Abstract

A micro-fabricated Mach–Zehnder interferometer in optical fiber is demonstrated for bend sensing in four orthogonal directions. The intensity of the resonant dip exhibits a linear response to curvature in a logarithmic unit within a large range from 0 to 9 m−1, and the sensitivities obtained are 0.42 dB/m−1, 0.186 dB/m−1, −0.41dB/m−1, −0.265 dB/m−1, in the directions of 0°, 90°, 180°, and 270°, respectively. The temperature-induced curvature error is only ~0.012 m−1/°C in the bending directions of 0° and 180°. The device is compact, robust and efficient in operation.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. M. J. Gander, W. N. Macpherson, R. Mcbride, J. D. C. Jones, L. Zhang, I. Bennion, P. M. Blanchard, J. G. Burnett, and A. H. Greenaway, “Bend measurement using Bragg gratings in multicore fiber,” Electron. Lett. 36(2), 120–121 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  2. X. Chen, C. Zhang, D. J. Webb, K. Kalli, and G. D. Peng, “Highly sensitive bend sensor based on Bragg grating in eccentric core polymer fiber,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(11), 850–852 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  3. Y. Jin, C. C. Chan, X. Dong, and Y. Zhang, “Temperature-independent bending sensor with tilted fiber Bragg grating interacting with multimode fiber,” Opt. Commun. 282(19), 3905–3907 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  4. L. Shao, L. Xiong, C. Chen, A. Laronche, and J. Albert, “Directional Bend Sensor Based on Re-Grown Tilted Fiber Bragg Grating,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(18), 2681–2687 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  5. H. J. Patrick, C. Chang, and S. T. Vohra, “Long period fiber gratings for structural bending sensing,” Electron. Lett. 34(18), 1773–1775 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  6. C. C. Ye, S. W. James, and R. P. Tatam, “Simultaneous temperature and bend sensing with long-period fiber gratings,” Opt. Lett. 25(14), 1007–1009 (2000).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. H. Gong, X. Yang, K. Ni, C. L. Zhao, and X. Dong, “An optical fiber curvature sensor based on two peanut-shape structures modal interferometer,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(1), 22–24 (2014).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (2)

2015 (2)

H. Gong, D. N. Wang, B. Xu, K. Ni, H. Liu, and C. L. Zhao, “Miniature and robust optical fiber in-line Mach-Zehnder interferometer based on a hollow ellipsoid,” Opt. Lett. 40(15), 3516–3519 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. F. Chen, Y. Wang, and D. N. Wang, “Selectively infiltrated PCF for directional bend sensing with large bending range,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(5), 502–505 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

H. Gong, X. Yang, K. Ni, C. L. Zhao, and X. Dong, “An optical fiber curvature sensor based on two peanut-shape structures modal interferometer,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(1), 22–24 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Niu, C. L. Zhao, H. Gong, Y. Li, and S. Jin, “Curvature sensor based on two cascading abrupt-tapers modal interferometer in single mode fiber,” Opt. Commun. 333(15), 11–15 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

2012 (2)

2011 (2)

Y. Gong, T. Zhao, Y. J. Rao, and Y. Wu, “All-fiber curvature sensor based on multimode interference,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(11), 679–681 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. Monzon-Hernandez, A. Martinez-Rios, I. Torres-Gomez, and G. Salceda-Delgado, “Compact optical fiber curvature sensor based on concatenating two tapers,” Opt. Lett. 36(22), 4380–4382 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

X. Chen, C. Zhang, D. J. Webb, K. Kalli, and G. D. Peng, “Highly sensitive bend sensor based on Bragg grating in eccentric core polymer fiber,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(11), 850–852 (2010).
[Crossref]

L. Shao, L. Xiong, C. Chen, A. Laronche, and J. Albert, “Directional Bend Sensor Based on Re-Grown Tilted Fiber Bragg Grating,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(18), 2681–2687 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

Y. Jin, C. C. Chan, X. Dong, and Y. Zhang, “Temperature-independent bending sensor with tilted fiber Bragg grating interacting with multimode fiber,” Opt. Commun. 282(19), 3905–3907 (2009).
[Crossref]

2000 (2)

M. J. Gander, W. N. Macpherson, R. Mcbride, J. D. C. Jones, L. Zhang, I. Bennion, P. M. Blanchard, J. G. Burnett, and A. H. Greenaway, “Bend measurement using Bragg gratings in multicore fiber,” Electron. Lett. 36(2), 120–121 (2000).
[Crossref]

C. C. Ye, S. W. James, and R. P. Tatam, “Simultaneous temperature and bend sensing with long-period fiber gratings,” Opt. Lett. 25(14), 1007–1009 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

H. J. Patrick, C. Chang, and S. T. Vohra, “Long period fiber gratings for structural bending sensing,” Electron. Lett. 34(18), 1773–1775 (1998).
[Crossref]

Albert, J.

Bai, Z.

Bennion, I.

M. J. Gander, W. N. Macpherson, R. Mcbride, J. D. C. Jones, L. Zhang, I. Bennion, P. M. Blanchard, J. G. Burnett, and A. H. Greenaway, “Bend measurement using Bragg gratings in multicore fiber,” Electron. Lett. 36(2), 120–121 (2000).
[Crossref]

Blanchard, P. M.

M. J. Gander, W. N. Macpherson, R. Mcbride, J. D. C. Jones, L. Zhang, I. Bennion, P. M. Blanchard, J. G. Burnett, and A. H. Greenaway, “Bend measurement using Bragg gratings in multicore fiber,” Electron. Lett. 36(2), 120–121 (2000).
[Crossref]

Burnett, J. G.

M. J. Gander, W. N. Macpherson, R. Mcbride, J. D. C. Jones, L. Zhang, I. Bennion, P. M. Blanchard, J. G. Burnett, and A. H. Greenaway, “Bend measurement using Bragg gratings in multicore fiber,” Electron. Lett. 36(2), 120–121 (2000).
[Crossref]

Chan, C. C.

Y. Jin, C. C. Chan, X. Dong, and Y. Zhang, “Temperature-independent bending sensor with tilted fiber Bragg grating interacting with multimode fiber,” Opt. Commun. 282(19), 3905–3907 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chang, C.

H. J. Patrick, C. Chang, and S. T. Vohra, “Long period fiber gratings for structural bending sensing,” Electron. Lett. 34(18), 1773–1775 (1998).
[Crossref]

Chen, C.

Chen, H. F.

H. F. Chen, Y. Wang, and D. N. Wang, “Selectively infiltrated PCF for directional bend sensing with large bending range,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(5), 502–505 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, X.

Z. Ou, Y. Yu, P. Yan, J. Wang, Q. Huang, X. Chen, C. Du, and H. Wei, “Ambient refractive index-independent bending vector sensor based on seven-core photonic crystal fiber using lateral offset splicing,” Opt. Express 21(20), 23812–23821 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Chen, C. Zhang, D. J. Webb, K. Kalli, and G. D. Peng, “Highly sensitive bend sensor based on Bragg grating in eccentric core polymer fiber,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(11), 850–852 (2010).
[Crossref]

Dong, X.

H. Gong, X. Yang, K. Ni, C. L. Zhao, and X. Dong, “An optical fiber curvature sensor based on two peanut-shape structures modal interferometer,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(1), 22–24 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Jin, C. C. Chan, X. Dong, and Y. Zhang, “Temperature-independent bending sensor with tilted fiber Bragg grating interacting with multimode fiber,” Opt. Commun. 282(19), 3905–3907 (2009).
[Crossref]

Du, C.

Feng, D.

Gander, M. J.

M. J. Gander, W. N. Macpherson, R. Mcbride, J. D. C. Jones, L. Zhang, I. Bennion, P. M. Blanchard, J. G. Burnett, and A. H. Greenaway, “Bend measurement using Bragg gratings in multicore fiber,” Electron. Lett. 36(2), 120–121 (2000).
[Crossref]

Gao, S.

Geng, P.

Gong, H.

H. Gong, D. N. Wang, B. Xu, K. Ni, H. Liu, and C. L. Zhao, “Miniature and robust optical fiber in-line Mach-Zehnder interferometer based on a hollow ellipsoid,” Opt. Lett. 40(15), 3516–3519 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Gong, X. Yang, K. Ni, C. L. Zhao, and X. Dong, “An optical fiber curvature sensor based on two peanut-shape structures modal interferometer,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(1), 22–24 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Niu, C. L. Zhao, H. Gong, Y. Li, and S. Jin, “Curvature sensor based on two cascading abrupt-tapers modal interferometer in single mode fiber,” Opt. Commun. 333(15), 11–15 (2014).
[Crossref]

Gong, Y.

Y. Gong, T. Zhao, Y. J. Rao, and Y. Wu, “All-fiber curvature sensor based on multimode interference,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(11), 679–681 (2011).
[Crossref]

Greenaway, A. H.

M. J. Gander, W. N. Macpherson, R. Mcbride, J. D. C. Jones, L. Zhang, I. Bennion, P. M. Blanchard, J. G. Burnett, and A. H. Greenaway, “Bend measurement using Bragg gratings in multicore fiber,” Electron. Lett. 36(2), 120–121 (2000).
[Crossref]

Huang, Q.

James, S. W.

Jin, S.

L. Niu, C. L. Zhao, H. Gong, Y. Li, and S. Jin, “Curvature sensor based on two cascading abrupt-tapers modal interferometer in single mode fiber,” Opt. Commun. 333(15), 11–15 (2014).
[Crossref]

Jin, Y.

Y. Jin, C. C. Chan, X. Dong, and Y. Zhang, “Temperature-independent bending sensor with tilted fiber Bragg grating interacting with multimode fiber,” Opt. Commun. 282(19), 3905–3907 (2009).
[Crossref]

Jones, J. D. C.

M. J. Gander, W. N. Macpherson, R. Mcbride, J. D. C. Jones, L. Zhang, I. Bennion, P. M. Blanchard, J. G. Burnett, and A. H. Greenaway, “Bend measurement using Bragg gratings in multicore fiber,” Electron. Lett. 36(2), 120–121 (2000).
[Crossref]

Kalli, K.

X. Chen, C. Zhang, D. J. Webb, K. Kalli, and G. D. Peng, “Highly sensitive bend sensor based on Bragg grating in eccentric core polymer fiber,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(11), 850–852 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kong, J.

Laronche, A.

Li, J.

Li, Y.

L. Niu, C. L. Zhao, H. Gong, Y. Li, and S. Jin, “Curvature sensor based on two cascading abrupt-tapers modal interferometer in single mode fiber,” Opt. Commun. 333(15), 11–15 (2014).
[Crossref]

Liu, H.

Macpherson, W. N.

M. J. Gander, W. N. Macpherson, R. Mcbride, J. D. C. Jones, L. Zhang, I. Bennion, P. M. Blanchard, J. G. Burnett, and A. H. Greenaway, “Bend measurement using Bragg gratings in multicore fiber,” Electron. Lett. 36(2), 120–121 (2000).
[Crossref]

Martinez-Rios, A.

Mcbride, R.

M. J. Gander, W. N. Macpherson, R. Mcbride, J. D. C. Jones, L. Zhang, I. Bennion, P. M. Blanchard, J. G. Burnett, and A. H. Greenaway, “Bend measurement using Bragg gratings in multicore fiber,” Electron. Lett. 36(2), 120–121 (2000).
[Crossref]

Monzon-Hernandez, D.

Ni, K.

H. Gong, D. N. Wang, B. Xu, K. Ni, H. Liu, and C. L. Zhao, “Miniature and robust optical fiber in-line Mach-Zehnder interferometer based on a hollow ellipsoid,” Opt. Lett. 40(15), 3516–3519 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Gong, X. Yang, K. Ni, C. L. Zhao, and X. Dong, “An optical fiber curvature sensor based on two peanut-shape structures modal interferometer,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(1), 22–24 (2014).
[Crossref]

Niu, L.

L. Niu, C. L. Zhao, H. Gong, Y. Li, and S. Jin, “Curvature sensor based on two cascading abrupt-tapers modal interferometer in single mode fiber,” Opt. Commun. 333(15), 11–15 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ou, Z.

Ouyang, X.

Patrick, H. J.

H. J. Patrick, C. Chang, and S. T. Vohra, “Long period fiber gratings for structural bending sensing,” Electron. Lett. 34(18), 1773–1775 (1998).
[Crossref]

Peng, G. D.

X. Chen, C. Zhang, D. J. Webb, K. Kalli, and G. D. Peng, “Highly sensitive bend sensor based on Bragg grating in eccentric core polymer fiber,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(11), 850–852 (2010).
[Crossref]

Qiao, X.

Rao, Y. J.

Y. Gong, T. Zhao, Y. J. Rao, and Y. Wu, “All-fiber curvature sensor based on multimode interference,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(11), 679–681 (2011).
[Crossref]

Salceda-Delgado, G.

Shao, L.

Tatam, R. P.

Torres-Gomez, I.

Vohra, S. T.

H. J. Patrick, C. Chang, and S. T. Vohra, “Long period fiber gratings for structural bending sensing,” Electron. Lett. 34(18), 1773–1775 (1998).
[Crossref]

Wang, D. N.

H. F. Chen, Y. Wang, and D. N. Wang, “Selectively infiltrated PCF for directional bend sensing with large bending range,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(5), 502–505 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Gong, D. N. Wang, B. Xu, K. Ni, H. Liu, and C. L. Zhao, “Miniature and robust optical fiber in-line Mach-Zehnder interferometer based on a hollow ellipsoid,” Opt. Lett. 40(15), 3516–3519 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, J.

Wang, L.

Wang, Y.

H. F. Chen, Y. Wang, and D. N. Wang, “Selectively infiltrated PCF for directional bend sensing with large bending range,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(5), 502–505 (2015).
[Crossref]

Webb, D. J.

X. Chen, C. Zhang, D. J. Webb, K. Kalli, and G. D. Peng, “Highly sensitive bend sensor based on Bragg grating in eccentric core polymer fiber,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(11), 850–852 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wei, H.

Wu, Y.

Y. Gong, T. Zhao, Y. J. Rao, and Y. Wu, “All-fiber curvature sensor based on multimode interference,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(11), 679–681 (2011).
[Crossref]

Xiong, L.

Xu, B.

Xue, X.

Yan, P.

Yang, X.

H. Gong, X. Yang, K. Ni, C. L. Zhao, and X. Dong, “An optical fiber curvature sensor based on two peanut-shape structures modal interferometer,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(1), 22–24 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ye, C. C.

Yu, H.

Yu, Y.

Yuan, L.

Zhang, C.

X. Chen, C. Zhang, D. J. Webb, K. Kalli, and G. D. Peng, “Highly sensitive bend sensor based on Bragg grating in eccentric core polymer fiber,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(11), 850–852 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zhang, H.

Zhang, L.

M. J. Gander, W. N. Macpherson, R. Mcbride, J. D. C. Jones, L. Zhang, I. Bennion, P. M. Blanchard, J. G. Burnett, and A. H. Greenaway, “Bend measurement using Bragg gratings in multicore fiber,” Electron. Lett. 36(2), 120–121 (2000).
[Crossref]

Zhang, S.

Zhang, W.

Zhang, Y.

Y. Jin, C. C. Chan, X. Dong, and Y. Zhang, “Temperature-independent bending sensor with tilted fiber Bragg grating interacting with multimode fiber,” Opt. Commun. 282(19), 3905–3907 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zhao, C. L.

H. Gong, D. N. Wang, B. Xu, K. Ni, H. Liu, and C. L. Zhao, “Miniature and robust optical fiber in-line Mach-Zehnder interferometer based on a hollow ellipsoid,” Opt. Lett. 40(15), 3516–3519 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Gong, X. Yang, K. Ni, C. L. Zhao, and X. Dong, “An optical fiber curvature sensor based on two peanut-shape structures modal interferometer,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(1), 22–24 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Niu, C. L. Zhao, H. Gong, Y. Li, and S. Jin, “Curvature sensor based on two cascading abrupt-tapers modal interferometer in single mode fiber,” Opt. Commun. 333(15), 11–15 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhao, T.

Y. Gong, T. Zhao, Y. J. Rao, and Y. Wu, “All-fiber curvature sensor based on multimode interference,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(11), 679–681 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zhou, A.

Electron. Lett. (2)

M. J. Gander, W. N. Macpherson, R. Mcbride, J. D. C. Jones, L. Zhang, I. Bennion, P. M. Blanchard, J. G. Burnett, and A. H. Greenaway, “Bend measurement using Bragg gratings in multicore fiber,” Electron. Lett. 36(2), 120–121 (2000).
[Crossref]

H. J. Patrick, C. Chang, and S. T. Vohra, “Long period fiber gratings for structural bending sensing,” Electron. Lett. 34(18), 1773–1775 (1998).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (4)

X. Chen, C. Zhang, D. J. Webb, K. Kalli, and G. D. Peng, “Highly sensitive bend sensor based on Bragg grating in eccentric core polymer fiber,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(11), 850–852 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. Gong, T. Zhao, Y. J. Rao, and Y. Wu, “All-fiber curvature sensor based on multimode interference,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(11), 679–681 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. F. Chen, Y. Wang, and D. N. Wang, “Selectively infiltrated PCF for directional bend sensing with large bending range,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(5), 502–505 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Gong, X. Yang, K. Ni, C. L. Zhao, and X. Dong, “An optical fiber curvature sensor based on two peanut-shape structures modal interferometer,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(1), 22–24 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

Opt. Commun. (2)

Y. Jin, C. C. Chan, X. Dong, and Y. Zhang, “Temperature-independent bending sensor with tilted fiber Bragg grating interacting with multimode fiber,” Opt. Commun. 282(19), 3905–3907 (2009).
[Crossref]

L. Niu, C. L. Zhao, H. Gong, Y. Li, and S. Jin, “Curvature sensor based on two cascading abrupt-tapers modal interferometer in single mode fiber,” Opt. Commun. 333(15), 11–15 (2014).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (5)

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic diagram of the fiber in-line MZI (a), and the microscope image (b).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Diagrams of the fabrication process.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Experimental setup (a), and four bending orientations (b).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Spectral variations in 0° bending, (b) in 180° bending, (c) the diagram of concave bending, (d) the diagram of convex bending.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Frequency spectra in 0° bending (a), and in 180° bending (b).
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Spectral variations in 90° bending (a), and in 270° bending (b).
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Intensity variations in the four bending directions.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Temperature response of the proposed sensor.

Equations (4)

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T= I 1 + I 2 +2 I 1 I 2 cos[2πΔ(nL)/λ]
λ m =2Δ(nL)/(2m+1)
S= λ m 2 /Δ(nL)
C=2d/( d 2 + L 2 )

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