Abstract

Devices that perform wide field-of-view (FOV) precision optical scanning are important for endoscopic assessment and diagnosis of luminal organ disease such as in gastroenterology. Optical scanning for in vivo endoscopic imaging has traditionally relied on one or more proximal mechanical actuators, limiting scan accuracy and imaging speed. There is a need for rapid and precise two-dimensional (2D) microscanning technologies to enable the translation of benchtop scanning microscopies to in vivo endoscopic imaging. We demonstrate a new cycloid scanner in a tethered capsule for ultrahigh speed, side-viewing optical coherence tomography (OCT) endomicroscopy in vivo. The cycloid capsule incorporates two scanners: a piezoelectrically actuated resonant fiber scanner to perform a precision, small FOV, fast scan and a micromotor scanner to perform a wide FOV, slow scan. Together these scanners distally scan the beam circumferentially in a 2D cycloid pattern, generating an unwrapped 1  mm×38  mm strip FOV. Sequential strip volumes can be acquired with proximal pullback to image centimeter-long regions. Using ultrahigh speed 1.3 μm wavelength swept-source OCT at a 1.17 MHz axial scan rate, we imaged the human rectum at 3 volumes/s. Each OCT strip volume had 166×2322 axial scans with 8.5 μm axial and 30 μm transverse resolution. We further demonstrate OCT angiography at 0.5 volumes/s, producing volumetric images of vasculature. In addition to OCT applications, cycloid scanning promises to enable precision 2D optical scanning for other imaging modalities, including fluorescence confocal and nonlinear microscopy.

© 2018 Optical Society of America

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2017 (4)

W. Liang, G. Hall, B. Messerschmidt, M. Li, and X. Li, “Nonlinear optical endomicroscopy for label-free functional histology in vivo,” Light Sci. Appl. 6, e17082 (2017).
[Crossref]

R. L. Siegel, K. D. Miller, S. A. Fedewa, D. J. Ahnen, R. G. S. Meester, A. Barzi, and A. Jemal, “Colorectal cancer statistics, 2017,” CA Cancer J. Clin. 67, 177–193 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. Klein and R. Huber, “High-speed OCT light sources and systems [Invited],” Biomed. Opt. Express 8, 828–859 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. Liang, O. O. Ahsen, Z. Wang, H.-C. Lee, W. Liang, B. M. Potsaid, T.-H. Tsai, M. G. Giacomelli, V. Jayaraman, H. Mashimo, X. Li, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Endoscopic forward-viewing optical coherence tomography and angiography with MHz swept source,” Opt. Lett. 42, 3193–3196 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (2)

H.-C. Lee, O. O. Ahsen, K. Liang, Z. Wang, C. Cleveland, L. Booth, B. Potsaid, V. Jayaraman, A. E. Cable, H. Mashimo, R. Langer, G. Traverso, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Circumferential optical coherence tomography angiography imaging of the swine esophagus using a micromotor balloon catheter,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7, 2927–2942 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. Liang, O. O. Ahsen, H.-C. Lee, Z. Wang, B. M. Potsaid, M. Figueiredo, V. Jayaraman, A. E. Cable, Q. Huang, H. Mashimo, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Volumetric mapping of Barrett’s esophagus and dysplasia with en face optical coherence tomography tethered capsule,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 111, 1664–1666 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (4)

2014 (4)

2013 (3)

2012 (6)

2011 (4)

D. R. Rivera, C. M. Brown, D. G. Ouzounov, I. Pavlova, D. Kobat, W. W. Webb, and C. Xu, “Compact and flexible raster scanning multiphoton endoscope capable of imaging unstained tissue,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108, 17598–17603 (2011).
[Crossref]

E. Jonathan, J. Enfield, and M. J. Leahy, “Correlation mapping method for generating microcirculation morphology from optical coherence tomography (OCT) intensity images,” J. Biophoton. 4, 293–296 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Wallace, G. Y. Lauwers, Y. Chen, E. Dekker, P. Fockens, P. Sharma, and A. Meining, “Miami classification for probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy,” Endoscopy 43, 882–891 (2011).

W. Kang, H. Wang, Z. Wang, M. W. Jenkins, G. A. Isenberg, A. Chak, and A. M. Rollins, “Motion artifacts associated with in vivo endoscopic OCT images of the esophagus,” Opt. Express 19, 20722–20735 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (6)

2009 (1)

B. J. Vakoc, R. M. Lanning, J. A. Tyrrell, T. P. Padera, L. A. Bartlett, T. Stylianopoulos, L. L. Munn, G. J. Tearney, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and B. E. Bouma, “Three-dimensional microscopy of the tumor microenvironment in vivo using optical frequency domain imaging,” Nat. Med. 15, 1219–1223 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (5)

E. J. Seibel, R. E. Carroll, J. A. Dominitz, R. S. Johnston, C. D. Melville, C. M. Lee, S. M. Seitz, and M. B. Kimmey, “Tethered capsule endoscopy, a low-cost and high-performance alternative technology for the screening of esophageal cancer and Barrett’s esophagus,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 55, 1032–1042 (2008).
[Crossref]

G. van Soest, J. G. Bosch, and A. F. W. van der Steen, “Azimuthal registration of image sequences affected by nonuniform rotation distortion,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Technol. Biomed. 12, 348–355 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. J. Suter, B. J. Vakoc, P. S. Yachimski, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, B. E. Bouma, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive microscopy of the esophagus in human patients with optical frequency domain imaging,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 68, 745–753 (2008).
[Crossref]

F. C. Ramirez, R. Akins, and M. Shaukat, “Screening of Barrett’s esophagus with string-capsule endoscopy: a prospective blinded study of 100 consecutive patients using histology as the criterion standard,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 68, 25–31 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. Mariampillai, B. A. Standish, E. H. Moriyama, M. Khurana, N. R. Munce, M. K. K. Leung, J. Jiang, A. Cable, B. C. Wilson, I. A. Vitkin, and V. X. D. Yang, “Speckle variance detection of microvasculature using swept-source optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 33, 1530–1532 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (3)

D. C. Adler, Y. Chen, R. Huber, J. Schmitt, J. Connolly, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Three-dimensional endomicroscopy using optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Photonics 1, 709–716 (2007).
[Crossref]

B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishko, S. H. Yun, W. Y. Oh, M. J. Suter, A. E. Desjardins, J. A. Evans, N. S. Nishioka, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive esophageal microscopy by using optical frequency-domain imaging (with video),” Gastrointest. Endosc. 65, 898–905 (2007).
[Crossref]

R. K. Wang, S. L. Jacques, Z. Ma, S. Hurst, S. R. Hanson, and A. Gruber, “Three dimensional optical angiography,” Opt. Express 15, 4083–4097 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (4)

M. T. Myaing, D. J. MacDonald, and X. D. Li, “Fiber-optic scanning two-photon fluorescence endoscope,” Opt. Lett. 31, 1076–1078 (2006).
[Crossref]

S. Makita, Y. Hong, M. Yamanari, T. Yatagai, and Y. Yasuno, “Optical coherence angiography,” Opt. Express 14, 7821–7840 (2006).
[Crossref]

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, W. Y. Oh, A. E. Desjardins, M. J. Suter, R. C. Chan, J. A. Evans, I. K. Jang, N. S. Nishioka, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive volumetric optical microscopy in vivo,” Nat. Med. 12, 1429–1433 (2006).
[Crossref]

R. Kiesslich, L. Gossner, M. Goetz, A. Dahlmann, M. Vieth, M. Stolte, A. Hoffman, M. Jung, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “In vivo histology of Barrett’s esophagus and associated neoplasia by confocal laser endomicroscopy,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 4, 979–987 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

V. X. D. Yang, S.-J. Tang, M. L. Gordon, B. Qi, G. Gardiner, M. Cirocco, P. Kortan, G. B. Haber, G. Kandel, I. A. Vitkin, B. C. Wilson, and N. E. Marcon, “Endoscopic Doppler optical coherence tomography in the human GI tract: initial experience,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 61, 879–890 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (3)

2000 (1)

G. Iddan, G. Meron, A. Glukhovsky, and P. Swain, “Wireless capsule endoscopy,” Nature 405, 417–418 (2000).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherence tomography,” Science 276, 2037–2039 (1997).
[Crossref]

Adler, D. C.

D. C. Adler, Y. Chen, R. Huber, J. Schmitt, J. Connolly, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Three-dimensional endomicroscopy using optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Photonics 1, 709–716 (2007).
[Crossref]

Aguirre, A. D.

Ahnen, D. J.

R. L. Siegel, K. D. Miller, S. A. Fedewa, D. J. Ahnen, R. G. S. Meester, A. Barzi, and A. Jemal, “Colorectal cancer statistics, 2017,” CA Cancer J. Clin. 67, 177–193 (2017).
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Ahsen, O. O.

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M. J. Suter, B. J. Vakoc, P. S. Yachimski, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, B. E. Bouma, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive microscopy of the esophagus in human patients with optical frequency domain imaging,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 68, 745–753 (2008).
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Li, M.

W. Liang, G. Hall, B. Messerschmidt, M. Li, and X. Li, “Nonlinear optical endomicroscopy for label-free functional histology in vivo,” Light Sci. Appl. 6, e17082 (2017).
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K. Liang, G. Traverso, H.-C. Lee, O. O. Ahsen, Z. Wang, B. Potsaid, M. Giacomelli, V. Jayaraman, R. Barman, A. Cable, H. Mashimo, R. Langer, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh speed en face OCT capsule for endoscopic imaging,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6, 1146–1163 (2015).
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W. Liang, G. Hall, B. Messerschmidt, M. Li, and X. Li, “Nonlinear optical endomicroscopy for label-free functional histology in vivo,” Light Sci. Appl. 6, e17082 (2017).
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K. Liang, O. O. Ahsen, Z. Wang, H.-C. Lee, W. Liang, B. M. Potsaid, T.-H. Tsai, M. G. Giacomelli, V. Jayaraman, H. Mashimo, X. Li, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Endoscopic forward-viewing optical coherence tomography and angiography with MHz swept source,” Opt. Lett. 42, 3193–3196 (2017).
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W. Liang, K. Murari, Y. Y. Zhang, Y. Chen, X. D. Li, and M.-J. Li, “Increased illumination uniformity and reduced photodamage offered by the Lissajous scanning in fiber-optic two-photon endomicroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 021108 (2012).
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Mashimo, H.

K. Liang, O. O. Ahsen, Z. Wang, H.-C. Lee, W. Liang, B. M. Potsaid, T.-H. Tsai, M. G. Giacomelli, V. Jayaraman, H. Mashimo, X. Li, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Endoscopic forward-viewing optical coherence tomography and angiography with MHz swept source,” Opt. Lett. 42, 3193–3196 (2017).
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M. Wallace, G. Y. Lauwers, Y. Chen, E. Dekker, P. Fockens, P. Sharma, and A. Meining, “Miami classification for probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy,” Endoscopy 43, 882–891 (2011).

Melville, C. D.

E. J. Seibel, R. E. Carroll, J. A. Dominitz, R. S. Johnston, C. D. Melville, C. M. Lee, S. M. Seitz, and M. B. Kimmey, “Tethered capsule endoscopy, a low-cost and high-performance alternative technology for the screening of esophageal cancer and Barrett’s esophagus,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 55, 1032–1042 (2008).
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W. Liang, G. Hall, B. Messerschmidt, M. Li, and X. Li, “Nonlinear optical endomicroscopy for label-free functional histology in vivo,” Light Sci. Appl. 6, e17082 (2017).
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Wallace, M. B.

H. C. Wolfsen, P. Sharma, M. B. Wallace, C. Leggett, G. Tearney, and K. K. Wang, “Safety and feasibility of volumetric laser endomicroscopy in patients with Barrett’s esophagus (with videos),” Gastrointest. Endosc. 82, 631–640 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wang, H.

Wang, K. K.

H. C. Wolfsen, P. Sharma, M. B. Wallace, C. Leggett, G. Tearney, and K. K. Wang, “Safety and feasibility of volumetric laser endomicroscopy in patients with Barrett’s esophagus (with videos),” Gastrointest. Endosc. 82, 631–640 (2015).
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Wang, T.

Wang, T. D.

S. J. Miller, C. M. Lee, B. P. Joshi, A. Gaustad, E. J. Seibel, and T. D. Wang, “Targeted detection of murine colonic dysplasia in vivo with flexible multispectral scanning fiber endoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 021103 (2012).
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K. Liang, O. O. Ahsen, Z. Wang, H.-C. Lee, W. Liang, B. M. Potsaid, T.-H. Tsai, M. G. Giacomelli, V. Jayaraman, H. Mashimo, X. Li, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Endoscopic forward-viewing optical coherence tomography and angiography with MHz swept source,” Opt. Lett. 42, 3193–3196 (2017).
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H. C. Wolfsen, P. Sharma, M. B. Wallace, C. Leggett, G. Tearney, and K. K. Wang, “Safety and feasibility of volumetric laser endomicroscopy in patients with Barrett’s esophagus (with videos),” Gastrointest. Endosc. 82, 631–640 (2015).
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Supplementary Material (2)

NameDescription
» Supplement 1       Supplemental document
» Visualization 1       Video of multi-volume sequence acquired with cycloid scanner.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) Schematic and (b) photograph of cycloid scanning capsule for distal 2D scanning in luminal organs such as the GI tract.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) Schematic of cycloid scanning geometry when unwrapped on to a flat plane. The red dots indicate spots of each circle scanned at equal temporal frame intervals, showing the slow local rotation of the circle about its center during the scan due to the mirror inversion effect. (b) 3D plot of the cycloid scan in the device geometry. (c) Ultrahigh-speed OCT system. HVA: high-voltage amplifier. AWG: arbitrary waveform generator. C: circulator. RM: reference mirror. P: photodetector. OC: optical clock. DA: differential amplifier.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Flowchart of one-time calibration and reconstruction procedures for the cycloid scan trajectory.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Benchtop imaging. (a) En face OCT strip image of printed paper grid. (b) Large field mosaic of 10 sequential strip volumes acquired continuously while manually translating over an alphabetically ordered letter grid. (c) En face OCT of human fingers/palm, showing fingerprints and skin creases. (d) Cross-sectional image from center line of volume. En face images are mean projections of 800 μm depth. Scale bars are 1 mm.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Imaging in human subject. (a) En face OCT image of human rectum. (b) and (c) Enlargements visualizing crypt structures (pink arrow) of columnar epithelium. (d) Cross section showing vertical crypt architecture (blue arrow). (e) En face OCT image of the dentate line (squamo-columnar junction). (f) and (g) Enlargements showing the tissue boundary between columnar epithelium (CE) and squamous epithelium (SE). (h) Cross section showing crypt architecture, and squamous epithelium from the anal canal. En face images are mean projections of 800 μm depth. Scale bars are 1 mm.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. (a) Large field mosaic of 10 sequential strip volumes covering a 7  mm×38  mm FOV acquired continuously while pushing capsule into rectum at 1–2 mm/s. En face images are mean projections of 800 μm depth. (b) and (c) Co-registered OCT and OCTA in rectum. En face images are mean projections of 400 μm depth. (d) and (e) Enlargements showing regular mucosal patterns and a honeycomb vascular network encircling the crypts. Arrows point to a crypt encircled by vasculature. Scale bars are 1 mm.

Equations (1)

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[xy]=Rot(θ)·[rsin(2πffastt)rcos(2πffastt)]+[02πRfslowt]=[cos(2πfslowt+ϕ)sin(2πfslowt+ϕ)sin(2πfslowt+ϕ)cos(2πfslowt+ϕ)]×[rsin(2πffastt)rcos(2πffastt)]+[02πRfslowt]=[rsin(2π(ffastfslow)tϕ)rcos(2π(ffastfslow)tϕ)]+[02πRfslowt].

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