Abstract

In this Letter, we report a single-ended distributed vibration sensor with the 100 km sensing range. This sensing range is achieved by remotely pumping two pieces of Er-doped fibers incorporated along the sensing fiber with a 1480 nm Raman fiber laser at the front end. A strain resolution of 100 nϵ combined with a spatial resolution of 2.6 m is achieved at the far end of the fiber.

Published by The Optical Society under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License. Further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the published article's title, journal citation, and DOI.

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References

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2019 (5)

2018 (1)

P. Jousset, T. Reinsch, T. Ryberg, H. Blanck, A. Clarke, R. Aghayev, G. P. Hersir, J. Henninges, M. Weber, and C. M. Krawczyk, Nat. Commun. 9, 2509 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (3)

2016 (1)

A. Masoudi and T. P. Newson, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 87, 011501 (2016).
[Crossref]

2014 (3)

2013 (1)

2005 (1)

Y. T. Cho, M. N. Alahbabi, G. Brambilla, and T. P. Newson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1256 (2005).
[Crossref]

Aghayev, R.

P. Jousset, T. Reinsch, T. Ryberg, H. Blanck, A. Clarke, R. Aghayev, G. P. Hersir, J. Henninges, M. Weber, and C. M. Krawczyk, Nat. Commun. 9, 2509 (2018).
[Crossref]

Ajo-Franklin, J. B.

S. Dou, N. Lindsey, A. M. Wagner, T. M. Daley, B. Freifeld, M. Robertson, J. Peterson, C. Ulrich, E. R. Martin, and J. B. Ajo-Franklin, Sci. Rep. 7, 11620 (2017).
[Crossref]

Alahbabi, M. N.

Y. T. Cho, M. N. Alahbabi, G. Brambilla, and T. P. Newson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1256 (2005).
[Crossref]

Bai, Y.

Blanck, H.

P. Jousset, T. Reinsch, T. Ryberg, H. Blanck, A. Clarke, R. Aghayev, G. P. Hersir, J. Henninges, M. Weber, and C. M. Krawczyk, Nat. Commun. 9, 2509 (2018).
[Crossref]

Brambilla, G.

Cedilnik, G.

G. Cedilnik, G. Lees, P. Erik Schmidt, S. Herstrøm, and T. Geisler, IEEE Sens. Lett. 3, 1 (2019).
[Crossref]

Chen, D.

Chen, M.

Cho, Y. T.

Y. T. Cho, M. N. Alahbabi, G. Brambilla, and T. P. Newson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1256 (2005).
[Crossref]

Clarke, A.

P. Jousset, T. Reinsch, T. Ryberg, H. Blanck, A. Clarke, R. Aghayev, G. P. Hersir, J. Henninges, M. Weber, and C. M. Krawczyk, Nat. Commun. 9, 2509 (2018).
[Crossref]

Corredera, P.

Daley, T. M.

S. Dou, N. Lindsey, A. M. Wagner, T. M. Daley, B. Freifeld, M. Robertson, J. Peterson, C. Ulrich, E. R. Martin, and J. B. Ajo-Franklin, Sci. Rep. 7, 11620 (2017).
[Crossref]

Dou, S.

S. Dou, N. Lindsey, A. M. Wagner, T. M. Daley, B. Freifeld, M. Robertson, J. Peterson, C. Ulrich, E. R. Martin, and J. B. Ajo-Franklin, Sci. Rep. 7, 11620 (2017).
[Crossref]

Erik Schmidt, P.

G. Cedilnik, G. Lees, P. Erik Schmidt, S. Herstrøm, and T. Geisler, IEEE Sens. Lett. 3, 1 (2019).
[Crossref]

Fan, M. Q.

Fernandez-Ruiz, M. R.

Filograno, M. L.

Frazao, O.

Freifeld, B.

S. Dou, N. Lindsey, A. M. Wagner, T. M. Daley, B. Freifeld, M. Robertson, J. Peterson, C. Ulrich, E. R. Martin, and J. B. Ajo-Franklin, Sci. Rep. 7, 11620 (2017).
[Crossref]

Garcia-Ruiz, A.

Geisler, T.

G. Cedilnik, G. Lees, P. Erik Schmidt, S. Herstrøm, and T. Geisler, IEEE Sens. Lett. 3, 1 (2019).
[Crossref]

Gonzalez-Herraez, M.

González-Herráez, M.

He, Z.

Henninges, J.

P. Jousset, T. Reinsch, T. Ryberg, H. Blanck, A. Clarke, R. Aghayev, G. P. Hersir, J. Henninges, M. Weber, and C. M. Krawczyk, Nat. Commun. 9, 2509 (2018).
[Crossref]

Hersir, G. P.

P. Jousset, T. Reinsch, T. Ryberg, H. Blanck, A. Clarke, R. Aghayev, G. P. Hersir, J. Henninges, M. Weber, and C. M. Krawczyk, Nat. Commun. 9, 2509 (2018).
[Crossref]

Herstrøm, S.

G. Cedilnik, G. Lees, P. Erik Schmidt, S. Herstrøm, and T. Geisler, IEEE Sens. Lett. 3, 1 (2019).
[Crossref]

Huang, J.

Huang, X.

Jia, X.-H.

Jousset, P.

P. Jousset, T. Reinsch, T. Ryberg, H. Blanck, A. Clarke, R. Aghayev, G. P. Hersir, J. Henninges, M. Weber, and C. M. Krawczyk, Nat. Commun. 9, 2509 (2018).
[Crossref]

Krawczyk, C. M.

P. Jousset, T. Reinsch, T. Ryberg, H. Blanck, A. Clarke, R. Aghayev, G. P. Hersir, J. Henninges, M. Weber, and C. M. Krawczyk, Nat. Commun. 9, 2509 (2018).
[Crossref]

Lees, G.

G. Cedilnik, G. Lees, P. Erik Schmidt, S. Herstrøm, and T. Geisler, IEEE Sens. Lett. 3, 1 (2019).
[Crossref]

Li, J.

Lindsey, N.

S. Dou, N. Lindsey, A. M. Wagner, T. M. Daley, B. Freifeld, M. Robertson, J. Peterson, C. Ulrich, E. R. Martin, and J. B. Ajo-Franklin, Sci. Rep. 7, 11620 (2017).
[Crossref]

Liu, Q.

Martin, E. R.

S. Dou, N. Lindsey, A. M. Wagner, T. M. Daley, B. Freifeld, M. Robertson, J. Peterson, C. Ulrich, E. R. Martin, and J. B. Ajo-Franklin, Sci. Rep. 7, 11620 (2017).
[Crossref]

Martin-Lopez, S.

Martins, H. F.

Masoudi, A.

Newson, T. P.

A. Masoudi, J. A. Pilgrim, T. P. Newson, and G. Brambilla, J. Lightwave Technol. 37, 1352 (2019).
[Crossref]

A. Masoudi and T. P. Newson, Opt. Express 25, 32021 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Masoudi and T. P. Newson, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 87, 011501 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. T. Cho, M. N. Alahbabi, G. Brambilla, and T. P. Newson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1256 (2005).
[Crossref]

Nuno, J.

Pastor-Graells, J.

Peng, F.

Peng, Z.-P.

Peterson, J.

S. Dou, N. Lindsey, A. M. Wagner, T. M. Daley, B. Freifeld, M. Robertson, J. Peterson, C. Ulrich, E. R. Martin, and J. B. Ajo-Franklin, Sci. Rep. 7, 11620 (2017).
[Crossref]

Pilgrim, J. A.

Qiu, F.

Qu, D.

Rao, Y. J.

Rao, Y.-J.

Reinsch, T.

P. Jousset, T. Reinsch, T. Ryberg, H. Blanck, A. Clarke, R. Aghayev, G. P. Hersir, J. Henninges, M. Weber, and C. M. Krawczyk, Nat. Commun. 9, 2509 (2018).
[Crossref]

Robertson, M.

S. Dou, N. Lindsey, A. M. Wagner, T. M. Daley, B. Freifeld, M. Robertson, J. Peterson, C. Ulrich, E. R. Martin, and J. B. Ajo-Franklin, Sci. Rep. 7, 11620 (2017).
[Crossref]

Ryberg, T.

P. Jousset, T. Reinsch, T. Ryberg, H. Blanck, A. Clarke, R. Aghayev, G. P. Hersir, J. Henninges, M. Weber, and C. M. Krawczyk, Nat. Commun. 9, 2509 (2018).
[Crossref]

Salgado, P.

Ulrich, C.

S. Dou, N. Lindsey, A. M. Wagner, T. M. Daley, B. Freifeld, M. Robertson, J. Peterson, C. Ulrich, E. R. Martin, and J. B. Ajo-Franklin, Sci. Rep. 7, 11620 (2017).
[Crossref]

Wagner, A. M.

S. Dou, N. Lindsey, A. M. Wagner, T. M. Daley, B. Freifeld, M. Robertson, J. Peterson, C. Ulrich, E. R. Martin, and J. B. Ajo-Franklin, Sci. Rep. 7, 11620 (2017).
[Crossref]

Wang, Z. N.

Wang, Z.-N.

Weber, M.

P. Jousset, T. Reinsch, T. Ryberg, H. Blanck, A. Clarke, R. Aghayev, G. P. Hersir, J. Henninges, M. Weber, and C. M. Krawczyk, Nat. Commun. 9, 2509 (2018).
[Crossref]

Wu, H.

Yin, G.

Zeng, J. J.

Zhang, J.

Zhang, L.

Zheng, H.

Zhou, Y.

Zhu, T.

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

Y. T. Cho, M. N. Alahbabi, G. Brambilla, and T. P. Newson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1256 (2005).
[Crossref]

IEEE Sens. Lett. (1)

G. Cedilnik, G. Lees, P. Erik Schmidt, S. Herstrøm, and T. Geisler, IEEE Sens. Lett. 3, 1 (2019).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (5)

Nat. Commun. (1)

P. Jousset, T. Reinsch, T. Ryberg, H. Blanck, A. Clarke, R. Aghayev, G. P. Hersir, J. Henninges, M. Weber, and C. M. Krawczyk, Nat. Commun. 9, 2509 (2018).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

A. Masoudi and T. P. Newson, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 87, 011501 (2016).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (1)

S. Dou, N. Lindsey, A. M. Wagner, T. M. Daley, B. Freifeld, M. Robertson, J. Peterson, C. Ulrich, E. R. Martin, and J. B. Ajo-Franklin, Sci. Rep. 7, 11620 (2017).
[Crossref]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Experimental setup for a long-range DVS with two remotely pumped EDFAs. EOM, electro-optic modulator; ISO, isolator; EDFA, erbium-doped fiber amplifier; DWDM, dense wavelength division multiplexing; AOM, acousto-optic modulator; WDM, wavelength division multiplexer; PZT, Piezo-electric actuator; FBG, fiber Bragg grating; C, circulator; IMZI, imbalance Mach–Zehnder interferometer; PD, photodetector.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Measured Rayleigh backscattered signal (blue) with a combined EDFA and Raman amplification using a launched power of 40 mW combined with a 500 mW 1480 nm pump; (orange) without the use of optical amplification with the 220 mW launched power.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. 3D map of the strain distribution along the sensing fiber as a function of (a) time and distance and (b) frequency and distance.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. 2D cross-section of the 3D diagram of Fig. 3 at a specific location on the sensing fiber where strain is applied (99.3 km). (a) 2D cross-section in time domain, (b) 2D cross-section in the frequency domain at fixed position on the fiber, and (c) 2D cross-section in the frequency domain at fixed frequency.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Strain response of the fiber to the PZT input voltage for 10 Hz sinusoidal signal measured by the DVS.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Pump Power Along the Fiber and Amplification of the Main Signal by the Two EDFAs

Equations (1)

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Δ ϕ = 0.78 × 2 π n λ 2 l + ( ϕ 2 ϕ 1 ) ,

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