Abstract

Nanolasers directly grown on silicon substrates are ideal light sources for silicon-based photonic integrated circuits, benefiting from an ultra-small footprint and ultra-low energy consumption. However, constructing a compact laser source that covers a wide emission range is still challenging, especially for data-communication applications in the near-infrared region. Here, we explain a wavelength tuning strategy for InP/InGaAs nano-ridge lasers grown on silicon-on-insulator wafers through experimental measurements and detailed simulations. A wide tuning range of over 200 nm is achieved via tailoring the length of the on-chip Fabry-Pérot nano-ridge lasers with identical epitaxial structures. With extensive mode and gain analyses of the nano-ridge lasers, we attribute the broadband tuning scheme to the enhanced band filling effect and the significant gain shift under high excitation levels. Our study provides a fresh perspective for the design of telecom nano-scale light emitters.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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    [Crossref]
  22. W. S. Ko, C. Chang-Hasnain, L. C. Chuang, F. G. Sedgwick, K. W. Ng, T. D. Tran, and R. Chen, “Nanolasers grown on silicon,” Nat. Photonics 5(3), 170–175 (2011).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]

2019 (3)

R. Ma and R. F. Oulton, “Applications of nanolasers,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 14(1), 12–22 (2019).
[Crossref]

G. Zhang, M. Takiguchi, K. Tateno, T. Tawara, M. Notomi, and H. Gotoh, “Telecom-band lasing in single InP/InAs heterostructure nanowires at room temperature,” Sci. Adv. 5(2), eaat8896 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y. Han, W. K. Ng, Y. Xue, Q. Li, K. S. Wong, and K. M. Lau, “Telecom InP/InGaAs nanolaser array directly grown on (001) silicon-on-insulator,” Opt. Lett. 44(4), 767 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (3)

Y. Han, W. K. Ng, C. Ma, Q. Li, S. Zhu, C. C. S. Chan, K. W. Ng, S. Lennon, R. A. Taylor, K. S. Wong, and K. M. Lau, “Room-temperature InP/InGaAs nano-ridge lasers grown on Si and emitting at telecom bands,” Optica 5(8), 918 (2018).
[Crossref]

F. Kish, V. Lal, P. Evans, S. W. Corzine, M. Ziari, T. Butrie, M. Reffle, H. Tsai, A. Dentai, J. Pleumeekers, M. Missey, M. Fisher, S. Murthy, R. Salvatore, P. Samra, S. Demars, N. Kim, A. James, A. Hosseini, P. Studenkov, M. Lauermann, R. Going, M. Lu, J. Zhang, J. Tang, J. Bostak, T. Vallaitis, M. Kuntz, D. Pavinski, A. Karanicolas, B. Behnia, D. Engel, O. Khayam, N. Modi, M. R. Chitgarha, P. Mertz, W. Ko, R. Maher, J. Osenbach, J. T. Rahn, H. Sun, K.-T. Wu, M. Mitchell, and D. Welch, “System-on-Chip Photonic Integrated Circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24(1), 1–20 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Han, Q. Li, K. W. Ng, S. Zhu, and K. M. Lau, “InGaAs/InP quantum wires grown on silicon with adjustable emission wavelength at telecom bands,” Nanotechnology 29(22), 225601 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (6)

Z. Wang, A. Abbasi, U. Dave, A. Groote, S. Kumari, B. Kunert, C. Merckling, M. Pantouvaki, Y. Shi, B. Tian, K. Gasse, J. Verbist, R. Wang, W. Xie, J. Zhang, Y. Zhu, J. Bauwelinck, X. Yin, Z. Hens, J. Campenhout, B. Kuyken, R. Baets, G. Morthier, D. Thourhout, and G. Roelkens, “Novel Light Source Integration Approaches for Silicon Photonics,” Laser Photonics Rev. 11(4), 1700063 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Kim, W. Lee, A. C. Farrell, A. Balgarkashi, and D. L. Huffaker, “Telecom-Wavelength Bottom-up Nanobeam Lasers on Silicon-on-Insulator,” Nano Lett. 17(9), 5244–5250 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Shi, Z. Wang, J. Van Campenhout, M. Pantouvaki, W. Guo, B. Kunert, and D. Van Thourhout, “Optical pumped InGaAs/GaAs nano-ridge laser epitaxially grown on a standard 300-mm Si wafer,” Optica 4(12), 1468 (2017).
[Crossref]

B. Tian, Z. Wang, M. Pantouvaki, P. Absil, J. Van Campenhout, C. Merckling, and D. Van Thourhout, “Room Temperature O-band DFB Laser Array Directly Grown on (001) Silicon,” Nano Lett. 17(1), 559–564 (2017).
[Crossref]

F. Lu, I. Bhattacharya, H. Sun, T. D. Tran, K. W. Ng, G. N. Malheiros-Silveira, and C. Chang-Hasnain, “Nanopillar quantum well lasers directly grown on silicon and emitting at silicon-transparent wavelengths,” Optica 4(7), 717 (2017).
[Crossref]

F. Schuster, J. Kapraun, G. N. Malheiros-Silveira, S. Deshpande, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “Site-Controlled Growth of Monolithic InGaAs/InP Quantum Well Nanopillar Lasers on Silicon,” Nano Lett. 17(4), 2697–2702 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (3)

Y. Han, Q. Li, S. Chang, W. Hsu, and K. M. Lau, “Growing InGaAs quasi-quantum wires inside semi-rhombic shaped planar InP nanowires on exact (001) silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(24), 242105 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Thomson, A. Zilkie, J. E. Bowers, T. Komljenovic, G. T. Reed, L. Vivien, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, L. Virot, J. Fédéli, J. Hartmann, J. H. Schmid, D. Xu, F. Boeuf, P. O’Brien, G. Z. Mashanovich, and M. Nedeljkovic, “Roadmap on silicon photonics,” J. Opt. 18(7), 073003 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Saxena, N. Jiang, X. Yuan, S. Mokkapati, Y. Guo, H. H. Tan, and C. Jagadish, “Design and Room-Temperature Operation of GaAs/AlGaAs Multiple Quantum Well Nanowire Lasers,” Nano Lett. 16(8), 5080–5086 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (2)

A. Fu, H. Gao, P. Petrov, and P. Yang, “Widely Tunable Distributed Bragg Reflectors Integrated into Nanowire Waveguides,” Nano Lett. 15(10), 6909–6913 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. Wang, B. Tian, M. Pantouvaki, W. Guo, P. Absil, J. Van Campenhout, C. Merckling, and D. Van Thourhout, “Room-temperature InP distributed feedback laser array directly grown on silicon,” Nat. Photonics 9(12), 837–842 (2015).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

W. S. Ko, C. Chang-Hasnain, L. C. Chuang, F. G. Sedgwick, K. W. Ng, T. D. Tran, and R. Chen, “Nanolasers grown on silicon,” Nat. Photonics 5(3), 170–175 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

J. N. Shapiro, A. Lin, P. S. Wong, A. C. Scofield, C. Tu, P. N. Senanayake, G. Mariani, B. L. Liang, and D. L. Huffaker, “InGaAs heterostructure formation in catalyst-free GaAs nanopillars by selective-area metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(24), 243102 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. E. Bowers and D. Liang, “Recent progress in lasers on silicon,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 511–517 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

1986 (1)

Y. Arakawa and A. Yariv, “Quantum well lasers–Gain, spectra, dynamics,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 22(9), 1887–1899 (1986).
[Crossref]

Abbasi, A.

Z. Wang, A. Abbasi, U. Dave, A. Groote, S. Kumari, B. Kunert, C. Merckling, M. Pantouvaki, Y. Shi, B. Tian, K. Gasse, J. Verbist, R. Wang, W. Xie, J. Zhang, Y. Zhu, J. Bauwelinck, X. Yin, Z. Hens, J. Campenhout, B. Kuyken, R. Baets, G. Morthier, D. Thourhout, and G. Roelkens, “Novel Light Source Integration Approaches for Silicon Photonics,” Laser Photonics Rev. 11(4), 1700063 (2017).
[Crossref]

Absil, P.

B. Tian, Z. Wang, M. Pantouvaki, P. Absil, J. Van Campenhout, C. Merckling, and D. Van Thourhout, “Room Temperature O-band DFB Laser Array Directly Grown on (001) Silicon,” Nano Lett. 17(1), 559–564 (2017).
[Crossref]

Z. Wang, B. Tian, M. Pantouvaki, W. Guo, P. Absil, J. Van Campenhout, C. Merckling, and D. Van Thourhout, “Room-temperature InP distributed feedback laser array directly grown on silicon,” Nat. Photonics 9(12), 837–842 (2015).
[Crossref]

Arakawa, Y.

Y. Arakawa and A. Yariv, “Quantum well lasers–Gain, spectra, dynamics,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 22(9), 1887–1899 (1986).
[Crossref]

Baets, R.

Z. Wang, A. Abbasi, U. Dave, A. Groote, S. Kumari, B. Kunert, C. Merckling, M. Pantouvaki, Y. Shi, B. Tian, K. Gasse, J. Verbist, R. Wang, W. Xie, J. Zhang, Y. Zhu, J. Bauwelinck, X. Yin, Z. Hens, J. Campenhout, B. Kuyken, R. Baets, G. Morthier, D. Thourhout, and G. Roelkens, “Novel Light Source Integration Approaches for Silicon Photonics,” Laser Photonics Rev. 11(4), 1700063 (2017).
[Crossref]

Balgarkashi, A.

H. Kim, W. Lee, A. C. Farrell, A. Balgarkashi, and D. L. Huffaker, “Telecom-Wavelength Bottom-up Nanobeam Lasers on Silicon-on-Insulator,” Nano Lett. 17(9), 5244–5250 (2017).
[Crossref]

Bauwelinck, J.

Z. Wang, A. Abbasi, U. Dave, A. Groote, S. Kumari, B. Kunert, C. Merckling, M. Pantouvaki, Y. Shi, B. Tian, K. Gasse, J. Verbist, R. Wang, W. Xie, J. Zhang, Y. Zhu, J. Bauwelinck, X. Yin, Z. Hens, J. Campenhout, B. Kuyken, R. Baets, G. Morthier, D. Thourhout, and G. Roelkens, “Novel Light Source Integration Approaches for Silicon Photonics,” Laser Photonics Rev. 11(4), 1700063 (2017).
[Crossref]

Behnia, B.

F. Kish, V. Lal, P. Evans, S. W. Corzine, M. Ziari, T. Butrie, M. Reffle, H. Tsai, A. Dentai, J. Pleumeekers, M. Missey, M. Fisher, S. Murthy, R. Salvatore, P. Samra, S. Demars, N. Kim, A. James, A. Hosseini, P. Studenkov, M. Lauermann, R. Going, M. Lu, J. Zhang, J. Tang, J. Bostak, T. Vallaitis, M. Kuntz, D. Pavinski, A. Karanicolas, B. Behnia, D. Engel, O. Khayam, N. Modi, M. R. Chitgarha, P. Mertz, W. Ko, R. Maher, J. Osenbach, J. T. Rahn, H. Sun, K.-T. Wu, M. Mitchell, and D. Welch, “System-on-Chip Photonic Integrated Circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24(1), 1–20 (2018).
[Crossref]

Bhattacharya, I.

Boeuf, F.

D. Thomson, A. Zilkie, J. E. Bowers, T. Komljenovic, G. T. Reed, L. Vivien, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, L. Virot, J. Fédéli, J. Hartmann, J. H. Schmid, D. Xu, F. Boeuf, P. O’Brien, G. Z. Mashanovich, and M. Nedeljkovic, “Roadmap on silicon photonics,” J. Opt. 18(7), 073003 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bostak, J.

F. Kish, V. Lal, P. Evans, S. W. Corzine, M. Ziari, T. Butrie, M. Reffle, H. Tsai, A. Dentai, J. Pleumeekers, M. Missey, M. Fisher, S. Murthy, R. Salvatore, P. Samra, S. Demars, N. Kim, A. James, A. Hosseini, P. Studenkov, M. Lauermann, R. Going, M. Lu, J. Zhang, J. Tang, J. Bostak, T. Vallaitis, M. Kuntz, D. Pavinski, A. Karanicolas, B. Behnia, D. Engel, O. Khayam, N. Modi, M. R. Chitgarha, P. Mertz, W. Ko, R. Maher, J. Osenbach, J. T. Rahn, H. Sun, K.-T. Wu, M. Mitchell, and D. Welch, “System-on-Chip Photonic Integrated Circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24(1), 1–20 (2018).
[Crossref]

Bowers, J. E.

D. Thomson, A. Zilkie, J. E. Bowers, T. Komljenovic, G. T. Reed, L. Vivien, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, L. Virot, J. Fédéli, J. Hartmann, J. H. Schmid, D. Xu, F. Boeuf, P. O’Brien, G. Z. Mashanovich, and M. Nedeljkovic, “Roadmap on silicon photonics,” J. Opt. 18(7), 073003 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. E. Bowers and D. Liang, “Recent progress in lasers on silicon,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 511–517 (2010).
[Crossref]

Butrie, T.

F. Kish, V. Lal, P. Evans, S. W. Corzine, M. Ziari, T. Butrie, M. Reffle, H. Tsai, A. Dentai, J. Pleumeekers, M. Missey, M. Fisher, S. Murthy, R. Salvatore, P. Samra, S. Demars, N. Kim, A. James, A. Hosseini, P. Studenkov, M. Lauermann, R. Going, M. Lu, J. Zhang, J. Tang, J. Bostak, T. Vallaitis, M. Kuntz, D. Pavinski, A. Karanicolas, B. Behnia, D. Engel, O. Khayam, N. Modi, M. R. Chitgarha, P. Mertz, W. Ko, R. Maher, J. Osenbach, J. T. Rahn, H. Sun, K.-T. Wu, M. Mitchell, and D. Welch, “System-on-Chip Photonic Integrated Circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24(1), 1–20 (2018).
[Crossref]

Campenhout, J.

Z. Wang, A. Abbasi, U. Dave, A. Groote, S. Kumari, B. Kunert, C. Merckling, M. Pantouvaki, Y. Shi, B. Tian, K. Gasse, J. Verbist, R. Wang, W. Xie, J. Zhang, Y. Zhu, J. Bauwelinck, X. Yin, Z. Hens, J. Campenhout, B. Kuyken, R. Baets, G. Morthier, D. Thourhout, and G. Roelkens, “Novel Light Source Integration Approaches for Silicon Photonics,” Laser Photonics Rev. 11(4), 1700063 (2017).
[Crossref]

Cassan, E.

D. Thomson, A. Zilkie, J. E. Bowers, T. Komljenovic, G. T. Reed, L. Vivien, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, L. Virot, J. Fédéli, J. Hartmann, J. H. Schmid, D. Xu, F. Boeuf, P. O’Brien, G. Z. Mashanovich, and M. Nedeljkovic, “Roadmap on silicon photonics,” J. Opt. 18(7), 073003 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chan, C. C. S.

Chang, S.

Y. Han, Q. Li, S. Chang, W. Hsu, and K. M. Lau, “Growing InGaAs quasi-quantum wires inside semi-rhombic shaped planar InP nanowires on exact (001) silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(24), 242105 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chang-Hasnain, C.

Chang-Hasnain, C. J.

F. Schuster, J. Kapraun, G. N. Malheiros-Silveira, S. Deshpande, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “Site-Controlled Growth of Monolithic InGaAs/InP Quantum Well Nanopillar Lasers on Silicon,” Nano Lett. 17(4), 2697–2702 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chen, R.

W. S. Ko, C. Chang-Hasnain, L. C. Chuang, F. G. Sedgwick, K. W. Ng, T. D. Tran, and R. Chen, “Nanolasers grown on silicon,” Nat. Photonics 5(3), 170–175 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chitgarha, M. R.

F. Kish, V. Lal, P. Evans, S. W. Corzine, M. Ziari, T. Butrie, M. Reffle, H. Tsai, A. Dentai, J. Pleumeekers, M. Missey, M. Fisher, S. Murthy, R. Salvatore, P. Samra, S. Demars, N. Kim, A. James, A. Hosseini, P. Studenkov, M. Lauermann, R. Going, M. Lu, J. Zhang, J. Tang, J. Bostak, T. Vallaitis, M. Kuntz, D. Pavinski, A. Karanicolas, B. Behnia, D. Engel, O. Khayam, N. Modi, M. R. Chitgarha, P. Mertz, W. Ko, R. Maher, J. Osenbach, J. T. Rahn, H. Sun, K.-T. Wu, M. Mitchell, and D. Welch, “System-on-Chip Photonic Integrated Circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24(1), 1–20 (2018).
[Crossref]

Chu, T.

Chuang, L. C.

W. S. Ko, C. Chang-Hasnain, L. C. Chuang, F. G. Sedgwick, K. W. Ng, T. D. Tran, and R. Chen, “Nanolasers grown on silicon,” Nat. Photonics 5(3), 170–175 (2011).
[Crossref]

Coldren, L. A.

L. A. Coldren, S. W. Corzine, and M. L. Mašanovitć, Diode lasers and photonic integrated circuits (Wiley, 2012).

Corzine, S. W.

F. Kish, V. Lal, P. Evans, S. W. Corzine, M. Ziari, T. Butrie, M. Reffle, H. Tsai, A. Dentai, J. Pleumeekers, M. Missey, M. Fisher, S. Murthy, R. Salvatore, P. Samra, S. Demars, N. Kim, A. James, A. Hosseini, P. Studenkov, M. Lauermann, R. Going, M. Lu, J. Zhang, J. Tang, J. Bostak, T. Vallaitis, M. Kuntz, D. Pavinski, A. Karanicolas, B. Behnia, D. Engel, O. Khayam, N. Modi, M. R. Chitgarha, P. Mertz, W. Ko, R. Maher, J. Osenbach, J. T. Rahn, H. Sun, K.-T. Wu, M. Mitchell, and D. Welch, “System-on-Chip Photonic Integrated Circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24(1), 1–20 (2018).
[Crossref]

L. A. Coldren, S. W. Corzine, and M. L. Mašanovitć, Diode lasers and photonic integrated circuits (Wiley, 2012).

Dave, U.

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F. Kish, V. Lal, P. Evans, S. W. Corzine, M. Ziari, T. Butrie, M. Reffle, H. Tsai, A. Dentai, J. Pleumeekers, M. Missey, M. Fisher, S. Murthy, R. Salvatore, P. Samra, S. Demars, N. Kim, A. James, A. Hosseini, P. Studenkov, M. Lauermann, R. Going, M. Lu, J. Zhang, J. Tang, J. Bostak, T. Vallaitis, M. Kuntz, D. Pavinski, A. Karanicolas, B. Behnia, D. Engel, O. Khayam, N. Modi, M. R. Chitgarha, P. Mertz, W. Ko, R. Maher, J. Osenbach, J. T. Rahn, H. Sun, K.-T. Wu, M. Mitchell, and D. Welch, “System-on-Chip Photonic Integrated Circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24(1), 1–20 (2018).
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F. Schuster, J. Kapraun, G. N. Malheiros-Silveira, S. Deshpande, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “Site-Controlled Growth of Monolithic InGaAs/InP Quantum Well Nanopillar Lasers on Silicon,” Nano Lett. 17(4), 2697–2702 (2017).
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F. Kish, V. Lal, P. Evans, S. W. Corzine, M. Ziari, T. Butrie, M. Reffle, H. Tsai, A. Dentai, J. Pleumeekers, M. Missey, M. Fisher, S. Murthy, R. Salvatore, P. Samra, S. Demars, N. Kim, A. James, A. Hosseini, P. Studenkov, M. Lauermann, R. Going, M. Lu, J. Zhang, J. Tang, J. Bostak, T. Vallaitis, M. Kuntz, D. Pavinski, A. Karanicolas, B. Behnia, D. Engel, O. Khayam, N. Modi, M. R. Chitgarha, P. Mertz, W. Ko, R. Maher, J. Osenbach, J. T. Rahn, H. Sun, K.-T. Wu, M. Mitchell, and D. Welch, “System-on-Chip Photonic Integrated Circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24(1), 1–20 (2018).
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F. Kish, V. Lal, P. Evans, S. W. Corzine, M. Ziari, T. Butrie, M. Reffle, H. Tsai, A. Dentai, J. Pleumeekers, M. Missey, M. Fisher, S. Murthy, R. Salvatore, P. Samra, S. Demars, N. Kim, A. James, A. Hosseini, P. Studenkov, M. Lauermann, R. Going, M. Lu, J. Zhang, J. Tang, J. Bostak, T. Vallaitis, M. Kuntz, D. Pavinski, A. Karanicolas, B. Behnia, D. Engel, O. Khayam, N. Modi, M. R. Chitgarha, P. Mertz, W. Ko, R. Maher, J. Osenbach, J. T. Rahn, H. Sun, K.-T. Wu, M. Mitchell, and D. Welch, “System-on-Chip Photonic Integrated Circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24(1), 1–20 (2018).
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F. Kish, V. Lal, P. Evans, S. W. Corzine, M. Ziari, T. Butrie, M. Reffle, H. Tsai, A. Dentai, J. Pleumeekers, M. Missey, M. Fisher, S. Murthy, R. Salvatore, P. Samra, S. Demars, N. Kim, A. James, A. Hosseini, P. Studenkov, M. Lauermann, R. Going, M. Lu, J. Zhang, J. Tang, J. Bostak, T. Vallaitis, M. Kuntz, D. Pavinski, A. Karanicolas, B. Behnia, D. Engel, O. Khayam, N. Modi, M. R. Chitgarha, P. Mertz, W. Ko, R. Maher, J. Osenbach, J. T. Rahn, H. Sun, K.-T. Wu, M. Mitchell, and D. Welch, “System-on-Chip Photonic Integrated Circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24(1), 1–20 (2018).
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Kumari, S.

Z. Wang, A. Abbasi, U. Dave, A. Groote, S. Kumari, B. Kunert, C. Merckling, M. Pantouvaki, Y. Shi, B. Tian, K. Gasse, J. Verbist, R. Wang, W. Xie, J. Zhang, Y. Zhu, J. Bauwelinck, X. Yin, Z. Hens, J. Campenhout, B. Kuyken, R. Baets, G. Morthier, D. Thourhout, and G. Roelkens, “Novel Light Source Integration Approaches for Silicon Photonics,” Laser Photonics Rev. 11(4), 1700063 (2017).
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Kunert, B.

Z. Wang, A. Abbasi, U. Dave, A. Groote, S. Kumari, B. Kunert, C. Merckling, M. Pantouvaki, Y. Shi, B. Tian, K. Gasse, J. Verbist, R. Wang, W. Xie, J. Zhang, Y. Zhu, J. Bauwelinck, X. Yin, Z. Hens, J. Campenhout, B. Kuyken, R. Baets, G. Morthier, D. Thourhout, and G. Roelkens, “Novel Light Source Integration Approaches for Silicon Photonics,” Laser Photonics Rev. 11(4), 1700063 (2017).
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Y. Shi, Z. Wang, J. Van Campenhout, M. Pantouvaki, W. Guo, B. Kunert, and D. Van Thourhout, “Optical pumped InGaAs/GaAs nano-ridge laser epitaxially grown on a standard 300-mm Si wafer,” Optica 4(12), 1468 (2017).
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Kuntz, M.

F. Kish, V. Lal, P. Evans, S. W. Corzine, M. Ziari, T. Butrie, M. Reffle, H. Tsai, A. Dentai, J. Pleumeekers, M. Missey, M. Fisher, S. Murthy, R. Salvatore, P. Samra, S. Demars, N. Kim, A. James, A. Hosseini, P. Studenkov, M. Lauermann, R. Going, M. Lu, J. Zhang, J. Tang, J. Bostak, T. Vallaitis, M. Kuntz, D. Pavinski, A. Karanicolas, B. Behnia, D. Engel, O. Khayam, N. Modi, M. R. Chitgarha, P. Mertz, W. Ko, R. Maher, J. Osenbach, J. T. Rahn, H. Sun, K.-T. Wu, M. Mitchell, and D. Welch, “System-on-Chip Photonic Integrated Circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24(1), 1–20 (2018).
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Kuyken, B.

Z. Wang, A. Abbasi, U. Dave, A. Groote, S. Kumari, B. Kunert, C. Merckling, M. Pantouvaki, Y. Shi, B. Tian, K. Gasse, J. Verbist, R. Wang, W. Xie, J. Zhang, Y. Zhu, J. Bauwelinck, X. Yin, Z. Hens, J. Campenhout, B. Kuyken, R. Baets, G. Morthier, D. Thourhout, and G. Roelkens, “Novel Light Source Integration Approaches for Silicon Photonics,” Laser Photonics Rev. 11(4), 1700063 (2017).
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Lal, V.

F. Kish, V. Lal, P. Evans, S. W. Corzine, M. Ziari, T. Butrie, M. Reffle, H. Tsai, A. Dentai, J. Pleumeekers, M. Missey, M. Fisher, S. Murthy, R. Salvatore, P. Samra, S. Demars, N. Kim, A. James, A. Hosseini, P. Studenkov, M. Lauermann, R. Going, M. Lu, J. Zhang, J. Tang, J. Bostak, T. Vallaitis, M. Kuntz, D. Pavinski, A. Karanicolas, B. Behnia, D. Engel, O. Khayam, N. Modi, M. R. Chitgarha, P. Mertz, W. Ko, R. Maher, J. Osenbach, J. T. Rahn, H. Sun, K.-T. Wu, M. Mitchell, and D. Welch, “System-on-Chip Photonic Integrated Circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24(1), 1–20 (2018).
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Lau, K. M.

Y. Han, W. K. Ng, Y. Xue, Q. Li, K. S. Wong, and K. M. Lau, “Telecom InP/InGaAs nanolaser array directly grown on (001) silicon-on-insulator,” Opt. Lett. 44(4), 767 (2019).
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Y. Han, W. K. Ng, C. Ma, Q. Li, S. Zhu, C. C. S. Chan, K. W. Ng, S. Lennon, R. A. Taylor, K. S. Wong, and K. M. Lau, “Room-temperature InP/InGaAs nano-ridge lasers grown on Si and emitting at telecom bands,” Optica 5(8), 918 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Han, Q. Li, K. W. Ng, S. Zhu, and K. M. Lau, “InGaAs/InP quantum wires grown on silicon with adjustable emission wavelength at telecom bands,” Nanotechnology 29(22), 225601 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Han, Q. Li, S. Chang, W. Hsu, and K. M. Lau, “Growing InGaAs quasi-quantum wires inside semi-rhombic shaped planar InP nanowires on exact (001) silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(24), 242105 (2016).
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J. N. Shapiro, A. Lin, P. S. Wong, A. C. Scofield, C. Tu, P. N. Senanayake, G. Mariani, B. L. Liang, and D. L. Huffaker, “InGaAs heterostructure formation in catalyst-free GaAs nanopillars by selective-area metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(24), 243102 (2010).
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W. S. Ko, C. Chang-Hasnain, L. C. Chuang, F. G. Sedgwick, K. W. Ng, T. D. Tran, and R. Chen, “Nanolasers grown on silicon,” Nat. Photonics 5(3), 170–175 (2011).
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J. N. Shapiro, A. Lin, P. S. Wong, A. C. Scofield, C. Tu, P. N. Senanayake, G. Mariani, B. L. Liang, and D. L. Huffaker, “InGaAs heterostructure formation in catalyst-free GaAs nanopillars by selective-area metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(24), 243102 (2010).
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J. N. Shapiro, A. Lin, P. S. Wong, A. C. Scofield, C. Tu, P. N. Senanayake, G. Mariani, B. L. Liang, and D. L. Huffaker, “InGaAs heterostructure formation in catalyst-free GaAs nanopillars by selective-area metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(24), 243102 (2010).
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Z. Wang, A. Abbasi, U. Dave, A. Groote, S. Kumari, B. Kunert, C. Merckling, M. Pantouvaki, Y. Shi, B. Tian, K. Gasse, J. Verbist, R. Wang, W. Xie, J. Zhang, Y. Zhu, J. Bauwelinck, X. Yin, Z. Hens, J. Campenhout, B. Kuyken, R. Baets, G. Morthier, D. Thourhout, and G. Roelkens, “Novel Light Source Integration Approaches for Silicon Photonics,” Laser Photonics Rev. 11(4), 1700063 (2017).
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Y. Shi, Z. Wang, J. Van Campenhout, M. Pantouvaki, W. Guo, B. Kunert, and D. Van Thourhout, “Optical pumped InGaAs/GaAs nano-ridge laser epitaxially grown on a standard 300-mm Si wafer,” Optica 4(12), 1468 (2017).
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F. Kish, V. Lal, P. Evans, S. W. Corzine, M. Ziari, T. Butrie, M. Reffle, H. Tsai, A. Dentai, J. Pleumeekers, M. Missey, M. Fisher, S. Murthy, R. Salvatore, P. Samra, S. Demars, N. Kim, A. James, A. Hosseini, P. Studenkov, M. Lauermann, R. Going, M. Lu, J. Zhang, J. Tang, J. Bostak, T. Vallaitis, M. Kuntz, D. Pavinski, A. Karanicolas, B. Behnia, D. Engel, O. Khayam, N. Modi, M. R. Chitgarha, P. Mertz, W. Ko, R. Maher, J. Osenbach, J. T. Rahn, H. Sun, K.-T. Wu, M. Mitchell, and D. Welch, “System-on-Chip Photonic Integrated Circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24(1), 1–20 (2018).
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F. Kish, V. Lal, P. Evans, S. W. Corzine, M. Ziari, T. Butrie, M. Reffle, H. Tsai, A. Dentai, J. Pleumeekers, M. Missey, M. Fisher, S. Murthy, R. Salvatore, P. Samra, S. Demars, N. Kim, A. James, A. Hosseini, P. Studenkov, M. Lauermann, R. Going, M. Lu, J. Zhang, J. Tang, J. Bostak, T. Vallaitis, M. Kuntz, D. Pavinski, A. Karanicolas, B. Behnia, D. Engel, O. Khayam, N. Modi, M. R. Chitgarha, P. Mertz, W. Ko, R. Maher, J. Osenbach, J. T. Rahn, H. Sun, K.-T. Wu, M. Mitchell, and D. Welch, “System-on-Chip Photonic Integrated Circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24(1), 1–20 (2018).
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D. Saxena, N. Jiang, X. Yuan, S. Mokkapati, Y. Guo, H. H. Tan, and C. Jagadish, “Design and Room-Temperature Operation of GaAs/AlGaAs Multiple Quantum Well Nanowire Lasers,” Nano Lett. 16(8), 5080–5086 (2016).
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F. Kish, V. Lal, P. Evans, S. W. Corzine, M. Ziari, T. Butrie, M. Reffle, H. Tsai, A. Dentai, J. Pleumeekers, M. Missey, M. Fisher, S. Murthy, R. Salvatore, P. Samra, S. Demars, N. Kim, A. James, A. Hosseini, P. Studenkov, M. Lauermann, R. Going, M. Lu, J. Zhang, J. Tang, J. Bostak, T. Vallaitis, M. Kuntz, D. Pavinski, A. Karanicolas, B. Behnia, D. Engel, O. Khayam, N. Modi, M. R. Chitgarha, P. Mertz, W. Ko, R. Maher, J. Osenbach, J. T. Rahn, H. Sun, K.-T. Wu, M. Mitchell, and D. Welch, “System-on-Chip Photonic Integrated Circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24(1), 1–20 (2018).
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G. Zhang, M. Takiguchi, K. Tateno, T. Tawara, M. Notomi, and H. Gotoh, “Telecom-band lasing in single InP/InAs heterostructure nanowires at room temperature,” Sci. Adv. 5(2), eaat8896 (2019).
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Z. Wang, A. Abbasi, U. Dave, A. Groote, S. Kumari, B. Kunert, C. Merckling, M. Pantouvaki, Y. Shi, B. Tian, K. Gasse, J. Verbist, R. Wang, W. Xie, J. Zhang, Y. Zhu, J. Bauwelinck, X. Yin, Z. Hens, J. Campenhout, B. Kuyken, R. Baets, G. Morthier, D. Thourhout, and G. Roelkens, “Novel Light Source Integration Approaches for Silicon Photonics,” Laser Photonics Rev. 11(4), 1700063 (2017).
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Z. Wang, A. Abbasi, U. Dave, A. Groote, S. Kumari, B. Kunert, C. Merckling, M. Pantouvaki, Y. Shi, B. Tian, K. Gasse, J. Verbist, R. Wang, W. Xie, J. Zhang, Y. Zhu, J. Bauwelinck, X. Yin, Z. Hens, J. Campenhout, B. Kuyken, R. Baets, G. Morthier, D. Thourhout, and G. Roelkens, “Novel Light Source Integration Approaches for Silicon Photonics,” Laser Photonics Rev. 11(4), 1700063 (2017).
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B. Tian, Z. Wang, M. Pantouvaki, P. Absil, J. Van Campenhout, C. Merckling, and D. Van Thourhout, “Room Temperature O-band DFB Laser Array Directly Grown on (001) Silicon,” Nano Lett. 17(1), 559–564 (2017).
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Z. Wang, B. Tian, M. Pantouvaki, W. Guo, P. Absil, J. Van Campenhout, C. Merckling, and D. Van Thourhout, “Room-temperature InP distributed feedback laser array directly grown on silicon,” Nat. Photonics 9(12), 837–842 (2015).
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Tsai, H.

F. Kish, V. Lal, P. Evans, S. W. Corzine, M. Ziari, T. Butrie, M. Reffle, H. Tsai, A. Dentai, J. Pleumeekers, M. Missey, M. Fisher, S. Murthy, R. Salvatore, P. Samra, S. Demars, N. Kim, A. James, A. Hosseini, P. Studenkov, M. Lauermann, R. Going, M. Lu, J. Zhang, J. Tang, J. Bostak, T. Vallaitis, M. Kuntz, D. Pavinski, A. Karanicolas, B. Behnia, D. Engel, O. Khayam, N. Modi, M. R. Chitgarha, P. Mertz, W. Ko, R. Maher, J. Osenbach, J. T. Rahn, H. Sun, K.-T. Wu, M. Mitchell, and D. Welch, “System-on-Chip Photonic Integrated Circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24(1), 1–20 (2018).
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J. N. Shapiro, A. Lin, P. S. Wong, A. C. Scofield, C. Tu, P. N. Senanayake, G. Mariani, B. L. Liang, and D. L. Huffaker, “InGaAs heterostructure formation in catalyst-free GaAs nanopillars by selective-area metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(24), 243102 (2010).
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B. Tian, Z. Wang, M. Pantouvaki, P. Absil, J. Van Campenhout, C. Merckling, and D. Van Thourhout, “Room Temperature O-band DFB Laser Array Directly Grown on (001) Silicon,” Nano Lett. 17(1), 559–564 (2017).
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Y. Shi, Z. Wang, J. Van Campenhout, M. Pantouvaki, W. Guo, B. Kunert, and D. Van Thourhout, “Optical pumped InGaAs/GaAs nano-ridge laser epitaxially grown on a standard 300-mm Si wafer,” Optica 4(12), 1468 (2017).
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Z. Wang, B. Tian, M. Pantouvaki, W. Guo, P. Absil, J. Van Campenhout, C. Merckling, and D. Van Thourhout, “Room-temperature InP distributed feedback laser array directly grown on silicon,” Nat. Photonics 9(12), 837–842 (2015).
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Van Thourhout, D.

Y. Shi, Z. Wang, J. Van Campenhout, M. Pantouvaki, W. Guo, B. Kunert, and D. Van Thourhout, “Optical pumped InGaAs/GaAs nano-ridge laser epitaxially grown on a standard 300-mm Si wafer,” Optica 4(12), 1468 (2017).
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B. Tian, Z. Wang, M. Pantouvaki, P. Absil, J. Van Campenhout, C. Merckling, and D. Van Thourhout, “Room Temperature O-band DFB Laser Array Directly Grown on (001) Silicon,” Nano Lett. 17(1), 559–564 (2017).
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Z. Wang, B. Tian, M. Pantouvaki, W. Guo, P. Absil, J. Van Campenhout, C. Merckling, and D. Van Thourhout, “Room-temperature InP distributed feedback laser array directly grown on silicon,” Nat. Photonics 9(12), 837–842 (2015).
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Z. Wang, A. Abbasi, U. Dave, A. Groote, S. Kumari, B. Kunert, C. Merckling, M. Pantouvaki, Y. Shi, B. Tian, K. Gasse, J. Verbist, R. Wang, W. Xie, J. Zhang, Y. Zhu, J. Bauwelinck, X. Yin, Z. Hens, J. Campenhout, B. Kuyken, R. Baets, G. Morthier, D. Thourhout, and G. Roelkens, “Novel Light Source Integration Approaches for Silicon Photonics,” Laser Photonics Rev. 11(4), 1700063 (2017).
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Z. Wang, A. Abbasi, U. Dave, A. Groote, S. Kumari, B. Kunert, C. Merckling, M. Pantouvaki, Y. Shi, B. Tian, K. Gasse, J. Verbist, R. Wang, W. Xie, J. Zhang, Y. Zhu, J. Bauwelinck, X. Yin, Z. Hens, J. Campenhout, B. Kuyken, R. Baets, G. Morthier, D. Thourhout, and G. Roelkens, “Novel Light Source Integration Approaches for Silicon Photonics,” Laser Photonics Rev. 11(4), 1700063 (2017).
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B. Tian, Z. Wang, M. Pantouvaki, P. Absil, J. Van Campenhout, C. Merckling, and D. Van Thourhout, “Room Temperature O-band DFB Laser Array Directly Grown on (001) Silicon,” Nano Lett. 17(1), 559–564 (2017).
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Y. Shi, Z. Wang, J. Van Campenhout, M. Pantouvaki, W. Guo, B. Kunert, and D. Van Thourhout, “Optical pumped InGaAs/GaAs nano-ridge laser epitaxially grown on a standard 300-mm Si wafer,” Optica 4(12), 1468 (2017).
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Z. Wang, B. Tian, M. Pantouvaki, W. Guo, P. Absil, J. Van Campenhout, C. Merckling, and D. Van Thourhout, “Room-temperature InP distributed feedback laser array directly grown on silicon,” Nat. Photonics 9(12), 837–842 (2015).
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F. Kish, V. Lal, P. Evans, S. W. Corzine, M. Ziari, T. Butrie, M. Reffle, H. Tsai, A. Dentai, J. Pleumeekers, M. Missey, M. Fisher, S. Murthy, R. Salvatore, P. Samra, S. Demars, N. Kim, A. James, A. Hosseini, P. Studenkov, M. Lauermann, R. Going, M. Lu, J. Zhang, J. Tang, J. Bostak, T. Vallaitis, M. Kuntz, D. Pavinski, A. Karanicolas, B. Behnia, D. Engel, O. Khayam, N. Modi, M. R. Chitgarha, P. Mertz, W. Ko, R. Maher, J. Osenbach, J. T. Rahn, H. Sun, K.-T. Wu, M. Mitchell, and D. Welch, “System-on-Chip Photonic Integrated Circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24(1), 1–20 (2018).
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Wong, P. S.

J. N. Shapiro, A. Lin, P. S. Wong, A. C. Scofield, C. Tu, P. N. Senanayake, G. Mariani, B. L. Liang, and D. L. Huffaker, “InGaAs heterostructure formation in catalyst-free GaAs nanopillars by selective-area metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(24), 243102 (2010).
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F. Kish, V. Lal, P. Evans, S. W. Corzine, M. Ziari, T. Butrie, M. Reffle, H. Tsai, A. Dentai, J. Pleumeekers, M. Missey, M. Fisher, S. Murthy, R. Salvatore, P. Samra, S. Demars, N. Kim, A. James, A. Hosseini, P. Studenkov, M. Lauermann, R. Going, M. Lu, J. Zhang, J. Tang, J. Bostak, T. Vallaitis, M. Kuntz, D. Pavinski, A. Karanicolas, B. Behnia, D. Engel, O. Khayam, N. Modi, M. R. Chitgarha, P. Mertz, W. Ko, R. Maher, J. Osenbach, J. T. Rahn, H. Sun, K.-T. Wu, M. Mitchell, and D. Welch, “System-on-Chip Photonic Integrated Circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24(1), 1–20 (2018).
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Z. Wang, A. Abbasi, U. Dave, A. Groote, S. Kumari, B. Kunert, C. Merckling, M. Pantouvaki, Y. Shi, B. Tian, K. Gasse, J. Verbist, R. Wang, W. Xie, J. Zhang, Y. Zhu, J. Bauwelinck, X. Yin, Z. Hens, J. Campenhout, B. Kuyken, R. Baets, G. Morthier, D. Thourhout, and G. Roelkens, “Novel Light Source Integration Approaches for Silicon Photonics,” Laser Photonics Rev. 11(4), 1700063 (2017).
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D. Thomson, A. Zilkie, J. E. Bowers, T. Komljenovic, G. T. Reed, L. Vivien, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, L. Virot, J. Fédéli, J. Hartmann, J. H. Schmid, D. Xu, F. Boeuf, P. O’Brien, G. Z. Mashanovich, and M. Nedeljkovic, “Roadmap on silicon photonics,” J. Opt. 18(7), 073003 (2016).
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Y. Arakawa and A. Yariv, “Quantum well lasers–Gain, spectra, dynamics,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 22(9), 1887–1899 (1986).
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Z. Wang, A. Abbasi, U. Dave, A. Groote, S. Kumari, B. Kunert, C. Merckling, M. Pantouvaki, Y. Shi, B. Tian, K. Gasse, J. Verbist, R. Wang, W. Xie, J. Zhang, Y. Zhu, J. Bauwelinck, X. Yin, Z. Hens, J. Campenhout, B. Kuyken, R. Baets, G. Morthier, D. Thourhout, and G. Roelkens, “Novel Light Source Integration Approaches for Silicon Photonics,” Laser Photonics Rev. 11(4), 1700063 (2017).
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Yuan, X.

D. Saxena, N. Jiang, X. Yuan, S. Mokkapati, Y. Guo, H. H. Tan, and C. Jagadish, “Design and Room-Temperature Operation of GaAs/AlGaAs Multiple Quantum Well Nanowire Lasers,” Nano Lett. 16(8), 5080–5086 (2016).
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G. Zhang, M. Takiguchi, K. Tateno, T. Tawara, M. Notomi, and H. Gotoh, “Telecom-band lasing in single InP/InAs heterostructure nanowires at room temperature,” Sci. Adv. 5(2), eaat8896 (2019).
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Z. Wang, A. Abbasi, U. Dave, A. Groote, S. Kumari, B. Kunert, C. Merckling, M. Pantouvaki, Y. Shi, B. Tian, K. Gasse, J. Verbist, R. Wang, W. Xie, J. Zhang, Y. Zhu, J. Bauwelinck, X. Yin, Z. Hens, J. Campenhout, B. Kuyken, R. Baets, G. Morthier, D. Thourhout, and G. Roelkens, “Novel Light Source Integration Approaches for Silicon Photonics,” Laser Photonics Rev. 11(4), 1700063 (2017).
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Ziari, M.

F. Kish, V. Lal, P. Evans, S. W. Corzine, M. Ziari, T. Butrie, M. Reffle, H. Tsai, A. Dentai, J. Pleumeekers, M. Missey, M. Fisher, S. Murthy, R. Salvatore, P. Samra, S. Demars, N. Kim, A. James, A. Hosseini, P. Studenkov, M. Lauermann, R. Going, M. Lu, J. Zhang, J. Tang, J. Bostak, T. Vallaitis, M. Kuntz, D. Pavinski, A. Karanicolas, B. Behnia, D. Engel, O. Khayam, N. Modi, M. R. Chitgarha, P. Mertz, W. Ko, R. Maher, J. Osenbach, J. T. Rahn, H. Sun, K.-T. Wu, M. Mitchell, and D. Welch, “System-on-Chip Photonic Integrated Circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24(1), 1–20 (2018).
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D. Thomson, A. Zilkie, J. E. Bowers, T. Komljenovic, G. T. Reed, L. Vivien, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, L. Virot, J. Fédéli, J. Hartmann, J. H. Schmid, D. Xu, F. Boeuf, P. O’Brien, G. Z. Mashanovich, and M. Nedeljkovic, “Roadmap on silicon photonics,” J. Opt. 18(7), 073003 (2016).
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Y. Han, Q. Li, S. Chang, W. Hsu, and K. M. Lau, “Growing InGaAs quasi-quantum wires inside semi-rhombic shaped planar InP nanowires on exact (001) silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(24), 242105 (2016).
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J. N. Shapiro, A. Lin, P. S. Wong, A. C. Scofield, C. Tu, P. N. Senanayake, G. Mariani, B. L. Liang, and D. L. Huffaker, “InGaAs heterostructure formation in catalyst-free GaAs nanopillars by selective-area metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(24), 243102 (2010).
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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) Schematic of the cross-section of the designed InP/InGaAs nano-ridge laser array grown on SOI substrate. (b) 70° tilted SEM image of nano-ridge lasers on SOI; the inset shows the zoomed-in image on the cross-section of the nano-ridge laser. (c) Room-temperature emission spectra of the 60 µm nano-ridge laser below (blue, magnified ×20000) and above (red) the lasing threshold (41.8 µJ/cm2).
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Relationship between lasing wavelength and nano-ridge laser cavity length.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) FDE simulation of the group index ${\textrm{n}_\textrm{g}}$ of the first three eigenmodes in the nano-ridges at different mode wavelengths; the inset illustrates the profiles of the HE11a, HE11b and TE01 modes at 1400 nm. (b) Confinement factors of the modes in QW active layers at different mode wavelengths. (c) FDTD simulation of modal reflectivity at different mode wavelengths of the same three modes.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (a) Relationship between the pumping threshold ${\textrm{F}_{\textrm{th}}}$ and $1/\textrm{length}$ of the nano-ridge lasers. The linear relation is fitted using Eq. (1) according to the fact that the loss of the lasers ${\alpha _T}$ is directly proportional to the lasing threshold ${\textrm{F}_{\textrm{th}}}$. (b) Modal gain spectra of the InP/InGaAs QW active layer under different carrier densities. The carrier densities are indicated on the spectra in the unit of $\textrm{c}{\textrm{m}^{ - 3}}$.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Contour plot of the normalized modal gain spectrum of InP/InGaAs QW at 6 nm thickness.

Equations (4)

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α T = 1 L ln ( R ~ ) + α i ,
g m ( ω ) = Γ g ( ω )
g ( ω ) = π e 2 n ε 0 c m 0 2 ω n c , n v 0 | M T | 2 ( m r H π 2 d ) ( f c f v ) ( π τ i n 1 ( E ω ) 2 + ( / τ i n ) 2 ) d E ,
F t h = N t h ( h c / h c λ λ ) V a η A p ,

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