Abstract

We demonstrate the efficient coupling (99.5%) of a silica whispering gallery mode microresonator directly with a silicon chip by using a silicon photonic crystal waveguide as a coupler. The efficient coupling is attributed to the small effective refractive index difference between the two devices. The large group index of the photonic crystal waveguide mode also contributes to the efficient coupling. A coupling Q of 2.68×106 is obtained, which allows us to achieve the critical coupling of a silica whispering gallery mode with an intrinsic Q of close to 107 with a Si chip.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2017 (3)

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[Crossref]

A. A. Savchenkov, H. Mahalingam, V. S. Ilchenko, S. Takahashi, A. B. Matsko, W. H. Steier, and L. Maleki, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 29, 667 (2017).
[Crossref]

W. Yoshiki, Y. Honda, T. Tetsumoto, K. Furusawa, N. Sekine, and T. Tanabe, Sci. Rep. 7, 28758 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (1)

2014 (1)

2011 (1)

J. Ward and O. Benson, Laser Photon. Rev. 5, 553 (2011).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

F. Xia, L. Sekaric, and Y. Vlasov, Nat. Photonics 1, 65 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

Y. S. Park, A. K. Cook, and H. Wang, Nano Lett. 6, 2075 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

T. Sherwood, A. C. Young, J. Takayesu, A. K. Y. Jen, L. R. Dalton, and A. Chen, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2107 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

2003 (1)

S. M. Spillane, T. J. Kippenberg, O. J. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 043902 (2003).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

M. Notomi, K. Yamada, A. Shinya, J. Takahashi, C. Takahashi, and I. Yokohama, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 253902 (2001).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

Anderson, M.

Barclay, P. E.

Benson, O.

J. Ward and O. Benson, Laser Photon. Rev. 5, 553 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bluestone, A.

D. T. Spencer, T. Drake, T. C. Briles, J. Stone, L. C. Sinclair, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. R. Ilic, A. Bluestone, and N. Volet, Nature 557, 81 (2018).
[Crossref]

Borselli, M.

Briles, T. C.

D. T. Spencer, T. Drake, T. C. Briles, J. Stone, L. C. Sinclair, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. R. Ilic, A. Bluestone, and N. Volet, Nature 557, 81 (2018).
[Crossref]

Chen, A.

T. Sherwood, A. C. Young, J. Takayesu, A. K. Y. Jen, L. R. Dalton, and A. Chen, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2107 (2005).
[Crossref]

Cook, A. K.

Y. S. Park, A. K. Cook, and H. Wang, Nano Lett. 6, 2075 (2006).
[Crossref]

Dalton, L. R.

T. Sherwood, A. C. Young, J. Takayesu, A. K. Y. Jen, L. R. Dalton, and A. Chen, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2107 (2005).
[Crossref]

Drake, T.

D. T. Spencer, T. Drake, T. C. Briles, J. Stone, L. C. Sinclair, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. R. Ilic, A. Bluestone, and N. Volet, Nature 557, 81 (2018).
[Crossref]

Feng, S.

Fredrick, C.

D. T. Spencer, T. Drake, T. C. Briles, J. Stone, L. C. Sinclair, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. R. Ilic, A. Bluestone, and N. Volet, Nature 557, 81 (2018).
[Crossref]

Fujii, S.

Y. Honda, W. Yoshiki, T. Tetsumoto, S. Fujii, K. Furusawa, N. Sekine, and T. Tanabe, Appl. Phys. Lett. 112, 201105 (2018).
[Crossref]

Furusawa, K.

Y. Honda, W. Yoshiki, T. Tetsumoto, S. Fujii, K. Furusawa, N. Sekine, and T. Tanabe, Appl. Phys. Lett. 112, 201105 (2018).
[Crossref]

W. Yoshiki, Y. Honda, T. Tetsumoto, K. Furusawa, N. Sekine, and T. Tanabe, Sci. Rep. 7, 28758 (2017).
[Crossref]

Gong, Q.

X. Jiang, L. Shao, S. Zhang, X. Yi, J. Wiersig, L. Wang, Q. Gong, M. Lončar, L. Yang, and Y. Xiao, Science 358, 344 (2017).
[Crossref]

Gorodetsky, M. L.

Honda, Y.

Y. Honda, W. Yoshiki, T. Tetsumoto, S. Fujii, K. Furusawa, N. Sekine, and T. Tanabe, Appl. Phys. Lett. 112, 201105 (2018).
[Crossref]

W. Yoshiki, Y. Honda, T. Tetsumoto, K. Furusawa, N. Sekine, and T. Tanabe, Sci. Rep. 7, 28758 (2017).
[Crossref]

Ilchenko, V.

Ilchenko, V. S.

Ilic, B. R.

D. T. Spencer, T. Drake, T. C. Briles, J. Stone, L. C. Sinclair, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. R. Ilic, A. Bluestone, and N. Volet, Nature 557, 81 (2018).
[Crossref]

Jen, A. K. Y.

T. Sherwood, A. C. Young, J. Takayesu, A. K. Y. Jen, L. R. Dalton, and A. Chen, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2107 (2005).
[Crossref]

Jiang, X.

X. Jiang, L. Shao, S. Zhang, X. Yi, J. Wiersig, L. Wang, Q. Gong, M. Lončar, L. Yang, and Y. Xiao, Science 358, 344 (2017).
[Crossref]

Jost, J. D.

Kippenberg, T. J.

Lee, S. H.

K. Y. Yang, D. Y. Oh, S. H. Lee, Q. Yang, X. Yi, B. Shen, H. Wang, and K. Vahala, Nat. Photonics 12, 297 (2018).
[Crossref]

Li, Q.

D. T. Spencer, T. Drake, T. C. Briles, J. Stone, L. C. Sinclair, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. R. Ilic, A. Bluestone, and N. Volet, Nature 557, 81 (2018).
[Crossref]

Liang, W.

Lihachev, G.

Ling, Y.

Liu, G.

Liu, J.

Loncar, M.

X. Jiang, L. Shao, S. Zhang, X. Yi, J. Wiersig, L. Wang, Q. Gong, M. Lončar, L. Yang, and Y. Xiao, Science 358, 344 (2017).
[Crossref]

Mahalingam, H.

A. A. Savchenkov, H. Mahalingam, V. S. Ilchenko, S. Takahashi, A. B. Matsko, W. H. Steier, and L. Maleki, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 29, 667 (2017).
[Crossref]

Maleki, L.

Matsko, A.

Matsko, A. B.

G. Liu, V. S. Ilchenko, T. Su, Y. Ling, S. Feng, K. Shang, Y. Zhang, W. Liang, A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, L. Maleki, and S. J. B. Yoo, Optica 5, 219 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. A. Savchenkov, H. Mahalingam, V. S. Ilchenko, S. Takahashi, A. B. Matsko, W. H. Steier, and L. Maleki, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 29, 667 (2017).
[Crossref]

Morais, T.

Notomi, M.

M. Notomi, K. Yamada, A. Shinya, J. Takahashi, C. Takahashi, and I. Yokohama, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 253902 (2001).
[Crossref]

Oh, D. Y.

K. Y. Yang, D. Y. Oh, S. H. Lee, Q. Yang, X. Yi, B. Shen, H. Wang, and K. Vahala, Nat. Photonics 12, 297 (2018).
[Crossref]

Painter, O.

Painter, O. J.

S. M. Spillane, T. J. Kippenberg, O. J. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 043902 (2003).
[Crossref]

Park, Y. S.

Y. S. Park, A. K. Cook, and H. Wang, Nano Lett. 6, 2075 (2006).
[Crossref]

Pavlov, N. G.

Ryan, C.

Savchenkov, A.

Savchenkov, A. A.

G. Liu, V. S. Ilchenko, T. Su, Y. Ling, S. Feng, K. Shang, Y. Zhang, W. Liang, A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, L. Maleki, and S. J. B. Yoo, Optica 5, 219 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. A. Savchenkov, H. Mahalingam, V. S. Ilchenko, S. Takahashi, A. B. Matsko, W. H. Steier, and L. Maleki, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 29, 667 (2017).
[Crossref]

Schlafer, J.

Sekaric, L.

F. Xia, L. Sekaric, and Y. Vlasov, Nat. Photonics 1, 65 (2007).
[Crossref]

Sekine, N.

Y. Honda, W. Yoshiki, T. Tetsumoto, S. Fujii, K. Furusawa, N. Sekine, and T. Tanabe, Appl. Phys. Lett. 112, 201105 (2018).
[Crossref]

W. Yoshiki, Y. Honda, T. Tetsumoto, K. Furusawa, N. Sekine, and T. Tanabe, Sci. Rep. 7, 28758 (2017).
[Crossref]

Shang, K.

Shao, L.

X. Jiang, L. Shao, S. Zhang, X. Yi, J. Wiersig, L. Wang, Q. Gong, M. Lončar, L. Yang, and Y. Xiao, Science 358, 344 (2017).
[Crossref]

Shen, B.

K. Y. Yang, D. Y. Oh, S. H. Lee, Q. Yang, X. Yi, B. Shen, H. Wang, and K. Vahala, Nat. Photonics 12, 297 (2018).
[Crossref]

Sherwood, T.

T. Sherwood, A. C. Young, J. Takayesu, A. K. Y. Jen, L. R. Dalton, and A. Chen, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2107 (2005).
[Crossref]

Shinya, A.

M. Notomi, K. Yamada, A. Shinya, J. Takahashi, C. Takahashi, and I. Yokohama, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 253902 (2001).
[Crossref]

Sinclair, L. C.

D. T. Spencer, T. Drake, T. C. Briles, J. Stone, L. C. Sinclair, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. R. Ilic, A. Bluestone, and N. Volet, Nature 557, 81 (2018).
[Crossref]

Soltani, M.

Spencer, D. T.

D. T. Spencer, T. Drake, T. C. Briles, J. Stone, L. C. Sinclair, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. R. Ilic, A. Bluestone, and N. Volet, Nature 557, 81 (2018).
[Crossref]

Spillane, S. M.

S. M. Spillane, T. J. Kippenberg, O. J. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 043902 (2003).
[Crossref]

Srinivasan, K.

Steier, W. H.

A. A. Savchenkov, H. Mahalingam, V. S. Ilchenko, S. Takahashi, A. B. Matsko, W. H. Steier, and L. Maleki, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 29, 667 (2017).
[Crossref]

Stone, J.

D. T. Spencer, T. Drake, T. C. Briles, J. Stone, L. C. Sinclair, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. R. Ilic, A. Bluestone, and N. Volet, Nature 557, 81 (2018).
[Crossref]

Su, T.

Takahashi, C.

M. Notomi, K. Yamada, A. Shinya, J. Takahashi, C. Takahashi, and I. Yokohama, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 253902 (2001).
[Crossref]

Takahashi, J.

M. Notomi, K. Yamada, A. Shinya, J. Takahashi, C. Takahashi, and I. Yokohama, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 253902 (2001).
[Crossref]

Takahashi, S.

A. A. Savchenkov, H. Mahalingam, V. S. Ilchenko, S. Takahashi, A. B. Matsko, W. H. Steier, and L. Maleki, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 29, 667 (2017).
[Crossref]

Takayesu, J.

T. Sherwood, A. C. Young, J. Takayesu, A. K. Y. Jen, L. R. Dalton, and A. Chen, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2107 (2005).
[Crossref]

Tanabe, T.

Y. Honda, W. Yoshiki, T. Tetsumoto, S. Fujii, K. Furusawa, N. Sekine, and T. Tanabe, Appl. Phys. Lett. 112, 201105 (2018).
[Crossref]

W. Yoshiki, Y. Honda, T. Tetsumoto, K. Furusawa, N. Sekine, and T. Tanabe, Sci. Rep. 7, 28758 (2017).
[Crossref]

W. Yoshiki and T. Tanabe, Opt. Express 22, 24332 (2014).
[Crossref]

Tetsumoto, T.

Y. Honda, W. Yoshiki, T. Tetsumoto, S. Fujii, K. Furusawa, N. Sekine, and T. Tanabe, Appl. Phys. Lett. 112, 201105 (2018).
[Crossref]

W. Yoshiki, Y. Honda, T. Tetsumoto, K. Furusawa, N. Sekine, and T. Tanabe, Sci. Rep. 7, 28758 (2017).
[Crossref]

Vahala, K.

K. Y. Yang, D. Y. Oh, S. H. Lee, Q. Yang, X. Yi, B. Shen, H. Wang, and K. Vahala, Nat. Photonics 12, 297 (2018).
[Crossref]

Vahala, K. J.

S. M. Spillane, T. J. Kippenberg, O. J. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 043902 (2003).
[Crossref]

Vlasov, Y.

F. Xia, L. Sekaric, and Y. Vlasov, Nat. Photonics 1, 65 (2007).
[Crossref]

Volet, N.

D. T. Spencer, T. Drake, T. C. Briles, J. Stone, L. C. Sinclair, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. R. Ilic, A. Bluestone, and N. Volet, Nature 557, 81 (2018).
[Crossref]

Wang, H.

K. Y. Yang, D. Y. Oh, S. H. Lee, Q. Yang, X. Yi, B. Shen, H. Wang, and K. Vahala, Nat. Photonics 12, 297 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. S. Park, A. K. Cook, and H. Wang, Nano Lett. 6, 2075 (2006).
[Crossref]

Wang, L.

X. Jiang, L. Shao, S. Zhang, X. Yi, J. Wiersig, L. Wang, Q. Gong, M. Lončar, L. Yang, and Y. Xiao, Science 358, 344 (2017).
[Crossref]

Ward, J.

J. Ward and O. Benson, Laser Photon. Rev. 5, 553 (2011).
[Crossref]

Westly, D.

D. T. Spencer, T. Drake, T. C. Briles, J. Stone, L. C. Sinclair, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. R. Ilic, A. Bluestone, and N. Volet, Nature 557, 81 (2018).
[Crossref]

Wiersig, J.

X. Jiang, L. Shao, S. Zhang, X. Yi, J. Wiersig, L. Wang, Q. Gong, M. Lončar, L. Yang, and Y. Xiao, Science 358, 344 (2017).
[Crossref]

Xia, F.

F. Xia, L. Sekaric, and Y. Vlasov, Nat. Photonics 1, 65 (2007).
[Crossref]

Xiao, Y.

X. Jiang, L. Shao, S. Zhang, X. Yi, J. Wiersig, L. Wang, Q. Gong, M. Lončar, L. Yang, and Y. Xiao, Science 358, 344 (2017).
[Crossref]

Yamada, K.

M. Notomi, K. Yamada, A. Shinya, J. Takahashi, C. Takahashi, and I. Yokohama, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 253902 (2001).
[Crossref]

Yang, K. Y.

K. Y. Yang, D. Y. Oh, S. H. Lee, Q. Yang, X. Yi, B. Shen, H. Wang, and K. Vahala, Nat. Photonics 12, 297 (2018).
[Crossref]

Yang, L.

X. Jiang, L. Shao, S. Zhang, X. Yi, J. Wiersig, L. Wang, Q. Gong, M. Lončar, L. Yang, and Y. Xiao, Science 358, 344 (2017).
[Crossref]

Yang, Q.

K. Y. Yang, D. Y. Oh, S. H. Lee, Q. Yang, X. Yi, B. Shen, H. Wang, and K. Vahala, Nat. Photonics 12, 297 (2018).
[Crossref]

Yi, X.

K. Y. Yang, D. Y. Oh, S. H. Lee, Q. Yang, X. Yi, B. Shen, H. Wang, and K. Vahala, Nat. Photonics 12, 297 (2018).
[Crossref]

X. Jiang, L. Shao, S. Zhang, X. Yi, J. Wiersig, L. Wang, Q. Gong, M. Lončar, L. Yang, and Y. Xiao, Science 358, 344 (2017).
[Crossref]

Yokohama, I.

M. Notomi, K. Yamada, A. Shinya, J. Takahashi, C. Takahashi, and I. Yokohama, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 253902 (2001).
[Crossref]

Yoo, S. J. B.

Yoshiki, W.

Y. Honda, W. Yoshiki, T. Tetsumoto, S. Fujii, K. Furusawa, N. Sekine, and T. Tanabe, Appl. Phys. Lett. 112, 201105 (2018).
[Crossref]

W. Yoshiki, Y. Honda, T. Tetsumoto, K. Furusawa, N. Sekine, and T. Tanabe, Sci. Rep. 7, 28758 (2017).
[Crossref]

W. Yoshiki and T. Tanabe, Opt. Express 22, 24332 (2014).
[Crossref]

Young, A. C.

T. Sherwood, A. C. Young, J. Takayesu, A. K. Y. Jen, L. R. Dalton, and A. Chen, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2107 (2005).
[Crossref]

Zervas, M.

Zhang, S.

X. Jiang, L. Shao, S. Zhang, X. Yi, J. Wiersig, L. Wang, Q. Gong, M. Lončar, L. Yang, and Y. Xiao, Science 358, 344 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Y.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

Y. Honda, W. Yoshiki, T. Tetsumoto, S. Fujii, K. Furusawa, N. Sekine, and T. Tanabe, Appl. Phys. Lett. 112, 201105 (2018).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

A. A. Savchenkov, H. Mahalingam, V. S. Ilchenko, S. Takahashi, A. B. Matsko, W. H. Steier, and L. Maleki, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 29, 667 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. Sherwood, A. C. Young, J. Takayesu, A. K. Y. Jen, L. R. Dalton, and A. Chen, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2107 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Laser Photon. Rev. (1)

J. Ward and O. Benson, Laser Photon. Rev. 5, 553 (2011).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (1)

Y. S. Park, A. K. Cook, and H. Wang, Nano Lett. 6, 2075 (2006).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (2)

K. Y. Yang, D. Y. Oh, S. H. Lee, Q. Yang, X. Yi, B. Shen, H. Wang, and K. Vahala, Nat. Photonics 12, 297 (2018).
[Crossref]

F. Xia, L. Sekaric, and Y. Vlasov, Nat. Photonics 1, 65 (2007).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

D. T. Spencer, T. Drake, T. C. Briles, J. Stone, L. C. Sinclair, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. R. Ilic, A. Bluestone, and N. Volet, Nature 557, 81 (2018).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Optica (1)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

M. Notomi, K. Yamada, A. Shinya, J. Takahashi, C. Takahashi, and I. Yokohama, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 253902 (2001).
[Crossref]

S. M. Spillane, T. J. Kippenberg, O. J. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 043902 (2003).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (1)

W. Yoshiki, Y. Honda, T. Tetsumoto, K. Furusawa, N. Sekine, and T. Tanabe, Sci. Rep. 7, 28758 (2017).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

X. Jiang, L. Shao, S. Zhang, X. Yi, J. Wiersig, L. Wang, Q. Gong, M. Lončar, L. Yang, and Y. Xiao, Science 358, 344 (2017).
[Crossref]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) Schematic illustration of the coupling system. An edge silica toroid microresonator is evanescently coupled with a PhC-WG. The silica cladding in the center is removed. (b) Scanning electron microscope image of the fabricated W0.98 PhC-WG. (c) Propagation mode of the W0.98 PhC-WG at 1520 nm calculated with the 3D finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. (d) Microscope image of the edge silica toroid microresonator. The major and minor diameters of the toroid microresonator are 60 and 10 μm, respectively. (e) Schematic illustration of the fabrication of an edge-type silica toroid microresonator.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) Experimental setup for coupling between a silica toroid microresonator and a W0.98 PhC WG. TLD: tunable laser diode, ML: microlens, OM: optical microresonator, PWM: power meter, DAQ: data acquisition. (b)–(g) Spectra measured with different gap distances, d g . We set d g = 0 nm when the WGM microresonator touches the PhC WG surface, where the absolute d g value is slightly arbitrary due to experimental limitations (i.e., the toroid microresonator appears to be touching the PhC WG surface already when d g 100 nm ).
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) Relationship between the transmittance of the resonant peak at 1524.940 nm and the gap distance between the PhC WG and toroid microresonator. (b) Enlarged view of the resonant peak at critical coupling shown in Fig. 2(e).
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (a) Computed guided modes of a W0.98 PhC WG. (b) Effective indices n eff as a function of wavelength for the fundamental transverse electric ( TE 0 ) mode (red line) in a ridge nanowire WG and the even mode (blue line) in a W0.98 PhC WG.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. (a) Effective refractive index as a function of wavelength for two different PhC WGs (W0.98 and W1.02). Inset (left) is a schematic illustration of the coupling structure for the investigation. An air-clad silica fiber 1 μm in diameter is placed on top of a PhC WG with gap distance of d g = 100 nm . Inset (right) is the cross section of the electrical field of the TE mode of the fiber WG. (b) The calculated transmittance spectrum of a W0.98 PhC WG with and without the silica fiber. (c) As (b) but with a different width of W1.02. (d) Relationship between group index n g and dip and that between group index n g and coupling coefficient κ for WGs with different PhCs ranging from W0.94 to W1.04.

Equations (2)

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Q L 1 = ( Q i 1 + Q p 1 ) + Q c 1 ,
T = [ ( Q i 1 + Q p 1 ) Q c 1 ( Q i 1 + Q p 1 ) + Q c 1 ] 2 .

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