Abstract

This paper reports for the first time an electrically and thermally controllable nanoparticle (NP) random laser in a well-aligned dye-doped liquid crystal (DDLC) cell. Experimental results show that the random lasing emission is attributed to the amplification of the fluorescence via the multiple scattering of the randomly distributed NPs in the diffusion rout of the well-aligned DDLC cell. The random laser can be electrically and thermally controlled by varying the applied voltage and cell temperature, respectively. As the applied voltage is increased, the orientational change of the LCs from homogeneous to homeotropic texture decreases the dye absorption and thus the spontaneous fluorescence emission, resulting in the decrease of the random lasing emission. The random lasing intensity decreases with increasing temperature at the nematic phase and dramatically increases after the nematic→isotropic (NI) phase transition. The result in the former stage is attributed to the decreases in the absorption and thus in the spontaneous fluorescence emission for the laser dyes because of the decrease in the order of the laser dyes with increasing temperature at the nematic phase. The result in the latter stage results from the significant decrease of the loss because of the disappearance for the strong leakage of the scattering fluorescence light through the boundaries of the LCs and the glass substrates after the NI phase transition. Moreover, the anisotropy of the random lasing is crucially determined by two factors: the anisotropies in the spontaneous emission and the leakage of the scattering fluorescence light.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref]
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  24. M. P. van Albada and A. Lagendijk, “Observation of weak localization of light in a random medium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 55(24), 2692–2695 (1985).
  25. E. Akkermans, P. E. Wolf, and R. Maynard, “Coherent backscattering of light by disordered media: Analysis of the peak line shape,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 56(14), 1471–1474 (1986).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  26. M. P. van Albada, M. B. van der Merk, and A. Lagendijk, “Observation of weak localization of light in a finite slab: anisotropy effects and light path classification,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58(4), 361–364 (1987).
  27. P. C. de Oliveira, A. E. Perkins, and N. M. Lawandy, “Coherent backscattering from high-gain scattering media,” Opt. Lett. 21(20), 1685–1687 (1996).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  28. T. Alkeskjold, J. Lægsgaard, A. Bjarklev, D. Hermann, A. Anawati, J. Broeng, J. Li, and S. T. Wu, “All-optical modulation in dye-doped nematic liquid crystal photonic bandgap fibers,” Opt. Express 12(24), 5857–5871 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

2009 (2)

2008 (3)

S. Ferjani, L. Sorriso-Valvo, A. De Luca, V. Barna, R. De Marco, and G. Strangi, “Statistical analysis of random lasing emission properties in nematic liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 78(1 Pt 1), 011707 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. S. Wiersma, “The physics and applications of random lasers,” Nat. Phys. 4(5), 359–367 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. Ferjani, V. Barna, A. De Luca, C. Versace, and G. Strangi, “Random lasing in freely suspended dye-doped nematic liquid crystals,” Opt. Lett. 33(6), 557–559 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

2006 (2)

G. Strangi, S. Ferjani, V. Barna, A. De Luca, C. Versace, N. Scaramuzza, and R. Bartolino, “Random lasing and weak localization of light in dye-doped nematic liquid crystals,” Opt. Express 14(17), 7737–7744 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. J. Liu, X. W. Sun, H. I. Elim, and W. Ji, “Gain narrowing and random lasing from dye-doped polymer dispersed liquid crystals with nanoscale liquid crystal droplets,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(1), 011111 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (3)

S. M. Morris, A. D. Ford, M. N. Pivnenko, and H. J. Coles, “Electronic control of nonresonant random lasing from a dye-doped smectic A* liquid crystal scattering device,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(14), 141103 (2005).
[Crossref]

G. D. Dice, S. Mujumdar, and A. Y. Elezzabi, “Plasmonically enhanced diffusive and subdiffusive metal nanoparticle-dye random laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(13), 131105 (2005).
[Crossref]

Q. H. Song, L. Wang, S. M. Xiao, X. C. Zhou, L. Y. Liu, and L. Xu, “Random laser emission from a surface-corrugated waveguide,” Phys. Rev. B 72(3), 035424 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (3)

R. C. Polson and Z. V. Vardeny, “Random lasing in human tissues,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(7), 1289–1291 (2004).
[Crossref]

S. Gottardo, S. Cavalieri, O. Yaroshchuk, and D. S. Wiersma, “Quasi-two-dimensional diffusive random laser action,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(26), 263901 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Alkeskjold, J. Lægsgaard, A. Bjarklev, D. Hermann, A. Anawati, J. Broeng, J. Li, and S. T. Wu, “All-optical modulation in dye-doped nematic liquid crystal photonic bandgap fibers,” Opt. Express 12(24), 5857–5871 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

V. M. Apalkov, M. E. Raikh, and B. Shapiro, “Random resonators and prelocalized modes in disordered dielectric films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(1), 016802 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. S. Wiersma and S. Cavalieri, “Temperature-controlled random laser action in liquid crystal infiltrated systems,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 66(5), 056612 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

D. S. Wiersma and S. Cavalieri, “Light emission: A temperature-tunable random laser,” Nature 414(6865), 708–709 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (2)

H. Cao, J. Y. Xu, E. W. Seelig, and R. P. H. Chang, “Microlaser made of disordered media,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(21), 2997–2999 (2000).
[Crossref]

D. Wiersma, “The smallest random laser,” Nature 406(6792), 132–135 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (2)

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, “Random laser action in semiconductor powder,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(11), 2278–2281 (1999).
[Crossref]

S. V. Frolov, Z. V. Varderny, K. Yoshino, A. Zakhidov, and R. H. Baughman, “Stimulated emission in high-gain organic media,” Phys. Rev. B 59(8), R5284–R5287 (1999).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

1994 (1)

N. M. Lawandy, R. M. Balachandran, A. S. L. Gomes, and E. Sauvain, “Laser action in strongly scattering media,” Nature 368(6470), 436–438 (1994).
[Crossref]

1987 (2)

M. P. van Albada, M. B. van der Merk, and A. Lagendijk, “Observation of weak localization of light in a finite slab: anisotropy effects and light path classification,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58(4), 361–364 (1987).

M. P. van Albada, M. B. van der Merk, and A. Lagendijk, “Observation of weak localization of light in a finite slab: Anisotropy effects and light path classification,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58(4), 361–364 (1987).

1986 (1)

E. Akkermans, P. E. Wolf, and R. Maynard, “Coherent backscattering of light by disordered media: Analysis of the peak line shape,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 56(14), 1471–1474 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1985 (1)

M. P. van Albada and A. Lagendijk, “Observation of weak localization of light in a random medium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 55(24), 2692–2695 (1985).

Akkermans, E.

E. Akkermans, P. E. Wolf, and R. Maynard, “Coherent backscattering of light by disordered media: Analysis of the peak line shape,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 56(14), 1471–1474 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alkeskjold, T.

Anawati, A.

Apalkov, V. M.

V. M. Apalkov, M. E. Raikh, and B. Shapiro, “Random resonators and prelocalized modes in disordered dielectric films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(1), 016802 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Balachandran, R. M.

N. M. Lawandy, R. M. Balachandran, A. S. L. Gomes, and E. Sauvain, “Laser action in strongly scattering media,” Nature 368(6470), 436–438 (1994).
[Crossref]

Barna, V.

Bartolino, R.

Baughman, R. H.

S. V. Frolov, Z. V. Varderny, K. Yoshino, A. Zakhidov, and R. H. Baughman, “Stimulated emission in high-gain organic media,” Phys. Rev. B 59(8), R5284–R5287 (1999).
[Crossref]

Bjarklev, A.

Broeng, J.

Cao, H.

H. Cao, J. Y. Xu, E. W. Seelig, and R. P. H. Chang, “Microlaser made of disordered media,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(21), 2997–2999 (2000).
[Crossref]

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, “Random laser action in semiconductor powder,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(11), 2278–2281 (1999).
[Crossref]

Cavalieri, S.

S. Gottardo, S. Cavalieri, O. Yaroshchuk, and D. S. Wiersma, “Quasi-two-dimensional diffusive random laser action,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(26), 263901 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. S. Wiersma and S. Cavalieri, “Temperature-controlled random laser action in liquid crystal infiltrated systems,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 66(5), 056612 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. S. Wiersma and S. Cavalieri, “Light emission: A temperature-tunable random laser,” Nature 414(6865), 708–709 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chang, R. P. H.

H. Cao, J. Y. Xu, E. W. Seelig, and R. P. H. Chang, “Microlaser made of disordered media,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(21), 2997–2999 (2000).
[Crossref]

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, “Random laser action in semiconductor powder,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(11), 2278–2281 (1999).
[Crossref]

Coles, H. J.

S. M. Morris, A. D. Ford, M. N. Pivnenko, and H. J. Coles, “Electronic control of nonresonant random lasing from a dye-doped smectic A* liquid crystal scattering device,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(14), 141103 (2005).
[Crossref]

De Luca, A.

De Marco, R.

S. Ferjani, L. Sorriso-Valvo, A. De Luca, V. Barna, R. De Marco, and G. Strangi, “Statistical analysis of random lasing emission properties in nematic liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 78(1 Pt 1), 011707 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

de Oliveira, P. C.

Dice, G. D.

G. D. Dice, S. Mujumdar, and A. Y. Elezzabi, “Plasmonically enhanced diffusive and subdiffusive metal nanoparticle-dye random laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(13), 131105 (2005).
[Crossref]

Elezzabi, A. Y.

G. D. Dice, S. Mujumdar, and A. Y. Elezzabi, “Plasmonically enhanced diffusive and subdiffusive metal nanoparticle-dye random laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(13), 131105 (2005).
[Crossref]

Elim, H. I.

Y. J. Liu, X. W. Sun, H. I. Elim, and W. Ji, “Gain narrowing and random lasing from dye-doped polymer dispersed liquid crystals with nanoscale liquid crystal droplets,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(1), 011111 (2006).
[Crossref]

Ferjani, S.

Ford, A. D.

S. M. Morris, A. D. Ford, M. N. Pivnenko, and H. J. Coles, “Electronic control of nonresonant random lasing from a dye-doped smectic A* liquid crystal scattering device,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(14), 141103 (2005).
[Crossref]

Frolov, S. V.

S. V. Frolov, Z. V. Varderny, K. Yoshino, A. Zakhidov, and R. H. Baughman, “Stimulated emission in high-gain organic media,” Phys. Rev. B 59(8), R5284–R5287 (1999).
[Crossref]

Gomes, A. S. L.

N. M. Lawandy, R. M. Balachandran, A. S. L. Gomes, and E. Sauvain, “Laser action in strongly scattering media,” Nature 368(6470), 436–438 (1994).
[Crossref]

Gottardo, S.

S. Gottardo, S. Cavalieri, O. Yaroshchuk, and D. S. Wiersma, “Quasi-two-dimensional diffusive random laser action,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(26), 263901 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hermann, D.

Ho, S. T.

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, “Random laser action in semiconductor powder,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(11), 2278–2281 (1999).
[Crossref]

Huang, B.-Y.

Huang, S. Y.

Ji, W.

Y. J. Liu, X. W. Sun, H. I. Elim, and W. Ji, “Gain narrowing and random lasing from dye-doped polymer dispersed liquid crystals with nanoscale liquid crystal droplets,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(1), 011111 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kuo, C. T.

Lægsgaard, J.

Lagendijk, A.

M. P. van Albada, M. B. van der Merk, and A. Lagendijk, “Observation of weak localization of light in a finite slab: anisotropy effects and light path classification,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58(4), 361–364 (1987).

M. P. van Albada, M. B. van der Merk, and A. Lagendijk, “Observation of weak localization of light in a finite slab: Anisotropy effects and light path classification,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58(4), 361–364 (1987).

M. P. van Albada and A. Lagendijk, “Observation of weak localization of light in a random medium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 55(24), 2692–2695 (1985).

Lawandy, N. M.

P. C. de Oliveira, A. E. Perkins, and N. M. Lawandy, “Coherent backscattering from high-gain scattering media,” Opt. Lett. 21(20), 1685–1687 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. M. Lawandy, R. M. Balachandran, A. S. L. Gomes, and E. Sauvain, “Laser action in strongly scattering media,” Nature 368(6470), 436–438 (1994).
[Crossref]

Lee, C.-R.

Li, J.

Lin, J.-D.

Lin, S. H.

Liu, L.

Liu, L. Y.

Q. H. Song, L. Wang, S. M. Xiao, X. C. Zhou, L. Y. Liu, and L. Xu, “Random laser emission from a surface-corrugated waveguide,” Phys. Rev. B 72(3), 035424 (2005).
[Crossref]

Liu, Y. J.

Y. J. Liu, X. W. Sun, H. I. Elim, and W. Ji, “Gain narrowing and random lasing from dye-doped polymer dispersed liquid crystals with nanoscale liquid crystal droplets,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(1), 011111 (2006).
[Crossref]

Maynard, R.

E. Akkermans, P. E. Wolf, and R. Maynard, “Coherent backscattering of light by disordered media: Analysis of the peak line shape,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 56(14), 1471–1474 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mo, T. S.

Morris, S. M.

S. M. Morris, A. D. Ford, M. N. Pivnenko, and H. J. Coles, “Electronic control of nonresonant random lasing from a dye-doped smectic A* liquid crystal scattering device,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(14), 141103 (2005).
[Crossref]

Mujumdar, S.

G. D. Dice, S. Mujumdar, and A. Y. Elezzabi, “Plasmonically enhanced diffusive and subdiffusive metal nanoparticle-dye random laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(13), 131105 (2005).
[Crossref]

Perkins, A. E.

Pivnenko, M. N.

S. M. Morris, A. D. Ford, M. N. Pivnenko, and H. J. Coles, “Electronic control of nonresonant random lasing from a dye-doped smectic A* liquid crystal scattering device,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(14), 141103 (2005).
[Crossref]

Polson, R. C.

R. C. Polson and Z. V. Vardeny, “Random lasing in human tissues,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(7), 1289–1291 (2004).
[Crossref]

Raikh, M. E.

V. M. Apalkov, M. E. Raikh, and B. Shapiro, “Random resonators and prelocalized modes in disordered dielectric films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(1), 016802 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sauvain, E.

N. M. Lawandy, R. M. Balachandran, A. S. L. Gomes, and E. Sauvain, “Laser action in strongly scattering media,” Nature 368(6470), 436–438 (1994).
[Crossref]

Scaramuzza, N.

Seelig, E. W.

H. Cao, J. Y. Xu, E. W. Seelig, and R. P. H. Chang, “Microlaser made of disordered media,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(21), 2997–2999 (2000).
[Crossref]

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, “Random laser action in semiconductor powder,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(11), 2278–2281 (1999).
[Crossref]

Shapiro, B.

V. M. Apalkov, M. E. Raikh, and B. Shapiro, “Random resonators and prelocalized modes in disordered dielectric films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(1), 016802 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Song, Q.

Song, Q. H.

Q. H. Song, L. Wang, S. M. Xiao, X. C. Zhou, L. Y. Liu, and L. Xu, “Random laser emission from a surface-corrugated waveguide,” Phys. Rev. B 72(3), 035424 (2005).
[Crossref]

Sorriso-Valvo, L.

S. Ferjani, L. Sorriso-Valvo, A. De Luca, V. Barna, R. De Marco, and G. Strangi, “Statistical analysis of random lasing emission properties in nematic liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 78(1 Pt 1), 011707 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Strangi, G.

Sun, X. W.

Y. J. Liu, X. W. Sun, H. I. Elim, and W. Ji, “Gain narrowing and random lasing from dye-doped polymer dispersed liquid crystals with nanoscale liquid crystal droplets,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(1), 011111 (2006).
[Crossref]

van Albada, M. P.

M. P. van Albada, M. B. van der Merk, and A. Lagendijk, “Observation of weak localization of light in a finite slab: anisotropy effects and light path classification,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58(4), 361–364 (1987).

M. P. van Albada, M. B. van der Merk, and A. Lagendijk, “Observation of weak localization of light in a finite slab: Anisotropy effects and light path classification,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58(4), 361–364 (1987).

M. P. van Albada and A. Lagendijk, “Observation of weak localization of light in a random medium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 55(24), 2692–2695 (1985).

van der Merk, M. B.

M. P. van Albada, M. B. van der Merk, and A. Lagendijk, “Observation of weak localization of light in a finite slab: Anisotropy effects and light path classification,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58(4), 361–364 (1987).

M. P. van Albada, M. B. van der Merk, and A. Lagendijk, “Observation of weak localization of light in a finite slab: anisotropy effects and light path classification,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58(4), 361–364 (1987).

Vardeny, Z. V.

R. C. Polson and Z. V. Vardeny, “Random lasing in human tissues,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(7), 1289–1291 (2004).
[Crossref]

Varderny, Z. V.

S. V. Frolov, Z. V. Varderny, K. Yoshino, A. Zakhidov, and R. H. Baughman, “Stimulated emission in high-gain organic media,” Phys. Rev. B 59(8), R5284–R5287 (1999).
[Crossref]

Versace, C.

Wang, L.

Q. H. Song, L. Wang, S. M. Xiao, X. C. Zhou, L. Y. Liu, and L. Xu, “Random laser emission from a surface-corrugated waveguide,” Phys. Rev. B 72(3), 035424 (2005).
[Crossref]

Wang, Q. H.

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, “Random laser action in semiconductor powder,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(11), 2278–2281 (1999).
[Crossref]

Wang, Z.

Wiersma, D.

D. Wiersma, “The smallest random laser,” Nature 406(6792), 132–135 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wiersma, D. S.

D. S. Wiersma, “The physics and applications of random lasers,” Nat. Phys. 4(5), 359–367 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. Gottardo, S. Cavalieri, O. Yaroshchuk, and D. S. Wiersma, “Quasi-two-dimensional diffusive random laser action,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(26), 263901 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. S. Wiersma and S. Cavalieri, “Temperature-controlled random laser action in liquid crystal infiltrated systems,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 66(5), 056612 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. S. Wiersma and S. Cavalieri, “Light emission: A temperature-tunable random laser,” Nature 414(6865), 708–709 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wolf, P. E.

E. Akkermans, P. E. Wolf, and R. Maynard, “Coherent backscattering of light by disordered media: Analysis of the peak line shape,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 56(14), 1471–1474 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, S. T.

Wu, Y.

Xiao, S.

Xiao, S. M.

Q. H. Song, L. Wang, S. M. Xiao, X. C. Zhou, L. Y. Liu, and L. Xu, “Random laser emission from a surface-corrugated waveguide,” Phys. Rev. B 72(3), 035424 (2005).
[Crossref]

Xu, J. Y.

H. Cao, J. Y. Xu, E. W. Seelig, and R. P. H. Chang, “Microlaser made of disordered media,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(21), 2997–2999 (2000).
[Crossref]

Xu, L.

Yaroshchuk, O.

S. Gottardo, S. Cavalieri, O. Yaroshchuk, and D. S. Wiersma, “Quasi-two-dimensional diffusive random laser action,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(26), 263901 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yeh, H. C.

Yoshino, K.

S. V. Frolov, Z. V. Varderny, K. Yoshino, A. Zakhidov, and R. H. Baughman, “Stimulated emission in high-gain organic media,” Phys. Rev. B 59(8), R5284–R5287 (1999).
[Crossref]

Zakhidov, A.

S. V. Frolov, Z. V. Varderny, K. Yoshino, A. Zakhidov, and R. H. Baughman, “Stimulated emission in high-gain organic media,” Phys. Rev. B 59(8), R5284–R5287 (1999).
[Crossref]

Zhao, Y. G.

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, “Random laser action in semiconductor powder,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(11), 2278–2281 (1999).
[Crossref]

Zhou, X.

Zhou, X. C.

Q. H. Song, L. Wang, S. M. Xiao, X. C. Zhou, L. Y. Liu, and L. Xu, “Random laser emission from a surface-corrugated waveguide,” Phys. Rev. B 72(3), 035424 (2005).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

H. Cao, J. Y. Xu, E. W. Seelig, and R. P. H. Chang, “Microlaser made of disordered media,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(21), 2997–2999 (2000).
[Crossref]

R. C. Polson and Z. V. Vardeny, “Random lasing in human tissues,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(7), 1289–1291 (2004).
[Crossref]

S. M. Morris, A. D. Ford, M. N. Pivnenko, and H. J. Coles, “Electronic control of nonresonant random lasing from a dye-doped smectic A* liquid crystal scattering device,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(14), 141103 (2005).
[Crossref]

G. D. Dice, S. Mujumdar, and A. Y. Elezzabi, “Plasmonically enhanced diffusive and subdiffusive metal nanoparticle-dye random laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(13), 131105 (2005).
[Crossref]

Y. J. Liu, X. W. Sun, H. I. Elim, and W. Ji, “Gain narrowing and random lasing from dye-doped polymer dispersed liquid crystals with nanoscale liquid crystal droplets,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(1), 011111 (2006).
[Crossref]

Nat. Phys. (1)

D. S. Wiersma, “The physics and applications of random lasers,” Nat. Phys. 4(5), 359–367 (2008).
[Crossref]

Nature (3)

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[Crossref]

D. Wiersma, “The smallest random laser,” Nature 406(6792), 132–135 (2000).
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D. S. Wiersma and S. Cavalieri, “Light emission: A temperature-tunable random laser,” Nature 414(6865), 708–709 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Phys. Rev. B (2)

S. V. Frolov, Z. V. Varderny, K. Yoshino, A. Zakhidov, and R. H. Baughman, “Stimulated emission in high-gain organic media,” Phys. Rev. B 59(8), R5284–R5287 (1999).
[Crossref]

Q. H. Song, L. Wang, S. M. Xiao, X. C. Zhou, L. Y. Liu, and L. Xu, “Random laser emission from a surface-corrugated waveguide,” Phys. Rev. B 72(3), 035424 (2005).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. (2)

S. Ferjani, L. Sorriso-Valvo, A. De Luca, V. Barna, R. De Marco, and G. Strangi, “Statistical analysis of random lasing emission properties in nematic liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 78(1 Pt 1), 011707 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. S. Wiersma and S. Cavalieri, “Temperature-controlled random laser action in liquid crystal infiltrated systems,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 66(5), 056612 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (7)

M. P. van Albada, M. B. van der Merk, and A. Lagendijk, “Observation of weak localization of light in a finite slab: Anisotropy effects and light path classification,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58(4), 361–364 (1987).

M. P. van Albada and A. Lagendijk, “Observation of weak localization of light in a random medium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 55(24), 2692–2695 (1985).

E. Akkermans, P. E. Wolf, and R. Maynard, “Coherent backscattering of light by disordered media: Analysis of the peak line shape,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 56(14), 1471–1474 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. P. van Albada, M. B. van der Merk, and A. Lagendijk, “Observation of weak localization of light in a finite slab: anisotropy effects and light path classification,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58(4), 361–364 (1987).

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, “Random laser action in semiconductor powder,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(11), 2278–2281 (1999).
[Crossref]

V. M. Apalkov, M. E. Raikh, and B. Shapiro, “Random resonators and prelocalized modes in disordered dielectric films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(1), 016802 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Gottardo, S. Cavalieri, O. Yaroshchuk, and D. S. Wiersma, “Quasi-two-dimensional diffusive random laser action,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(26), 263901 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Top view of the experimental setup for investigating the NPDDLC random lasers. The inset shows the scheme of a NPDDLC cell, the related configuration of the incident pumped pulses and random lasing emission, and the orientation of LCs and dyes in the cell, where an AC voltage (1k Hz) and a temperature controller is applied on the cell to investigate the electrical and thermal controllabilities, respectively, for the random laser. λ/2 WP, P, and NBS are the half waveplate (λ/2 WP for 532 nm), polarizer (P), and nonpolarizing beam splitter (NBS), respectively. The random lasing output can be obtained along the z direction, and a fiber-optic probe of a fiber-based spectrometer faces the –z direction to record the emission intensity of the obtained random lasing in the orthogonal components of Ex and Ey.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Obtained intensity spectra of the fluorescence emission output from the NPDDLC cells with different NP concentrations of 0, 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 0.7, 0.9, and 1.1 wt% at U = 10 μJ/pulse. Optimum random lasing output with multiple narrow spikes can be generated while the NP concentration is an intermediate value of 0.3 wt%. The inset shows the bright-white stripe-like random lasing pattern on the screen for the NPDDLC cell with the optimum concentration of 0.3 wt% NP.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Variations of (a) the measured intensity spectra and (b) the peak intensity of the fluorescence emission output and corresponding FWHM with incident pumped energy for the 0.3 wt% NP-added DDLC cell.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Variations of (a) the measured intensity spectra and (b) the peak intensity of the fluorescence emission output and corresponding FWHM with incident pumped energy for the NP-free DDLC cell.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Measurement of the anisotropic random lasing outputs with a fluorescence component of Ey that is significantly stronger than the other component of Ex, at U = 6−10 μJ/pulse for the 0.3 wt% NPDDLC cell. The inset presents the fluorescence emission spectra for x- and y-polarized components after the excitation of the NPDDLC cell by a CW DPSS green laser beam (532 nm, 5 mW/cm2) with y-polarization.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Electrical controllability of the 0.3 wt% NPDDLC random laser. (a) Variations of the measured intensity spectra of total fluorescence emission output when the applied voltage is increased from 0 V to 2.5 V at U = 10 μJ/pulse in the NPDDLC random laser. (b) The variations of the measured peak intensity for the x- and y-polarized fluorescence emission outputs at voltages from 0 V to 2.5 V at U = 14 μJ/pulse in the NPDDLC random laser.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (a) [(c)] Absorption and (b) [(d)] fluorescence emission spectra of the DDLC (NPDDLC) cell measured at 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 V. The fluorescence emission spectra of both NPDDLC and DDLC cells are obtained under the excitation of one y-polarized DPSS green laser (532 nm) with an intensity of 5 mW/cm2.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Thermal controllability of the 0.3 wt% NPDDLC random laser. Variations of the measured intensity spectra of fluorescence emission output as the temperature increases from 23 °C to 55 °C at U = 10 μJ/pulse in the NPDDLC random laser.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 (a) Absorption and (b) fluorescence emission spectra of the NPDDLC cell measured at 23 °C, 30 °C, 40 °C, 45 °C, 50 °C, and 55 °C. The fluorescence emission spectra are obtained under the excitation of one y-polarized DPSS green laser (532 nm) with 5 mW/cm2.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 (a)−(d) Measured POM images with crossed polarizers and the lateral fluorescence emission patterns of the NPDDLC cell at various temperatures at U = 10 μJ/pulse. A, P, and R represent the transmission axes of analyzer and polarizer in the POM and the rubbing direction of the NPDDLC cell, respectively. The variations of (e) the x-polarized (o-component) and (f) the y-polarized (e-component) scattering fluorescence emissions leaked from the LC layer out of the cell through the boundary of the glass substrates and the LC layer with temperature at a specific nonlasing output region (remarked with white dotted circles) are also measured.

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Contribution levels of various influencing elements to the electrical control of the random laser.

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Table 2 Contribution levels of various influencing elements to the thermal control of the random laser.

Equations (2)

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A(λ)= log 10 T(λ).
θ λ 2π* .

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