Abstract

Recent advancements in whole slide imaging (WSI) have moved pathology closer to digital practice. Existing systems require precise mechanical control, and the cost is prohibitive for most individual pathologists. Here we report a low-cost and high-throughput WSI system termed OpenWSI. The reported system is built using off-the-shelf components, including a programmable LED array, a photographic lens, and a low-cost computer numerical control (CNC) router. Different from conventional WSI platforms, our system performs real-time single-frame autofocusing using color-multiplexed illumination. For axial positioning control, we perform coarse adjustment using the CNC router and precise adjustment using the ultrasonic motor ring in the photographic lens. By using a 20X objective lens, we show that the OpenWSI system has a resolution of $\sim\!{0.7}\,\,\unicode{x00B5}{\rm m}$. It can acquire whole slide images of a ${225}\,\,{{\rm mm}^2}$ region in $\sim\!{2}\,\,{\rm mins}$ with throughput comparable to existing high-end platforms. The reported system offers a turnkey solution to transform the high-end WSI platforms into one that can be made broadly available and utilizable without loss of capacity.

© 2019 Optical Society of America

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Supplementary Material (3)

NameDescription
» Visualization 1       The design of the OpenWSI prototype platform.
» Visualization 2       Rapid 3D focusing using the photographic lens.
» Visualization 3       Operation of the OpenWSI prototype.

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