Abstract

We demonstrated a passively mode-locked Er-doped fiber laser by a high-efficiency Bismuth Telluride (Bi2Te3) as passive saturable absorber. The Bi2Te3 thin film was grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). The maximum average output power and pulse energy were as high as 40.74 mW and 23.9 nJ under the pump power of 659 mW, which are much higher than the results obtained previously. The signal to noise ratio was observed to be more than 60 dB, which indicates the stability of the generated pulse. Our results proved that CVD-Bi2Te3 was an excellent candidate for demonstrating large-energy pulse operations on mode-locked Er-doped fiber laser.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2019 (1)

2018 (5)

K. D. Niu, R. Y. Sun, Q. Y. Chen, B. Y. Man, and H. N. Zhang, “Passively mode-locked Er-doped fiber laser based on SnS2 nanosheets as a saturable absorber,” Photonics Res. 6(2), 72–76 (2018).
[Crossref]

N. Ming, S. N. Tao, W. Q. Yang, Q. Y. Chen, R. Y. Sun, C. Wang, and H. N. Zhang, “Mode-locked Er-doped fiber laser based on PbS/CdS coreell quantum dots as saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 26(7), 9017–9026 (2018).
[Crossref]

B. Guo, S. Li, Y. X. Fan, and P. F. Wang, “Versatile soliton emission from a WS2 mode-locked fiber laser,” Opt. Commun. 406, 66–71 (2018).
[Crossref]

K. Wu, B. H. Chen, X. Y. Zhang, S. F. Zhang, C. S. Guo, C. Li, P. S. Xiao, J. Wang, L. J. Zhou, W. W. Zou, and J. P. Chen, “High-performance mode-locked and Q-switched fiber lasers based on novel 2D materials of topological insulators, transition metal dichalcogenides and black phosphorus: review and perspective (invited),” Opt. Commun. 406, 214–229 (2018).
[Crossref]

N. N. Hu, H. N. Zhang, and B. Y. Man, “Various large-energy soliton operations within an Er-doped fiber laser with bismuth selenide as a saturable absorber,” Appl. Opt. 57(30), 8811–8818 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (2)

2016 (7)

X. Wang and S. Lan, “Optical properties of black phosphorus,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 8(4), 618–655 (2016).
[Crossref]

B. Guo, Y. Yao, J. Xiao, R. L. Wang, and J. Y. Zhang, “Topological Insulator-Assisted Dual-Wavelength Fiber Laser Delivering Versatile Pulse Patterns,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22(2), 1–4 (2016).
[Crossref]

G. Sobon, J. Sotor, A. Przewolka, I. Pasternak, W. Strupinski, and K. Abramski, “Amplification of noise-like pulses generated from a graphene-based Tm-doped all-fiber laser,” Opt. Express 24(18), 20359–20364 (2016).
[Crossref]

W. Liu, L. Pang, H. Han, W. Tian, H. Chen, M. Lei, P. Yan, and Z. Wei, “70-fs mode-locked erbium-doped fiber laser with topological insulator,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 19997 (2016).
[Crossref]

Z. C. Sun, B. Y. Man, C. Yang, M. Liu, S. Z. Jiang, C. Zhang, and Y. Y. Xu, “Selenium-assisted controlled growth of graphene–Bi2Se3 nanoplates hybrid Dirac materials by chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 365, 357–363 (2016).
[Crossref]

B. Guo, Q. Lyu, Y. Yao, and P. F. Wang, “Direct generation of dip-type sidebands from WS2 mode-locked fiber laser,” Opt. Mater. Express 6(8), 2475–2486 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. P. Li, “Vector Passive Harmonic Mode-locking Fiber Laser Based on Topological Insulator Bi2Se3 Interacting with Fiber Taper,” J. Opt. Soc. Korea 20(1), 135–139 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (11)

B. Guo, Y. Yao, Y. F. Yang, Y. J. Yuan, R. L. Wang, S. G. Wang, Z. H. Ren, and B. Yan, “Topological insulator: Bi2Se3/polyvinyl alcohol film-assisted multi-wavelength ultrafast erbium-doped fiber laser,” J. Appl. Phys. 117(6), 063108 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. H. Chen, X. Y. Zhang, K. Wu, H. Wang, J. Wang, and J. P. Chen, “Q-switched fiber laser based on transition metal dichalcogenides MoS2, MoSe2, WS2, and WSe2,” Opt. Express 23(20), 26723–26737 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Li, Y. G. Wang, H. Sun, L. N. Duan, X. Wang, and J. H. Si, “All-normal dispersion passively mode-locked Yb-doped fiber laser with Bi2Te3 absorber,” Opt. Eng. 54(4), 046101 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Boguslawski, G. Sobon, R. Zybala, and J. Sotor, “Dissipative soliton generation in Er-doped fiber laser mode-locked by Sb2Te3 topological insulator,” Opt. Lett. 40(12), 2786–2789 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Gao, T. Zhu, W. Huang, and Z. Q. Luo, “Sable, Ultrafast Pulse Mode-Locked by Topological Insulator Bi2Se3 Nanosheets Interacting With Photonic Crystal Fiber:From Anomalous Dispersion to Normal Dispersion,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(1), 1–8 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Lee, J. Koo, Y. M. Jhon, and J. H. Lee, “Femtosecond harmonic mode-locking of a fiber laser based on a bulk-structured Bi2Te3 topological insulator,” Opt. Express 23(5), 6359–6369 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. X. Li, Y. R. Song, Z. H. Yu, R. Q. Xu, Z. Y. Dou, and J. R. Tian, “L-band femtosecond fibre laser based on Bi2Se3 topological insulator Laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 12(10), 105103 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, G. Jiang, S. Chen, Z. Guo, X. Yu, C. Zhao, H. Zhang, Q. Bao, S. C. Wen, D. Tang, and D. Fan, “Mechanically exfoliated black phosphorus as a new saturable absorber for both Q-switching and Mode-locking laser operation,” Opt. Express 23(10), 12823–12833 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. P. Luo, M. Liu, X. D. Wang, Q. Y. Ning, W. C. Xu, and Z. C. Luo, “Few-layer MoS2-deposited microfiber as highly nonlinear photonic device for pulse shaping in a fiber laser [Invited],” Photonics Res. 3(2), A69–A78 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. G. Yan, R. Y. Lin, H. Chen, H. Zhang, A. J. Liu, H. P. Yang, and S. C. Ruan, “Topological insulator solution filled in photonic crystal fiber for passive mode-locked fiber laser,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(3), 264–267 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. G. Yan, R. Lin, S. Ruan, A. Liu, and H. Chen, “A 2.95 GHz, femtosecond passive harmonic mode-locked fiber laser based on evanescent field interaction with topological insulator film,” Opt. Express 23(1), 154–164 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (16)

S. Q. Chen, C. J. Zhao, Y. Li, H. H. Huang, S. B. Lu, H. Zhang, and S. C. Wen, “Broadband optical and microwave nonlinear response in topological insulator,” Opt. Mater. Express 4(4), 587–596 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, S. B. Lu, J. Zheng, J. Du, S. C. Wen, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) as a broadband saturable absorber for ultra-fast photonics,” Opt. Express 22(6), 7249–7260 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Liu, N. Zhao, H. Liu, X. W. Zheng, A. P. Luo, Z. C. Luo, W. C. Xu, C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, and S. C. Wen, “Dual-Wavelength Harmonically Mode-Locked Fiber Laser With Topological Insulator Saturable Absorber,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(10), 983–986 (2014).
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S. C. Xu, B. Y. Man, S. Z. Jiang, D. J. Feng, S. B. Gao, C. S. Chen, M. Liu, C. Yang, C. Zhang, D. Bi, F. Y. Liu, and X. Meng, “Sapphire-based graphene saturable absorber for long-time working femtosecond lasers,” Opt. Lett. 39(9), 2707–2710 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. C. Xu, B. Y. Man, S. Z. Jiang, C. S. Chen, M. Liu, C. Yang, S. B. Gao, D. J. Feng, G. D. Hu, Q. J. Huang, X. F. Chen, and C. Zhang, “Direct growth of graphene on quartz substrate as saturable absorber for femtosecond solid-state laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11(8), 085801 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Lee, J. Koo, Y. M. Jhon, and J. H. Lee, “A femtosecond pulse erbium fiber laser incorporating a saturable absorber based on bulk-structured Bi2Te3 topological insulator,” Opt. Express 22(5), 6165–6173 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Sotor, G. Sobon, W. Macherzynski, and K. Abramski, “Harmonically mode-locked Er-doped fiber laser based on a Sb2Te3 topological insulator saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11(5), 055102 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Sotor, G. Sobon, and K. M. Abramski, “Sub-130 fs mode-locked Er-doped fiber laser based on topological insulator,” Opt. Express 22(11), 13244–13249 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Boguslawski, J. Sotor, G. Sobon, J. Tarka, J. Jagiello, W. Macherzynski, L. Lipinska, and K. M. Abramski, “Mode-locked Er-doped fiber laser based on liquid phase exfoliated Sb2Te3 topological insulator,” Laser Phys. 24(10), 105111 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Sotor, G. Sobon, K. Grodecki, and K. M. Abramski, “Mode-locked erbium-doped fiber laser based on evanescent field interaction with Sb2Te3 topological insulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(25), 251112 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Q. Chen, Q. K. Wang, C. J. Zhao, Y. Li, H. Zhang, and S. C. Wen, “Stable Single-Longitudinal-Mode Fiber Ring Laser Using Topological Insulator-Based Saturable Absorber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(22), 3836–3842 (2014).

J. Sotor, G. Sobon, W. Macherzynski, and K. M. Abramski, “Harmonically mode-locked Er-doped fiber laser based on a Sb2Te3 topological insulator saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11(5), 055102 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Sotor, G. Sobon, W. Macherzynski, P. Paletko, K. Grodecki, and K. M. Abramski, “Mode-locking in Er-doped fiber laser based on mechanically exfoliated Sb2Te3 saturable absorber,” Opt. Mater. Express 4(1), 1–6 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Jung, J. Lee, J. Koo, J. Park, Y. W. Song, K. Lee, S. Lee, and J. H. Lee, “A femtosecond pulse fiber laser at 1935nm using a bulk-structured Bi2Te3 topological insulator,” Opt. Express 22(7), 7865–7874 (2014).
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H. Liu, X. W. Zheng, M. Liu, N. Zhao, A. P. Luo, Z. C. Luo, W. C. Xu, H. Zhang, C. J. Zhao, and S. C. Wen, “Femtosecond pulse generation from a topological insulator mode-locked fiber laser,” Opt. Express 22(6), 6868–6873 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Zhang, M. Liu, B. Y. Man, S. Z. Jiang, C. Yang, C. S. Chen, and J. X. Zhang, “Facile fabrication of graphene-topological insulator Bi2Se3 hybrid Dirac materials via chemical vapor deposition in Se-rich conditions,” CrystEngComm 16(38), 8941–8945 (2014).
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2013 (7)

H. Yu, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, C. Zhao, B. Wang, S. Wen, H. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Topological insulator as an optical modulator for pulsed solid-state lasers,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(6), L77–L83 (2013).
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P. Tang, X. Zhang, C. Zhao, Y. Wang, H. Zhang, D. Shen, S. Wen, D. Tang, and D. Fan, “Topological insulator: Bi2Te3 saturable absorber for the passive Q-switching operation of an in-band pumped 1645 nm Er:YAG Ceramic laser,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(2), 1500707 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z. C. Luo, M. Liu, H. Liu, X. W. Zheng, A. P. Luo, C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, S. C. Wen, and W. C. Xu, “2 GHz passively harmonic mode-locked fiber laser by a microfiber-based topological insulator saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 38(24), 5212–5215 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. E. Ferman and I. Hartl, “Ultrafast fibre lasers,” Nat. Photonics 7(11), 868–874 (2013).
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A. Martinez and Z. Sun, “Nanotube and graphene saturable absorbers for fibre lasers,” Nat. Photonics 7(11), 842–845 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast Saturable Absorption of Two-Dimensional MoS2 Nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9260–9267 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. B. Lu, C. J. Zhao, Y. H. Zou, S. Q. Chen, Y. Chen, Y. Li, H. Zhang, S. C. Wen, and D. Y. Tang, “Third order nonlinear optical property of Bi2Se3,” Opt. Express 21(2), 2072–2082 (2013).
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2012 (5)

C. Zhao, Y. H. Zou, Y. Chen, Z. T. Wang, S. B. Lu, H. Zhang, S. C. Wen, and D. Y. Tang, “Wavelength-tunable picosecond soliton fiber laser with topological insulator: Bi2Se3 as a mode locker,” Opt. Express 20(25), 27888–27895 (2012).
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C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211106 (2012).
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Y. Meng, S. Zhang, X. Li, H. Li, J. Du, and Y. Hao, “Multiple-soliton dynamic patterns in a graphene mode-locked fiber laser,” Opt. Express 20(6), 6685 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. Sobon, J. Sotor, J. Jagiello, R. Kozinski, K. Librant, M. Zdrojek, L. Lipinska, and K. M. Abramski, “Linearly polarized, Q-switched Er-doped fiber laser based on reduced graphene oxide saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(24), 241106 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. Shahil, M. Hossain, V. Goyal, and A. A. Balandind, “Micro-Raman spectroscopy of mechanically exfoliated few-quintuple layers of Bi2Te3, Bi2Se3, and Sb2Te3 materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(5), 054305 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

2010 (2)

Z. Q. Luo, M. Zhou, J. Weng, G. M. Huang, H. Y. Xu, C. C. Ye, and Z. P. Cai, “Graphene-based passively Q-switched dual-wavelength erbium-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 35(21), 3709–3711 (2010).
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D. P. Zhou, L. Wei, B. Dong, and W. K. Liu, “Tunable PassivelyQ-switched Erbium-Doped Fiber Laser With Carbon Nanotubes as a Saturable Absorber,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(1), 9–11 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-Layer Graphene as a Saturable Absorber for Ultrafast Pulsed Lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

M. A. Solodyankin, E. D. Obraztsova, A. S. Lobach, A. I. Chernov, A. V. Tausenev, V. I. Konov, and E. M. Dianov, “Mode-locked 1.93 µm thulium fiber laser with a carbon nanotube absorber,” Opt. Lett. 33(12), 1336–1338 (2008).
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D. Hsieh, D. Qian, L. Wray, Y. Xia, Y. S. Hor, R. J. Cava, and M. Z. Hasan, “A topological Dirac insulator in aquantum spin Hall phase,” Nature 452(7190), 970–974 (2008).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

1977 (1)

W. Richter and C. Becker, “A Raman and far-infrared investigation of phonons in the rhombohedral V2-VI3 compounds Bi2Te3, Bi2Se3, Sb2Te3 and Bi2(Te1-xSex)3(0 < x < 1),(Bi1-ySby)2Te3(0 < y < 1),” Phys. Status Solidi B 84(2), 619–628 (1977).
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Abramski, K.

G. Sobon, J. Sotor, A. Przewolka, I. Pasternak, W. Strupinski, and K. Abramski, “Amplification of noise-like pulses generated from a graphene-based Tm-doped all-fiber laser,” Opt. Express 24(18), 20359–20364 (2016).
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J. Sotor, G. Sobon, W. Macherzynski, and K. Abramski, “Harmonically mode-locked Er-doped fiber laser based on a Sb2Te3 topological insulator saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11(5), 055102 (2014).
[Crossref]

Abramski, K. M.

J. Sotor, G. Sobon, and K. M. Abramski, “Sub-130 fs mode-locked Er-doped fiber laser based on topological insulator,” Opt. Express 22(11), 13244–13249 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Boguslawski, J. Sotor, G. Sobon, J. Tarka, J. Jagiello, W. Macherzynski, L. Lipinska, and K. M. Abramski, “Mode-locked Er-doped fiber laser based on liquid phase exfoliated Sb2Te3 topological insulator,” Laser Phys. 24(10), 105111 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Sotor, G. Sobon, K. Grodecki, and K. M. Abramski, “Mode-locked erbium-doped fiber laser based on evanescent field interaction with Sb2Te3 topological insulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(25), 251112 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Sotor, G. Sobon, W. Macherzynski, P. Paletko, K. Grodecki, and K. M. Abramski, “Mode-locking in Er-doped fiber laser based on mechanically exfoliated Sb2Te3 saturable absorber,” Opt. Mater. Express 4(1), 1–6 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Sotor, G. Sobon, W. Macherzynski, and K. M. Abramski, “Harmonically mode-locked Er-doped fiber laser based on a Sb2Te3 topological insulator saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11(5), 055102 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. Sobon, J. Sotor, J. Jagiello, R. Kozinski, K. Librant, M. Zdrojek, L. Lipinska, and K. M. Abramski, “Linearly polarized, Q-switched Er-doped fiber laser based on reduced graphene oxide saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(24), 241106 (2012).
[Crossref]

Asom, M. T.

Balandind, A. A.

K. Shahil, M. Hossain, V. Goyal, and A. A. Balandind, “Micro-Raman spectroscopy of mechanically exfoliated few-quintuple layers of Bi2Te3, Bi2Se3, and Sb2Te3 materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(5), 054305 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bao, Q.

Y. Chen, G. Jiang, S. Chen, Z. Guo, X. Yu, C. Zhao, H. Zhang, Q. Bao, S. C. Wen, D. Tang, and D. Fan, “Mechanically exfoliated black phosphorus as a new saturable absorber for both Q-switching and Mode-locking laser operation,” Opt. Express 23(10), 12823–12833 (2015).
[Crossref]

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-Layer Graphene as a Saturable Absorber for Ultrafast Pulsed Lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

Becker, C.

W. Richter and C. Becker, “A Raman and far-infrared investigation of phonons in the rhombohedral V2-VI3 compounds Bi2Te3, Bi2Se3, Sb2Te3 and Bi2(Te1-xSex)3(0 < x < 1),(Bi1-ySby)2Te3(0 < y < 1),” Phys. Status Solidi B 84(2), 619–628 (1977).
[Crossref]

Bernard, F.

F. Bernard, H. Zhang, S. P. Gorza, and P. Emplit, “Towards mode-locked fiber laser using topological insulators,” Nonlinear Photonic, Colorado, Paper NTh1A. 5, (2012).

Bi, D.

Blau, W. J.

K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast Saturable Absorption of Two-Dimensional MoS2 Nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9260–9267 (2013).
[Crossref]

Boguslawski, J.

J. Boguslawski, G. Sobon, R. Zybala, and J. Sotor, “Dissipative soliton generation in Er-doped fiber laser mode-locked by Sb2Te3 topological insulator,” Opt. Lett. 40(12), 2786–2789 (2015).
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J. Boguslawski, J. Sotor, G. Sobon, J. Tarka, J. Jagiello, W. Macherzynski, L. Lipinska, and K. M. Abramski, “Mode-locked Er-doped fiber laser based on liquid phase exfoliated Sb2Te3 topological insulator,” Laser Phys. 24(10), 105111 (2014).
[Crossref]

Boyd, G. D.

Cai, Z. P.

Cava, R. J.

D. Hsieh, D. Qian, L. Wray, Y. Xia, Y. S. Hor, R. J. Cava, and M. Z. Hasan, “A topological Dirac insulator in aquantum spin Hall phase,” Nature 452(7190), 970–974 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chen, B. H.

K. Wu, B. H. Chen, X. Y. Zhang, S. F. Zhang, C. S. Guo, C. Li, P. S. Xiao, J. Wang, L. J. Zhou, W. W. Zou, and J. P. Chen, “High-performance mode-locked and Q-switched fiber lasers based on novel 2D materials of topological insulators, transition metal dichalcogenides and black phosphorus: review and perspective (invited),” Opt. Commun. 406, 214–229 (2018).
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B. H. Chen, X. Y. Zhang, K. Wu, H. Wang, J. Wang, and J. P. Chen, “Q-switched fiber laser based on transition metal dichalcogenides MoS2, MoSe2, WS2, and WSe2,” Opt. Express 23(20), 26723–26737 (2015).
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Chen, C. S.

C. Zhang, M. Liu, B. Y. Man, S. Z. Jiang, C. Yang, C. S. Chen, and J. X. Zhang, “Facile fabrication of graphene-topological insulator Bi2Se3 hybrid Dirac materials via chemical vapor deposition in Se-rich conditions,” CrystEngComm 16(38), 8941–8945 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. C. Xu, B. Y. Man, S. Z. Jiang, C. S. Chen, M. Liu, C. Yang, S. B. Gao, D. J. Feng, G. D. Hu, Q. J. Huang, X. F. Chen, and C. Zhang, “Direct growth of graphene on quartz substrate as saturable absorber for femtosecond solid-state laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11(8), 085801 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. C. Xu, B. Y. Man, S. Z. Jiang, D. J. Feng, S. B. Gao, C. S. Chen, M. Liu, C. Yang, C. Zhang, D. Bi, F. Y. Liu, and X. Meng, “Sapphire-based graphene saturable absorber for long-time working femtosecond lasers,” Opt. Lett. 39(9), 2707–2710 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, H.

W. Liu, L. Pang, H. Han, W. Tian, H. Chen, M. Lei, P. Yan, and Z. Wei, “70-fs mode-locked erbium-doped fiber laser with topological insulator,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 19997 (2016).
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P. G. Yan, R. Y. Lin, H. Chen, H. Zhang, A. J. Liu, H. P. Yang, and S. C. Ruan, “Topological insulator solution filled in photonic crystal fiber for passive mode-locked fiber laser,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(3), 264–267 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. G. Yan, R. Lin, S. Ruan, A. Liu, and H. Chen, “A 2.95 GHz, femtosecond passive harmonic mode-locked fiber laser based on evanescent field interaction with topological insulator film,” Opt. Express 23(1), 154–164 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, J. P.

K. Wu, B. H. Chen, X. Y. Zhang, S. F. Zhang, C. S. Guo, C. Li, P. S. Xiao, J. Wang, L. J. Zhou, W. W. Zou, and J. P. Chen, “High-performance mode-locked and Q-switched fiber lasers based on novel 2D materials of topological insulators, transition metal dichalcogenides and black phosphorus: review and perspective (invited),” Opt. Commun. 406, 214–229 (2018).
[Crossref]

B. H. Chen, X. Y. Zhang, K. Wu, H. Wang, J. Wang, and J. P. Chen, “Q-switched fiber laser based on transition metal dichalcogenides MoS2, MoSe2, WS2, and WSe2,” Opt. Express 23(20), 26723–26737 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, Q. Y.

K. D. Niu, R. Y. Sun, Q. Y. Chen, B. Y. Man, and H. N. Zhang, “Passively mode-locked Er-doped fiber laser based on SnS2 nanosheets as a saturable absorber,” Photonics Res. 6(2), 72–76 (2018).
[Crossref]

N. Ming, S. N. Tao, W. Q. Yang, Q. Y. Chen, R. Y. Sun, C. Wang, and H. N. Zhang, “Mode-locked Er-doped fiber laser based on PbS/CdS coreell quantum dots as saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 26(7), 9017–9026 (2018).
[Crossref]

Chen, S.

Chen, S. Q.

Chen, X. F.

S. C. Xu, B. Y. Man, S. Z. Jiang, C. S. Chen, M. Liu, C. Yang, S. B. Gao, D. J. Feng, G. D. Hu, Q. J. Huang, X. F. Chen, and C. Zhang, “Direct growth of graphene on quartz substrate as saturable absorber for femtosecond solid-state laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11(8), 085801 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.

Chernov, A. I.

Chiu, T. H.

Coleman, J. N.

K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast Saturable Absorption of Two-Dimensional MoS2 Nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9260–9267 (2013).
[Crossref]

Dianov, E. M.

Dong, B.

D. P. Zhou, L. Wei, B. Dong, and W. K. Liu, “Tunable PassivelyQ-switched Erbium-Doped Fiber Laser With Carbon Nanotubes as a Saturable Absorber,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(1), 9–11 (2010).
[Crossref]

Dou, Z. Y.

K. X. Li, Y. R. Song, Z. H. Yu, R. Q. Xu, Z. Y. Dou, and J. R. Tian, “L-band femtosecond fibre laser based on Bi2Se3 topological insulator Laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 12(10), 105103 (2015).
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Du, J.

Duan, L. N.

L. Li, Y. G. Wang, H. Sun, L. N. Duan, X. Wang, and J. H. Si, “All-normal dispersion passively mode-locked Yb-doped fiber laser with Bi2Te3 absorber,” Opt. Eng. 54(4), 046101 (2015).
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Emplit, P.

F. Bernard, H. Zhang, S. P. Gorza, and P. Emplit, “Towards mode-locked fiber laser using topological insulators,” Nonlinear Photonic, Colorado, Paper NTh1A. 5, (2012).

Fan, D.

Y. Chen, G. Jiang, S. Chen, Z. Guo, X. Yu, C. Zhao, H. Zhang, Q. Bao, S. C. Wen, D. Tang, and D. Fan, “Mechanically exfoliated black phosphorus as a new saturable absorber for both Q-switching and Mode-locking laser operation,” Opt. Express 23(10), 12823–12833 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Tang, X. Zhang, C. Zhao, Y. Wang, H. Zhang, D. Shen, S. Wen, D. Tang, and D. Fan, “Topological insulator: Bi2Te3 saturable absorber for the passive Q-switching operation of an in-band pumped 1645 nm Er:YAG Ceramic laser,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(2), 1500707 (2013).
[Crossref]

Fan, J.

K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast Saturable Absorption of Two-Dimensional MoS2 Nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9260–9267 (2013).
[Crossref]

Fan, Y. X.

B. Guo, S. Li, Y. X. Fan, and P. F. Wang, “Versatile soliton emission from a WS2 mode-locked fiber laser,” Opt. Commun. 406, 66–71 (2018).
[Crossref]

Fang, S. B.

Feng, D. J.

S. C. Xu, B. Y. Man, S. Z. Jiang, D. J. Feng, S. B. Gao, C. S. Chen, M. Liu, C. Yang, C. Zhang, D. Bi, F. Y. Liu, and X. Meng, “Sapphire-based graphene saturable absorber for long-time working femtosecond lasers,” Opt. Lett. 39(9), 2707–2710 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. C. Xu, B. Y. Man, S. Z. Jiang, C. S. Chen, M. Liu, C. Yang, S. B. Gao, D. J. Feng, G. D. Hu, Q. J. Huang, X. F. Chen, and C. Zhang, “Direct growth of graphene on quartz substrate as saturable absorber for femtosecond solid-state laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11(8), 085801 (2014).
[Crossref]

Feng, Y.

K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast Saturable Absorption of Two-Dimensional MoS2 Nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9260–9267 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ferguson, J. F.

Ferman, M. E.

M. E. Ferman and I. Hartl, “Ultrafast fibre lasers,” Nat. Photonics 7(11), 868–874 (2013).
[Crossref]

Fox, D.

K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast Saturable Absorption of Two-Dimensional MoS2 Nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9260–9267 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gao, L.

L. Gao, T. Zhu, W. Huang, and Z. Q. Luo, “Sable, Ultrafast Pulse Mode-Locked by Topological Insulator Bi2Se3 Nanosheets Interacting With Photonic Crystal Fiber:From Anomalous Dispersion to Normal Dispersion,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(1), 1–8 (2015).
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Gao, S. B.

S. C. Xu, B. Y. Man, S. Z. Jiang, D. J. Feng, S. B. Gao, C. S. Chen, M. Liu, C. Yang, C. Zhang, D. Bi, F. Y. Liu, and X. Meng, “Sapphire-based graphene saturable absorber for long-time working femtosecond lasers,” Opt. Lett. 39(9), 2707–2710 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. C. Xu, B. Y. Man, S. Z. Jiang, C. S. Chen, M. Liu, C. Yang, S. B. Gao, D. J. Feng, G. D. Hu, Q. J. Huang, X. F. Chen, and C. Zhang, “Direct growth of graphene on quartz substrate as saturable absorber for femtosecond solid-state laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11(8), 085801 (2014).
[Crossref]

Gorza, S. P.

F. Bernard, H. Zhang, S. P. Gorza, and P. Emplit, “Towards mode-locked fiber laser using topological insulators,” Nonlinear Photonic, Colorado, Paper NTh1A. 5, (2012).

Goyal, V.

K. Shahil, M. Hossain, V. Goyal, and A. A. Balandind, “Micro-Raman spectroscopy of mechanically exfoliated few-quintuple layers of Bi2Te3, Bi2Se3, and Sb2Te3 materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(5), 054305 (2012).
[Crossref]

Grodecki, K.

J. Sotor, G. Sobon, K. Grodecki, and K. M. Abramski, “Mode-locked erbium-doped fiber laser based on evanescent field interaction with Sb2Te3 topological insulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(25), 251112 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Sotor, G. Sobon, W. Macherzynski, P. Paletko, K. Grodecki, and K. M. Abramski, “Mode-locking in Er-doped fiber laser based on mechanically exfoliated Sb2Te3 saturable absorber,” Opt. Mater. Express 4(1), 1–6 (2014).
[Crossref]

Guo, B.

B. Guo, S. Li, Y. X. Fan, and P. F. Wang, “Versatile soliton emission from a WS2 mode-locked fiber laser,” Opt. Commun. 406, 66–71 (2018).
[Crossref]

B. Guo, Y. Yao, J. Xiao, R. L. Wang, and J. Y. Zhang, “Topological Insulator-Assisted Dual-Wavelength Fiber Laser Delivering Versatile Pulse Patterns,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22(2), 1–4 (2016).
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S. C. Xu, B. Y. Man, S. Z. Jiang, C. S. Chen, M. Liu, C. Yang, S. B. Gao, D. J. Feng, G. D. Hu, Q. J. Huang, X. F. Chen, and C. Zhang, “Direct growth of graphene on quartz substrate as saturable absorber for femtosecond solid-state laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11(8), 085801 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. C. Xu, B. Y. Man, S. Z. Jiang, D. J. Feng, S. B. Gao, C. S. Chen, M. Liu, C. Yang, C. Zhang, D. Bi, F. Y. Liu, and X. Meng, “Sapphire-based graphene saturable absorber for long-time working femtosecond lasers,” Opt. Lett. 39(9), 2707–2710 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yang, H. P.

P. G. Yan, R. Y. Lin, H. Chen, H. Zhang, A. J. Liu, H. P. Yang, and S. C. Ruan, “Topological insulator solution filled in photonic crystal fiber for passive mode-locked fiber laser,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(3), 264–267 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yang, W. Q.

Yang, X.

Yang, Y. F.

B. Guo, Y. Yao, Y. F. Yang, Y. J. Yuan, R. L. Wang, S. G. Wang, Z. H. Ren, and B. Yan, “Topological insulator: Bi2Se3/polyvinyl alcohol film-assisted multi-wavelength ultrafast erbium-doped fiber laser,” J. Appl. Phys. 117(6), 063108 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yao, Y.

B. Guo, Q. Lyu, Y. Yao, and P. F. Wang, “Direct generation of dip-type sidebands from WS2 mode-locked fiber laser,” Opt. Mater. Express 6(8), 2475–2486 (2016).
[Crossref]

B. Guo, Y. Yao, J. Xiao, R. L. Wang, and J. Y. Zhang, “Topological Insulator-Assisted Dual-Wavelength Fiber Laser Delivering Versatile Pulse Patterns,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22(2), 1–4 (2016).
[Crossref]

B. Guo, Y. Yao, Y. F. Yang, Y. J. Yuan, R. L. Wang, S. G. Wang, Z. H. Ren, and B. Yan, “Topological insulator: Bi2Se3/polyvinyl alcohol film-assisted multi-wavelength ultrafast erbium-doped fiber laser,” J. Appl. Phys. 117(6), 063108 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ye, C. C.

Yu, H.

H. Yu, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, C. Zhao, B. Wang, S. Wen, H. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Topological insulator as an optical modulator for pulsed solid-state lasers,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(6), L77–L83 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yu, S.

S. Yu, X. Wu, Y. Wang, X. Guo, and L. Tong, “2D Materials for Optical Modulation: Challenges and Opportunities,” Adv. Mater. 29(14), 1606128 (2017).
[Crossref]

Yu, X.

Yu, Z. H.

K. X. Li, Y. R. Song, Z. H. Yu, R. Q. Xu, Z. Y. Dou, and J. R. Tian, “L-band femtosecond fibre laser based on Bi2Se3 topological insulator Laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 12(10), 105103 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yuan, Y. J.

B. Guo, Y. Yao, Y. F. Yang, Y. J. Yuan, R. L. Wang, S. G. Wang, Z. H. Ren, and B. Yan, “Topological insulator: Bi2Se3/polyvinyl alcohol film-assisted multi-wavelength ultrafast erbium-doped fiber laser,” J. Appl. Phys. 117(6), 063108 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zdrojek, M.

G. Sobon, J. Sotor, J. Jagiello, R. Kozinski, K. Librant, M. Zdrojek, L. Lipinska, and K. M. Abramski, “Linearly polarized, Q-switched Er-doped fiber laser based on reduced graphene oxide saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(24), 241106 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhang, C.

Z. C. Sun, B. Y. Man, C. Yang, M. Liu, S. Z. Jiang, C. Zhang, and Y. Y. Xu, “Selenium-assisted controlled growth of graphene–Bi2Se3 nanoplates hybrid Dirac materials by chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 365, 357–363 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Zhang, M. Liu, B. Y. Man, S. Z. Jiang, C. Yang, C. S. Chen, and J. X. Zhang, “Facile fabrication of graphene-topological insulator Bi2Se3 hybrid Dirac materials via chemical vapor deposition in Se-rich conditions,” CrystEngComm 16(38), 8941–8945 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. C. Xu, B. Y. Man, S. Z. Jiang, C. S. Chen, M. Liu, C. Yang, S. B. Gao, D. J. Feng, G. D. Hu, Q. J. Huang, X. F. Chen, and C. Zhang, “Direct growth of graphene on quartz substrate as saturable absorber for femtosecond solid-state laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11(8), 085801 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. C. Xu, B. Y. Man, S. Z. Jiang, D. J. Feng, S. B. Gao, C. S. Chen, M. Liu, C. Yang, C. Zhang, D. Bi, F. Y. Liu, and X. Meng, “Sapphire-based graphene saturable absorber for long-time working femtosecond lasers,” Opt. Lett. 39(9), 2707–2710 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhang, H.

Y. Chen, G. Jiang, S. Chen, Z. Guo, X. Yu, C. Zhao, H. Zhang, Q. Bao, S. C. Wen, D. Tang, and D. Fan, “Mechanically exfoliated black phosphorus as a new saturable absorber for both Q-switching and Mode-locking laser operation,” Opt. Express 23(10), 12823–12833 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. G. Yan, R. Y. Lin, H. Chen, H. Zhang, A. J. Liu, H. P. Yang, and S. C. Ruan, “Topological insulator solution filled in photonic crystal fiber for passive mode-locked fiber laser,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(3), 264–267 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Q. Chen, C. J. Zhao, Y. Li, H. H. Huang, S. B. Lu, H. Zhang, and S. C. Wen, “Broadband optical and microwave nonlinear response in topological insulator,” Opt. Mater. Express 4(4), 587–596 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Liu, N. Zhao, H. Liu, X. W. Zheng, A. P. Luo, Z. C. Luo, W. C. Xu, C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, and S. C. Wen, “Dual-Wavelength Harmonically Mode-Locked Fiber Laser With Topological Insulator Saturable Absorber,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(10), 983–986 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, S. B. Lu, J. Zheng, J. Du, S. C. Wen, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) as a broadband saturable absorber for ultra-fast photonics,” Opt. Express 22(6), 7249–7260 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Q. Chen, Q. K. Wang, C. J. Zhao, Y. Li, H. Zhang, and S. C. Wen, “Stable Single-Longitudinal-Mode Fiber Ring Laser Using Topological Insulator-Based Saturable Absorber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(22), 3836–3842 (2014).

H. Liu, X. W. Zheng, M. Liu, N. Zhao, A. P. Luo, Z. C. Luo, W. C. Xu, H. Zhang, C. J. Zhao, and S. C. Wen, “Femtosecond pulse generation from a topological insulator mode-locked fiber laser,” Opt. Express 22(6), 6868–6873 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. B. Lu, C. J. Zhao, Y. H. Zou, S. Q. Chen, Y. Chen, Y. Li, H. Zhang, S. C. Wen, and D. Y. Tang, “Third order nonlinear optical property of Bi2Se3,” Opt. Express 21(2), 2072–2082 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Yu, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, C. Zhao, B. Wang, S. Wen, H. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Topological insulator as an optical modulator for pulsed solid-state lasers,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(6), L77–L83 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Yu, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, C. Zhao, B. Wang, S. Wen, H. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Topological insulator as an optical modulator for pulsed solid-state lasers,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(6), L77–L83 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Tang, X. Zhang, C. Zhao, Y. Wang, H. Zhang, D. Shen, S. Wen, D. Tang, and D. Fan, “Topological insulator: Bi2Te3 saturable absorber for the passive Q-switching operation of an in-band pumped 1645 nm Er:YAG Ceramic laser,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(2), 1500707 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z. C. Luo, M. Liu, H. Liu, X. W. Zheng, A. P. Luo, C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, S. C. Wen, and W. C. Xu, “2 GHz passively harmonic mode-locked fiber laser by a microfiber-based topological insulator saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 38(24), 5212–5215 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast Saturable Absorption of Two-Dimensional MoS2 Nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9260–9267 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Zhao, Y. H. Zou, Y. Chen, Z. T. Wang, S. B. Lu, H. Zhang, S. C. Wen, and D. Y. Tang, “Wavelength-tunable picosecond soliton fiber laser with topological insulator: Bi2Se3 as a mode locker,” Opt. Express 20(25), 27888–27895 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211106 (2012).
[Crossref]

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-Layer Graphene as a Saturable Absorber for Ultrafast Pulsed Lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

F. Bernard, H. Zhang, S. P. Gorza, and P. Emplit, “Towards mode-locked fiber laser using topological insulators,” Nonlinear Photonic, Colorado, Paper NTh1A. 5, (2012).

Zhang, H. N.

Zhang, J. X.

C. Zhang, M. Liu, B. Y. Man, S. Z. Jiang, C. Yang, C. S. Chen, and J. X. Zhang, “Facile fabrication of graphene-topological insulator Bi2Se3 hybrid Dirac materials via chemical vapor deposition in Se-rich conditions,” CrystEngComm 16(38), 8941–8945 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhang, J. Y.

B. Guo, Y. Yao, J. Xiao, R. L. Wang, and J. Y. Zhang, “Topological Insulator-Assisted Dual-Wavelength Fiber Laser Delivering Versatile Pulse Patterns,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22(2), 1–4 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhang, L.

K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast Saturable Absorption of Two-Dimensional MoS2 Nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9260–9267 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhang, S.

Zhang, S. F.

K. Wu, B. H. Chen, X. Y. Zhang, S. F. Zhang, C. S. Guo, C. Li, P. S. Xiao, J. Wang, L. J. Zhou, W. W. Zou, and J. P. Chen, “High-performance mode-locked and Q-switched fiber lasers based on novel 2D materials of topological insulators, transition metal dichalcogenides and black phosphorus: review and perspective (invited),” Opt. Commun. 406, 214–229 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.

K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast Saturable Absorption of Two-Dimensional MoS2 Nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9260–9267 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Tang, X. Zhang, C. Zhao, Y. Wang, H. Zhang, D. Shen, S. Wen, D. Tang, and D. Fan, “Topological insulator: Bi2Te3 saturable absorber for the passive Q-switching operation of an in-band pumped 1645 nm Er:YAG Ceramic laser,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(2), 1500707 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X. Y.

K. Wu, B. H. Chen, X. Y. Zhang, S. F. Zhang, C. S. Guo, C. Li, P. S. Xiao, J. Wang, L. J. Zhou, W. W. Zou, and J. P. Chen, “High-performance mode-locked and Q-switched fiber lasers based on novel 2D materials of topological insulators, transition metal dichalcogenides and black phosphorus: review and perspective (invited),” Opt. Commun. 406, 214–229 (2018).
[Crossref]

B. H. Chen, X. Y. Zhang, K. Wu, H. Wang, J. Wang, and J. P. Chen, “Q-switched fiber laser based on transition metal dichalcogenides MoS2, MoSe2, WS2, and WSe2,” Opt. Express 23(20), 26723–26737 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhao, C.

Y. Chen, G. Jiang, S. Chen, Z. Guo, X. Yu, C. Zhao, H. Zhang, Q. Bao, S. C. Wen, D. Tang, and D. Fan, “Mechanically exfoliated black phosphorus as a new saturable absorber for both Q-switching and Mode-locking laser operation,” Opt. Express 23(10), 12823–12833 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Tang, X. Zhang, C. Zhao, Y. Wang, H. Zhang, D. Shen, S. Wen, D. Tang, and D. Fan, “Topological insulator: Bi2Te3 saturable absorber for the passive Q-switching operation of an in-band pumped 1645 nm Er:YAG Ceramic laser,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(2), 1500707 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Yu, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, C. Zhao, B. Wang, S. Wen, H. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Topological insulator as an optical modulator for pulsed solid-state lasers,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(6), L77–L83 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Zhao, Y. H. Zou, Y. Chen, Z. T. Wang, S. B. Lu, H. Zhang, S. C. Wen, and D. Y. Tang, “Wavelength-tunable picosecond soliton fiber laser with topological insulator: Bi2Se3 as a mode locker,” Opt. Express 20(25), 27888–27895 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhao, C. J.

S. Q. Chen, C. J. Zhao, Y. Li, H. H. Huang, S. B. Lu, H. Zhang, and S. C. Wen, “Broadband optical and microwave nonlinear response in topological insulator,” Opt. Mater. Express 4(4), 587–596 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Liu, N. Zhao, H. Liu, X. W. Zheng, A. P. Luo, Z. C. Luo, W. C. Xu, C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, and S. C. Wen, “Dual-Wavelength Harmonically Mode-Locked Fiber Laser With Topological Insulator Saturable Absorber,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(10), 983–986 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Liu, X. W. Zheng, M. Liu, N. Zhao, A. P. Luo, Z. C. Luo, W. C. Xu, H. Zhang, C. J. Zhao, and S. C. Wen, “Femtosecond pulse generation from a topological insulator mode-locked fiber laser,” Opt. Express 22(6), 6868–6873 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Q. Chen, Q. K. Wang, C. J. Zhao, Y. Li, H. Zhang, and S. C. Wen, “Stable Single-Longitudinal-Mode Fiber Ring Laser Using Topological Insulator-Based Saturable Absorber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(22), 3836–3842 (2014).

S. B. Lu, C. J. Zhao, Y. H. Zou, S. Q. Chen, Y. Chen, Y. Li, H. Zhang, S. C. Wen, and D. Y. Tang, “Third order nonlinear optical property of Bi2Se3,” Opt. Express 21(2), 2072–2082 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z. C. Luo, M. Liu, H. Liu, X. W. Zheng, A. P. Luo, C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, S. C. Wen, and W. C. Xu, “2 GHz passively harmonic mode-locked fiber laser by a microfiber-based topological insulator saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 38(24), 5212–5215 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211106 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhao, N.

M. Liu, N. Zhao, H. Liu, X. W. Zheng, A. P. Luo, Z. C. Luo, W. C. Xu, C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, and S. C. Wen, “Dual-Wavelength Harmonically Mode-Locked Fiber Laser With Topological Insulator Saturable Absorber,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(10), 983–986 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Liu, X. W. Zheng, M. Liu, N. Zhao, A. P. Luo, Z. C. Luo, W. C. Xu, H. Zhang, C. J. Zhao, and S. C. Wen, “Femtosecond pulse generation from a topological insulator mode-locked fiber laser,” Opt. Express 22(6), 6868–6873 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhao, Q.

K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast Saturable Absorption of Two-Dimensional MoS2 Nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9260–9267 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhao, X.

Zheng, J.

Zheng, X. W.

Zheng, Z.

Zhou, D. P.

D. P. Zhou, L. Wei, B. Dong, and W. K. Liu, “Tunable PassivelyQ-switched Erbium-Doped Fiber Laser With Carbon Nanotubes as a Saturable Absorber,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(1), 9–11 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zhou, L. J.

K. Wu, B. H. Chen, X. Y. Zhang, S. F. Zhang, C. S. Guo, C. Li, P. S. Xiao, J. Wang, L. J. Zhou, W. W. Zou, and J. P. Chen, “High-performance mode-locked and Q-switched fiber lasers based on novel 2D materials of topological insulators, transition metal dichalcogenides and black phosphorus: review and perspective (invited),” Opt. Commun. 406, 214–229 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zhou, M.

Zhu, J.

Zhu, T.

L. Gao, T. Zhu, W. Huang, and Z. Q. Luo, “Sable, Ultrafast Pulse Mode-Locked by Topological Insulator Bi2Se3 Nanosheets Interacting With Photonic Crystal Fiber:From Anomalous Dispersion to Normal Dispersion,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(1), 1–8 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zou, W. W.

K. Wu, B. H. Chen, X. Y. Zhang, S. F. Zhang, C. S. Guo, C. Li, P. S. Xiao, J. Wang, L. J. Zhou, W. W. Zou, and J. P. Chen, “High-performance mode-locked and Q-switched fiber lasers based on novel 2D materials of topological insulators, transition metal dichalcogenides and black phosphorus: review and perspective (invited),” Opt. Commun. 406, 214–229 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zou, Y. H.

Zybala, R.

ACS Nano (1)

K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast Saturable Absorption of Two-Dimensional MoS2 Nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9260–9267 (2013).
[Crossref]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-Layer Graphene as a Saturable Absorber for Ultrafast Pulsed Lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mater. (1)

S. Yu, X. Wu, Y. Wang, X. Guo, and L. Tong, “2D Materials for Optical Modulation: Challenges and Opportunities,” Adv. Mater. 29(14), 1606128 (2017).
[Crossref]

Adv. Opt. Photonics (1)

X. Wang and S. Lan, “Optical properties of black phosphorus,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 8(4), 618–655 (2016).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211106 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. Sobon, J. Sotor, J. Jagiello, R. Kozinski, K. Librant, M. Zdrojek, L. Lipinska, and K. M. Abramski, “Linearly polarized, Q-switched Er-doped fiber laser based on reduced graphene oxide saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(24), 241106 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Sotor, G. Sobon, K. Grodecki, and K. M. Abramski, “Mode-locked erbium-doped fiber laser based on evanescent field interaction with Sb2Te3 topological insulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(25), 251112 (2014).
[Crossref]

Appl. Surf. Sci. (1)

Z. C. Sun, B. Y. Man, C. Yang, M. Liu, S. Z. Jiang, C. Zhang, and Y. Y. Xu, “Selenium-assisted controlled growth of graphene–Bi2Se3 nanoplates hybrid Dirac materials by chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 365, 357–363 (2016).
[Crossref]

CrystEngComm (1)

C. Zhang, M. Liu, B. Y. Man, S. Z. Jiang, C. Yang, C. S. Chen, and J. X. Zhang, “Facile fabrication of graphene-topological insulator Bi2Se3 hybrid Dirac materials via chemical vapor deposition in Se-rich conditions,” CrystEngComm 16(38), 8941–8945 (2014).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

B. Guo, Y. Yao, J. Xiao, R. L. Wang, and J. Y. Zhang, “Topological Insulator-Assisted Dual-Wavelength Fiber Laser Delivering Versatile Pulse Patterns,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22(2), 1–4 (2016).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics J. (2)

L. Gao, T. Zhu, W. Huang, and Z. Q. Luo, “Sable, Ultrafast Pulse Mode-Locked by Topological Insulator Bi2Se3 Nanosheets Interacting With Photonic Crystal Fiber:From Anomalous Dispersion to Normal Dispersion,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(1), 1–8 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Tang, X. Zhang, C. Zhao, Y. Wang, H. Zhang, D. Shen, S. Wen, D. Tang, and D. Fan, “Topological insulator: Bi2Te3 saturable absorber for the passive Q-switching operation of an in-band pumped 1645 nm Er:YAG Ceramic laser,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(2), 1500707 (2013).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (3)

P. G. Yan, R. Y. Lin, H. Chen, H. Zhang, A. J. Liu, H. P. Yang, and S. C. Ruan, “Topological insulator solution filled in photonic crystal fiber for passive mode-locked fiber laser,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(3), 264–267 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. P. Zhou, L. Wei, B. Dong, and W. K. Liu, “Tunable PassivelyQ-switched Erbium-Doped Fiber Laser With Carbon Nanotubes as a Saturable Absorber,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(1), 9–11 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Liu, N. Zhao, H. Liu, X. W. Zheng, A. P. Luo, Z. C. Luo, W. C. Xu, C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, and S. C. Wen, “Dual-Wavelength Harmonically Mode-Locked Fiber Laser With Topological Insulator Saturable Absorber,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(10), 983–986 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

K. Shahil, M. Hossain, V. Goyal, and A. A. Balandind, “Micro-Raman spectroscopy of mechanically exfoliated few-quintuple layers of Bi2Te3, Bi2Se3, and Sb2Te3 materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(5), 054305 (2012).
[Crossref]

B. Guo, Y. Yao, Y. F. Yang, Y. J. Yuan, R. L. Wang, S. G. Wang, Z. H. Ren, and B. Yan, “Topological insulator: Bi2Se3/polyvinyl alcohol film-assisted multi-wavelength ultrafast erbium-doped fiber laser,” J. Appl. Phys. 117(6), 063108 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Korea (1)

Laser Photonics Rev. (1)

H. Yu, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, C. Zhao, B. Wang, S. Wen, H. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Topological insulator as an optical modulator for pulsed solid-state lasers,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(6), L77–L83 (2013).
[Crossref]

Laser Phys. (1)

J. Boguslawski, J. Sotor, G. Sobon, J. Tarka, J. Jagiello, W. Macherzynski, L. Lipinska, and K. M. Abramski, “Mode-locked Er-doped fiber laser based on liquid phase exfoliated Sb2Te3 topological insulator,” Laser Phys. 24(10), 105111 (2014).
[Crossref]

Laser Phys. Lett. (4)

J. Sotor, G. Sobon, W. Macherzynski, and K. M. Abramski, “Harmonically mode-locked Er-doped fiber laser based on a Sb2Te3 topological insulator saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11(5), 055102 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. X. Li, Y. R. Song, Z. H. Yu, R. Q. Xu, Z. Y. Dou, and J. R. Tian, “L-band femtosecond fibre laser based on Bi2Se3 topological insulator Laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 12(10), 105103 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Sotor, G. Sobon, W. Macherzynski, and K. Abramski, “Harmonically mode-locked Er-doped fiber laser based on a Sb2Te3 topological insulator saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11(5), 055102 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. C. Xu, B. Y. Man, S. Z. Jiang, C. S. Chen, M. Liu, C. Yang, S. B. Gao, D. J. Feng, G. D. Hu, Q. J. Huang, X. F. Chen, and C. Zhang, “Direct growth of graphene on quartz substrate as saturable absorber for femtosecond solid-state laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11(8), 085801 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (2)

A. Martinez and Z. Sun, “Nanotube and graphene saturable absorbers for fibre lasers,” Nat. Photonics 7(11), 842–845 (2013).
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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) Schematic diagram for the growth of Bi2Te3 by CVD method, (b) Preparation process of the Bi2Te3 SA.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) The SEM images of Bi2Te3, (b) EDS spectrogram of the Bi2Te3 film. Insert of (b) the atom ratio, (c) Topographic AFM images of the Bi2Te3 nanosheets, (d) Corresponding height profiles, (e) The Raman spectrum of the Bi2Te3, (f) The XRD spectrum of the Bi2Te3 nanosheets.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) Linear transmission of the Bi2Te3 film on substrate and the substrate versus wavelength, (b) Nonlinear absorption property of the Bi2Te3 film.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. The experimental setup of the Bi2Te3-based Er-doped mode-locked fiber laser.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. (a) Optical pulse train of the mode-locked operation, (b) Single pulse with a pulse width of 3.22 ns, (c) The output spectrum with 3 dB bandwidth of 1.696 nm, (d) The RF spectra of the optical pulse.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. (a) The average output power and the pulse energy versus the pump power, (b) The pulse spectrum FWHM evolution with pump power, (c) The pulse width as a function of pump power.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Comparison of passively mode-locked Er-doped ring-cavity lasers based on IT SAs

Equations (1)

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T ( I ) = 1 T n s Δ T × exp ( I / I s a t )

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