Abstract

Cloud and aerosol contribute with great uncertainty in Earth’s radiative budget. There is an urgent need for global 3-D observation of these atmospheric constituents. High-spectral-resolution Lidar (HSRL) can obtain vertical atmosphere profile with high accuracy, hence several space-borne HSRLs are planned to launch in few years. However, as far as we know, the performance evaluation of space-borne HSRL has not been reported yet. In this paper, we present the characteristics of a new designed space-borne HSRL for aerosol and cloud optical property profiling (ACHSRL), which is part of the Aerosol & Carbon Detection Lidar (ACDL) developed in China. The ACHSRL is essentially similar to the famous Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP), which is on board the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO). Moreover, the ACHSRL employs an iodine absorption filter as the spectral discriminator. The atmospheric optical properties data observed by CALIOP is used to estimate the performance of ACHSRL. We chose the level 2 profile data (version 4.10) in South Japan in June 2015 to compare the detection uncertainty of ACHSRL and CALIOP. The simulation calculates the uncertainties of ACHSRL and makes a statistic analysis. The analysis result demonstrates that 73.63% of the backscatter coefficient uncertainties are below 40% for ACHSRL. By contrast, the number is 30.72% for CALIOP. As for absolute extinction coefficient errors, the statistics shows that 76.01% of the extinction coefficient uncertainties are lower than 0.2 km−1 for ACHSRL, while that for CALIOP are 56.97%. The assessment shows that ACHSRL could measure the particulate optical properties with better accuracy and compared with CALIOP. The estimation in this study reveals that the next generation space-borne HSRLs have a promising future.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2018 (2)

2017 (3)

2016 (1)

2015 (1)

A. J. Illingworth, H. W. Barker, A. Beljaars, M. Ceccaldi, H. Chepfer, N. Clerbaux, J. Cole, J. Delanoë, C. Domenech, D. P. Donovan, S. Fukuda, M. Hirakata, R. J. Hogan, A. Huenerbein, P. Kollias, T. Kubota, T. Nakajima, T. Y. Nakajima, T. Nishizawa, Y. Ohno, H. Okamoto, R. Oki, K. Sato, M. Satoh, M. W. Shephard, A. Velázquez-Blázquez, U. Wandinger, T. Wehr, and G. J. van Zadelhoff, “The EarthCARE Satellite: The Next Step Forward in Global Measurements of Clouds, Aerosols, Precipitation, and Radiation,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 96(8), 1311–1332 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

2013 (2)

2012 (1)

G. L. Schuster, M. Vaughan, D. MacDonnell, W. Su, D. Winker, O. Dubovik, T. Lapyonok, and C. Trepte, “Comparison of CALIPSO aerosol optical depth retrievals to AERONET measurements, and a climatology for the lidar ratio of dust,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 12(16), 7431–7452 (2012).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

W. H. Hunt, D. M. Winker, M. A. Vaughan, K. A. Powell, P. L. Lucker, and C. Weimer, “CALIPSO Lidar Description and Performance Assessment,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 26(7), 1214–1228 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. M. Winker, M. A. Vaughan, A. Omar, Y. X. Hu, K. A. Powell, Z. Y. Liu, W. H. Hunt, and S. A. Young, “Overview of the CALIPSO Mission and CALIOP Data Processing Algorithms,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 26(11), 2310–2323 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

2006 (1)

T. L. Zhao, S. L. Gong, X. Y. Zhang, J.-P. Blanchet, I. G. McKendry, and Z. J. Zhou, “A Simulated Climatology of Asian Dust Aerosol and Its Trans-Pacific Transport. Part I: Mean Climate and Validation,” J. Clim. 19(1), 88–103 (2006).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

1984 (1)

1983 (2)

1974 (1)

G. Tenti, C. Boley, and R. C. Desai, “On the kinetic model description of Rayleigh–Brillouin scattering from molecular gases,” Can. J. Phys. 52(4), 285–290 (1974).
[Crossref]

Allen, M. R.

M. R. Allen, V. R. Barros, J. Broome, W. Cramer, R. Christ, J. A. Church, L. Clarke, Q. Dahe, P. Dasgupta, and N. K. Dubash, “IPCC fifth assessment synthesis report-climate change 2014 synthesis report,” (2014).

Bai, J.

Barker, H. W.

A. J. Illingworth, H. W. Barker, A. Beljaars, M. Ceccaldi, H. Chepfer, N. Clerbaux, J. Cole, J. Delanoë, C. Domenech, D. P. Donovan, S. Fukuda, M. Hirakata, R. J. Hogan, A. Huenerbein, P. Kollias, T. Kubota, T. Nakajima, T. Y. Nakajima, T. Nishizawa, Y. Ohno, H. Okamoto, R. Oki, K. Sato, M. Satoh, M. W. Shephard, A. Velázquez-Blázquez, U. Wandinger, T. Wehr, and G. J. van Zadelhoff, “The EarthCARE Satellite: The Next Step Forward in Global Measurements of Clouds, Aerosols, Precipitation, and Radiation,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 96(8), 1311–1332 (2015).
[Crossref]

Barros, V. R.

M. R. Allen, V. R. Barros, J. Broome, W. Cramer, R. Christ, J. A. Church, L. Clarke, Q. Dahe, P. Dasgupta, and N. K. Dubash, “IPCC fifth assessment synthesis report-climate change 2014 synthesis report,” (2014).

Beljaars, A.

A. J. Illingworth, H. W. Barker, A. Beljaars, M. Ceccaldi, H. Chepfer, N. Clerbaux, J. Cole, J. Delanoë, C. Domenech, D. P. Donovan, S. Fukuda, M. Hirakata, R. J. Hogan, A. Huenerbein, P. Kollias, T. Kubota, T. Nakajima, T. Y. Nakajima, T. Nishizawa, Y. Ohno, H. Okamoto, R. Oki, K. Sato, M. Satoh, M. W. Shephard, A. Velázquez-Blázquez, U. Wandinger, T. Wehr, and G. J. van Zadelhoff, “The EarthCARE Satellite: The Next Step Forward in Global Measurements of Clouds, Aerosols, Precipitation, and Radiation,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 96(8), 1311–1332 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bi, D.

Bi, L.

Blanchet, J.-P.

T. L. Zhao, S. L. Gong, X. Y. Zhang, J.-P. Blanchet, I. G. McKendry, and Z. J. Zhou, “A Simulated Climatology of Asian Dust Aerosol and Its Trans-Pacific Transport. Part I: Mean Climate and Validation,” J. Clim. 19(1), 88–103 (2006).
[Crossref]

Boley, C.

G. Tenti, C. Boley, and R. C. Desai, “On the kinetic model description of Rayleigh–Brillouin scattering from molecular gases,” Can. J. Phys. 52(4), 285–290 (1974).
[Crossref]

Broome, J.

M. R. Allen, V. R. Barros, J. Broome, W. Cramer, R. Christ, J. A. Church, L. Clarke, Q. Dahe, P. Dasgupta, and N. K. Dubash, “IPCC fifth assessment synthesis report-climate change 2014 synthesis report,” (2014).

Ceccaldi, M.

A. J. Illingworth, H. W. Barker, A. Beljaars, M. Ceccaldi, H. Chepfer, N. Clerbaux, J. Cole, J. Delanoë, C. Domenech, D. P. Donovan, S. Fukuda, M. Hirakata, R. J. Hogan, A. Huenerbein, P. Kollias, T. Kubota, T. Nakajima, T. Y. Nakajima, T. Nishizawa, Y. Ohno, H. Okamoto, R. Oki, K. Sato, M. Satoh, M. W. Shephard, A. Velázquez-Blázquez, U. Wandinger, T. Wehr, and G. J. van Zadelhoff, “The EarthCARE Satellite: The Next Step Forward in Global Measurements of Clouds, Aerosols, Precipitation, and Radiation,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 96(8), 1311–1332 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, W.

Cheng, Z.

Chepfer, H.

A. J. Illingworth, H. W. Barker, A. Beljaars, M. Ceccaldi, H. Chepfer, N. Clerbaux, J. Cole, J. Delanoë, C. Domenech, D. P. Donovan, S. Fukuda, M. Hirakata, R. J. Hogan, A. Huenerbein, P. Kollias, T. Kubota, T. Nakajima, T. Y. Nakajima, T. Nishizawa, Y. Ohno, H. Okamoto, R. Oki, K. Sato, M. Satoh, M. W. Shephard, A. Velázquez-Blázquez, U. Wandinger, T. Wehr, and G. J. van Zadelhoff, “The EarthCARE Satellite: The Next Step Forward in Global Measurements of Clouds, Aerosols, Precipitation, and Radiation,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 96(8), 1311–1332 (2015).
[Crossref]

Christ, R.

M. R. Allen, V. R. Barros, J. Broome, W. Cramer, R. Christ, J. A. Church, L. Clarke, Q. Dahe, P. Dasgupta, and N. K. Dubash, “IPCC fifth assessment synthesis report-climate change 2014 synthesis report,” (2014).

Church, J. A.

M. R. Allen, V. R. Barros, J. Broome, W. Cramer, R. Christ, J. A. Church, L. Clarke, Q. Dahe, P. Dasgupta, and N. K. Dubash, “IPCC fifth assessment synthesis report-climate change 2014 synthesis report,” (2014).

Clarke, L.

M. R. Allen, V. R. Barros, J. Broome, W. Cramer, R. Christ, J. A. Church, L. Clarke, Q. Dahe, P. Dasgupta, and N. K. Dubash, “IPCC fifth assessment synthesis report-climate change 2014 synthesis report,” (2014).

Clerbaux, N.

A. J. Illingworth, H. W. Barker, A. Beljaars, M. Ceccaldi, H. Chepfer, N. Clerbaux, J. Cole, J. Delanoë, C. Domenech, D. P. Donovan, S. Fukuda, M. Hirakata, R. J. Hogan, A. Huenerbein, P. Kollias, T. Kubota, T. Nakajima, T. Y. Nakajima, T. Nishizawa, Y. Ohno, H. Okamoto, R. Oki, K. Sato, M. Satoh, M. W. Shephard, A. Velázquez-Blázquez, U. Wandinger, T. Wehr, and G. J. van Zadelhoff, “The EarthCARE Satellite: The Next Step Forward in Global Measurements of Clouds, Aerosols, Precipitation, and Radiation,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 96(8), 1311–1332 (2015).
[Crossref]

Cole, J.

A. J. Illingworth, H. W. Barker, A. Beljaars, M. Ceccaldi, H. Chepfer, N. Clerbaux, J. Cole, J. Delanoë, C. Domenech, D. P. Donovan, S. Fukuda, M. Hirakata, R. J. Hogan, A. Huenerbein, P. Kollias, T. Kubota, T. Nakajima, T. Y. Nakajima, T. Nishizawa, Y. Ohno, H. Okamoto, R. Oki, K. Sato, M. Satoh, M. W. Shephard, A. Velázquez-Blázquez, U. Wandinger, T. Wehr, and G. J. van Zadelhoff, “The EarthCARE Satellite: The Next Step Forward in Global Measurements of Clouds, Aerosols, Precipitation, and Radiation,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 96(8), 1311–1332 (2015).
[Crossref]

Cook, A. L.

Cramer, W.

M. R. Allen, V. R. Barros, J. Broome, W. Cramer, R. Christ, J. A. Church, L. Clarke, Q. Dahe, P. Dasgupta, and N. K. Dubash, “IPCC fifth assessment synthesis report-climate change 2014 synthesis report,” (2014).

Dahe, Q.

M. R. Allen, V. R. Barros, J. Broome, W. Cramer, R. Christ, J. A. Church, L. Clarke, Q. Dahe, P. Dasgupta, and N. K. Dubash, “IPCC fifth assessment synthesis report-climate change 2014 synthesis report,” (2014).

Dasgupta, P.

M. R. Allen, V. R. Barros, J. Broome, W. Cramer, R. Christ, J. A. Church, L. Clarke, Q. Dahe, P. Dasgupta, and N. K. Dubash, “IPCC fifth assessment synthesis report-climate change 2014 synthesis report,” (2014).

Delanoë, J.

A. J. Illingworth, H. W. Barker, A. Beljaars, M. Ceccaldi, H. Chepfer, N. Clerbaux, J. Cole, J. Delanoë, C. Domenech, D. P. Donovan, S. Fukuda, M. Hirakata, R. J. Hogan, A. Huenerbein, P. Kollias, T. Kubota, T. Nakajima, T. Y. Nakajima, T. Nishizawa, Y. Ohno, H. Okamoto, R. Oki, K. Sato, M. Satoh, M. W. Shephard, A. Velázquez-Blázquez, U. Wandinger, T. Wehr, and G. J. van Zadelhoff, “The EarthCARE Satellite: The Next Step Forward in Global Measurements of Clouds, Aerosols, Precipitation, and Radiation,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 96(8), 1311–1332 (2015).
[Crossref]

Desai, R. C.

G. Tenti, C. Boley, and R. C. Desai, “On the kinetic model description of Rayleigh–Brillouin scattering from molecular gases,” Can. J. Phys. 52(4), 285–290 (1974).
[Crossref]

Domenech, C.

A. J. Illingworth, H. W. Barker, A. Beljaars, M. Ceccaldi, H. Chepfer, N. Clerbaux, J. Cole, J. Delanoë, C. Domenech, D. P. Donovan, S. Fukuda, M. Hirakata, R. J. Hogan, A. Huenerbein, P. Kollias, T. Kubota, T. Nakajima, T. Y. Nakajima, T. Nishizawa, Y. Ohno, H. Okamoto, R. Oki, K. Sato, M. Satoh, M. W. Shephard, A. Velázquez-Blázquez, U. Wandinger, T. Wehr, and G. J. van Zadelhoff, “The EarthCARE Satellite: The Next Step Forward in Global Measurements of Clouds, Aerosols, Precipitation, and Radiation,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 96(8), 1311–1332 (2015).
[Crossref]

Dong, J.

Donovan, D. P.

A. J. Illingworth, H. W. Barker, A. Beljaars, M. Ceccaldi, H. Chepfer, N. Clerbaux, J. Cole, J. Delanoë, C. Domenech, D. P. Donovan, S. Fukuda, M. Hirakata, R. J. Hogan, A. Huenerbein, P. Kollias, T. Kubota, T. Nakajima, T. Y. Nakajima, T. Nishizawa, Y. Ohno, H. Okamoto, R. Oki, K. Sato, M. Satoh, M. W. Shephard, A. Velázquez-Blázquez, U. Wandinger, T. Wehr, and G. J. van Zadelhoff, “The EarthCARE Satellite: The Next Step Forward in Global Measurements of Clouds, Aerosols, Precipitation, and Radiation,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 96(8), 1311–1332 (2015).
[Crossref]

Du, J.

Dubash, N. K.

M. R. Allen, V. R. Barros, J. Broome, W. Cramer, R. Christ, J. A. Church, L. Clarke, Q. Dahe, P. Dasgupta, and N. K. Dubash, “IPCC fifth assessment synthesis report-climate change 2014 synthesis report,” (2014).

Dubovik, O.

G. L. Schuster, M. Vaughan, D. MacDonnell, W. Su, D. Winker, O. Dubovik, T. Lapyonok, and C. Trepte, “Comparison of CALIPSO aerosol optical depth retrievals to AERONET measurements, and a climatology for the lidar ratio of dust,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 12(16), 7431–7452 (2012).
[Crossref]

Eloranta, E. E.

Eloranta, E. W.

Fernald, F. G.

Ferrare, R. A.

Fukuda, S.

A. J. Illingworth, H. W. Barker, A. Beljaars, M. Ceccaldi, H. Chepfer, N. Clerbaux, J. Cole, J. Delanoë, C. Domenech, D. P. Donovan, S. Fukuda, M. Hirakata, R. J. Hogan, A. Huenerbein, P. Kollias, T. Kubota, T. Nakajima, T. Y. Nakajima, T. Nishizawa, Y. Ohno, H. Okamoto, R. Oki, K. Sato, M. Satoh, M. W. Shephard, A. Velázquez-Blázquez, U. Wandinger, T. Wehr, and G. J. van Zadelhoff, “The EarthCARE Satellite: The Next Step Forward in Global Measurements of Clouds, Aerosols, Precipitation, and Radiation,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 96(8), 1311–1332 (2015).
[Crossref]

Gong, S. L.

T. L. Zhao, S. L. Gong, X. Y. Zhang, J.-P. Blanchet, I. G. McKendry, and Z. J. Zhou, “A Simulated Climatology of Asian Dust Aerosol and Its Trans-Pacific Transport. Part I: Mean Climate and Validation,” J. Clim. 19(1), 88–103 (2006).
[Crossref]

Gong, W.

G. Han, X. Ma, A. Liang, T. Zhang, Y. Zhao, M. Zhang, and W. Gong, “Performance Evaluation for China’s Planned CO2-IPDA,” Remote Sens. 9(8), 768 (2017).
[Crossref]

Group, E. M. A.

E. M. A. Group, “Earth CARE Mission Requirements Document,” (2006).

Hair, J. W.

Han, G.

G. Han, X. Ma, A. Liang, T. Zhang, Y. Zhao, M. Zhang, and W. Gong, “Performance Evaluation for China’s Planned CO2-IPDA,” Remote Sens. 9(8), 768 (2017).
[Crossref]

Harper, D. B.

Hirakata, M.

A. J. Illingworth, H. W. Barker, A. Beljaars, M. Ceccaldi, H. Chepfer, N. Clerbaux, J. Cole, J. Delanoë, C. Domenech, D. P. Donovan, S. Fukuda, M. Hirakata, R. J. Hogan, A. Huenerbein, P. Kollias, T. Kubota, T. Nakajima, T. Y. Nakajima, T. Nishizawa, Y. Ohno, H. Okamoto, R. Oki, K. Sato, M. Satoh, M. W. Shephard, A. Velázquez-Blázquez, U. Wandinger, T. Wehr, and G. J. van Zadelhoff, “The EarthCARE Satellite: The Next Step Forward in Global Measurements of Clouds, Aerosols, Precipitation, and Radiation,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 96(8), 1311–1332 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hogan, R. J.

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A. J. Illingworth, H. W. Barker, A. Beljaars, M. Ceccaldi, H. Chepfer, N. Clerbaux, J. Cole, J. Delanoë, C. Domenech, D. P. Donovan, S. Fukuda, M. Hirakata, R. J. Hogan, A. Huenerbein, P. Kollias, T. Kubota, T. Nakajima, T. Y. Nakajima, T. Nishizawa, Y. Ohno, H. Okamoto, R. Oki, K. Sato, M. Satoh, M. W. Shephard, A. Velázquez-Blázquez, U. Wandinger, T. Wehr, and G. J. van Zadelhoff, “The EarthCARE Satellite: The Next Step Forward in Global Measurements of Clouds, Aerosols, Precipitation, and Radiation,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 96(8), 1311–1332 (2015).
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W. H. Hunt, D. M. Winker, M. A. Vaughan, K. A. Powell, P. L. Lucker, and C. Weimer, “CALIPSO Lidar Description and Performance Assessment,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 26(7), 1214–1228 (2009).
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D. M. Winker, M. A. Vaughan, A. Omar, Y. X. Hu, K. A. Powell, Z. Y. Liu, W. H. Hunt, and S. A. Young, “Overview of the CALIPSO Mission and CALIOP Data Processing Algorithms,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 26(11), 2310–2323 (2009).
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A. J. Illingworth, H. W. Barker, A. Beljaars, M. Ceccaldi, H. Chepfer, N. Clerbaux, J. Cole, J. Delanoë, C. Domenech, D. P. Donovan, S. Fukuda, M. Hirakata, R. J. Hogan, A. Huenerbein, P. Kollias, T. Kubota, T. Nakajima, T. Y. Nakajima, T. Nishizawa, Y. Ohno, H. Okamoto, R. Oki, K. Sato, M. Satoh, M. W. Shephard, A. Velázquez-Blázquez, U. Wandinger, T. Wehr, and G. J. van Zadelhoff, “The EarthCARE Satellite: The Next Step Forward in Global Measurements of Clouds, Aerosols, Precipitation, and Radiation,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 96(8), 1311–1332 (2015).
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D. M. Winker, M. A. Vaughan, A. Omar, Y. X. Hu, K. A. Powell, Z. Y. Liu, W. H. Hunt, and S. A. Young, “Overview of the CALIPSO Mission and CALIOP Data Processing Algorithms,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 26(11), 2310–2323 (2009).
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W. H. Hunt, D. M. Winker, M. A. Vaughan, K. A. Powell, P. L. Lucker, and C. Weimer, “CALIPSO Lidar Description and Performance Assessment,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 26(7), 1214–1228 (2009).
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G. L. Schuster, M. Vaughan, D. MacDonnell, W. Su, D. Winker, O. Dubovik, T. Lapyonok, and C. Trepte, “Comparison of CALIPSO aerosol optical depth retrievals to AERONET measurements, and a climatology for the lidar ratio of dust,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 12(16), 7431–7452 (2012).
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A. J. Illingworth, H. W. Barker, A. Beljaars, M. Ceccaldi, H. Chepfer, N. Clerbaux, J. Cole, J. Delanoë, C. Domenech, D. P. Donovan, S. Fukuda, M. Hirakata, R. J. Hogan, A. Huenerbein, P. Kollias, T. Kubota, T. Nakajima, T. Y. Nakajima, T. Nishizawa, Y. Ohno, H. Okamoto, R. Oki, K. Sato, M. Satoh, M. W. Shephard, A. Velázquez-Blázquez, U. Wandinger, T. Wehr, and G. J. van Zadelhoff, “The EarthCARE Satellite: The Next Step Forward in Global Measurements of Clouds, Aerosols, Precipitation, and Radiation,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 96(8), 1311–1332 (2015).
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D. M. Winker, M. A. Vaughan, A. Omar, Y. X. Hu, K. A. Powell, Z. Y. Liu, W. H. Hunt, and S. A. Young, “Overview of the CALIPSO Mission and CALIOP Data Processing Algorithms,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 26(11), 2310–2323 (2009).
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A. J. Illingworth, H. W. Barker, A. Beljaars, M. Ceccaldi, H. Chepfer, N. Clerbaux, J. Cole, J. Delanoë, C. Domenech, D. P. Donovan, S. Fukuda, M. Hirakata, R. J. Hogan, A. Huenerbein, P. Kollias, T. Kubota, T. Nakajima, T. Y. Nakajima, T. Nishizawa, Y. Ohno, H. Okamoto, R. Oki, K. Sato, M. Satoh, M. W. Shephard, A. Velázquez-Blázquez, U. Wandinger, T. Wehr, and G. J. van Zadelhoff, “The EarthCARE Satellite: The Next Step Forward in Global Measurements of Clouds, Aerosols, Precipitation, and Radiation,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 96(8), 1311–1332 (2015).
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A. J. Illingworth, H. W. Barker, A. Beljaars, M. Ceccaldi, H. Chepfer, N. Clerbaux, J. Cole, J. Delanoë, C. Domenech, D. P. Donovan, S. Fukuda, M. Hirakata, R. J. Hogan, A. Huenerbein, P. Kollias, T. Kubota, T. Nakajima, T. Y. Nakajima, T. Nishizawa, Y. Ohno, H. Okamoto, R. Oki, K. Sato, M. Satoh, M. W. Shephard, A. Velázquez-Blázquez, U. Wandinger, T. Wehr, and G. J. van Zadelhoff, “The EarthCARE Satellite: The Next Step Forward in Global Measurements of Clouds, Aerosols, Precipitation, and Radiation,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 96(8), 1311–1332 (2015).
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G. L. Schuster, M. Vaughan, D. MacDonnell, W. Su, D. Winker, O. Dubovik, T. Lapyonok, and C. Trepte, “Comparison of CALIPSO aerosol optical depth retrievals to AERONET measurements, and a climatology for the lidar ratio of dust,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 12(16), 7431–7452 (2012).
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G. L. Schuster, M. Vaughan, D. MacDonnell, W. Su, D. Winker, O. Dubovik, T. Lapyonok, and C. Trepte, “Comparison of CALIPSO aerosol optical depth retrievals to AERONET measurements, and a climatology for the lidar ratio of dust,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 12(16), 7431–7452 (2012).
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G. L. Schuster, M. Vaughan, D. MacDonnell, W. Su, D. Winker, O. Dubovik, T. Lapyonok, and C. Trepte, “Comparison of CALIPSO aerosol optical depth retrievals to AERONET measurements, and a climatology for the lidar ratio of dust,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 12(16), 7431–7452 (2012).
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A. J. Illingworth, H. W. Barker, A. Beljaars, M. Ceccaldi, H. Chepfer, N. Clerbaux, J. Cole, J. Delanoë, C. Domenech, D. P. Donovan, S. Fukuda, M. Hirakata, R. J. Hogan, A. Huenerbein, P. Kollias, T. Kubota, T. Nakajima, T. Y. Nakajima, T. Nishizawa, Y. Ohno, H. Okamoto, R. Oki, K. Sato, M. Satoh, M. W. Shephard, A. Velázquez-Blázquez, U. Wandinger, T. Wehr, and G. J. van Zadelhoff, “The EarthCARE Satellite: The Next Step Forward in Global Measurements of Clouds, Aerosols, Precipitation, and Radiation,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 96(8), 1311–1332 (2015).
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G. L. Schuster, M. Vaughan, D. MacDonnell, W. Su, D. Winker, O. Dubovik, T. Lapyonok, and C. Trepte, “Comparison of CALIPSO aerosol optical depth retrievals to AERONET measurements, and a climatology for the lidar ratio of dust,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 12(16), 7431–7452 (2012).
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Vaughan, M. A.

D. M. Winker, M. A. Vaughan, A. Omar, Y. X. Hu, K. A. Powell, Z. Y. Liu, W. H. Hunt, and S. A. Young, “Overview of the CALIPSO Mission and CALIOP Data Processing Algorithms,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 26(11), 2310–2323 (2009).
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W. H. Hunt, D. M. Winker, M. A. Vaughan, K. A. Powell, P. L. Lucker, and C. Weimer, “CALIPSO Lidar Description and Performance Assessment,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 26(7), 1214–1228 (2009).
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A. J. Illingworth, H. W. Barker, A. Beljaars, M. Ceccaldi, H. Chepfer, N. Clerbaux, J. Cole, J. Delanoë, C. Domenech, D. P. Donovan, S. Fukuda, M. Hirakata, R. J. Hogan, A. Huenerbein, P. Kollias, T. Kubota, T. Nakajima, T. Y. Nakajima, T. Nishizawa, Y. Ohno, H. Okamoto, R. Oki, K. Sato, M. Satoh, M. W. Shephard, A. Velázquez-Blázquez, U. Wandinger, T. Wehr, and G. J. van Zadelhoff, “The EarthCARE Satellite: The Next Step Forward in Global Measurements of Clouds, Aerosols, Precipitation, and Radiation,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 96(8), 1311–1332 (2015).
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A. J. Illingworth, H. W. Barker, A. Beljaars, M. Ceccaldi, H. Chepfer, N. Clerbaux, J. Cole, J. Delanoë, C. Domenech, D. P. Donovan, S. Fukuda, M. Hirakata, R. J. Hogan, A. Huenerbein, P. Kollias, T. Kubota, T. Nakajima, T. Y. Nakajima, T. Nishizawa, Y. Ohno, H. Okamoto, R. Oki, K. Sato, M. Satoh, M. W. Shephard, A. Velázquez-Blázquez, U. Wandinger, T. Wehr, and G. J. van Zadelhoff, “The EarthCARE Satellite: The Next Step Forward in Global Measurements of Clouds, Aerosols, Precipitation, and Radiation,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 96(8), 1311–1332 (2015).
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A. J. Illingworth, H. W. Barker, A. Beljaars, M. Ceccaldi, H. Chepfer, N. Clerbaux, J. Cole, J. Delanoë, C. Domenech, D. P. Donovan, S. Fukuda, M. Hirakata, R. J. Hogan, A. Huenerbein, P. Kollias, T. Kubota, T. Nakajima, T. Y. Nakajima, T. Nishizawa, Y. Ohno, H. Okamoto, R. Oki, K. Sato, M. Satoh, M. W. Shephard, A. Velázquez-Blázquez, U. Wandinger, T. Wehr, and G. J. van Zadelhoff, “The EarthCARE Satellite: The Next Step Forward in Global Measurements of Clouds, Aerosols, Precipitation, and Radiation,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 96(8), 1311–1332 (2015).
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W. H. Hunt, D. M. Winker, M. A. Vaughan, K. A. Powell, P. L. Lucker, and C. Weimer, “CALIPSO Lidar Description and Performance Assessment,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 26(7), 1214–1228 (2009).
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G. L. Schuster, M. Vaughan, D. MacDonnell, W. Su, D. Winker, O. Dubovik, T. Lapyonok, and C. Trepte, “Comparison of CALIPSO aerosol optical depth retrievals to AERONET measurements, and a climatology for the lidar ratio of dust,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 12(16), 7431–7452 (2012).
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D. M. Winker, M. A. Vaughan, A. Omar, Y. X. Hu, K. A. Powell, Z. Y. Liu, W. H. Hunt, and S. A. Young, “Overview of the CALIPSO Mission and CALIOP Data Processing Algorithms,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 26(11), 2310–2323 (2009).
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G. Han, X. Ma, A. Liang, T. Zhang, Y. Zhao, M. Zhang, and W. Gong, “Performance Evaluation for China’s Planned CO2-IPDA,” Remote Sens. 9(8), 768 (2017).
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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Basic principle of Chinese ACHSRL (a) Functional block diagram of ACHSRL at 532 nm, (b) Illustration for an iodine cell based HSRL return spectra [13].
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Comparison between Monte-Carlo results and error model for (a) Particulate backscatter coefficient, (b) Particulate optical depth, (c) Particulate extinction coefficient
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 The function of retrieval error and high-spectral-resolution filter settings, (a) the PBCRE at 10.6 km changes with the fm and SDR, (b) the trend of SDR and PBCRE at 10.6 km with iodine cell temperature. As iodine cell temperature rises, SDR increases exponentially, but the PBCRE does not decrease or increase monotonically.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Aerosol loading distribution map, (a) monthly averaged aerosol optical depth, (b) the PBL (1 km above land surface) aerosol extinction coefficient (km−1).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Theoretical measurement error of ACHSRL, (a) the PBL PBCRE (%), (b) the PBL PECAE (km−1)
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 The aerosol optical depth measurement in South Japan, June 2015. Red rectangle is the chosen area, and the color bar indicates monthly averaged aerosol optical depth calculated using CALIPSO level 3 all sky aerosol extinction profile. The Z-dimension is the surface altitude.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Attenuated backscatter profiles of CALIPSO in South Japan in June 2015, dates are indicated separately, (a) day orbits, (b) night orbits. Some orbit tracks overlap each other and are indicated by satellite icons.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 The statistical distribution of (a) PBCRE and (b) PECAE for CALIOP (blue bars) and ACHSRL (orange bars).

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Specification of ACHSRL at 532 nm for Numerical Simulation

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Table 2 Scene Descriptions for the Profile Input into the Simulation

Equations (28)

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P M ( z ) = C M O ( z ) ( z z 0 ) 2 [ f m ( z ) β m ( z ) + f p β p ( z ) ] T 2 ( z ) ,
P ( z ) = C O ( z ) ( z z 0 ) 2 [ β m ( z ) + β p ( z ) ] T 2 ( z ) ,
P ( z ) = C O ( z ) ( z z 0 ) 2 [ β m ( z ) + β p ( z ) ] T 2 ( z ) ,
T 2 ( z ) = exp [ 2 0 r α ( z ' ) d z ' ] ,
f m ( z ) = F ( v ) ( v , T , p ) d v ,
β p ( z ) = β p ( z ) + β p ( z ) = β m ( z ) { [ 1 + δ ( z ) ] [ 1 + δ m ] [ f m ( z ) f p ] χ ( z ) [ 1 f p χ ( z ) ] 1 } ,
T 2 ( z ) = [ 1 f p χ ( z ) ] [ 1 + δ m ] B M ( z ) [ f m ( z ) f p ] β m ( z ) ,
τ ( z ) = 1 2 ln [ T 2 ( z ) ] ,
α p ( z ) = [ τ ( z ) z α m ( z ) α O 3 ( z ) ] / η ( z ) ,
δ ( z ) = B ( z ) / B ( z ) = [ β m ( z ) + β p ( z ) ] / [ β m ( z ) + β p ( z ) ] ,
δ m ( z ) = β m ( z ) / β m ( z ) .
η β p = ( η β p χ ) 2 + ( η β p δ ) 2 + ( η β p f m ) 2 + ( η β p f p ) 2 ,
σ τ = ( σ τ χ ) 2 + ( σ τ B M ) 2 + ( σ τ f p ) 2 + ( σ τ f m ) 2 .
α p ( z ) = [ τ ( z + Δ z ) τ ( z ) Δ z α m ( z ) α O 3 ( z ) ] / η ( z ) ,
( σ α p ) 2 = ( σ τ ( z + Δ z / 2 ) ) 2 + ( σ τ ( z Δ z / 2 ) ) 2 ( Δ z ) 2 η 2 ( z ) .
S N R i = P i M R B [ 2 e M 2 F R ( P i + P s o l a r ) + I d a r k 2 + ( 4 k B t e m ) / r e s ] ,
P s o l a r = I s o l a r A Δ λ π ϕ 2 4 C i ,
( η β p χ ) 2 = ( R b R b 1 ) 2 [ 1 + f p ( 1 + δ m ) R b ( 1 + δ ) ( f m f p ) ] 2 1 S N R & M 2 ,
( η β a δ ) 2 = ( R b R b 1 ) 2 ( δ 1 + δ ) 2 1 S N R & 2
( η β p f m ) 2 = ( β p β p f m Δ f m ) 2 = [ R b ( R b 1 ) ( f m f p ) ] 2 ( Δ f m ) 2 ,
( η β p f p ) 2 = ( β p β p f p Δ f p ) 2 = [ R b ( 1 + δ m ) ( f m f p ) ( 1 + δ p ) ] 2 ( Δ f p ) 2 ,
1 S N R & M 2 = 1 S N R 2 + 1 S N R M 2
R b ( z ) = β p ( z ) + β m ( z ) β m ( z ) ,
S D R = f m / f p ,
( σ τ χ ) 2 = ( τ χ Δ χ ) 2 = 1 4 ( χ f p 1 χ f p ) 2 1 S N R & M 2 ,
( σ τ B M ) 2 = ( τ B M Δ B M ) 2 = 1 4 1 S N R M 2 ,
( σ τ f m ) 2 = ( τ f m Δ f m ) 2 = 1 4 ( Δ f m f m f p ) 2 ,
( σ τ f p ) 2 = ( τ f p Δ f p ) 2 = 1 4 ( ( R b 1 ) ( 1 + δ m ) ( f m f p ) ( 1 + δ p ) ) 2 ( Δ f p ) 2 ,

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