the CLA, and the second value is with the CLA. The red numbers fail to meet the regulation. The real light pattern in the case (c) without the CLA, and (d) with the CLA.
Fig. 10.
Fig. 10. G value vs. lateral view angle in the case of (a) without the CLA, (b) with the CLA. Angular deviation of the cut-off line vs. lateral view angle in the case of (c) without the CLA, (d) with the CLA.

Equations (2)

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G = ( log E V log E ( V + 0.1 ) ) ,
x 2 2Rz + ( K + 1 ) z 2 = 0

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