Abstract

Surface plasmon propagation and scattering on structured metal–dielectric interfaces are important tools for field confinement and enhanced atom–field interaction. In this paper, we demonstrate a new type of surface plasmon (SP) lasing that more closely resembles the usual mirror-based laser, in a geometry that comprises a central 50-μm-long flat region between two metal hole arrays that serve as reflecting mirrors. The lasing mode shows features of double-slit interference modulated by the radiation pattern of, and selection rules set by, the scattering of SPs on the 2D hole arrays. Our results also provide information on the group velocity of surface plasmons and their scattering and penetration in hole arrays.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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  4. T.-F. Ma, Y.-P. Chen, J.-S. Guo, W. Wang, and F. Fang, TRAC Trends Anal. Chem. 103, 102 (2018).
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  7. D. K. Gramotnev and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, Nat. Photonics 4, 83 (2010).
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    [Crossref]
  24. K. Petermann, Laser Diode Modulation and Noise (Springer, 1991).
  25. H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1762 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  26. H. A. Haus, Waves and Fields in Optoelectronics (Prentice-Hall, 1984).

2018 (2)

T.-F. Ma, Y.-P. Chen, J.-S. Guo, W. Wang, and F. Fang, TRAC Trends Anal. Chem. 103, 102 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. T. Reiner, S. Fossati, and J. Dostalek, Sens. Actuators B Chem. 257, 594 (2018).
[Crossref]

2016 (1)

2015 (1)

C. Zhang, Y. Lu, Y. Ni, M. Li, L. Mao, C. Liu, D. Zhang, H. Ming, and P. Wang, Nano Lett. 15, 1382 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

F. V. Beijnum, P. J. van Veldhoven, E. J. Geluk, G. W. ’t Hooft, and M. P. van Exter, Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 061112 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

F. van Beijnum, P. J. van Veldhoven, E. J. Geluk, M. J. A. de Dood, G. W. ’t Hooft, and M. P. van Exter, Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 206802 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. P. van Exter, V. T. Tenner, F. Beijnum, M. J. A. de Dood, P. Veldhoven, E. J. Geluk, and G. W. ’t Hooft, Opt. Express 21, 27422 (2013).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

W. Wang, Q. Yang, F. Fan, H. Xu, and Z. L. Wang, Nano Lett. 11, 1603 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

D. K. Gramotnev and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, Nat. Photonics 4, 83 (2010).
[Crossref]

I. De Leon and P. Berini, Nat. Photonics 4, 382 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

M. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. Shalaev, E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, Nature 460, 1110 (2009).
[Crossref]

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R.-M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, Nature 461, 629 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, M. Mayy, B. A. Ritzo, N. Noginova, and V. A. Podolskiy, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 226806 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, Nat. Mater. 7, 442 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (3)

K. A. Willets and R. P. Van Duyne, Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 58, 267 (2007).
[Crossref]

S. Lal, S. Link, and N. Halas, Nat. Photonics 1, 641 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, Nat. Photonics 1, 589 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

S. Bozhevolnyi, V. Volkov, E. Devaux, J.-Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, Nature 440, 508 (2006).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

P. Andrew and W. Barnes, Science 306, 1002 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, Nature 424, 824 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1762 (2002).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

P. Mulvaney, Langmuir 12, 788 (1996).
[Crossref]

1989 (1)

S. Adachi, J. Appl. Phys. 66, 6030 (1989).
[Crossref]

’t Hooft, G. W.

F. V. Beijnum, P. J. van Veldhoven, E. J. Geluk, G. W. ’t Hooft, and M. P. van Exter, Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 061112 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. van Beijnum, P. J. van Veldhoven, E. J. Geluk, M. J. A. de Dood, G. W. ’t Hooft, and M. P. van Exter, Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 206802 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. P. van Exter, V. T. Tenner, F. Beijnum, M. J. A. de Dood, P. Veldhoven, E. J. Geluk, and G. W. ’t Hooft, Opt. Express 21, 27422 (2013).
[Crossref]

Adachi, S.

S. Adachi, J. Appl. Phys. 66, 6030 (1989).
[Crossref]

Andrew, P.

P. Andrew and W. Barnes, Science 306, 1002 (2004).
[Crossref]

Anker, J. N.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, Nat. Mater. 7, 442 (2008).
[Crossref]

Aussenegg, F. R.

H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1762 (2002).
[Crossref]

Bakker, R.

M. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. Shalaev, E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, Nature 460, 1110 (2009).
[Crossref]

Barnes, W.

P. Andrew and W. Barnes, Science 306, 1002 (2004).
[Crossref]

Barnes, W. L.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, Nature 424, 824 (2003).
[Crossref]

Bartal, G.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R.-M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, Nature 461, 629 (2009).
[Crossref]

Beijnum, F.

Beijnum, F. V.

F. V. Beijnum, P. J. van Veldhoven, E. J. Geluk, G. W. ’t Hooft, and M. P. van Exter, Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 061112 (2014).
[Crossref]

Belgrave, A.

M. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. Shalaev, E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, Nature 460, 1110 (2009).
[Crossref]

Berini, P.

I. De Leon and P. Berini, Nat. Photonics 4, 382 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bozhevolnyi, S.

S. Bozhevolnyi, V. Volkov, E. Devaux, J.-Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, Nature 440, 508 (2006).
[Crossref]

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

D. K. Gramotnev and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, Nat. Photonics 4, 83 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.-P.

T.-F. Ma, Y.-P. Chen, J.-S. Guo, W. Wang, and F. Fang, TRAC Trends Anal. Chem. 103, 102 (2018).
[Crossref]

Dai, L.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R.-M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, Nature 461, 629 (2009).
[Crossref]

de Dood, M. J. A.

De Leon, I.

I. De Leon and P. Berini, Nat. Photonics 4, 382 (2010).
[Crossref]

de Vries, T.

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, Nat. Photonics 1, 589 (2007).
[Crossref]

de Waardt, H.

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, Nat. Photonics 1, 589 (2007).
[Crossref]

Dereux, A.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, Nature 424, 824 (2003).
[Crossref]

Devaux, E.

S. Bozhevolnyi, V. Volkov, E. Devaux, J.-Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, Nature 440, 508 (2006).
[Crossref]

Ditlbacher, H.

H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1762 (2002).
[Crossref]

Dostalek, J.

A. T. Reiner, S. Fossati, and J. Dostalek, Sens. Actuators B Chem. 257, 594 (2018).
[Crossref]

Ebbesen, T. W.

S. Bozhevolnyi, V. Volkov, E. Devaux, J.-Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, Nature 440, 508 (2006).
[Crossref]

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, Nature 424, 824 (2003).
[Crossref]

Eijkemans, T. J.

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, Nat. Photonics 1, 589 (2007).
[Crossref]

Fan, F.

W. Wang, Q. Yang, F. Fan, H. Xu, and Z. L. Wang, Nano Lett. 11, 1603 (2011).
[Crossref]

Fang, F.

T.-F. Ma, Y.-P. Chen, J.-S. Guo, W. Wang, and F. Fang, TRAC Trends Anal. Chem. 103, 102 (2018).
[Crossref]

Fossati, S.

A. T. Reiner, S. Fossati, and J. Dostalek, Sens. Actuators B Chem. 257, 594 (2018).
[Crossref]

Geluk, E. J.

F. V. Beijnum, P. J. van Veldhoven, E. J. Geluk, G. W. ’t Hooft, and M. P. van Exter, Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 061112 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. van Beijnum, P. J. van Veldhoven, E. J. Geluk, M. J. A. de Dood, G. W. ’t Hooft, and M. P. van Exter, Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 206802 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. P. van Exter, V. T. Tenner, F. Beijnum, M. J. A. de Dood, P. Veldhoven, E. J. Geluk, and G. W. ’t Hooft, Opt. Express 21, 27422 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, Nat. Photonics 1, 589 (2007).
[Crossref]

Gladden, C.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R.-M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, Nature 461, 629 (2009).
[Crossref]

Gramotnev, D. K.

D. K. Gramotnev and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, Nat. Photonics 4, 83 (2010).
[Crossref]

Guo, J.-S.

T.-F. Ma, Y.-P. Chen, J.-S. Guo, W. Wang, and F. Fang, TRAC Trends Anal. Chem. 103, 102 (2018).
[Crossref]

Halas, N.

S. Lal, S. Link, and N. Halas, Nat. Photonics 1, 641 (2007).
[Crossref]

Hall, W. P.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, Nat. Mater. 7, 442 (2008).
[Crossref]

Haus, H. A.

H. A. Haus, Waves and Fields in Optoelectronics (Prentice-Hall, 1984).

Herz, E.

M. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. Shalaev, E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, Nature 460, 1110 (2009).
[Crossref]

Hill, M. T.

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, Nat. Photonics 1, 589 (2007).
[Crossref]

Krenn, J. R.

H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1762 (2002).
[Crossref]

Kwon, S.-H.

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, Nat. Photonics 1, 589 (2007).
[Crossref]

Lal, S.

S. Lal, S. Link, and N. Halas, Nat. Photonics 1, 641 (2007).
[Crossref]

Laluet, J.-Y.

S. Bozhevolnyi, V. Volkov, E. Devaux, J.-Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, Nature 440, 508 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lee, Y.-H.

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, Nat. Photonics 1, 589 (2007).
[Crossref]

Leitner, A.

H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1762 (2002).
[Crossref]

Li, M.

C. Zhang, Y. Lu, Y. Ni, M. Li, L. Mao, C. Liu, D. Zhang, H. Ming, and P. Wang, Nano Lett. 15, 1382 (2015).
[Crossref]

Link, S.

S. Lal, S. Link, and N. Halas, Nat. Photonics 1, 641 (2007).
[Crossref]

Liu, C.

C. Zhang, Y. Lu, Y. Ni, M. Li, L. Mao, C. Liu, D. Zhang, H. Ming, and P. Wang, Nano Lett. 15, 1382 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lu, Y.

C. Zhang, Y. Lu, Y. Ni, M. Li, L. Mao, C. Liu, D. Zhang, H. Ming, and P. Wang, Nano Lett. 15, 1382 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lyandres, O.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, Nat. Mater. 7, 442 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ma, R.-M.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R.-M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, Nature 461, 629 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ma, T.-F.

T.-F. Ma, Y.-P. Chen, J.-S. Guo, W. Wang, and F. Fang, TRAC Trends Anal. Chem. 103, 102 (2018).
[Crossref]

Mao, L.

C. Zhang, Y. Lu, Y. Ni, M. Li, L. Mao, C. Liu, D. Zhang, H. Ming, and P. Wang, Nano Lett. 15, 1382 (2015).
[Crossref]

Mayy, M.

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, M. Mayy, B. A. Ritzo, N. Noginova, and V. A. Podolskiy, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 226806 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ming, H.

C. Zhang, Y. Lu, Y. Ni, M. Li, L. Mao, C. Liu, D. Zhang, H. Ming, and P. Wang, Nano Lett. 15, 1382 (2015).
[Crossref]

Mulvaney, P.

P. Mulvaney, Langmuir 12, 788 (1996).
[Crossref]

Narimanov, E.

M. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. Shalaev, E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, Nature 460, 1110 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ni, Y.

C. Zhang, Y. Lu, Y. Ni, M. Li, L. Mao, C. Liu, D. Zhang, H. Ming, and P. Wang, Nano Lett. 15, 1382 (2015).
[Crossref]

Noginov, M.

M. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. Shalaev, E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, Nature 460, 1110 (2009).
[Crossref]

Noginov, M. A.

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, M. Mayy, B. A. Ritzo, N. Noginova, and V. A. Podolskiy, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 226806 (2008).
[Crossref]

Noginova, N.

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, M. Mayy, B. A. Ritzo, N. Noginova, and V. A. Podolskiy, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 226806 (2008).
[Crossref]

Nötzel, R.

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, Nat. Photonics 1, 589 (2007).
[Crossref]

Oei, Y.-S.

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, Nat. Photonics 1, 589 (2007).
[Crossref]

Oulton, R. F.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R.-M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, Nature 461, 629 (2009).
[Crossref]

Petermann, K.

K. Petermann, Laser Diode Modulation and Noise (Springer, 1991).

Podolskiy, V. A.

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, M. Mayy, B. A. Ritzo, N. Noginova, and V. A. Podolskiy, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 226806 (2008).
[Crossref]

Raether, H.

H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings, Vol. 111 of Springer Tracts in Modern Physics (Springer, 1988).

Reiner, A. T.

A. T. Reiner, S. Fossati, and J. Dostalek, Sens. Actuators B Chem. 257, 594 (2018).
[Crossref]

Ritzo, B. A.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) Emission spectrum observed at various pump powers (vertically shifted by 0.2 for readability). The black dashed curve depicts the transmission properties of the bandpass filter. The inset shows the input–output curve of the spectral peak at 1485 nm. (b) Spontaneous emission spectrum of a single hole array (other array gave identical results).
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) Direct image of the emission on the air side of the structure observed with the CCD. The yellow dashed lines indicate the edges of the two hole arrays. The red dashed line indicates the approximate pump shape at FWHM. (b) Intensity of emission (black) and excitation spot (red dashed) along the central green line in (a). (c) Log-plot of the intensity that shows the exponential decay into the arrays.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Far-field (angular-resolved) emission from structure shown in Fig. 2. The intensity of the interference pattern along the horizontal green solid line is plotted in blue in the bottom figure (baseline shifted by 0.6). Spectrally resolved measurements at λ=1480  nm (black) and 1485 nm (red) gave similar results. The right-hand figure shows the integrated intensity of the pattern along the horizontal axis.

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