Abstract

The transverse structures of geometric modes in degenerate laser resonators with large astigmatism are systematically investigated by starting from the Gaussian wave packet formulation with ray-wave connections. The overlapping degree $D$ between Gaussian wave packets is derived as an analytic expression that manifests the critical overlapping with ${\boldsymbol D} = 1$. The transverse patterns are confirmed to display a structure of continuous curves or dotted spots, depending on ${\boldsymbol D} \gt 1$ or ${\boldsymbol D} \lt 1$, respectively. A thorough comparison between experimental results and numerical calculations is performed to validate the theoretical analysis.

© 2019 Optical Society of America

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