Abstract

The low pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) method is used to synthesize GaN nanowires. It is an alternative technique to the more conventional molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) or metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE). Nanowires grown by LPCVD are shown to have a single-crystal Wurtzite structure and present a strong luminescence at a near-band-gap energy. A sub-band-gap defect-related luminescence is also observed in the visible range. Identified as yellow (YL) and green (GL) luminescences, these emissions are very similar to the one reported from bulk and thin 2D GaN film samples and may be attributed to comparable defects. In this work, using photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy with an above-band-gap excitation and a time-resolved PL with a below-band-gap excitation, we investigate whether these luminescences originate from bulk and/or surface defects. We demonstrate that the YL defect-related band can be significantly suppressed by 88% after passivating the surface of nanowires with aluminum oxide. This suppression is in favor of the localized surface defects responsible for the yellow luminescence, while the green luminescence band originates from deeper bulk defects.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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Corrections

23 May 2017: Typographical corrections were made to the author affiliations.


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References

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  34. E. Oh, B. Woo Lee, S.-J. Shim, H.-J. Choi, B. Hee Son, Y. Hwan Ahn, and L. S. Dang, “Low temperature cathodoluminecence and electron beam induced current studies of single GaN nanowires,” Applied Physics Letters 100, 153110 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  35. P. K. Kandaswamy, H. MacHhadani, Y. Kotsar, S. Sakr, A. Das, M. Tchernycheva, L. Rapenne, E. Sarigiannidou, F. H. Julien, and E. Monroy, “Effect of doping on the mid-infrared intersubband absorption in GaN/AlGaN superlattices grown on Si(111) templates,” Applied Physics Letters 96, 1–4 (2010).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]

2016 (2)

M. A. Reshchikov, J. D. McNamara, F. Zhang, M. Monavarian, A. Usikov, H. Helava, Y. Makarov, and H. Morkoç, “Zero-phonon line and fine structure of the yellow luminescence band in GaN,” Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics 94, 1–9 (2016).
[Crossref]

U. Saleem, H. Wang, D. Peyrot, A. Olivier, J. Zhang, P. Coquet, and S. L. G. Ng, “Germanium-catalyzed growth of single-crystal GaN nanowires,” Journal of Crystal Growth 439, 28–32 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (5)

X. Dai, A. Messanvi, H. Zhang, C. Durand, J. Eymery, C. Bougerol, F. H. Julien, and M. Tchernycheva, “Flexible Light-Emitting Diodes Based on Vertical Nitride Nanowires,” Nano Letters 15, 6958–6964 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Julkarnain, T. Fukuda, N. Kamata, and Y. Arakawa, “A direct evidence of allocating yellow luminescence band in undoped GaN by two-wavelength excited photoluminescence,” Applied Physics Letters 107, 212102 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Huang, H. Zong, J.-j. Shi, M. Zhang, X.-h. Jiang, H.-x. Zhong, Y.-m. Ding, Y.-p. He, J. Lu, and X.-d. Hu, “Origin of 3.45 eV Emission Line and Yellow Luminescence Band in GaN Nanowires: Surface Microwire and Defect,” ACS Nano 9, 9276–9283 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Dadgar, “Sixteen years GaN on Si,” physica status solidi (b) 252, 1063–1068 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. L. Lyons, A. Alkauskas, A. Janotti, and C. G. Van de Walle, “First-principles theory of acceptors in nitride semiconductors,” physica status solidi (b) 252, 900–908 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

M. A. Reshchikov, D. O. Demchenko, J. D. McNamara, S. Fernández-Garrido, and R. Calarco, “Green luminescence in Mg-doped GaN,” Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics 90, 1–14 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. A. Reshchikov, D. O. Demchenko, A. Usikov, H. Helava, and Y. Makarov, “Carbon defects as sources of the green and yellow luminescence bands in undoped GaN,” Physical Review B 90, 235203 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

D. O. Demchenko, I. C. Diallo, and M. A. Reshchikov, “Yellow Luminescence of Gallium Nitride Generated by Carbon Defect Complexes,” Physical Review Letters 110, 087404 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Tchoulfian, F. Donatini, F. Levy, B. Amstatt, P. Ferret, and J. Pernot, “High conductivity in Si-doped GaN wires,” Applied Physics Letters 102, 122116 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

E. Oh, B. Woo Lee, S.-J. Shim, H.-J. Choi, B. Hee Son, Y. Hwan Ahn, and L. S. Dang, “Low temperature cathodoluminecence and electron beam induced current studies of single GaN nanowires,” Applied Physics Letters 100, 153110 (2012).
[Crossref]

F. González-Posada, R. Songmuang, M. Den Hertog, and E. Monroy, “Room-Temperature Photodetection Dynamics of Single GaN Nanowires,” Nano Letters 12, 172–176 (2012).
[Crossref]

C.-Y. Chen, G. Zhu, Y. Hu, J.-W. Yu, J. Song, K.-Y. Cheng, L.-H. Peng, L.-J. Chou, and Z. L. Wang, “Gallium Nitride Nanowire Based Nanogenerators and Light-Emitting Diodes,” ACS Nano 6, 5687–5692 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

R. Calarco, T. Stoica, O. Brandt, and L. Geelhaar, “Surface-induced effects in GaN nanowires,” Journal of Materials Research 26, 2157–2168 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (3)

C. Chèze, L. Geelhaar, O. Brandt, W. M. Weber, H. Riechert, S. Münch, R. Rothemund, S. Reitzenstein, A. Forchel, T. Kehagias, P. Komninou, G. P. Dimitrakopulos, and T. Karakostas, “Direct comparison of catalyst-free and catalyst-induced GaN nanowires,” Nano Research 3, 528–536 (2010).
[Crossref]

P. K. Kandaswamy, H. MacHhadani, Y. Kotsar, S. Sakr, A. Das, M. Tchernycheva, L. Rapenne, E. Sarigiannidou, F. H. Julien, and E. Monroy, “Effect of doping on the mid-infrared intersubband absorption in GaN/AlGaN superlattices grown on Si(111) templates,” Applied Physics Letters 96, 1–4 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. L. Lyons, A. Janotti, and C. G. Van de Walle, “Carbon impurities and the yellow luminescence in GaN,” Applied Physics Letters 97, 152108 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

R. Yan, D. Gargas, and P. Yang, “Nanowire photonics,” Nature Photonics 3, 569–576 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. Armstrong, Q. Li, K. H. A. Bogart, Y. Lin, G. T. Wang, and A. A. Talin, “Deep level optical spectroscopy of GaN nanorods,” Journal of Applied Physics 106, 053712 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

L. Polenta, M. Rossi, A. Cavallini, R. Calarco, M. Marso, R. Meijers, T. Richter, T. Stoica, and H. Lüth, “Investigation on Localized States in GaN Nanowires,” ACS Nano 2, 287–292 (2008).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

F. Glas, “Critical dimensions for the plastic relaxation of strained axial heterostructures in free-standing nanowires,” Physical Review B 74, 121302 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

M. A. Reshchikov and H. Morkoç, “Luminescence properties of defects in GaN,” Journal of Applied Physics 97, 061301 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

S. Limpijumnong and C. Van de Walle, “Diffusivity of native defects in GaN,” Physical Review B 69, 035207 (2004).
[Crossref]

S.-K. Lee, H.-J. Choi, P. Pauzauskie, P. Yang, N.-K. Cho, H.-D. Park, E.-K. Suh, K.-Y. Lim, and H.-J. Lee, “Gallium nitride nanowires with a metal initiated metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) approach,” physica status solidi (b) 241, 2775–2778 (2004).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

M. Reshchikov and R. Korotkov, “Analysis of the temperature and excitation intensity dependencies of photoluminescence in undoped GaN films,” Physical Review B 64, 1–11 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

I. Shalish, L. Kronik, G. Segal, Y. Shapira, M. Eizenberg, and J. Salzman, “Yellow luminescence and Fermi level pinning in GaN layers,” Applied Physics Letters 77, 987 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (3)

D. Basak, M. Lachab, T. Nakanishi, and S. Sakai, “Effect of reactive ion etching on the yellow luminescence of GaN,” Applied Physics Letters 75, 3710 (1999).
[Crossref]

F. Binet, J. Duboz, J. Off, and F. Scholz, “High-excitation photoluminescence in GaN: Hot-carrier effects and the Mott transition,” Physical Review B 60, 4715–4722 (1999).
[Crossref]

M. Yoshikawa, M. Kunzer, J. Wagner, H. Obloh, P. Schlotter, R. Schmidt, N. Herres, and U. Kaufmann, “Band-gap renormalization and band filling in Si-doped GaN films studied by photoluminescence spectroscopy,” Journal of Applied Physics 86, 4400 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

P. Ramvall, S. Tanaka, S. Nomura, P. Riblet, and Y. Aoyagi, “Observation of confinement-dependent exciton binding energy of GaN quantum dots,” Applied Physics Letters 73, 1104 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

T. Mattila and R. M. Nieminen, “Point-defect complexes and broadband luminescence in GaN and AlN,” Physical Review B 55, 9571–9576 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

G. Fasol, “Room-Temperature Blue Gallium Nitride Laser Diode,” Science 272, 1751–1752 (1996).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

S. Mohammad, A. Salvador, and H. Morkoc, “Emerging gallium nitride based devices,” Proceedings of the IEEE 83, 1306–1355 (1995).
[Crossref]

Ajay, A.

A. Ajay, J. Schörmann, M. Jiménez-Rodriguez, C. B. Lim, F. Walther, M. Rohnke, I. Mouton, L. Amichi, C. Bougerol, M. I. Den Hertog, M. Eickhoff, and E. Monroy, “Ge doping of GaN beyond the Mott transition,” Journal of Physics D49 (2016).
[Crossref]

Alkauskas, A.

J. L. Lyons, A. Alkauskas, A. Janotti, and C. G. Van de Walle, “First-principles theory of acceptors in nitride semiconductors,” physica status solidi (b) 252, 900–908 (2015).
[Crossref]

Amichi, L.

A. Ajay, J. Schörmann, M. Jiménez-Rodriguez, C. B. Lim, F. Walther, M. Rohnke, I. Mouton, L. Amichi, C. Bougerol, M. I. Den Hertog, M. Eickhoff, and E. Monroy, “Ge doping of GaN beyond the Mott transition,” Journal of Physics D49 (2016).
[Crossref]

Amstatt, B.

P. Tchoulfian, F. Donatini, F. Levy, B. Amstatt, P. Ferret, and J. Pernot, “High conductivity in Si-doped GaN wires,” Applied Physics Letters 102, 122116 (2013).
[Crossref]

Aoyagi, Y.

P. Ramvall, S. Tanaka, S. Nomura, P. Riblet, and Y. Aoyagi, “Observation of confinement-dependent exciton binding energy of GaN quantum dots,” Applied Physics Letters 73, 1104 (1998).
[Crossref]

Arakawa, Y.

M. Julkarnain, T. Fukuda, N. Kamata, and Y. Arakawa, “A direct evidence of allocating yellow luminescence band in undoped GaN by two-wavelength excited photoluminescence,” Applied Physics Letters 107, 212102 (2015).
[Crossref]

Armstrong, A.

A. Armstrong, Q. Li, K. H. A. Bogart, Y. Lin, G. T. Wang, and A. A. Talin, “Deep level optical spectroscopy of GaN nanorods,” Journal of Applied Physics 106, 053712 (2009).
[Crossref]

Basak, D.

D. Basak, M. Lachab, T. Nakanishi, and S. Sakai, “Effect of reactive ion etching on the yellow luminescence of GaN,” Applied Physics Letters 75, 3710 (1999).
[Crossref]

Binet, F.

F. Binet, J. Duboz, J. Off, and F. Scholz, “High-excitation photoluminescence in GaN: Hot-carrier effects and the Mott transition,” Physical Review B 60, 4715–4722 (1999).
[Crossref]

Bogart, K. H. A.

A. Armstrong, Q. Li, K. H. A. Bogart, Y. Lin, G. T. Wang, and A. A. Talin, “Deep level optical spectroscopy of GaN nanorods,” Journal of Applied Physics 106, 053712 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bougerol, C.

X. Dai, A. Messanvi, H. Zhang, C. Durand, J. Eymery, C. Bougerol, F. H. Julien, and M. Tchernycheva, “Flexible Light-Emitting Diodes Based on Vertical Nitride Nanowires,” Nano Letters 15, 6958–6964 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Ajay, J. Schörmann, M. Jiménez-Rodriguez, C. B. Lim, F. Walther, M. Rohnke, I. Mouton, L. Amichi, C. Bougerol, M. I. Den Hertog, M. Eickhoff, and E. Monroy, “Ge doping of GaN beyond the Mott transition,” Journal of Physics D49 (2016).
[Crossref]

Brandt, O.

R. Calarco, T. Stoica, O. Brandt, and L. Geelhaar, “Surface-induced effects in GaN nanowires,” Journal of Materials Research 26, 2157–2168 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. Chèze, L. Geelhaar, O. Brandt, W. M. Weber, H. Riechert, S. Münch, R. Rothemund, S. Reitzenstein, A. Forchel, T. Kehagias, P. Komninou, G. P. Dimitrakopulos, and T. Karakostas, “Direct comparison of catalyst-free and catalyst-induced GaN nanowires,” Nano Research 3, 528–536 (2010).
[Crossref]

Calarco, R.

M. A. Reshchikov, D. O. Demchenko, J. D. McNamara, S. Fernández-Garrido, and R. Calarco, “Green luminescence in Mg-doped GaN,” Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics 90, 1–14 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Calarco, T. Stoica, O. Brandt, and L. Geelhaar, “Surface-induced effects in GaN nanowires,” Journal of Materials Research 26, 2157–2168 (2011).
[Crossref]

L. Polenta, M. Rossi, A. Cavallini, R. Calarco, M. Marso, R. Meijers, T. Richter, T. Stoica, and H. Lüth, “Investigation on Localized States in GaN Nanowires,” ACS Nano 2, 287–292 (2008).
[Crossref]

Cavallini, A.

L. Polenta, M. Rossi, A. Cavallini, R. Calarco, M. Marso, R. Meijers, T. Richter, T. Stoica, and H. Lüth, “Investigation on Localized States in GaN Nanowires,” ACS Nano 2, 287–292 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chen, C.-Y.

C.-Y. Chen, G. Zhu, Y. Hu, J.-W. Yu, J. Song, K.-Y. Cheng, L.-H. Peng, L.-J. Chou, and Z. L. Wang, “Gallium Nitride Nanowire Based Nanogenerators and Light-Emitting Diodes,” ACS Nano 6, 5687–5692 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cheng, K.-Y.

C.-Y. Chen, G. Zhu, Y. Hu, J.-W. Yu, J. Song, K.-Y. Cheng, L.-H. Peng, L.-J. Chou, and Z. L. Wang, “Gallium Nitride Nanowire Based Nanogenerators and Light-Emitting Diodes,” ACS Nano 6, 5687–5692 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chèze, C.

C. Chèze, L. Geelhaar, O. Brandt, W. M. Weber, H. Riechert, S. Münch, R. Rothemund, S. Reitzenstein, A. Forchel, T. Kehagias, P. Komninou, G. P. Dimitrakopulos, and T. Karakostas, “Direct comparison of catalyst-free and catalyst-induced GaN nanowires,” Nano Research 3, 528–536 (2010).
[Crossref]

Cho, N.-K.

S.-K. Lee, H.-J. Choi, P. Pauzauskie, P. Yang, N.-K. Cho, H.-D. Park, E.-K. Suh, K.-Y. Lim, and H.-J. Lee, “Gallium nitride nanowires with a metal initiated metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) approach,” physica status solidi (b) 241, 2775–2778 (2004).
[Crossref]

Choi, H.-J.

E. Oh, B. Woo Lee, S.-J. Shim, H.-J. Choi, B. Hee Son, Y. Hwan Ahn, and L. S. Dang, “Low temperature cathodoluminecence and electron beam induced current studies of single GaN nanowires,” Applied Physics Letters 100, 153110 (2012).
[Crossref]

S.-K. Lee, H.-J. Choi, P. Pauzauskie, P. Yang, N.-K. Cho, H.-D. Park, E.-K. Suh, K.-Y. Lim, and H.-J. Lee, “Gallium nitride nanowires with a metal initiated metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) approach,” physica status solidi (b) 241, 2775–2778 (2004).
[Crossref]

Chou, L.-J.

C.-Y. Chen, G. Zhu, Y. Hu, J.-W. Yu, J. Song, K.-Y. Cheng, L.-H. Peng, L.-J. Chou, and Z. L. Wang, “Gallium Nitride Nanowire Based Nanogenerators and Light-Emitting Diodes,” ACS Nano 6, 5687–5692 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Coquet, P.

U. Saleem, H. Wang, D. Peyrot, A. Olivier, J. Zhang, P. Coquet, and S. L. G. Ng, “Germanium-catalyzed growth of single-crystal GaN nanowires,” Journal of Crystal Growth 439, 28–32 (2016).
[Crossref]

Dadgar, A.

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Obloh, H.

M. Yoshikawa, M. Kunzer, J. Wagner, H. Obloh, P. Schlotter, R. Schmidt, N. Herres, and U. Kaufmann, “Band-gap renormalization and band filling in Si-doped GaN films studied by photoluminescence spectroscopy,” Journal of Applied Physics 86, 4400 (1999).
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F. Binet, J. Duboz, J. Off, and F. Scholz, “High-excitation photoluminescence in GaN: Hot-carrier effects and the Mott transition,” Physical Review B 60, 4715–4722 (1999).
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E. Oh, B. Woo Lee, S.-J. Shim, H.-J. Choi, B. Hee Son, Y. Hwan Ahn, and L. S. Dang, “Low temperature cathodoluminecence and electron beam induced current studies of single GaN nanowires,” Applied Physics Letters 100, 153110 (2012).
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U. Saleem, H. Wang, D. Peyrot, A. Olivier, J. Zhang, P. Coquet, and S. L. G. Ng, “Germanium-catalyzed growth of single-crystal GaN nanowires,” Journal of Crystal Growth 439, 28–32 (2016).
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C.-Y. Chen, G. Zhu, Y. Hu, J.-W. Yu, J. Song, K.-Y. Cheng, L.-H. Peng, L.-J. Chou, and Z. L. Wang, “Gallium Nitride Nanowire Based Nanogenerators and Light-Emitting Diodes,” ACS Nano 6, 5687–5692 (2012).
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P. Tchoulfian, F. Donatini, F. Levy, B. Amstatt, P. Ferret, and J. Pernot, “High conductivity in Si-doped GaN wires,” Applied Physics Letters 102, 122116 (2013).
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Peyrot, D.

U. Saleem, H. Wang, D. Peyrot, A. Olivier, J. Zhang, P. Coquet, and S. L. G. Ng, “Germanium-catalyzed growth of single-crystal GaN nanowires,” Journal of Crystal Growth 439, 28–32 (2016).
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L. Polenta, M. Rossi, A. Cavallini, R. Calarco, M. Marso, R. Meijers, T. Richter, T. Stoica, and H. Lüth, “Investigation on Localized States in GaN Nanowires,” ACS Nano 2, 287–292 (2008).
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P. Ramvall, S. Tanaka, S. Nomura, P. Riblet, and Y. Aoyagi, “Observation of confinement-dependent exciton binding energy of GaN quantum dots,” Applied Physics Letters 73, 1104 (1998).
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M. A. Reshchikov, D. O. Demchenko, J. D. McNamara, S. Fernández-Garrido, and R. Calarco, “Green luminescence in Mg-doped GaN,” Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics 90, 1–14 (2014).
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E. Oh, B. Woo Lee, S.-J. Shim, H.-J. Choi, B. Hee Son, Y. Hwan Ahn, and L. S. Dang, “Low temperature cathodoluminecence and electron beam induced current studies of single GaN nanowires,” Applied Physics Letters 100, 153110 (2012).
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C.-Y. Chen, G. Zhu, Y. Hu, J.-W. Yu, J. Song, K.-Y. Cheng, L.-H. Peng, L.-J. Chou, and Z. L. Wang, “Gallium Nitride Nanowire Based Nanogenerators and Light-Emitting Diodes,” ACS Nano 6, 5687–5692 (2012).
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L. Polenta, M. Rossi, A. Cavallini, R. Calarco, M. Marso, R. Meijers, T. Richter, T. Stoica, and H. Lüth, “Investigation on Localized States in GaN Nanowires,” ACS Nano 2, 287–292 (2008).
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S.-K. Lee, H.-J. Choi, P. Pauzauskie, P. Yang, N.-K. Cho, H.-D. Park, E.-K. Suh, K.-Y. Lim, and H.-J. Lee, “Gallium nitride nanowires with a metal initiated metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) approach,” physica status solidi (b) 241, 2775–2778 (2004).
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P. Tchoulfian, F. Donatini, F. Levy, B. Amstatt, P. Ferret, and J. Pernot, “High conductivity in Si-doped GaN wires,” Applied Physics Letters 102, 122116 (2013).
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M. A. Reshchikov, J. D. McNamara, F. Zhang, M. Monavarian, A. Usikov, H. Helava, Y. Makarov, and H. Morkoç, “Zero-phonon line and fine structure of the yellow luminescence band in GaN,” Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics 94, 1–9 (2016).
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J. L. Lyons, A. Janotti, and C. G. Van de Walle, “Carbon impurities and the yellow luminescence in GaN,” Applied Physics Letters 97, 152108 (2010).
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M. Yoshikawa, M. Kunzer, J. Wagner, H. Obloh, P. Schlotter, R. Schmidt, N. Herres, and U. Kaufmann, “Band-gap renormalization and band filling in Si-doped GaN films studied by photoluminescence spectroscopy,” Journal of Applied Physics 86, 4400 (1999).
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A. Armstrong, Q. Li, K. H. A. Bogart, Y. Lin, G. T. Wang, and A. A. Talin, “Deep level optical spectroscopy of GaN nanorods,” Journal of Applied Physics 106, 053712 (2009).
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U. Saleem, H. Wang, D. Peyrot, A. Olivier, J. Zhang, P. Coquet, and S. L. G. Ng, “Germanium-catalyzed growth of single-crystal GaN nanowires,” Journal of Crystal Growth 439, 28–32 (2016).
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C.-Y. Chen, G. Zhu, Y. Hu, J.-W. Yu, J. Song, K.-Y. Cheng, L.-H. Peng, L.-J. Chou, and Z. L. Wang, “Gallium Nitride Nanowire Based Nanogenerators and Light-Emitting Diodes,” ACS Nano 6, 5687–5692 (2012).
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E. Oh, B. Woo Lee, S.-J. Shim, H.-J. Choi, B. Hee Son, Y. Hwan Ahn, and L. S. Dang, “Low temperature cathodoluminecence and electron beam induced current studies of single GaN nanowires,” Applied Physics Letters 100, 153110 (2012).
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M. Yoshikawa, M. Kunzer, J. Wagner, H. Obloh, P. Schlotter, R. Schmidt, N. Herres, and U. Kaufmann, “Band-gap renormalization and band filling in Si-doped GaN films studied by photoluminescence spectroscopy,” Journal of Applied Physics 86, 4400 (1999).
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Yu, J.-W.

C.-Y. Chen, G. Zhu, Y. Hu, J.-W. Yu, J. Song, K.-Y. Cheng, L.-H. Peng, L.-J. Chou, and Z. L. Wang, “Gallium Nitride Nanowire Based Nanogenerators and Light-Emitting Diodes,” ACS Nano 6, 5687–5692 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, F.

M. A. Reshchikov, J. D. McNamara, F. Zhang, M. Monavarian, A. Usikov, H. Helava, Y. Makarov, and H. Morkoç, “Zero-phonon line and fine structure of the yellow luminescence band in GaN,” Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics 94, 1–9 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhang, H.

X. Dai, A. Messanvi, H. Zhang, C. Durand, J. Eymery, C. Bougerol, F. H. Julien, and M. Tchernycheva, “Flexible Light-Emitting Diodes Based on Vertical Nitride Nanowires,” Nano Letters 15, 6958–6964 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, J.

U. Saleem, H. Wang, D. Peyrot, A. Olivier, J. Zhang, P. Coquet, and S. L. G. Ng, “Germanium-catalyzed growth of single-crystal GaN nanowires,” Journal of Crystal Growth 439, 28–32 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhang, M.

P. Huang, H. Zong, J.-j. Shi, M. Zhang, X.-h. Jiang, H.-x. Zhong, Y.-m. Ding, Y.-p. He, J. Lu, and X.-d. Hu, “Origin of 3.45 eV Emission Line and Yellow Luminescence Band in GaN Nanowires: Surface Microwire and Defect,” ACS Nano 9, 9276–9283 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhong, H.-x.

P. Huang, H. Zong, J.-j. Shi, M. Zhang, X.-h. Jiang, H.-x. Zhong, Y.-m. Ding, Y.-p. He, J. Lu, and X.-d. Hu, “Origin of 3.45 eV Emission Line and Yellow Luminescence Band in GaN Nanowires: Surface Microwire and Defect,” ACS Nano 9, 9276–9283 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhu, G.

C.-Y. Chen, G. Zhu, Y. Hu, J.-W. Yu, J. Song, K.-Y. Cheng, L.-H. Peng, L.-J. Chou, and Z. L. Wang, “Gallium Nitride Nanowire Based Nanogenerators and Light-Emitting Diodes,” ACS Nano 6, 5687–5692 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zong, H.

P. Huang, H. Zong, J.-j. Shi, M. Zhang, X.-h. Jiang, H.-x. Zhong, Y.-m. Ding, Y.-p. He, J. Lu, and X.-d. Hu, “Origin of 3.45 eV Emission Line and Yellow Luminescence Band in GaN Nanowires: Surface Microwire and Defect,” ACS Nano 9, 9276–9283 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

ACS Nano (3)

P. Huang, H. Zong, J.-j. Shi, M. Zhang, X.-h. Jiang, H.-x. Zhong, Y.-m. Ding, Y.-p. He, J. Lu, and X.-d. Hu, “Origin of 3.45 eV Emission Line and Yellow Luminescence Band in GaN Nanowires: Surface Microwire and Defect,” ACS Nano 9, 9276–9283 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C.-Y. Chen, G. Zhu, Y. Hu, J.-W. Yu, J. Song, K.-Y. Cheng, L.-H. Peng, L.-J. Chou, and Z. L. Wang, “Gallium Nitride Nanowire Based Nanogenerators and Light-Emitting Diodes,” ACS Nano 6, 5687–5692 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Polenta, M. Rossi, A. Cavallini, R. Calarco, M. Marso, R. Meijers, T. Richter, T. Stoica, and H. Lüth, “Investigation on Localized States in GaN Nanowires,” ACS Nano 2, 287–292 (2008).
[Crossref]

Applied Physics Letters (8)

M. Julkarnain, T. Fukuda, N. Kamata, and Y. Arakawa, “A direct evidence of allocating yellow luminescence band in undoped GaN by two-wavelength excited photoluminescence,” Applied Physics Letters 107, 212102 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Ramvall, S. Tanaka, S. Nomura, P. Riblet, and Y. Aoyagi, “Observation of confinement-dependent exciton binding energy of GaN quantum dots,” Applied Physics Letters 73, 1104 (1998).
[Crossref]

P. Tchoulfian, F. Donatini, F. Levy, B. Amstatt, P. Ferret, and J. Pernot, “High conductivity in Si-doped GaN wires,” Applied Physics Letters 102, 122116 (2013).
[Crossref]

E. Oh, B. Woo Lee, S.-J. Shim, H.-J. Choi, B. Hee Son, Y. Hwan Ahn, and L. S. Dang, “Low temperature cathodoluminecence and electron beam induced current studies of single GaN nanowires,” Applied Physics Letters 100, 153110 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. K. Kandaswamy, H. MacHhadani, Y. Kotsar, S. Sakr, A. Das, M. Tchernycheva, L. Rapenne, E. Sarigiannidou, F. H. Julien, and E. Monroy, “Effect of doping on the mid-infrared intersubband absorption in GaN/AlGaN superlattices grown on Si(111) templates,” Applied Physics Letters 96, 1–4 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. L. Lyons, A. Janotti, and C. G. Van de Walle, “Carbon impurities and the yellow luminescence in GaN,” Applied Physics Letters 97, 152108 (2010).
[Crossref]

D. Basak, M. Lachab, T. Nakanishi, and S. Sakai, “Effect of reactive ion etching on the yellow luminescence of GaN,” Applied Physics Letters 75, 3710 (1999).
[Crossref]

I. Shalish, L. Kronik, G. Segal, Y. Shapira, M. Eizenberg, and J. Salzman, “Yellow luminescence and Fermi level pinning in GaN layers,” Applied Physics Letters 77, 987 (2000).
[Crossref]

Journal of Applied Physics (3)

M. A. Reshchikov and H. Morkoç, “Luminescence properties of defects in GaN,” Journal of Applied Physics 97, 061301 (2005).
[Crossref]

M. Yoshikawa, M. Kunzer, J. Wagner, H. Obloh, P. Schlotter, R. Schmidt, N. Herres, and U. Kaufmann, “Band-gap renormalization and band filling in Si-doped GaN films studied by photoluminescence spectroscopy,” Journal of Applied Physics 86, 4400 (1999).
[Crossref]

A. Armstrong, Q. Li, K. H. A. Bogart, Y. Lin, G. T. Wang, and A. A. Talin, “Deep level optical spectroscopy of GaN nanorods,” Journal of Applied Physics 106, 053712 (2009).
[Crossref]

Journal of Crystal Growth (1)

U. Saleem, H. Wang, D. Peyrot, A. Olivier, J. Zhang, P. Coquet, and S. L. G. Ng, “Germanium-catalyzed growth of single-crystal GaN nanowires,” Journal of Crystal Growth 439, 28–32 (2016).
[Crossref]

Journal of Materials Research (1)

R. Calarco, T. Stoica, O. Brandt, and L. Geelhaar, “Surface-induced effects in GaN nanowires,” Journal of Materials Research 26, 2157–2168 (2011).
[Crossref]

Nano Letters (2)

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) SEM image of Ge-catalyzed GaN nanowires. (b) Same NWs after coating with 5 nm Al2O3. (Inset) higher magnification images of individual nanowires showing the Ge rich tip. Scale bars in (a, b) and insets indicate 500 nm and 100 nm, respectively
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Photoluminescence spectra of a forest of GaN nanowires before (left) and after (right) passivation excited with HeCd laser at 325 nm. The discontinued lines are Gaussian fits showing YL and GL band. (insets) Mapping of YL band emission from single nanowire excited with a continuous diode laser at 532 nm.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Lifetime decay curves of YL (564 nm) and GL (489 nm) emission from quasi-resonant excited with a pulsed laser at 371 nm ± 5 nm. The instrument response function is 0.35 ns. The time constants are obtained after deconvolution with the instrument response. The exponential decay fitting is shown with full lines.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 a) High resolution TEM image taken at the bottom of a non-passivated single-crystal GaN nanowire. Inset: The corresponding electron diffraction pattern (ED) b), c) and d) High Resolution TEM images of non-passivated single-crystal GaN nanowires.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Optical microscope image of dispersed nanowires on Si substrate of as-grown (a) and Al2O3 coated (d) NWs. Associated mapping of YL band emission from as-grown (b) and Al2O3 coated (e) NWs. Brightest emission from points 1 and 2 for single as-grown (c) and Al2O3 coated (f) nanowire, respectively. Excitated with a continuous diode laser at 532 nm
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Lifetime decay curves from quasi-resonant excitation of a forest of as-grown (a) and Al2O3 coated (b) GaN NWs. Excitated with a pulsed laser at 371 nm ± 5 nm.

Equations (1)

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N ( t ) = N 1 ( 0 ) exp ( t τ 1 ) + N 2 ( 0 ) exp ( t τ 2 )

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