Abstract

We have used spectroscopic ellipsometry to measure the optical constants of evaporated amorphous zinc arsenide (Zn3As2). A five parameter model using a Tauc-Lorentz oscillator was found to fit well each of six amorphous samples deposited on Si3N4/silicon, allowing the layer thicknesses and optical constants to be deduced. Layer thicknesses varied from 20 to 70 nm. The fitted value of the optical gap (Tauc gap) is 0.95 eV, close to the 1.0 eV band gap for crystalline bulk zinc arsenide. A single set of parameters from an ensemble Tauc-Lorentz model can be used to determine the thicknesses of amorphous Zn3As2 layers as long as the layers are ≳ 25 nm thick. Measured film thicknesses do not correlate with targeted thicknesses, likely due to low sticking coefficients of evaporated zinc arsenide.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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  1. Ü Ozgur, D. Hofstetter, and H. Morkoç, “ZnO devices and applications: A review of current status and future prospects,” Proc. IEEE 98(7), 1255–1268 (2010).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  3. D. C. Look, G. M. Renlund, R. H. Burgener, and J. R. Sizelove, “As-doped p-type ZnO produced by an evaporation/sputtering process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(22), 5269–5271 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  4. R. H. Burgener, R. L. Felix, and G. M. Renlund, “Fabrication of P-type Group II-VI Semiconductors,” U.S. patent US 7141489 B2 (2006).
  5. J. Misiewicz and K. Jezierski, “Zinc Arsenide (Zn3As2),” in Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids, III, E. D. Palik, ed. (Academic Press, 1998), pp. 595–607.
  6. J. N. Hilfiker, N. Singh, T. Tiwald, D. Convey, S. M. Smith, J. H. Baker, and H. G. Tompkins, “Survey of methods to characterize thin absorbing films with Spectroscopic Ellipsometry,” Thin Solid Films 516(22), 7979–7989 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  7. J. Misiewicz and J. M. Pawlikowski, “Optical band-gap of Zn3As2,” Solid State Commun. 32(8), 687–690 (1979).
    [Crossref]
  8. D. E. Aspnes and A. A. Studna, “Dielectric functions and optical parameters of Si, Ge, GaP, GaAs, GaSb, InP, InAs, and InSb from 1.5 to 6.0 eV,” Phys. Rev. B 27(2), 985–1009 (1983).
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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  22. J. Price, P. Y. Hung, T. Rhoad, B. Foran, and A. C. Diebold, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry characterization of HfxSiyOz films using the Cody–Lorentz parameterized model,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(10), 1701–1703 (2004).
    [Crossref]
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  24. D. G. Van Campen and J. Hrbek, “Silver on alumina: adsorption and desorption study of model catalysts,” J. Phys. Chem. 99(44), 16389–16394 (1995).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  27. W. A. McGahan, B. Johs, and J. A. Woollam, “Techniques for ellipsometric measurement of the thickness and optical constants of thin absorbing films,” Thin Solid Films 234(1-2), 443–446 (1993).
    [Crossref]

2017 (1)

D. D. Allred, R. S. Turley, S. M. Thomas, S. G. Willett, M. J. Greenburg, and S. B. Perry, “Adding EUV reflectance to aluminum-coated mirrors for space-based observation,” Proc. SPIE 10398, 103980Y (2017).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

Ü Ozgur, D. Hofstetter, and H. Morkoç, “ZnO devices and applications: A review of current status and future prospects,” Proc. IEEE 98(7), 1255–1268 (2010).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

J. N. Hilfiker, N. Singh, T. Tiwald, D. Convey, S. M. Smith, J. H. Baker, and H. G. Tompkins, “Survey of methods to characterize thin absorbing films with Spectroscopic Ellipsometry,” Thin Solid Films 516(22), 7979–7989 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Orava, T. Wágner, J. Šik, J. Pǐikryl, M. Frumar, and L. Beneš, “Optical properties and phase change transition in Ge2 Sb2 Te5 flash evaporated thin films studied by temperature dependent spectroscopic ellipsometry,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(4), 043523 (2008).
[Crossref]

2004 (3)

J. Price, P. Y. Hung, T. Rhoad, B. Foran, and A. C. Diebold, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry characterization of HfxSiyOz films using the Cody–Lorentz parameterized model,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(10), 1701–1703 (2004).
[Crossref]

D. C. Look, B. Claflin, Y. I. Alivov, and S. J. Park, “The future of ZnO light emitters,” Phys. Status Solidi C 201(10), 2203–2212 (2004).
[Crossref]

D. C. Look, G. M. Renlund, R. H. Burgener, and J. R. Sizelove, “As-doped p-type ZnO produced by an evaporation/sputtering process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(22), 5269–5271 (2004).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

1998 (2)

Y. Chen, D. M. Bagnall, H. J. Koh, K. T. Park, K. Hiraga, Z. Zhu, and T. Yao, “Plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy of ZnO on c-plane sapphire: Growth and characterization,” J. Appl. Phys. 84(7), 3912–3918 (1998).
[Crossref]

C. R. Henry, “Surface studies of supported model catalysts,” Surf. Sci. Rep. 31(7-8), 231–325 (1998). See in particular Table 4 on page 258.
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

G. E. Jellison and F. A. Modine, “Parameterization of the optical functions of amorphous materials in the interband region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(3), 371–373 (1996).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

D. G. Van Campen and J. Hrbek, “Silver on alumina: adsorption and desorption study of model catalysts,” J. Phys. Chem. 99(44), 16389–16394 (1995).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

W. A. McGahan, B. Johs, and J. A. Woollam, “Techniques for ellipsometric measurement of the thickness and optical constants of thin absorbing films,” Thin Solid Films 234(1-2), 443–446 (1993).
[Crossref]

1983 (1)

D. E. Aspnes and A. A. Studna, “Dielectric functions and optical parameters of Si, Ge, GaP, GaAs, GaSb, InP, InAs, and InSb from 1.5 to 6.0 eV,” Phys. Rev. B 27(2), 985–1009 (1983).
[Crossref]

1979 (2)

J. Misiewicz and J. M. Pawlikowski, “Optical band-gap of Zn3As2,” Solid State Commun. 32(8), 687–690 (1979).
[Crossref]

M. Janai, D. D. Allred, D. C. Booth, and B. O. Seraphin, “Optical properties and structure of amorphous silicon films prepared by CVD,” Sol. Energy Mater. 1(1-2), 11–27 (1979).
[Crossref]

1966 (1)

J. Tauc, R. Grigorovici, and A. Vancu, “Optical Properties and Electronic Structure of Amorphous Germanium,” Phys. Status Solidi B 15(2), 627–637 (1966).
[Crossref]

1961 (1)

R. A. Rapp, J. P. Hirth, and G. M. Pound, “Condensation coefficients in the growth of cadmium and zinc from the vapor,” J. Chem. Phys. 34(1), 184–188 (1961).
[Crossref]

1957 (1)

F. W. Glaze, D. H. Blackburn, J. S. Osmalov, D. Hubbard, and M. H. Black, “Properties of arsenic sulfide glass,” J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. 59(2), 83 (1957).
[Crossref]

1937 (1)

I. N. Stranski and L. Krastanow, “Zur Theorie der orientierten Ausscheidung von Ionenkristallen aufeinander,” Monatsh. Chem. 71(1), 351–364 (1937).
[Crossref]

Alivov, Y. I.

D. C. Look, B. Claflin, Y. I. Alivov, and S. J. Park, “The future of ZnO light emitters,” Phys. Status Solidi C 201(10), 2203–2212 (2004).
[Crossref]

Allred, D. D.

D. D. Allred, R. S. Turley, S. M. Thomas, S. G. Willett, M. J. Greenburg, and S. B. Perry, “Adding EUV reflectance to aluminum-coated mirrors for space-based observation,” Proc. SPIE 10398, 103980Y (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Janai, D. D. Allred, D. C. Booth, and B. O. Seraphin, “Optical properties and structure of amorphous silicon films prepared by CVD,” Sol. Energy Mater. 1(1-2), 11–27 (1979).
[Crossref]

Aspnes, D. E.

D. E. Aspnes and A. A. Studna, “Dielectric functions and optical parameters of Si, Ge, GaP, GaAs, GaSb, InP, InAs, and InSb from 1.5 to 6.0 eV,” Phys. Rev. B 27(2), 985–1009 (1983).
[Crossref]

Bagnall, D. M.

Y. Chen, D. M. Bagnall, H. J. Koh, K. T. Park, K. Hiraga, Z. Zhu, and T. Yao, “Plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy of ZnO on c-plane sapphire: Growth and characterization,” J. Appl. Phys. 84(7), 3912–3918 (1998).
[Crossref]

Baker, J. H.

J. N. Hilfiker, N. Singh, T. Tiwald, D. Convey, S. M. Smith, J. H. Baker, and H. G. Tompkins, “Survey of methods to characterize thin absorbing films with Spectroscopic Ellipsometry,” Thin Solid Films 516(22), 7979–7989 (2008).
[Crossref]

Beneš, L.

J. Orava, T. Wágner, J. Šik, J. Pǐikryl, M. Frumar, and L. Beneš, “Optical properties and phase change transition in Ge2 Sb2 Te5 flash evaporated thin films studied by temperature dependent spectroscopic ellipsometry,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(4), 043523 (2008).
[Crossref]

Black, M. H.

F. W. Glaze, D. H. Blackburn, J. S. Osmalov, D. Hubbard, and M. H. Black, “Properties of arsenic sulfide glass,” J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. 59(2), 83 (1957).
[Crossref]

Blackburn, D. H.

F. W. Glaze, D. H. Blackburn, J. S. Osmalov, D. Hubbard, and M. H. Black, “Properties of arsenic sulfide glass,” J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. 59(2), 83 (1957).
[Crossref]

Booth, D. C.

M. Janai, D. D. Allred, D. C. Booth, and B. O. Seraphin, “Optical properties and structure of amorphous silicon films prepared by CVD,” Sol. Energy Mater. 1(1-2), 11–27 (1979).
[Crossref]

Brink, D. J.

Burgener, R. H.

D. C. Look, G. M. Renlund, R. H. Burgener, and J. R. Sizelove, “As-doped p-type ZnO produced by an evaporation/sputtering process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(22), 5269–5271 (2004).
[Crossref]

R. H. Burgener, R. L. Felix, and G. M. Renlund, “Fabrication of P-type Group II-VI Semiconductors,” U.S. patent US 7141489 B2 (2006).

Campbell, B. J.

M. N. Shelley, S. K. King, B. J. Campbell, and J. S. Colton, “On the structure of bulk and thin film Zn3As2 (in preparation),” (n.d.).

Chen, Y.

Y. Chen, D. M. Bagnall, H. J. Koh, K. T. Park, K. Hiraga, Z. Zhu, and T. Yao, “Plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy of ZnO on c-plane sapphire: Growth and characterization,” J. Appl. Phys. 84(7), 3912–3918 (1998).
[Crossref]

Claflin, B.

D. C. Look, B. Claflin, Y. I. Alivov, and S. J. Park, “The future of ZnO light emitters,” Phys. Status Solidi C 201(10), 2203–2212 (2004).
[Crossref]

Cody, G. D.

G. D. Cody, “The Optical Absorption Edge of a-Si: H,” in Semiconductors and Semimetals, Vol. 21, Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon, Part B, Optical Properties (Academic Press, 1984), pp. 11–82.

Colton, J. S.

M. N. Shelley, S. K. King, B. J. Campbell, and J. S. Colton, “On the structure of bulk and thin film Zn3As2 (in preparation),” (n.d.).

Convey, D.

J. N. Hilfiker, N. Singh, T. Tiwald, D. Convey, S. M. Smith, J. H. Baker, and H. G. Tompkins, “Survey of methods to characterize thin absorbing films with Spectroscopic Ellipsometry,” Thin Solid Films 516(22), 7979–7989 (2008).
[Crossref]

Diebold, A. C.

J. Price, P. Y. Hung, T. Rhoad, B. Foran, and A. C. Diebold, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry characterization of HfxSiyOz films using the Cody–Lorentz parameterized model,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(10), 1701–1703 (2004).
[Crossref]

Engelbrecht, J. A. A.

Felix, R. L.

R. H. Burgener, R. L. Felix, and G. M. Renlund, “Fabrication of P-type Group II-VI Semiconductors,” U.S. patent US 7141489 B2 (2006).

Foran, B.

J. Price, P. Y. Hung, T. Rhoad, B. Foran, and A. C. Diebold, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry characterization of HfxSiyOz films using the Cody–Lorentz parameterized model,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(10), 1701–1703 (2004).
[Crossref]

Frumar, M.

J. Orava, T. Wágner, J. Šik, J. Pǐikryl, M. Frumar, and L. Beneš, “Optical properties and phase change transition in Ge2 Sb2 Te5 flash evaporated thin films studied by temperature dependent spectroscopic ellipsometry,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(4), 043523 (2008).
[Crossref]

Glaze, F. W.

F. W. Glaze, D. H. Blackburn, J. S. Osmalov, D. Hubbard, and M. H. Black, “Properties of arsenic sulfide glass,” J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. 59(2), 83 (1957).
[Crossref]

Greenburg, M. J.

D. D. Allred, R. S. Turley, S. M. Thomas, S. G. Willett, M. J. Greenburg, and S. B. Perry, “Adding EUV reflectance to aluminum-coated mirrors for space-based observation,” Proc. SPIE 10398, 103980Y (2017).
[Crossref]

Grigorovici, R.

J. Tauc, R. Grigorovici, and A. Vancu, “Optical Properties and Electronic Structure of Amorphous Germanium,” Phys. Status Solidi B 15(2), 627–637 (1966).
[Crossref]

Henry, C. R.

C. R. Henry, “Surface studies of supported model catalysts,” Surf. Sci. Rep. 31(7-8), 231–325 (1998). See in particular Table 4 on page 258.
[Crossref]

Hilfiker, J. N.

J. N. Hilfiker, N. Singh, T. Tiwald, D. Convey, S. M. Smith, J. H. Baker, and H. G. Tompkins, “Survey of methods to characterize thin absorbing films with Spectroscopic Ellipsometry,” Thin Solid Films 516(22), 7979–7989 (2008).
[Crossref]

Hiraga, K.

Y. Chen, D. M. Bagnall, H. J. Koh, K. T. Park, K. Hiraga, Z. Zhu, and T. Yao, “Plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy of ZnO on c-plane sapphire: Growth and characterization,” J. Appl. Phys. 84(7), 3912–3918 (1998).
[Crossref]

Hirth, J. P.

R. A. Rapp, J. P. Hirth, and G. M. Pound, “Condensation coefficients in the growth of cadmium and zinc from the vapor,” J. Chem. Phys. 34(1), 184–188 (1961).
[Crossref]

Hofstetter, D.

Ü Ozgur, D. Hofstetter, and H. Morkoç, “ZnO devices and applications: A review of current status and future prospects,” Proc. IEEE 98(7), 1255–1268 (2010).
[Crossref]

Hrbek, J.

D. G. Van Campen and J. Hrbek, “Silver on alumina: adsorption and desorption study of model catalysts,” J. Phys. Chem. 99(44), 16389–16394 (1995).
[Crossref]

Hubbard, D.

F. W. Glaze, D. H. Blackburn, J. S. Osmalov, D. Hubbard, and M. H. Black, “Properties of arsenic sulfide glass,” J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. 59(2), 83 (1957).
[Crossref]

Hung, P. Y.

J. Price, P. Y. Hung, T. Rhoad, B. Foran, and A. C. Diebold, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry characterization of HfxSiyOz films using the Cody–Lorentz parameterized model,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(10), 1701–1703 (2004).
[Crossref]

Janai, M.

M. Janai, D. D. Allred, D. C. Booth, and B. O. Seraphin, “Optical properties and structure of amorphous silicon films prepared by CVD,” Sol. Energy Mater. 1(1-2), 11–27 (1979).
[Crossref]

Jellison, G. E.

G. E. Jellison and F. A. Modine, “Parameterization of the optical functions of amorphous materials in the interband region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(3), 371–373 (1996).
[Crossref]

Jezierski, K.

J. Misiewicz and K. Jezierski, “Zinc Arsenide (Zn3As2),” in Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids, III, E. D. Palik, ed. (Academic Press, 1998), pp. 595–607.

Johs, B.

W. A. McGahan, B. Johs, and J. A. Woollam, “Techniques for ellipsometric measurement of the thickness and optical constants of thin absorbing films,” Thin Solid Films 234(1-2), 443–446 (1993).
[Crossref]

King, S. K.

M. N. Shelley, S. K. King, B. J. Campbell, and J. S. Colton, “On the structure of bulk and thin film Zn3As2 (in preparation),” (n.d.).

Koh, H. J.

Y. Chen, D. M. Bagnall, H. J. Koh, K. T. Park, K. Hiraga, Z. Zhu, and T. Yao, “Plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy of ZnO on c-plane sapphire: Growth and characterization,” J. Appl. Phys. 84(7), 3912–3918 (1998).
[Crossref]

Krastanow, L.

I. N. Stranski and L. Krastanow, “Zur Theorie der orientierten Ausscheidung von Ionenkristallen aufeinander,” Monatsh. Chem. 71(1), 351–364 (1937).
[Crossref]

Look, D. C.

D. C. Look, B. Claflin, Y. I. Alivov, and S. J. Park, “The future of ZnO light emitters,” Phys. Status Solidi C 201(10), 2203–2212 (2004).
[Crossref]

D. C. Look, G. M. Renlund, R. H. Burgener, and J. R. Sizelove, “As-doped p-type ZnO produced by an evaporation/sputtering process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(22), 5269–5271 (2004).
[Crossref]

McGahan, W. A.

W. A. McGahan, B. Johs, and J. A. Woollam, “Techniques for ellipsometric measurement of the thickness and optical constants of thin absorbing films,” Thin Solid Films 234(1-2), 443–446 (1993).
[Crossref]

Misiewicz, J.

J. Misiewicz and J. M. Pawlikowski, “Optical band-gap of Zn3As2,” Solid State Commun. 32(8), 687–690 (1979).
[Crossref]

J. Misiewicz and K. Jezierski, “Zinc Arsenide (Zn3As2),” in Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids, III, E. D. Palik, ed. (Academic Press, 1998), pp. 595–607.

Modine, F. A.

G. E. Jellison and F. A. Modine, “Parameterization of the optical functions of amorphous materials in the interband region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(3), 371–373 (1996).
[Crossref]

Morkoç, H.

Ü Ozgur, D. Hofstetter, and H. Morkoç, “ZnO devices and applications: A review of current status and future prospects,” Proc. IEEE 98(7), 1255–1268 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ohring, M.

M. Ohring, “Substrate Surfaces and Thin-Film Nucleation,” in Materials Science of Thin Films: Deposition and Structure, 2nd ed. (Academic Press, 2002), pp. 357–415.

Orava, J.

J. Orava, T. Wágner, J. Šik, J. Pǐikryl, M. Frumar, and L. Beneš, “Optical properties and phase change transition in Ge2 Sb2 Te5 flash evaporated thin films studied by temperature dependent spectroscopic ellipsometry,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(4), 043523 (2008).
[Crossref]

Osmalov, J. S.

F. W. Glaze, D. H. Blackburn, J. S. Osmalov, D. Hubbard, and M. H. Black, “Properties of arsenic sulfide glass,” J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. 59(2), 83 (1957).
[Crossref]

Ozgur, Ü

Ü Ozgur, D. Hofstetter, and H. Morkoç, “ZnO devices and applications: A review of current status and future prospects,” Proc. IEEE 98(7), 1255–1268 (2010).
[Crossref]

Park, K. T.

Y. Chen, D. M. Bagnall, H. J. Koh, K. T. Park, K. Hiraga, Z. Zhu, and T. Yao, “Plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy of ZnO on c-plane sapphire: Growth and characterization,” J. Appl. Phys. 84(7), 3912–3918 (1998).
[Crossref]

Park, S. J.

D. C. Look, B. Claflin, Y. I. Alivov, and S. J. Park, “The future of ZnO light emitters,” Phys. Status Solidi C 201(10), 2203–2212 (2004).
[Crossref]

Pawlikowski, J. M.

J. Misiewicz and J. M. Pawlikowski, “Optical band-gap of Zn3As2,” Solid State Commun. 32(8), 687–690 (1979).
[Crossref]

Perry, S. B.

D. D. Allred, R. S. Turley, S. M. Thomas, S. G. Willett, M. J. Greenburg, and S. B. Perry, “Adding EUV reflectance to aluminum-coated mirrors for space-based observation,” Proc. SPIE 10398, 103980Y (2017).
[Crossref]

Piikryl, J.

J. Orava, T. Wágner, J. Šik, J. Pǐikryl, M. Frumar, and L. Beneš, “Optical properties and phase change transition in Ge2 Sb2 Te5 flash evaporated thin films studied by temperature dependent spectroscopic ellipsometry,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(4), 043523 (2008).
[Crossref]

Pound, G. M.

R. A. Rapp, J. P. Hirth, and G. M. Pound, “Condensation coefficients in the growth of cadmium and zinc from the vapor,” J. Chem. Phys. 34(1), 184–188 (1961).
[Crossref]

Price, J.

J. Price, P. Y. Hung, T. Rhoad, B. Foran, and A. C. Diebold, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry characterization of HfxSiyOz films using the Cody–Lorentz parameterized model,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(10), 1701–1703 (2004).
[Crossref]

Rapp, R. A.

R. A. Rapp, J. P. Hirth, and G. M. Pound, “Condensation coefficients in the growth of cadmium and zinc from the vapor,” J. Chem. Phys. 34(1), 184–188 (1961).
[Crossref]

Renlund, G. M.

D. C. Look, G. M. Renlund, R. H. Burgener, and J. R. Sizelove, “As-doped p-type ZnO produced by an evaporation/sputtering process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(22), 5269–5271 (2004).
[Crossref]

R. H. Burgener, R. L. Felix, and G. M. Renlund, “Fabrication of P-type Group II-VI Semiconductors,” U.S. patent US 7141489 B2 (2006).

Rhoad, T.

J. Price, P. Y. Hung, T. Rhoad, B. Foran, and A. C. Diebold, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry characterization of HfxSiyOz films using the Cody–Lorentz parameterized model,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(10), 1701–1703 (2004).
[Crossref]

Schubert, M.

M. Schubert, “Theory and Application of Generalized Ellipsometry,” in Handbook of Ellipsometry, H. G. Tompkins and E. A. Irene, eds. (Springer, 2005), pp. 691–692.

Seraphin, B. O.

M. Janai, D. D. Allred, D. C. Booth, and B. O. Seraphin, “Optical properties and structure of amorphous silicon films prepared by CVD,” Sol. Energy Mater. 1(1-2), 11–27 (1979).
[Crossref]

Shelley, M. N.

M. N. Shelley, S. K. King, B. J. Campbell, and J. S. Colton, “On the structure of bulk and thin film Zn3As2 (in preparation),” (n.d.).

Šik, J.

J. Orava, T. Wágner, J. Šik, J. Pǐikryl, M. Frumar, and L. Beneš, “Optical properties and phase change transition in Ge2 Sb2 Te5 flash evaporated thin films studied by temperature dependent spectroscopic ellipsometry,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(4), 043523 (2008).
[Crossref]

Singh, N.

J. N. Hilfiker, N. Singh, T. Tiwald, D. Convey, S. M. Smith, J. H. Baker, and H. G. Tompkins, “Survey of methods to characterize thin absorbing films with Spectroscopic Ellipsometry,” Thin Solid Films 516(22), 7979–7989 (2008).
[Crossref]

Sizelove, J. R.

D. C. Look, G. M. Renlund, R. H. Burgener, and J. R. Sizelove, “As-doped p-type ZnO produced by an evaporation/sputtering process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(22), 5269–5271 (2004).
[Crossref]

Smith, S. M.

J. N. Hilfiker, N. Singh, T. Tiwald, D. Convey, S. M. Smith, J. H. Baker, and H. G. Tompkins, “Survey of methods to characterize thin absorbing films with Spectroscopic Ellipsometry,” Thin Solid Films 516(22), 7979–7989 (2008).
[Crossref]

Stranski, I. N.

I. N. Stranski and L. Krastanow, “Zur Theorie der orientierten Ausscheidung von Ionenkristallen aufeinander,” Monatsh. Chem. 71(1), 351–364 (1937).
[Crossref]

Studna, A. A.

D. E. Aspnes and A. A. Studna, “Dielectric functions and optical parameters of Si, Ge, GaP, GaAs, GaSb, InP, InAs, and InSb from 1.5 to 6.0 eV,” Phys. Rev. B 27(2), 985–1009 (1983).
[Crossref]

Tauc, J.

J. Tauc, R. Grigorovici, and A. Vancu, “Optical Properties and Electronic Structure of Amorphous Germanium,” Phys. Status Solidi B 15(2), 627–637 (1966).
[Crossref]

J. Tauc, “Optical Properties of Amorphous Semiconductors and Solar Cells,” in Fundamentals of Semiconductors: Physics and Materials Properties, P. Y. Cardona and M. Yu, eds. (Springer, 2012), pp. 566–568.

Thomas, S. M.

D. D. Allred, R. S. Turley, S. M. Thomas, S. G. Willett, M. J. Greenburg, and S. B. Perry, “Adding EUV reflectance to aluminum-coated mirrors for space-based observation,” Proc. SPIE 10398, 103980Y (2017).
[Crossref]

Tiwald, T.

J. N. Hilfiker, N. Singh, T. Tiwald, D. Convey, S. M. Smith, J. H. Baker, and H. G. Tompkins, “Survey of methods to characterize thin absorbing films with Spectroscopic Ellipsometry,” Thin Solid Films 516(22), 7979–7989 (2008).
[Crossref]

Tompkins, H. G.

J. N. Hilfiker, N. Singh, T. Tiwald, D. Convey, S. M. Smith, J. H. Baker, and H. G. Tompkins, “Survey of methods to characterize thin absorbing films with Spectroscopic Ellipsometry,” Thin Solid Films 516(22), 7979–7989 (2008).
[Crossref]

Turley, R. S.

D. D. Allred, R. S. Turley, S. M. Thomas, S. G. Willett, M. J. Greenburg, and S. B. Perry, “Adding EUV reflectance to aluminum-coated mirrors for space-based observation,” Proc. SPIE 10398, 103980Y (2017).
[Crossref]

Van Campen, D. G.

D. G. Van Campen and J. Hrbek, “Silver on alumina: adsorption and desorption study of model catalysts,” J. Phys. Chem. 99(44), 16389–16394 (1995).
[Crossref]

Vancu, A.

J. Tauc, R. Grigorovici, and A. Vancu, “Optical Properties and Electronic Structure of Amorphous Germanium,” Phys. Status Solidi B 15(2), 627–637 (1966).
[Crossref]

Wágner, T.

J. Orava, T. Wágner, J. Šik, J. Pǐikryl, M. Frumar, and L. Beneš, “Optical properties and phase change transition in Ge2 Sb2 Te5 flash evaporated thin films studied by temperature dependent spectroscopic ellipsometry,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(4), 043523 (2008).
[Crossref]

Willett, S. G.

D. D. Allred, R. S. Turley, S. M. Thomas, S. G. Willett, M. J. Greenburg, and S. B. Perry, “Adding EUV reflectance to aluminum-coated mirrors for space-based observation,” Proc. SPIE 10398, 103980Y (2017).
[Crossref]

Woollam, J. A.

W. A. McGahan, B. Johs, and J. A. Woollam, “Techniques for ellipsometric measurement of the thickness and optical constants of thin absorbing films,” Thin Solid Films 234(1-2), 443–446 (1993).
[Crossref]

Yao, T.

Y. Chen, D. M. Bagnall, H. J. Koh, K. T. Park, K. Hiraga, Z. Zhu, and T. Yao, “Plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy of ZnO on c-plane sapphire: Growth and characterization,” J. Appl. Phys. 84(7), 3912–3918 (1998).
[Crossref]

Zhu, Z.

Y. Chen, D. M. Bagnall, H. J. Koh, K. T. Park, K. Hiraga, Z. Zhu, and T. Yao, “Plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy of ZnO on c-plane sapphire: Growth and characterization,” J. Appl. Phys. 84(7), 3912–3918 (1998).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

G. E. Jellison and F. A. Modine, “Parameterization of the optical functions of amorphous materials in the interband region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(3), 371–373 (1996).
[Crossref]

J. Price, P. Y. Hung, T. Rhoad, B. Foran, and A. C. Diebold, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry characterization of HfxSiyOz films using the Cody–Lorentz parameterized model,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(10), 1701–1703 (2004).
[Crossref]

D. C. Look, G. M. Renlund, R. H. Burgener, and J. R. Sizelove, “As-doped p-type ZnO produced by an evaporation/sputtering process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(22), 5269–5271 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

Y. Chen, D. M. Bagnall, H. J. Koh, K. T. Park, K. Hiraga, Z. Zhu, and T. Yao, “Plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy of ZnO on c-plane sapphire: Growth and characterization,” J. Appl. Phys. 84(7), 3912–3918 (1998).
[Crossref]

J. Orava, T. Wágner, J. Šik, J. Pǐikryl, M. Frumar, and L. Beneš, “Optical properties and phase change transition in Ge2 Sb2 Te5 flash evaporated thin films studied by temperature dependent spectroscopic ellipsometry,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(4), 043523 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

R. A. Rapp, J. P. Hirth, and G. M. Pound, “Condensation coefficients in the growth of cadmium and zinc from the vapor,” J. Chem. Phys. 34(1), 184–188 (1961).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. Chem. (1)

D. G. Van Campen and J. Hrbek, “Silver on alumina: adsorption and desorption study of model catalysts,” J. Phys. Chem. 99(44), 16389–16394 (1995).
[Crossref]

J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. (1)

F. W. Glaze, D. H. Blackburn, J. S. Osmalov, D. Hubbard, and M. H. Black, “Properties of arsenic sulfide glass,” J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. 59(2), 83 (1957).
[Crossref]

Monatsh. Chem. (1)

I. N. Stranski and L. Krastanow, “Zur Theorie der orientierten Ausscheidung von Ionenkristallen aufeinander,” Monatsh. Chem. 71(1), 351–364 (1937).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

D. E. Aspnes and A. A. Studna, “Dielectric functions and optical parameters of Si, Ge, GaP, GaAs, GaSb, InP, InAs, and InSb from 1.5 to 6.0 eV,” Phys. Rev. B 27(2), 985–1009 (1983).
[Crossref]

Phys. Status Solidi B (1)

J. Tauc, R. Grigorovici, and A. Vancu, “Optical Properties and Electronic Structure of Amorphous Germanium,” Phys. Status Solidi B 15(2), 627–637 (1966).
[Crossref]

Phys. Status Solidi C (1)

D. C. Look, B. Claflin, Y. I. Alivov, and S. J. Park, “The future of ZnO light emitters,” Phys. Status Solidi C 201(10), 2203–2212 (2004).
[Crossref]

Proc. IEEE (1)

Ü Ozgur, D. Hofstetter, and H. Morkoç, “ZnO devices and applications: A review of current status and future prospects,” Proc. IEEE 98(7), 1255–1268 (2010).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (1)

D. D. Allred, R. S. Turley, S. M. Thomas, S. G. Willett, M. J. Greenburg, and S. B. Perry, “Adding EUV reflectance to aluminum-coated mirrors for space-based observation,” Proc. SPIE 10398, 103980Y (2017).
[Crossref]

Sol. Energy Mater. (1)

M. Janai, D. D. Allred, D. C. Booth, and B. O. Seraphin, “Optical properties and structure of amorphous silicon films prepared by CVD,” Sol. Energy Mater. 1(1-2), 11–27 (1979).
[Crossref]

Solid State Commun. (1)

J. Misiewicz and J. M. Pawlikowski, “Optical band-gap of Zn3As2,” Solid State Commun. 32(8), 687–690 (1979).
[Crossref]

Surf. Sci. Rep. (1)

C. R. Henry, “Surface studies of supported model catalysts,” Surf. Sci. Rep. 31(7-8), 231–325 (1998). See in particular Table 4 on page 258.
[Crossref]

Thin Solid Films (2)

W. A. McGahan, B. Johs, and J. A. Woollam, “Techniques for ellipsometric measurement of the thickness and optical constants of thin absorbing films,” Thin Solid Films 234(1-2), 443–446 (1993).
[Crossref]

J. N. Hilfiker, N. Singh, T. Tiwald, D. Convey, S. M. Smith, J. H. Baker, and H. G. Tompkins, “Survey of methods to characterize thin absorbing films with Spectroscopic Ellipsometry,” Thin Solid Films 516(22), 7979–7989 (2008).
[Crossref]

Other (7)

M. Schubert, “Theory and Application of Generalized Ellipsometry,” in Handbook of Ellipsometry, H. G. Tompkins and E. A. Irene, eds. (Springer, 2005), pp. 691–692.

R. H. Burgener, R. L. Felix, and G. M. Renlund, “Fabrication of P-type Group II-VI Semiconductors,” U.S. patent US 7141489 B2 (2006).

J. Misiewicz and K. Jezierski, “Zinc Arsenide (Zn3As2),” in Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids, III, E. D. Palik, ed. (Academic Press, 1998), pp. 595–607.

J. Tauc, “Optical Properties of Amorphous Semiconductors and Solar Cells,” in Fundamentals of Semiconductors: Physics and Materials Properties, P. Y. Cardona and M. Yu, eds. (Springer, 2012), pp. 566–568.

M. N. Shelley, S. K. King, B. J. Campbell, and J. S. Colton, “On the structure of bulk and thin film Zn3As2 (in preparation),” (n.d.).

M. Ohring, “Substrate Surfaces and Thin-Film Nucleation,” in Materials Science of Thin Films: Deposition and Structure, 2nd ed. (Academic Press, 2002), pp. 357–415.

G. D. Cody, “The Optical Absorption Edge of a-Si: H,” in Semiconductors and Semimetals, Vol. 21, Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon, Part B, Optical Properties (Academic Press, 1984), pp. 11–82.

Supplementary Material (2)

NameDescription
» Data File 1       #Tabulated values of the n and k optical constants for the ensemble Tauc-Lorentz oscillator model of amorphous zinc arsenide (Zn3As2)
» Visualization 1       A video (3× speed) of the deposition and growth of evaporated Zn3As2 on various substrates. The video begins 3:20 after nominal start of evaporation. The amount of time from start of evaporation to darkening is highly variable from sample to sample.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Representative SEM images of Zn3As2 samples on (a) sapphire and (b) Si3N4/silicon (right). Each image displays a 1 µm2 area of the samples.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Representative Ψ and Δ values as a function of photon energy, measured at 70° for a sample of Zn3As2 on Si3N4/silicon. The solid lines represent experimental data. The model-generated data (deliberately chosen to be a non-optimum fit) is overlaid on each plot with dashed lines.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Still photo extracted from growth video during evaporation. The dark gray indicating Zn3As2 film growth develops on the left-hand substrate (glass) before it does on the right-hand substrate (sapphire). See Visualization 1 for a video of the growth (3× speed) which begins 3:20 after nominal start of evaporation. The amount of time from start of evaporation to darkening is highly variable from sample to sample.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Optical constants (n and k) for our ensemble fit of six amorphous samples of Zn3As2 on Si3N4/silicon, compared to values for crystalline bulk Zn3As2 from Ref. [5]. Note that the ellipsometry data for the amorphous material was only taken at energies from 0.7 to 6.5 eV; n and k values for energies outside that range should be considered an extrapolation. The shaded portions of the graph indicate confidence intervals created from average values of n and k from the individual model fits, plus/minus one standard deviation. See Data File 1 for underlying values for the amorphous material.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Thicknesses (nm) and Roughnesses (nm) of Zn3As2 layers on Si3N4/silicon.

Tables Icon

Table 2. TL model parameter values from an ensemble fit of the six amorphous Zn3As2 on Si3N4/silicon samples.

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

r p r s = tan Ψ e i Δ
ε 2 = { A E 0 C ( E E g ) 2 ( E 2 E 0 2 ) 2 + C 2 E 2 1 E , E > E g 0 , E E g
ε 1 = 2 π P E g ξ ε 2 ( ξ ) ξ 2 E 2 d ξ + ε 1 ( )
n + i k = ε 1 + i ε 2
ε 1 = n 2 k 2 ,  and
ε 2 = 2 n k .

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