Abstract

A Kerr-gated microscope capable of imaging ultraviolet luminescence with femtosecond time resolution has been developed. The system allows the spatial, spectral, and temporal measurement of UV-emitting samples. The instrumentation was optimized for emission collection in the UV, resulting in sub 90 fs time resolution of gated signals. ZnO nanowires were used to demonstrate the performance of the instrument. The evolution of the emission from a single nanowire was tracked via ultrafast transient spectroscopy and through sequential imaging. Transient dynamics were extracted from a region of intense emission on a single ZnO nanowire. This technique is a powerful tool capable of contactless ultrafast measurements of charge carrier dynamics in single nanoparticles.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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2016 (1)

Z. Li, J. Nieto-Pescador, A. J. Carson, J. C. Blake, and L. Gundlach, Nanotechnology 27, 135401 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (2)

R. Roder, T. P. H. Sidiropoulos, C. Tessarek, S. Christiansen, R. F. Oulton, and C. Ronning, Nano Lett. 15, 4637 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. S. Eldridge, J. C. Blake, and L. Gundlach, J. Spectrosc. 2015, 574754 (2015).

2014 (3)

J. C. Blake, P. S. Eldridge, and L. Gundlach, Chem. Phys. 442, 128 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. Appavoo and M. Y. Sfeir, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 055114 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Dai, C. Xu, T. Nakamura, Y. Wang, J. Li, and Y. Lin, Opt. Express 22, 28831 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

2011 (4)

B. P. Mehl, J. R. Kirschbrown, R. L. House, and J. M. Papanikolas, J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 2, 1777 (2011).
[Crossref]

Z. Yu, L. Gundlach, and P. Piotrowiak, Opt. Lett. 36, 2904 (2011).
[Crossref]

R. L. House, J. R. Kirschbrown, B. P. Mehl, M. M. Gabriel, J. A. Puccio, J. K. Parker, and J. M. Papanikolas, J. Phys. Chem. C. 115, 21436 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. Vanmaekelgergh and L. K. van Vugt, Nanoscale 3, 2783 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

Y. Terada, S. Yoshida, O. Takeuchi, and H. Shigekawa, Nat. Photonics 4, 869 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

C. R. Carey, Y. Yu, M. Kuno, and G. V. Hartland, J. Phys. Chem. C. 113, 19077 (2009).
[Crossref]

L. Gundlach and P. Piotrowiak, J. Phys. Chem. C 113, 12162 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (4)

M. A. Zimmler, J. Bao, F. Capasso, S. Müller, and C. Ronning, App. Phys. Lett. 93, 051101 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Fallert, F. Stelzl, H. Zhou, A. Reiser, K. Thonke, R. Sauer, C. Klingshirn, and H. Kalt, Opt. Express 16, 1125 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. K. Song, U. Willer, J. M. Szarko, S. R. Leone, S. Li, and Y. Zhao, J. Phys. Chem. C. 112, 1679 (2008).
[Crossref]

L. Gundlach and P. Piotrowiak, Opt. Lett. 33, 992 (2008).
[Crossref]

2005 (3)

T. Fujino, T. Fujima, and T. Tahara, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 131105 (2005).
[Crossref]

S. Arzhantsev and M. Maroncelli, Appl. Spectrosc. 59, 206 (2005).
[Crossref]

K. Suhling, P. M. W. French, and D. Phillips, Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 4, 13 (2005).

2004 (1)

J. C. Johnson, K. P. Knutsen, H. Yan, M. Law, Y. Zhang, P. Yang, and R. J. Saykally, Nano Lett. 4, 197 (2004).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

A. Periasamy, P. Woodnicki, X. F. Wang, S. Kwon, G. W. Gordon, and B. Herman, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 3722 (1996).
[Crossref]

Appavoo, K.

K. Appavoo and M. Y. Sfeir, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 055114 (2014).
[Crossref]

Arzhantsev, S.

Bao, J.

M. A. Zimmler, J. Bao, F. Capasso, S. Müller, and C. Ronning, App. Phys. Lett. 93, 051101 (2008).
[Crossref]

Blake, J. C.

Z. Li, J. Nieto-Pescador, A. J. Carson, J. C. Blake, and L. Gundlach, Nanotechnology 27, 135401 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. S. Eldridge, J. C. Blake, and L. Gundlach, J. Spectrosc. 2015, 574754 (2015).

J. C. Blake, P. S. Eldridge, and L. Gundlach, Chem. Phys. 442, 128 (2014).
[Crossref]

Capasso, F.

M. A. Zimmler, J. Bao, F. Capasso, S. Müller, and C. Ronning, App. Phys. Lett. 93, 051101 (2008).
[Crossref]

Carey, C. R.

C. R. Carey, Y. Yu, M. Kuno, and G. V. Hartland, J. Phys. Chem. C. 113, 19077 (2009).
[Crossref]

Carson, A. J.

Z. Li, J. Nieto-Pescador, A. J. Carson, J. C. Blake, and L. Gundlach, Nanotechnology 27, 135401 (2016).
[Crossref]

Christiansen, S.

R. Roder, T. P. H. Sidiropoulos, C. Tessarek, S. Christiansen, R. F. Oulton, and C. Ronning, Nano Lett. 15, 4637 (2015).
[Crossref]

Dai, J.

Eldridge, P. S.

P. S. Eldridge, J. C. Blake, and L. Gundlach, J. Spectrosc. 2015, 574754 (2015).

J. C. Blake, P. S. Eldridge, and L. Gundlach, Chem. Phys. 442, 128 (2014).
[Crossref]

Fallert, J.

French, P. M. W.

K. Suhling, P. M. W. French, and D. Phillips, Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 4, 13 (2005).

Fujima, T.

T. Fujino, T. Fujima, and T. Tahara, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 131105 (2005).
[Crossref]

Fujino, T.

T. Fujino, T. Fujima, and T. Tahara, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 131105 (2005).
[Crossref]

Gabriel, M. M.

R. L. House, J. R. Kirschbrown, B. P. Mehl, M. M. Gabriel, J. A. Puccio, J. K. Parker, and J. M. Papanikolas, J. Phys. Chem. C. 115, 21436 (2011).
[Crossref]

Gordon, G. W.

A. Periasamy, P. Woodnicki, X. F. Wang, S. Kwon, G. W. Gordon, and B. Herman, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 3722 (1996).
[Crossref]

Gundlach, L.

Z. Li, J. Nieto-Pescador, A. J. Carson, J. C. Blake, and L. Gundlach, Nanotechnology 27, 135401 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. S. Eldridge, J. C. Blake, and L. Gundlach, J. Spectrosc. 2015, 574754 (2015).

J. C. Blake, P. S. Eldridge, and L. Gundlach, Chem. Phys. 442, 128 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z. Yu, L. Gundlach, and P. Piotrowiak, Opt. Lett. 36, 2904 (2011).
[Crossref]

L. Gundlach and P. Piotrowiak, J. Phys. Chem. C 113, 12162 (2009).
[Crossref]

L. Gundlach and P. Piotrowiak, Opt. Lett. 33, 992 (2008).
[Crossref]

Hartland, G. V.

S. S. Lo, H. Y. Shi, L. Huang, and G. V. Hartland, Opt. Lett. 38, 1265 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. R. Carey, Y. Yu, M. Kuno, and G. V. Hartland, J. Phys. Chem. C. 113, 19077 (2009).
[Crossref]

Herman, B.

A. Periasamy, P. Woodnicki, X. F. Wang, S. Kwon, G. W. Gordon, and B. Herman, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 3722 (1996).
[Crossref]

House, R. L.

B. P. Mehl, J. R. Kirschbrown, R. L. House, and J. M. Papanikolas, J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 2, 1777 (2011).
[Crossref]

R. L. House, J. R. Kirschbrown, B. P. Mehl, M. M. Gabriel, J. A. Puccio, J. K. Parker, and J. M. Papanikolas, J. Phys. Chem. C. 115, 21436 (2011).
[Crossref]

Huang, L.

Johnson, J. C.

J. C. Johnson, K. P. Knutsen, H. Yan, M. Law, Y. Zhang, P. Yang, and R. J. Saykally, Nano Lett. 4, 197 (2004).
[Crossref]

Kalt, H.

Kirschbrown, J. R.

B. P. Mehl, J. R. Kirschbrown, R. L. House, and J. M. Papanikolas, J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 2, 1777 (2011).
[Crossref]

R. L. House, J. R. Kirschbrown, B. P. Mehl, M. M. Gabriel, J. A. Puccio, J. K. Parker, and J. M. Papanikolas, J. Phys. Chem. C. 115, 21436 (2011).
[Crossref]

Klingshirn, C.

Knutsen, K. P.

J. C. Johnson, K. P. Knutsen, H. Yan, M. Law, Y. Zhang, P. Yang, and R. J. Saykally, Nano Lett. 4, 197 (2004).
[Crossref]

Kuno, M.

C. R. Carey, Y. Yu, M. Kuno, and G. V. Hartland, J. Phys. Chem. C. 113, 19077 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kwon, S.

A. Periasamy, P. Woodnicki, X. F. Wang, S. Kwon, G. W. Gordon, and B. Herman, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 3722 (1996).
[Crossref]

Law, M.

J. C. Johnson, K. P. Knutsen, H. Yan, M. Law, Y. Zhang, P. Yang, and R. J. Saykally, Nano Lett. 4, 197 (2004).
[Crossref]

Leone, S. R.

J. K. Song, U. Willer, J. M. Szarko, S. R. Leone, S. Li, and Y. Zhao, J. Phys. Chem. C. 112, 1679 (2008).
[Crossref]

Li, J.

Li, S.

J. K. Song, U. Willer, J. M. Szarko, S. R. Leone, S. Li, and Y. Zhao, J. Phys. Chem. C. 112, 1679 (2008).
[Crossref]

Li, Z.

Z. Li, J. Nieto-Pescador, A. J. Carson, J. C. Blake, and L. Gundlach, Nanotechnology 27, 135401 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lin, Y.

Lo, S. S.

Maroncelli, M.

Mehl, B. P.

R. L. House, J. R. Kirschbrown, B. P. Mehl, M. M. Gabriel, J. A. Puccio, J. K. Parker, and J. M. Papanikolas, J. Phys. Chem. C. 115, 21436 (2011).
[Crossref]

B. P. Mehl, J. R. Kirschbrown, R. L. House, and J. M. Papanikolas, J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 2, 1777 (2011).
[Crossref]

Müller, S.

M. A. Zimmler, J. Bao, F. Capasso, S. Müller, and C. Ronning, App. Phys. Lett. 93, 051101 (2008).
[Crossref]

Nakamura, T.

Nieto-Pescador, J.

Z. Li, J. Nieto-Pescador, A. J. Carson, J. C. Blake, and L. Gundlach, Nanotechnology 27, 135401 (2016).
[Crossref]

Oulton, R. F.

R. Roder, T. P. H. Sidiropoulos, C. Tessarek, S. Christiansen, R. F. Oulton, and C. Ronning, Nano Lett. 15, 4637 (2015).
[Crossref]

Papanikolas, J. M.

R. L. House, J. R. Kirschbrown, B. P. Mehl, M. M. Gabriel, J. A. Puccio, J. K. Parker, and J. M. Papanikolas, J. Phys. Chem. C. 115, 21436 (2011).
[Crossref]

B. P. Mehl, J. R. Kirschbrown, R. L. House, and J. M. Papanikolas, J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 2, 1777 (2011).
[Crossref]

Parker, J. K.

R. L. House, J. R. Kirschbrown, B. P. Mehl, M. M. Gabriel, J. A. Puccio, J. K. Parker, and J. M. Papanikolas, J. Phys. Chem. C. 115, 21436 (2011).
[Crossref]

Periasamy, A.

A. Periasamy, P. Woodnicki, X. F. Wang, S. Kwon, G. W. Gordon, and B. Herman, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 3722 (1996).
[Crossref]

Phillips, D.

K. Suhling, P. M. W. French, and D. Phillips, Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 4, 13 (2005).

Piotrowiak, P.

Puccio, J. A.

R. L. House, J. R. Kirschbrown, B. P. Mehl, M. M. Gabriel, J. A. Puccio, J. K. Parker, and J. M. Papanikolas, J. Phys. Chem. C. 115, 21436 (2011).
[Crossref]

Reiser, A.

Roder, R.

R. Roder, T. P. H. Sidiropoulos, C. Tessarek, S. Christiansen, R. F. Oulton, and C. Ronning, Nano Lett. 15, 4637 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ronning, C.

R. Roder, T. P. H. Sidiropoulos, C. Tessarek, S. Christiansen, R. F. Oulton, and C. Ronning, Nano Lett. 15, 4637 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. A. Zimmler, J. Bao, F. Capasso, S. Müller, and C. Ronning, App. Phys. Lett. 93, 051101 (2008).
[Crossref]

Sauer, R.

Saykally, R. J.

J. C. Johnson, K. P. Knutsen, H. Yan, M. Law, Y. Zhang, P. Yang, and R. J. Saykally, Nano Lett. 4, 197 (2004).
[Crossref]

Sfeir, M. Y.

K. Appavoo and M. Y. Sfeir, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 055114 (2014).
[Crossref]

Shi, H. Y.

Shigekawa, H.

Y. Terada, S. Yoshida, O. Takeuchi, and H. Shigekawa, Nat. Photonics 4, 869 (2010).
[Crossref]

Sidiropoulos, T. P. H.

R. Roder, T. P. H. Sidiropoulos, C. Tessarek, S. Christiansen, R. F. Oulton, and C. Ronning, Nano Lett. 15, 4637 (2015).
[Crossref]

Song, J. K.

J. K. Song, U. Willer, J. M. Szarko, S. R. Leone, S. Li, and Y. Zhao, J. Phys. Chem. C. 112, 1679 (2008).
[Crossref]

Stelzl, F.

Suhling, K.

K. Suhling, P. M. W. French, and D. Phillips, Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 4, 13 (2005).

Szarko, J. M.

J. K. Song, U. Willer, J. M. Szarko, S. R. Leone, S. Li, and Y. Zhao, J. Phys. Chem. C. 112, 1679 (2008).
[Crossref]

Tahara, T.

T. Fujino, T. Fujima, and T. Tahara, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 131105 (2005).
[Crossref]

Takeuchi, O.

Y. Terada, S. Yoshida, O. Takeuchi, and H. Shigekawa, Nat. Photonics 4, 869 (2010).
[Crossref]

Terada, Y.

Y. Terada, S. Yoshida, O. Takeuchi, and H. Shigekawa, Nat. Photonics 4, 869 (2010).
[Crossref]

Tessarek, C.

R. Roder, T. P. H. Sidiropoulos, C. Tessarek, S. Christiansen, R. F. Oulton, and C. Ronning, Nano Lett. 15, 4637 (2015).
[Crossref]

Thonke, K.

van Vugt, L. K.

D. Vanmaekelgergh and L. K. van Vugt, Nanoscale 3, 2783 (2011).
[Crossref]

Vanmaekelgergh, D.

D. Vanmaekelgergh and L. K. van Vugt, Nanoscale 3, 2783 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wang, X. F.

A. Periasamy, P. Woodnicki, X. F. Wang, S. Kwon, G. W. Gordon, and B. Herman, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 3722 (1996).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y.

Willer, U.

J. K. Song, U. Willer, J. M. Szarko, S. R. Leone, S. Li, and Y. Zhao, J. Phys. Chem. C. 112, 1679 (2008).
[Crossref]

Woodnicki, P.

A. Periasamy, P. Woodnicki, X. F. Wang, S. Kwon, G. W. Gordon, and B. Herman, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 3722 (1996).
[Crossref]

Xu, C.

Yan, H.

J. C. Johnson, K. P. Knutsen, H. Yan, M. Law, Y. Zhang, P. Yang, and R. J. Saykally, Nano Lett. 4, 197 (2004).
[Crossref]

Yang, P.

J. C. Johnson, K. P. Knutsen, H. Yan, M. Law, Y. Zhang, P. Yang, and R. J. Saykally, Nano Lett. 4, 197 (2004).
[Crossref]

Yoshida, S.

Y. Terada, S. Yoshida, O. Takeuchi, and H. Shigekawa, Nat. Photonics 4, 869 (2010).
[Crossref]

Yu, Y.

C. R. Carey, Y. Yu, M. Kuno, and G. V. Hartland, J. Phys. Chem. C. 113, 19077 (2009).
[Crossref]

Yu, Z.

Zhang, Y.

J. C. Johnson, K. P. Knutsen, H. Yan, M. Law, Y. Zhang, P. Yang, and R. J. Saykally, Nano Lett. 4, 197 (2004).
[Crossref]

Zhao, Y.

J. K. Song, U. Willer, J. M. Szarko, S. R. Leone, S. Li, and Y. Zhao, J. Phys. Chem. C. 112, 1679 (2008).
[Crossref]

Zhou, H.

Zimmler, M. A.

M. A. Zimmler, J. Bao, F. Capasso, S. Müller, and C. Ronning, App. Phys. Lett. 93, 051101 (2008).
[Crossref]

App. Phys. Lett. (1)

M. A. Zimmler, J. Bao, F. Capasso, S. Müller, and C. Ronning, App. Phys. Lett. 93, 051101 (2008).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

T. Fujino, T. Fujima, and T. Tahara, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 131105 (2005).
[Crossref]

Appl. Spectrosc. (1)

Chem. Phys. (1)

J. C. Blake, P. S. Eldridge, and L. Gundlach, Chem. Phys. 442, 128 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. Chem. C (1)

L. Gundlach and P. Piotrowiak, J. Phys. Chem. C 113, 12162 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. Chem. C. (3)

R. L. House, J. R. Kirschbrown, B. P. Mehl, M. M. Gabriel, J. A. Puccio, J. K. Parker, and J. M. Papanikolas, J. Phys. Chem. C. 115, 21436 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. K. Song, U. Willer, J. M. Szarko, S. R. Leone, S. Li, and Y. Zhao, J. Phys. Chem. C. 112, 1679 (2008).
[Crossref]

C. R. Carey, Y. Yu, M. Kuno, and G. V. Hartland, J. Phys. Chem. C. 113, 19077 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. Chem. Lett. (1)

B. P. Mehl, J. R. Kirschbrown, R. L. House, and J. M. Papanikolas, J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 2, 1777 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Spectrosc. (1)

P. S. Eldridge, J. C. Blake, and L. Gundlach, J. Spectrosc. 2015, 574754 (2015).

Nano Lett. (2)

R. Roder, T. P. H. Sidiropoulos, C. Tessarek, S. Christiansen, R. F. Oulton, and C. Ronning, Nano Lett. 15, 4637 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. C. Johnson, K. P. Knutsen, H. Yan, M. Law, Y. Zhang, P. Yang, and R. J. Saykally, Nano Lett. 4, 197 (2004).
[Crossref]

Nanoscale (1)

D. Vanmaekelgergh and L. K. van Vugt, Nanoscale 3, 2783 (2011).
[Crossref]

Nanotechnology (1)

Z. Li, J. Nieto-Pescador, A. J. Carson, J. C. Blake, and L. Gundlach, Nanotechnology 27, 135401 (2016).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (1)

Y. Terada, S. Yoshida, O. Takeuchi, and H. Shigekawa, Nat. Photonics 4, 869 (2010).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. (1)

K. Suhling, P. M. W. French, and D. Phillips, Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 4, 13 (2005).

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (2)

A. Periasamy, P. Woodnicki, X. F. Wang, S. Kwon, G. W. Gordon, and B. Herman, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 3722 (1996).
[Crossref]

K. Appavoo and M. Y. Sfeir, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 055114 (2014).
[Crossref]

Supplementary Material (1)

NameDescription
» Visualization 1: MOV (8193 KB)      Movie showing the transient evolution of a single ZnO nanowire excited at 11.5 mJ/cm2 over a period of 3 ps with a frame rate of 15 frames per second.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) Schematic of the Kerr-gated optical microscope experimental setup. S, sample; SO 1 3 , Schwarzschild objectives; P 1 2 polarizers; K, Kerr medium: D, delay; WP, waveplate; F and BG, spectral filters. (b) Photograph of the optical column of the home-built microscope.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Instrument response function for YAG 0.5 mm (217 fs) and fused silica 0.5 mm (146 fs) and 0.15 mm (85 fs) at 360 nm.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Open-gate image of a single ZnO nanowire at (a) low fluence ( 4.4    mJ / cm 2 ) and (b) high fluence ( 13.2    mJ / cm 2 ). (c) Power dependent emission spectra of the same nanowire. The inset is the emission intensity dependence of the pump fluence.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (a) Transient image sequence of a single ZnO nanowire excited at 11.5    mJ / cm 2 (see Visualization 1). (b) Transient dynamics extracted from the region on the wire demarcated by the red box in (a) for excitation fluences 9.7    mJ / cm 2 and 11.5    mJ / cm 2 .
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. (a) False color scale transient emission spectrum of the same ZnO nanowire at 16.4    mJ / cm 2 . (b) Slices of emission spectrum in (a) taken at increasing delay times.

Equations (2)

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ϕ = 2 π L Δ n λ ,
T = sin 2 ϕ 2 .

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