Abstract

Ge-Se thin film waveguide is used in optical devices because of its excellent optical properties. We investigated the structural and optical properties of as-deposited and thermally annealed Ge18Se82 films and the associated waveguides. The optimized annealing condition at 170 °C was determined for Ge18Se82 films. This study reveals that the annealing process can reduce the density of homopolar bonds and voids in the films. After the annealing process, Ge18Se82 waveguides with the dimensions of 1.0 µm×4.0 µm and 1.5 µm×4.0 µm present 0.22 dB/cm and 0.26 dB/cm propagation loss reduction, respectively. This finding suggests that thermal annealing is an appropriate method for improving the performance of chalcogenide glass devices.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]

2019 (2)

Y. Zhao, C. D. Li, P. P. Guo, W. Zhang, and P. Q. Zhang, “Exploration of lift-off Ge-As-Se chalcogenide waveguides with thermal reflow process,” Opt. Mater. (Amsterdam, Neth.) 92, 206–211 (2019).
[Crossref]

S. Geiger, Q. Y. Du, B. Huang, M. Y. Shalaginov, and H. T. Lin, “Understanding aging in chalcogenide glass thin films using precision resonant cavity refractometry,” Opt. Mater. Express 9(5), 2252–2263 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (4)

J. Zhou, Q. Y. Du, P. P. Xu, Y. Zhao, C. G. Lin, Y. H. Wu, P. Q. Zhang, W. Zhang, and X. Shen, “Large Nonlinearity, Low loss Ge-Sb-Se glass photonic devices in near infrared,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24(4), 1–6 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Lin, C. Rüssel, and S. Dai, “Chalcogenide glass-ceramics: Functional design and crystallization mechanism,” Prog. Mater. Sci. 93, 1–44 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. M. Morris, M. D. Mackenzie, C. R. Petersen, G. Demetriou, A. K. Kar, O. Bang, and H. T. Bookey, “Ge22As20Se58 glass ultrafast laser inscribed waveguides for mid-IR integrated optics,” Opt. Mater. Express 8(4), 1001–1011 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Petersen, N. Prtljaga, M. Farries, J. Ward, B. Napier, G. R. Lloyd, J. Nallala, N. Stone, and O. Bang, “Mid-infrared multispectral tissue imaging using a chalcogenide fiber supercontinuum source,” Opt. Lett. 43(5), 999–1002 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (1)

S. Zhang, Y. M. Chen, R. P. Wang, X. Shen, and S. X. Dai, “Observation of photobleaching in Ge-deficient Ge16.8Se83.2 chalcogenide thin film with prolonged irradiation,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 14585 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (4)

2015 (3)

2014 (3)

L. Li, H. T. Lin, S. T. Qiao, Y. Zou, S. Danto, K. Richardson, J. D. Musgraves, N. S. Lu, and J. J. Hu, “Integrated flexible chalcogenide glass photonic devices,” Nat. Photonics 8(8), 643–649 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Yu, X. Gai, P. Ma, Z. Y. Yang, R. P. Wang, D. Y. Choi, S. J. Madden, S. Luther-Davies, and B. Luther-Davies, “A two-octave broadband quasi-continuous mid-infrared supercontinuum generated in a chalcogenide glass waveguide,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(5), 792–798 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Olivier, J. C. Tchahame, P. Nemec, M. Chauvet, V. Besse, C. Cassagne, G. Boudebs, G. Renversez, R. Boidin, E. Baudet, and V. Nazabal, “Structure, nonlinear properties, and photosensitivity of (GeSe2)100-x(Sb2Se3)x glasses,” Opt. Mater. Express 4(3), 525–540 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

2011 (1)

T. Edwards and S. Sen, “Structure and Relaxation in Germanium Selenide Glasses and Supercooled Liquids: A Raman Spestroscopic Study,” J. Phys. Chem. B 115(15), 4307–4314 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

D. Y. Choi, S. Madden, D. Bulla, R. P. Wang, A. Rode, and B. Luther-Davies, “Thermal annealing of arsenic tri-sulphide thin film and its influence on device performance,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(5), 053106 (2010).
[Crossref]

R. Golovchak, A. Kozdras, and O. Shpotyuk, “Optical signature of structural relaxation in glassy As 10 Se 90,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 356(23-24), 1149–1152 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

L. E. Zou, B. X. Chen, H. S. Lin, H. Hamanaka, and M. Iso, “Fabrication and propagation characterization of As2S8 chalcogenide channel waveguide made by UV irradiation annealing,” Appl. Opt. 48(33), 6442–6447 (2009).
[Crossref]

P. K. Pan, H. T. Zheng, H. C. Zang, X. J. Zhao, and T. J. Zhang, “Annealing effects on the structure and optical properties of GeSe2 and GeSe4 films prepared by PLD,” J. Alloys Compd. 484(1-2), 645–648 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (4)

M. Kincl and L. Tichy, “Thermally and optically induced irreversible changes in some Ge–As–S amorphous thin films,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 110(2-3), 322–327 (2008).
[Crossref]

O. A. Mykaylo, O. G. Guranich, and V. M. Rubish, “Influence of Composition, Exposure, “Thermal Annealing and Pressure on Structure and Optical Properties of As-S-Se Chalcogenide Glasses and Thin Films,” Ferroelectrics 372(1), 81–86 (2008).
[Crossref]

W. C. Liu, G. Hoffman, W. Zhou, R. M. Reano, P. Boolchand, and R. Sooryakumar, “Slab waveguides and nanoscale patterning of pulsed laser-deposited Ge0.2Se0.8 chalcogenide films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(4), 041107 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. Prasad, C. J. Zha, R. P. Wang, A. Smith, S. J. Madden, and B. Luther Davies, “Properties of GexAsySe1-x-y glasses for all-optical signal processing,” Opt. Express 16(4), 2804 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

R. P. wang, D. Y. choi, A. V. Rode, S. J. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, “Renonding of Se to As and Ge in the Ge33As12Se55 films upon thermal annealing: Evidence from x-ray photoelectron spectra investigations,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(11), 113517 (2007).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

F. Wang, S. Mamedov, P. Boolchand, B. Goodman, and M. Chandrasekar, “Pressure raman effects and internal stress in network glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 71(17), 174201 (2005).
[Crossref]

1999 (2)

T. S. Tay, “On the Generic Rigidity of Bar-Frameworks,” Adv. Appl. Math. 23(1), 14–28 (1999).
[Crossref]

K. A. Jackson, A. Briley, S. Grossman, D. V. Porezag, and M. R. Peserson, “Raman-active modes of a-GeSe2 and a-GeS2: A first-Principles study,” Phys. Rev. B 60(22), R14985 (1999).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

J. P. Perdew, K. Burke, and M. Ernzerhof, “Generalized Approximation made simple,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77(18), 3865–3868 (1996).
[Crossref]

1985 (1)

H. He and M. Thorpe, “Elastic properties of glasses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54(19), 2107–2110 (1985).
[Crossref]

1983 (1)

M. Thorpe, “Continuous deformations in random networks,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 57(3), 355–370 (1983).
[Crossref]

1981 (1)

J. Phillips, “Topology of covalent non-crystalline solids I: Short-range order in chalcogenide alloys,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 43(1), 37–77 (1981).
[Crossref]

1978 (1)

R. Nemanich, G. A. N. Connell, T. M. Hayes, and R. A. Street, “Thermally induced effects in evaporated chalcogenide films, II. Optical absorption,” Phys. Rev. B 18(12), 6915–6919 (1978).
[Crossref]

1973 (1)

S. H. Wemple, D. A. Pinnow, T. C. Rich, R. E. Jaeger, and L. G. Van Uitert, “Binary SiO2-B2O3 glass system: Refractive index behavior and energy gap considerations,” J. Appl. Phys. 44(12), 5432–5437 (1973).
[Crossref]

1972 (1)

N. F. Mott, E. A. Davis, and W. Kurt, “Electronic Processes in Non-Crystalline Materials,” Phys. Today 25(12), 55 (1972).
[Crossref]

and W, X. L.

Bai, J.

W. Zhang, S. X. Dai, X. Shen, Y. Chen, S. S. Zhao, C. G. Lin, L. Zhang, and J. Bai, “Rib and strip chalcogenide waveguides based on Ge–Sb–Se radio-frequency sputtered films,” Mater. Lett. 98(5), 42–46 (2013).
[Crossref]

Balitska, V.

O. Shpotyuk, A. Kozdras, V. Balitska, and R. Golovchak, “On the compositional diversity of physical aging kineticsin chalcogenide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 437, 1–5 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bang, O.

Baudet, E.

Berashevich, J.

Besse, V.

Boidin, R.

Bookey, H. T.

Boolchand, P.

W. C. Liu, G. Hoffman, W. Zhou, R. M. Reano, P. Boolchand, and R. Sooryakumar, “Slab waveguides and nanoscale patterning of pulsed laser-deposited Ge0.2Se0.8 chalcogenide films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(4), 041107 (2008).
[Crossref]

F. Wang, S. Mamedov, P. Boolchand, B. Goodman, and M. Chandrasekar, “Pressure raman effects and internal stress in network glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 71(17), 174201 (2005).
[Crossref]

Boudebs, G.

Briley, A.

K. A. Jackson, A. Briley, S. Grossman, D. V. Porezag, and M. R. Peserson, “Raman-active modes of a-GeSe2 and a-GeS2: A first-Principles study,” Phys. Rev. B 60(22), R14985 (1999).
[Crossref]

Bulla, D.

D. Y. Choi, S. Madden, D. Bulla, R. P. Wang, A. Rode, and B. Luther-Davies, “Thermal annealing of arsenic tri-sulphide thin film and its influence on device performance,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(5), 053106 (2010).
[Crossref]

Burke, K.

J. P. Perdew, K. Burke, and M. Ernzerhof, “Generalized Approximation made simple,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77(18), 3865–3868 (1996).
[Crossref]

Cassagne, C.

Chandrasekar, M.

F. Wang, S. Mamedov, P. Boolchand, B. Goodman, and M. Chandrasekar, “Pressure raman effects and internal stress in network glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 71(17), 174201 (2005).
[Crossref]

Chauvet, M.

Chen, B. X.

Chen, Y.

W. Zhang, S. X. Dai, X. Shen, Y. Chen, S. S. Zhao, C. G. Lin, L. Zhang, and J. Bai, “Rib and strip chalcogenide waveguides based on Ge–Sb–Se radio-frequency sputtered films,” Mater. Lett. 98(5), 42–46 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y. M.

S. Zhang, Y. M. Chen, R. P. Wang, X. Shen, and S. X. Dai, “Observation of photobleaching in Ge-deficient Ge16.8Se83.2 chalcogenide thin film with prolonged irradiation,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 14585 (2017).
[Crossref]

Choi, D. Y.

P. Ma, D. Y. Choi, Y. Yu, Z. Y. Yang, K. Vu, T. Nguyen, A. Mitchell, B. Luther-Davies, and S. J. Madden, “High Q factor chalcogenide ring resonators for cavity-enhanced MIR spectroscopic sensing,” Opt. Express 23(15), 19969–19979 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Yu, X. Gai, P. Ma, Z. Y. Yang, R. P. Wang, D. Y. Choi, S. J. Madden, S. Luther-Davies, and B. Luther-Davies, “A two-octave broadband quasi-continuous mid-infrared supercontinuum generated in a chalcogenide glass waveguide,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(5), 792–798 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Yu, X. Gai, T. Wang, P. Ma, R. P. Wang, Z. Y. Yang, D. Y. Choi, S. J. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, “Mid-infrared supercontinuum generation in chalcogenides,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(8), 1075–1086 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Y. Choi, S. Madden, D. Bulla, R. P. Wang, A. Rode, and B. Luther-Davies, “Thermal annealing of arsenic tri-sulphide thin film and its influence on device performance,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(5), 053106 (2010).
[Crossref]

R. P. wang, D. Y. choi, A. V. Rode, S. J. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, “Renonding of Se to As and Ge in the Ge33As12Se55 films upon thermal annealing: Evidence from x-ray photoelectron spectra investigations,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(11), 113517 (2007).
[Crossref]

Connell, G. A. N.

R. Nemanich, G. A. N. Connell, T. M. Hayes, and R. A. Street, “Thermally induced effects in evaporated chalcogenide films, II. Optical absorption,” Phys. Rev. B 18(12), 6915–6919 (1978).
[Crossref]

Dai, S.

C. Lin, C. Rüssel, and S. Dai, “Chalcogenide glass-ceramics: Functional design and crystallization mechanism,” Prog. Mater. Sci. 93, 1–44 (2018).
[Crossref]

Dai, S. X.

S. Zhang, Y. M. Chen, R. P. Wang, X. Shen, and S. X. Dai, “Observation of photobleaching in Ge-deficient Ge16.8Se83.2 chalcogenide thin film with prolonged irradiation,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 14585 (2017).
[Crossref]

W. Zhang, S. X. Dai, X. Shen, Y. Chen, S. S. Zhao, C. G. Lin, L. Zhang, and J. Bai, “Rib and strip chalcogenide waveguides based on Ge–Sb–Se radio-frequency sputtered films,” Mater. Lett. 98(5), 42–46 (2013).
[Crossref]

Danto, S.

L. Li, H. T. Lin, S. T. Qiao, Y. Zou, S. Danto, K. Richardson, J. D. Musgraves, N. S. Lu, and J. J. Hu, “Integrated flexible chalcogenide glass photonic devices,” Nat. Photonics 8(8), 643–649 (2014).
[Crossref]

Davis, E. A.

N. F. Mott, E. A. Davis, and W. Kurt, “Electronic Processes in Non-Crystalline Materials,” Phys. Today 25(12), 55 (1972).
[Crossref]

Demetriou, G.

Du, Q.

Du, Q. Y.

S. Geiger, Q. Y. Du, B. Huang, M. Y. Shalaginov, and H. T. Lin, “Understanding aging in chalcogenide glass thin films using precision resonant cavity refractometry,” Opt. Mater. Express 9(5), 2252–2263 (2019).
[Crossref]

J. Zhou, Q. Y. Du, P. P. Xu, Y. Zhao, C. G. Lin, Y. H. Wu, P. Q. Zhang, W. Zhang, and X. Shen, “Large Nonlinearity, Low loss Ge-Sb-Se glass photonic devices in near infrared,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24(4), 1–6 (2018).
[Crossref]

Edwards, T.

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S. Zhang, Y. M. Chen, R. P. Wang, X. Shen, and S. X. Dai, “Observation of photobleaching in Ge-deficient Ge16.8Se83.2 chalcogenide thin film with prolonged irradiation,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 14585 (2017).
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P. K. Pan, H. T. Zheng, H. C. Zang, X. J. Zhao, and T. J. Zhang, “Annealing effects on the structure and optical properties of GeSe2 and GeSe4 films prepared by PLD,” J. Alloys Compd. 484(1-2), 645–648 (2009).
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Y. Zhao, C. D. Li, P. P. Guo, W. Zhang, and P. Q. Zhang, “Exploration of lift-off Ge-As-Se chalcogenide waveguides with thermal reflow process,” Opt. Mater. (Amsterdam, Neth.) 92, 206–211 (2019).
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J. Zhou, Q. Y. Du, P. P. Xu, Y. Zhao, C. G. Lin, Y. H. Wu, P. Q. Zhang, W. Zhang, and X. Shen, “Large Nonlinearity, Low loss Ge-Sb-Se glass photonic devices in near infrared,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24(4), 1–6 (2018).
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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. AFM topographical image of Ge18Se82 film surfaces taken at 3×3 µm scanning area: (a) as-deposited film and (b) film annealing at 170 °C.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) Bandgaps of films at different annealing temperatures (the inset is the transmittance of the film annealed at different temperatures) and (b) variation in refractive index at 1550 nm in films annealed at different temperatures.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) Raman spectra of as-deposited film and the films with different annealing temperatures. Decomposition of Raman-integrated area of (b) Ge-Ge bond and (c) Se-Se bond.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. SEM images of strip waveguides: (a) 1-µm-thick and (c) 1.5-µm-thick waveguides on as-deposited Ge18Se82 films; (b) 1-µm-thick and (d) 1.5-µm-thick waveguides on Ge18Se82 films annealing at 170 °C.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Insertion losses (in dB) of waveguides fabricated from as-deposited and annealed films.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. TE mode profiles of as-deposited (a) 1-µm-thick and (c) 1.5-µm-thick waveguides with 4 µm width; annealing (b) 1-µm-thick and (d) 1.5-µm-thick waveguides with 4 µm width.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Surface amplitude parameter for Ge18Se82 films

Equations (1)

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Ge Ge + Se Se h ν 2 Ge Se .

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