Abstract

We demonstrate the effective combination of multiphoton and photoacoustic (PA) imaging for the high-resolution stratigraphic analysis of multilayered art objects with emphasis on paintings. A novel convolution-based algorithm is additionally applied for the precise discrimination of nonlinear signals, providing valuable information in regard to the thickness and composition of successive varnish and paint layers in the mock-up samples. On the other hand, PA contrast complements the extracted data by revealing well-hidden graphite underdrawings below the paint at high sensitivity levels. The final composite images are directly compared with cross-sectional brightfield observations, validating the capabilities of the bimodal diagnosis in terms of measurement accuracy and contrast specificity. The presented hybrid diagnostic approach has the potential to optimize delicate interventions in works of art such as the selective removal of aged materials, thus promoting a significantly improved restoration outcome.

© 2019 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. C. S. Cheung, J. M. O. Daniel, M. Tokurakawa, W. A. Clarkson, and H. Liang, Opt. Lett. 39, 6509 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  2. G. Filippidis, M. Mari, L. Kelegkouri, A. Philippidis, A. Selimis, K. Melessanaki, M. Sygletou, and C. Fotakis, Microsc. Microanal. 21, 510 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  3. M. Oujja, S. Psilodimitrakopoulos, E. Carrasco, M. Sanz, A. Philippidis, A. Selimis, P. Pouli, G. Filippidis, and M. Castillejo, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 19, 22836 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  4. S. Psilodimitrakopoulos, E. Gavgiotaki, K. Melessanaki, V. Tsafas, and G. Filippidis, Microsc. Microanal. 22, 1072 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  5. G. Latour, J.-P. Echard, M. Didier, and M.-C. Schanne-Klein, Opt. Express 20, 24623 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  6. G. Latour, L. Robinet, A. Dazzi, F. Portier, A. Deniset-Besseau, and M.-C. Schanne-Klein, Sci. Rep. 6, 26344 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  7. G. Filippidis, G. J. Tserevelakis, A. Selimis, and C. Fotakis, Appl. Phys. A 118, 417 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  8. A. Dal Fovo, M. Oujja, M. Sanz, A. Martínez-Hernández, M. V. Cañamares, M. Castillejo, and R. Fontana, Spectrochim. Acta A 208, 262 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  9. F. Faraldi, G. J. Tserevelakis, G. Filippidis, G. M. Ingo, C. Riccucci, and C. Fotakis, Appl. Phys. A 111, 177 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  10. J. Yao and L. V. Wang, Laser Photonics Rev. 7, 758 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  11. G. J. Tserevelakis, I. Vrouvaki, P. Siozos, K. Melessanaki, K. Hatzigiannakis, C. Fotakis, and G. Zacharakis, Sci. Rep. 7, 747 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  12. G. J. Tserevelakis, A. Dal Fovo, K. Melessanaki, R. Fontana, and G. Zacharakis, J. Appl. Phys. 123, 123102 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  13. G. J. Tserevelakis, M. Tsagkaraki, P. Siozos, and G. Zacharakis, Strain 54, e12289 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  14. M. Seeger, A. Karlas, D. Soliman, J. Pelisek, and V. Ntziachristos, Photoacoustics 4, 102 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  15. G. Filippidis, E. J. Gualda, K. Melessanaki, and C. Fotakis, Opt. Lett. 33, 240 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  16. A. Selimis, G. J. Tserevelakis, S. Kogou, P. Pouli, G. Filippidis, N. Sapogova, N. Bityurin, and C. Fotakis, Opt. Express 20, 3990 (2012).
    [Crossref]

2019 (1)

A. Dal Fovo, M. Oujja, M. Sanz, A. Martínez-Hernández, M. V. Cañamares, M. Castillejo, and R. Fontana, Spectrochim. Acta A 208, 262 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (2)

G. J. Tserevelakis, A. Dal Fovo, K. Melessanaki, R. Fontana, and G. Zacharakis, J. Appl. Phys. 123, 123102 (2018).
[Crossref]

G. J. Tserevelakis, M. Tsagkaraki, P. Siozos, and G. Zacharakis, Strain 54, e12289 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (2)

M. Oujja, S. Psilodimitrakopoulos, E. Carrasco, M. Sanz, A. Philippidis, A. Selimis, P. Pouli, G. Filippidis, and M. Castillejo, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 19, 22836 (2017).
[Crossref]

G. J. Tserevelakis, I. Vrouvaki, P. Siozos, K. Melessanaki, K. Hatzigiannakis, C. Fotakis, and G. Zacharakis, Sci. Rep. 7, 747 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (3)

S. Psilodimitrakopoulos, E. Gavgiotaki, K. Melessanaki, V. Tsafas, and G. Filippidis, Microsc. Microanal. 22, 1072 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Seeger, A. Karlas, D. Soliman, J. Pelisek, and V. Ntziachristos, Photoacoustics 4, 102 (2016).
[Crossref]

G. Latour, L. Robinet, A. Dazzi, F. Portier, A. Deniset-Besseau, and M.-C. Schanne-Klein, Sci. Rep. 6, 26344 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (2)

G. Filippidis, G. J. Tserevelakis, A. Selimis, and C. Fotakis, Appl. Phys. A 118, 417 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. Filippidis, M. Mari, L. Kelegkouri, A. Philippidis, A. Selimis, K. Melessanaki, M. Sygletou, and C. Fotakis, Microsc. Microanal. 21, 510 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

2013 (2)

F. Faraldi, G. J. Tserevelakis, G. Filippidis, G. M. Ingo, C. Riccucci, and C. Fotakis, Appl. Phys. A 111, 177 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Yao and L. V. Wang, Laser Photonics Rev. 7, 758 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

2008 (1)

Bityurin, N.

Cañamares, M. V.

A. Dal Fovo, M. Oujja, M. Sanz, A. Martínez-Hernández, M. V. Cañamares, M. Castillejo, and R. Fontana, Spectrochim. Acta A 208, 262 (2019).
[Crossref]

Carrasco, E.

M. Oujja, S. Psilodimitrakopoulos, E. Carrasco, M. Sanz, A. Philippidis, A. Selimis, P. Pouli, G. Filippidis, and M. Castillejo, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 19, 22836 (2017).
[Crossref]

Castillejo, M.

A. Dal Fovo, M. Oujja, M. Sanz, A. Martínez-Hernández, M. V. Cañamares, M. Castillejo, and R. Fontana, Spectrochim. Acta A 208, 262 (2019).
[Crossref]

M. Oujja, S. Psilodimitrakopoulos, E. Carrasco, M. Sanz, A. Philippidis, A. Selimis, P. Pouli, G. Filippidis, and M. Castillejo, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 19, 22836 (2017).
[Crossref]

Cheung, C. S.

Clarkson, W. A.

Dal Fovo, A.

A. Dal Fovo, M. Oujja, M. Sanz, A. Martínez-Hernández, M. V. Cañamares, M. Castillejo, and R. Fontana, Spectrochim. Acta A 208, 262 (2019).
[Crossref]

G. J. Tserevelakis, A. Dal Fovo, K. Melessanaki, R. Fontana, and G. Zacharakis, J. Appl. Phys. 123, 123102 (2018).
[Crossref]

Daniel, J. M. O.

Dazzi, A.

G. Latour, L. Robinet, A. Dazzi, F. Portier, A. Deniset-Besseau, and M.-C. Schanne-Klein, Sci. Rep. 6, 26344 (2016).
[Crossref]

Deniset-Besseau, A.

G. Latour, L. Robinet, A. Dazzi, F. Portier, A. Deniset-Besseau, and M.-C. Schanne-Klein, Sci. Rep. 6, 26344 (2016).
[Crossref]

Didier, M.

Echard, J.-P.

Faraldi, F.

F. Faraldi, G. J. Tserevelakis, G. Filippidis, G. M. Ingo, C. Riccucci, and C. Fotakis, Appl. Phys. A 111, 177 (2013).
[Crossref]

Filippidis, G.

M. Oujja, S. Psilodimitrakopoulos, E. Carrasco, M. Sanz, A. Philippidis, A. Selimis, P. Pouli, G. Filippidis, and M. Castillejo, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 19, 22836 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Psilodimitrakopoulos, E. Gavgiotaki, K. Melessanaki, V. Tsafas, and G. Filippidis, Microsc. Microanal. 22, 1072 (2016).
[Crossref]

G. Filippidis, M. Mari, L. Kelegkouri, A. Philippidis, A. Selimis, K. Melessanaki, M. Sygletou, and C. Fotakis, Microsc. Microanal. 21, 510 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. Filippidis, G. J. Tserevelakis, A. Selimis, and C. Fotakis, Appl. Phys. A 118, 417 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Faraldi, G. J. Tserevelakis, G. Filippidis, G. M. Ingo, C. Riccucci, and C. Fotakis, Appl. Phys. A 111, 177 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Selimis, G. J. Tserevelakis, S. Kogou, P. Pouli, G. Filippidis, N. Sapogova, N. Bityurin, and C. Fotakis, Opt. Express 20, 3990 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. Filippidis, E. J. Gualda, K. Melessanaki, and C. Fotakis, Opt. Lett. 33, 240 (2008).
[Crossref]

Fontana, R.

A. Dal Fovo, M. Oujja, M. Sanz, A. Martínez-Hernández, M. V. Cañamares, M. Castillejo, and R. Fontana, Spectrochim. Acta A 208, 262 (2019).
[Crossref]

G. J. Tserevelakis, A. Dal Fovo, K. Melessanaki, R. Fontana, and G. Zacharakis, J. Appl. Phys. 123, 123102 (2018).
[Crossref]

Fotakis, C.

G. J. Tserevelakis, I. Vrouvaki, P. Siozos, K. Melessanaki, K. Hatzigiannakis, C. Fotakis, and G. Zacharakis, Sci. Rep. 7, 747 (2017).
[Crossref]

G. Filippidis, G. J. Tserevelakis, A. Selimis, and C. Fotakis, Appl. Phys. A 118, 417 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. Filippidis, M. Mari, L. Kelegkouri, A. Philippidis, A. Selimis, K. Melessanaki, M. Sygletou, and C. Fotakis, Microsc. Microanal. 21, 510 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Faraldi, G. J. Tserevelakis, G. Filippidis, G. M. Ingo, C. Riccucci, and C. Fotakis, Appl. Phys. A 111, 177 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Selimis, G. J. Tserevelakis, S. Kogou, P. Pouli, G. Filippidis, N. Sapogova, N. Bityurin, and C. Fotakis, Opt. Express 20, 3990 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. Filippidis, E. J. Gualda, K. Melessanaki, and C. Fotakis, Opt. Lett. 33, 240 (2008).
[Crossref]

Gavgiotaki, E.

S. Psilodimitrakopoulos, E. Gavgiotaki, K. Melessanaki, V. Tsafas, and G. Filippidis, Microsc. Microanal. 22, 1072 (2016).
[Crossref]

Gualda, E. J.

Hatzigiannakis, K.

G. J. Tserevelakis, I. Vrouvaki, P. Siozos, K. Melessanaki, K. Hatzigiannakis, C. Fotakis, and G. Zacharakis, Sci. Rep. 7, 747 (2017).
[Crossref]

Ingo, G. M.

F. Faraldi, G. J. Tserevelakis, G. Filippidis, G. M. Ingo, C. Riccucci, and C. Fotakis, Appl. Phys. A 111, 177 (2013).
[Crossref]

Karlas, A.

M. Seeger, A. Karlas, D. Soliman, J. Pelisek, and V. Ntziachristos, Photoacoustics 4, 102 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kelegkouri, L.

G. Filippidis, M. Mari, L. Kelegkouri, A. Philippidis, A. Selimis, K. Melessanaki, M. Sygletou, and C. Fotakis, Microsc. Microanal. 21, 510 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kogou, S.

Latour, G.

G. Latour, L. Robinet, A. Dazzi, F. Portier, A. Deniset-Besseau, and M.-C. Schanne-Klein, Sci. Rep. 6, 26344 (2016).
[Crossref]

G. Latour, J.-P. Echard, M. Didier, and M.-C. Schanne-Klein, Opt. Express 20, 24623 (2012).
[Crossref]

Liang, H.

Mari, M.

G. Filippidis, M. Mari, L. Kelegkouri, A. Philippidis, A. Selimis, K. Melessanaki, M. Sygletou, and C. Fotakis, Microsc. Microanal. 21, 510 (2015).
[Crossref]

Martínez-Hernández, A.

A. Dal Fovo, M. Oujja, M. Sanz, A. Martínez-Hernández, M. V. Cañamares, M. Castillejo, and R. Fontana, Spectrochim. Acta A 208, 262 (2019).
[Crossref]

Melessanaki, K.

G. J. Tserevelakis, A. Dal Fovo, K. Melessanaki, R. Fontana, and G. Zacharakis, J. Appl. Phys. 123, 123102 (2018).
[Crossref]

G. J. Tserevelakis, I. Vrouvaki, P. Siozos, K. Melessanaki, K. Hatzigiannakis, C. Fotakis, and G. Zacharakis, Sci. Rep. 7, 747 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Psilodimitrakopoulos, E. Gavgiotaki, K. Melessanaki, V. Tsafas, and G. Filippidis, Microsc. Microanal. 22, 1072 (2016).
[Crossref]

G. Filippidis, M. Mari, L. Kelegkouri, A. Philippidis, A. Selimis, K. Melessanaki, M. Sygletou, and C. Fotakis, Microsc. Microanal. 21, 510 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. Filippidis, E. J. Gualda, K. Melessanaki, and C. Fotakis, Opt. Lett. 33, 240 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ntziachristos, V.

M. Seeger, A. Karlas, D. Soliman, J. Pelisek, and V. Ntziachristos, Photoacoustics 4, 102 (2016).
[Crossref]

Oujja, M.

A. Dal Fovo, M. Oujja, M. Sanz, A. Martínez-Hernández, M. V. Cañamares, M. Castillejo, and R. Fontana, Spectrochim. Acta A 208, 262 (2019).
[Crossref]

M. Oujja, S. Psilodimitrakopoulos, E. Carrasco, M. Sanz, A. Philippidis, A. Selimis, P. Pouli, G. Filippidis, and M. Castillejo, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 19, 22836 (2017).
[Crossref]

Pelisek, J.

M. Seeger, A. Karlas, D. Soliman, J. Pelisek, and V. Ntziachristos, Photoacoustics 4, 102 (2016).
[Crossref]

Philippidis, A.

M. Oujja, S. Psilodimitrakopoulos, E. Carrasco, M. Sanz, A. Philippidis, A. Selimis, P. Pouli, G. Filippidis, and M. Castillejo, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 19, 22836 (2017).
[Crossref]

G. Filippidis, M. Mari, L. Kelegkouri, A. Philippidis, A. Selimis, K. Melessanaki, M. Sygletou, and C. Fotakis, Microsc. Microanal. 21, 510 (2015).
[Crossref]

Portier, F.

G. Latour, L. Robinet, A. Dazzi, F. Portier, A. Deniset-Besseau, and M.-C. Schanne-Klein, Sci. Rep. 6, 26344 (2016).
[Crossref]

Pouli, P.

M. Oujja, S. Psilodimitrakopoulos, E. Carrasco, M. Sanz, A. Philippidis, A. Selimis, P. Pouli, G. Filippidis, and M. Castillejo, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 19, 22836 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Selimis, G. J. Tserevelakis, S. Kogou, P. Pouli, G. Filippidis, N. Sapogova, N. Bityurin, and C. Fotakis, Opt. Express 20, 3990 (2012).
[Crossref]

Psilodimitrakopoulos, S.

M. Oujja, S. Psilodimitrakopoulos, E. Carrasco, M. Sanz, A. Philippidis, A. Selimis, P. Pouli, G. Filippidis, and M. Castillejo, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 19, 22836 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Psilodimitrakopoulos, E. Gavgiotaki, K. Melessanaki, V. Tsafas, and G. Filippidis, Microsc. Microanal. 22, 1072 (2016).
[Crossref]

Riccucci, C.

F. Faraldi, G. J. Tserevelakis, G. Filippidis, G. M. Ingo, C. Riccucci, and C. Fotakis, Appl. Phys. A 111, 177 (2013).
[Crossref]

Robinet, L.

G. Latour, L. Robinet, A. Dazzi, F. Portier, A. Deniset-Besseau, and M.-C. Schanne-Klein, Sci. Rep. 6, 26344 (2016).
[Crossref]

Sanz, M.

A. Dal Fovo, M. Oujja, M. Sanz, A. Martínez-Hernández, M. V. Cañamares, M. Castillejo, and R. Fontana, Spectrochim. Acta A 208, 262 (2019).
[Crossref]

M. Oujja, S. Psilodimitrakopoulos, E. Carrasco, M. Sanz, A. Philippidis, A. Selimis, P. Pouli, G. Filippidis, and M. Castillejo, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 19, 22836 (2017).
[Crossref]

Sapogova, N.

Schanne-Klein, M.-C.

G. Latour, L. Robinet, A. Dazzi, F. Portier, A. Deniset-Besseau, and M.-C. Schanne-Klein, Sci. Rep. 6, 26344 (2016).
[Crossref]

G. Latour, J.-P. Echard, M. Didier, and M.-C. Schanne-Klein, Opt. Express 20, 24623 (2012).
[Crossref]

Seeger, M.

M. Seeger, A. Karlas, D. Soliman, J. Pelisek, and V. Ntziachristos, Photoacoustics 4, 102 (2016).
[Crossref]

Selimis, A.

M. Oujja, S. Psilodimitrakopoulos, E. Carrasco, M. Sanz, A. Philippidis, A. Selimis, P. Pouli, G. Filippidis, and M. Castillejo, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 19, 22836 (2017).
[Crossref]

G. Filippidis, M. Mari, L. Kelegkouri, A. Philippidis, A. Selimis, K. Melessanaki, M. Sygletou, and C. Fotakis, Microsc. Microanal. 21, 510 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. Filippidis, G. J. Tserevelakis, A. Selimis, and C. Fotakis, Appl. Phys. A 118, 417 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Selimis, G. J. Tserevelakis, S. Kogou, P. Pouli, G. Filippidis, N. Sapogova, N. Bityurin, and C. Fotakis, Opt. Express 20, 3990 (2012).
[Crossref]

Siozos, P.

G. J. Tserevelakis, M. Tsagkaraki, P. Siozos, and G. Zacharakis, Strain 54, e12289 (2018).
[Crossref]

G. J. Tserevelakis, I. Vrouvaki, P. Siozos, K. Melessanaki, K. Hatzigiannakis, C. Fotakis, and G. Zacharakis, Sci. Rep. 7, 747 (2017).
[Crossref]

Soliman, D.

M. Seeger, A. Karlas, D. Soliman, J. Pelisek, and V. Ntziachristos, Photoacoustics 4, 102 (2016).
[Crossref]

Sygletou, M.

G. Filippidis, M. Mari, L. Kelegkouri, A. Philippidis, A. Selimis, K. Melessanaki, M. Sygletou, and C. Fotakis, Microsc. Microanal. 21, 510 (2015).
[Crossref]

Tokurakawa, M.

Tsafas, V.

S. Psilodimitrakopoulos, E. Gavgiotaki, K. Melessanaki, V. Tsafas, and G. Filippidis, Microsc. Microanal. 22, 1072 (2016).
[Crossref]

Tsagkaraki, M.

G. J. Tserevelakis, M. Tsagkaraki, P. Siozos, and G. Zacharakis, Strain 54, e12289 (2018).
[Crossref]

Tserevelakis, G. J.

G. J. Tserevelakis, M. Tsagkaraki, P. Siozos, and G. Zacharakis, Strain 54, e12289 (2018).
[Crossref]

G. J. Tserevelakis, A. Dal Fovo, K. Melessanaki, R. Fontana, and G. Zacharakis, J. Appl. Phys. 123, 123102 (2018).
[Crossref]

G. J. Tserevelakis, I. Vrouvaki, P. Siozos, K. Melessanaki, K. Hatzigiannakis, C. Fotakis, and G. Zacharakis, Sci. Rep. 7, 747 (2017).
[Crossref]

G. Filippidis, G. J. Tserevelakis, A. Selimis, and C. Fotakis, Appl. Phys. A 118, 417 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Faraldi, G. J. Tserevelakis, G. Filippidis, G. M. Ingo, C. Riccucci, and C. Fotakis, Appl. Phys. A 111, 177 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Selimis, G. J. Tserevelakis, S. Kogou, P. Pouli, G. Filippidis, N. Sapogova, N. Bityurin, and C. Fotakis, Opt. Express 20, 3990 (2012).
[Crossref]

Vrouvaki, I.

G. J. Tserevelakis, I. Vrouvaki, P. Siozos, K. Melessanaki, K. Hatzigiannakis, C. Fotakis, and G. Zacharakis, Sci. Rep. 7, 747 (2017).
[Crossref]

Wang, L. V.

J. Yao and L. V. Wang, Laser Photonics Rev. 7, 758 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yao, J.

J. Yao and L. V. Wang, Laser Photonics Rev. 7, 758 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zacharakis, G.

G. J. Tserevelakis, A. Dal Fovo, K. Melessanaki, R. Fontana, and G. Zacharakis, J. Appl. Phys. 123, 123102 (2018).
[Crossref]

G. J. Tserevelakis, M. Tsagkaraki, P. Siozos, and G. Zacharakis, Strain 54, e12289 (2018).
[Crossref]

G. J. Tserevelakis, I. Vrouvaki, P. Siozos, K. Melessanaki, K. Hatzigiannakis, C. Fotakis, and G. Zacharakis, Sci. Rep. 7, 747 (2017).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. A (2)

G. Filippidis, G. J. Tserevelakis, A. Selimis, and C. Fotakis, Appl. Phys. A 118, 417 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Faraldi, G. J. Tserevelakis, G. Filippidis, G. M. Ingo, C. Riccucci, and C. Fotakis, Appl. Phys. A 111, 177 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

G. J. Tserevelakis, A. Dal Fovo, K. Melessanaki, R. Fontana, and G. Zacharakis, J. Appl. Phys. 123, 123102 (2018).
[Crossref]

Laser Photonics Rev. (1)

J. Yao and L. V. Wang, Laser Photonics Rev. 7, 758 (2013).
[Crossref]

Microsc. Microanal. (2)

G. Filippidis, M. Mari, L. Kelegkouri, A. Philippidis, A. Selimis, K. Melessanaki, M. Sygletou, and C. Fotakis, Microsc. Microanal. 21, 510 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Psilodimitrakopoulos, E. Gavgiotaki, K. Melessanaki, V. Tsafas, and G. Filippidis, Microsc. Microanal. 22, 1072 (2016).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Photoacoustics (1)

M. Seeger, A. Karlas, D. Soliman, J. Pelisek, and V. Ntziachristos, Photoacoustics 4, 102 (2016).
[Crossref]

Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. (1)

M. Oujja, S. Psilodimitrakopoulos, E. Carrasco, M. Sanz, A. Philippidis, A. Selimis, P. Pouli, G. Filippidis, and M. Castillejo, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 19, 22836 (2017).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (2)

G. Latour, L. Robinet, A. Dazzi, F. Portier, A. Deniset-Besseau, and M.-C. Schanne-Klein, Sci. Rep. 6, 26344 (2016).
[Crossref]

G. J. Tserevelakis, I. Vrouvaki, P. Siozos, K. Melessanaki, K. Hatzigiannakis, C. Fotakis, and G. Zacharakis, Sci. Rep. 7, 747 (2017).
[Crossref]

Spectrochim. Acta A (1)

A. Dal Fovo, M. Oujja, M. Sanz, A. Martínez-Hernández, M. V. Cañamares, M. Castillejo, and R. Fontana, Spectrochim. Acta A 208, 262 (2019).
[Crossref]

Strain (1)

G. J. Tserevelakis, M. Tsagkaraki, P. Siozos, and G. Zacharakis, Strain 54, e12289 (2018).
[Crossref]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Schematics of MPEF and PA experimental configurations for the cross-sectional imaging of a mock-up painting sample.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. MPEF signal discrimination in Z-Scan measurements. (a) Graphical illustration of the fitted model resulting from the summation of two convolution functions involving axial signal profiles and layer thicknesses, represented as top-hat functions. The optical attenuation has been additionally considered due to scattering and fluorescence re-absorption effects. (b) Z-Scan MPEF measurement of a red lead painting sample covered with mastic. The fitted model (black line, R 2 = 0.99 ) was used to decouple the recorded response (black points) into respective signal contributions arising from varnish (green line) and paint (red line). (c) Similar data are presented for a painting sample covered with dammar ( R 2 = 0.99 ).
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. PA imaging of underdrawings. (a) Characteristic time-domain PA signal arising from graphite regions on a mastic covered painting sample (black line) and the respective modulus of its Hilbert transformation (red line). (b) Brightfield image of a mock-up canvas sample ( 22 × 22 mm 2 ) with several sketch lines drawn by pencil. (c) Same mock-up following the application of red lead paint and mastic layers. The white square ( 1 × 1 cm 2 ) indicates the central region imaged using the PA modality. (d) MAP PA image of underlying pencil lines for the selected field of view (scale bar, 2 mm).
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Combined MPEF and PA cross-sectional imaging. (a) Raw MPEF image. (b) Unmixed MPEF image of the mastic layer. (c) Unmixed MPEF image of the red lead paint layer. (d) PA image of the underlying pencil sketch. (e) Composite MPEF and PA image (scale bar Z, 100 μm; scale bar X, 1 mm). (f) Brightfield image of the region indicated with a white square in (e) using near-UV light. The black dashed line represents the border of the mastic layer. Both scale bars in the Z and X dimensions correspond to 100 μm.

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