Abstract

The fabrication and feasibility assessment of n-side up, thin-epilayer, AlGaInP-based vertical light-emitting-diodes (LEDs; emitting area: 1 mm × 1 mm) with a copper-invar-copper-composite metal (CIC) substrate was obtained by wafer bonding and epilayer transferring technologies. The structure of CIC substrate is a top Cu layer of 20 μm, a middle Invar layer of 64 μm, and a bottom Cu layer of 20 μm. The invar layer consists of Fe and Ni at a ratio of 70% to 30%. The coefficient of thermal expansion for CIC is about 6.1 × 10−6 /K, which is similar to that of the GaAs substrate (5.7 × 10−6 /K) and AlGaInP epilayers. Due to the high thermal conductivity (160 W/m-K) of 104-μm-thick CIC, the high performances of the packaged LEDs are obtained. They present a low red shift phenomenon (from 623 to 642 nm for 100 mA to 1 A) and a high output power 212 mW at 800 mA. The CIC substrate can be extended to fabricate high-efficiency thin film LEDs with conventional vertical electrodes.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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  1. R. H. Horng, H. Y. Chien, K. Y. Chen, W. Y. Tseng, Y. T. Tsai, and F. G. Tarn Tair, “Development and Fabrication of AlGaInP-Based Flip-Chip Micro-LEDs,” IEEE J. Electron Devi. 6, 475–479 (2018).
  2. I. Schnitzer, E. Yablonovitch, C. Caneau, and T. J. Gmitter, “Ultrahigh spontaneous emission quantum efficiency 99.7% internally and 72% externally from AlGaAs/ GaAs/AlGaAs double hetero-structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62(2), 131–133 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  3. C. P. Kuo, R. M. Fletcher, T. D. Osentowski, M. C. Lardizabal, M. G. Craford, and V. M. Robbins, “High performance AlGaInP visible light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57(27), 2937–2939 (1990).
    [Crossref]
  4. H. Sugawara, M. Ishikawa, and G. Hatakoshi, “High-efficiency InGaAlP/GaAs visible light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58(10), 1010–1012 (1991).
    [Crossref]
  5. T. Gessmann and E. F. Schubert, “High-efficiency AlGaInP light emitting diodes for solid-state lighting applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(5), 2203–2216 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  6. M. R. Krames, M. Ochiai-Holcomb, G. E. Hofler, C. Carter-Coman, E. I. Chen, I.-H. Tan, P. Grillot, N. F. Gardner, H. C. Chui, J.-W. Huang, S. A. Stockman, F. A. Kish, M. G. Craford, T. S. Tan, C. P. Kocot, M. Hueschen, J. Posselt, B. Loh, G. Sasser, and D. Collins, “High-power truncated-inverted-pyramid (AlxGa1-x)0.5In0.5P/GaP, Light emitting diodes exhibiting >50% external quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(16), 2365–2367 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  7. M. C. Tseng, C. L. Chen, N. K. Lai, S. I. Chen, T. C. Hsu, Y. R. Peng, and R. H. Horng, “P-side-up thin-film AlGaInP-based light emitting diodes with direct ohmic contact of an ITO layer with a GaP window layer,” Opt. Express 22(S7Suppl 7), A1862–A1867 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. Z. Zuo, R. Wang, D. Liu, Q. Yu, Z. Feng, and X. Xu, “Ultra bright AlGaInP light emitting diodes with pyramidally patterned GaP spreading layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(12), 121104 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  9. M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state Lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 3(2), 160–175 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  10. F. L. Wu, S. L. Ou, Y. C. Kao, C. L. Chen, M. C. Tseng, F. C. Lu, M. T. Lin, and R. H. Horng, “Thin-film vertical-type AlGaInP LEDs fabricated by epitaxial lift-off process via the patterned design of Cu substrate,” Opt. Express 23(14), 18156–18165 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  13. S. Pitely, L. Zavalij, S. Zarembo, and E. J. Cotts, “Linear coefficients of thermal expansion of Au0.5Ni0.5Sn4, Au0.75Ni0.25Sn4, and AuSn4,” Scr. Mater. 51(7), 745–749 (2004).
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2018 (1)

R. H. Horng, H. Y. Chien, K. Y. Chen, W. Y. Tseng, Y. T. Tsai, and F. G. Tarn Tair, “Development and Fabrication of AlGaInP-Based Flip-Chip Micro-LEDs,” IEEE J. Electron Devi. 6, 475–479 (2018).

2015 (1)

2014 (1)

2011 (1)

Z. Zuo, R. Wang, D. Liu, Q. Yu, Z. Feng, and X. Xu, “Ultra bright AlGaInP light emitting diodes with pyramidally patterned GaP spreading layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(12), 121104 (2011).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state Lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 3(2), 160–175 (2007).
[Crossref]

2004 (3)

R. H. Horng, C. E. Lee, C. Y. Kung, S. H. Huang, and D. S. Wuu, “High-power AlGaInP light-emitting diodes with patterned copper substrates by electroplating,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(4B4B), L576–L578 (2004).
[Crossref]

S. Pitely, L. Zavalij, S. Zarembo, and E. J. Cotts, “Linear coefficients of thermal expansion of Au0.5Ni0.5Sn4, Au0.75Ni0.25Sn4, and AuSn4,” Scr. Mater. 51(7), 745–749 (2004).
[Crossref]

T. Gessmann and E. F. Schubert, “High-efficiency AlGaInP light emitting diodes for solid-state lighting applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(5), 2203–2216 (2004).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

D. Morita, M. Sano, M. Yamamoto, T. Murayama, S. I. Nagahama, and T. Mukai, “High Output Power 365 nm Ultraviolet Light Emitting Diode of GaN-Free Structure,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41(12B), L1434–L1436 (2002).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

M. R. Krames, M. Ochiai-Holcomb, G. E. Hofler, C. Carter-Coman, E. I. Chen, I.-H. Tan, P. Grillot, N. F. Gardner, H. C. Chui, J.-W. Huang, S. A. Stockman, F. A. Kish, M. G. Craford, T. S. Tan, C. P. Kocot, M. Hueschen, J. Posselt, B. Loh, G. Sasser, and D. Collins, “High-power truncated-inverted-pyramid (AlxGa1-x)0.5In0.5P/GaP, Light emitting diodes exhibiting >50% external quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(16), 2365–2367 (1999).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

I. Schnitzer, E. Yablonovitch, C. Caneau, and T. J. Gmitter, “Ultrahigh spontaneous emission quantum efficiency 99.7% internally and 72% externally from AlGaAs/ GaAs/AlGaAs double hetero-structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62(2), 131–133 (1993).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

H. Sugawara, M. Ishikawa, and G. Hatakoshi, “High-efficiency InGaAlP/GaAs visible light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58(10), 1010–1012 (1991).
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

C. P. Kuo, R. M. Fletcher, T. D. Osentowski, M. C. Lardizabal, M. G. Craford, and V. M. Robbins, “High performance AlGaInP visible light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57(27), 2937–2939 (1990).
[Crossref]

Caneau, C.

I. Schnitzer, E. Yablonovitch, C. Caneau, and T. J. Gmitter, “Ultrahigh spontaneous emission quantum efficiency 99.7% internally and 72% externally from AlGaAs/ GaAs/AlGaAs double hetero-structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62(2), 131–133 (1993).
[Crossref]

Carter-Coman, C.

M. R. Krames, M. Ochiai-Holcomb, G. E. Hofler, C. Carter-Coman, E. I. Chen, I.-H. Tan, P. Grillot, N. F. Gardner, H. C. Chui, J.-W. Huang, S. A. Stockman, F. A. Kish, M. G. Craford, T. S. Tan, C. P. Kocot, M. Hueschen, J. Posselt, B. Loh, G. Sasser, and D. Collins, “High-power truncated-inverted-pyramid (AlxGa1-x)0.5In0.5P/GaP, Light emitting diodes exhibiting >50% external quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(16), 2365–2367 (1999).
[Crossref]

Chen, C. L.

Chen, E. I.

M. R. Krames, M. Ochiai-Holcomb, G. E. Hofler, C. Carter-Coman, E. I. Chen, I.-H. Tan, P. Grillot, N. F. Gardner, H. C. Chui, J.-W. Huang, S. A. Stockman, F. A. Kish, M. G. Craford, T. S. Tan, C. P. Kocot, M. Hueschen, J. Posselt, B. Loh, G. Sasser, and D. Collins, “High-power truncated-inverted-pyramid (AlxGa1-x)0.5In0.5P/GaP, Light emitting diodes exhibiting >50% external quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(16), 2365–2367 (1999).
[Crossref]

Chen, K. Y.

R. H. Horng, H. Y. Chien, K. Y. Chen, W. Y. Tseng, Y. T. Tsai, and F. G. Tarn Tair, “Development and Fabrication of AlGaInP-Based Flip-Chip Micro-LEDs,” IEEE J. Electron Devi. 6, 475–479 (2018).

Chen, S. I.

Chien, H. Y.

R. H. Horng, H. Y. Chien, K. Y. Chen, W. Y. Tseng, Y. T. Tsai, and F. G. Tarn Tair, “Development and Fabrication of AlGaInP-Based Flip-Chip Micro-LEDs,” IEEE J. Electron Devi. 6, 475–479 (2018).

Chui, H. C.

M. R. Krames, M. Ochiai-Holcomb, G. E. Hofler, C. Carter-Coman, E. I. Chen, I.-H. Tan, P. Grillot, N. F. Gardner, H. C. Chui, J.-W. Huang, S. A. Stockman, F. A. Kish, M. G. Craford, T. S. Tan, C. P. Kocot, M. Hueschen, J. Posselt, B. Loh, G. Sasser, and D. Collins, “High-power truncated-inverted-pyramid (AlxGa1-x)0.5In0.5P/GaP, Light emitting diodes exhibiting >50% external quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(16), 2365–2367 (1999).
[Crossref]

Collins, D.

M. R. Krames, M. Ochiai-Holcomb, G. E. Hofler, C. Carter-Coman, E. I. Chen, I.-H. Tan, P. Grillot, N. F. Gardner, H. C. Chui, J.-W. Huang, S. A. Stockman, F. A. Kish, M. G. Craford, T. S. Tan, C. P. Kocot, M. Hueschen, J. Posselt, B. Loh, G. Sasser, and D. Collins, “High-power truncated-inverted-pyramid (AlxGa1-x)0.5In0.5P/GaP, Light emitting diodes exhibiting >50% external quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(16), 2365–2367 (1999).
[Crossref]

Cotts, E. J.

S. Pitely, L. Zavalij, S. Zarembo, and E. J. Cotts, “Linear coefficients of thermal expansion of Au0.5Ni0.5Sn4, Au0.75Ni0.25Sn4, and AuSn4,” Scr. Mater. 51(7), 745–749 (2004).
[Crossref]

Craford, M. G.

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state Lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 3(2), 160–175 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. R. Krames, M. Ochiai-Holcomb, G. E. Hofler, C. Carter-Coman, E. I. Chen, I.-H. Tan, P. Grillot, N. F. Gardner, H. C. Chui, J.-W. Huang, S. A. Stockman, F. A. Kish, M. G. Craford, T. S. Tan, C. P. Kocot, M. Hueschen, J. Posselt, B. Loh, G. Sasser, and D. Collins, “High-power truncated-inverted-pyramid (AlxGa1-x)0.5In0.5P/GaP, Light emitting diodes exhibiting >50% external quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(16), 2365–2367 (1999).
[Crossref]

C. P. Kuo, R. M. Fletcher, T. D. Osentowski, M. C. Lardizabal, M. G. Craford, and V. M. Robbins, “High performance AlGaInP visible light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57(27), 2937–2939 (1990).
[Crossref]

Feng, Z.

Z. Zuo, R. Wang, D. Liu, Q. Yu, Z. Feng, and X. Xu, “Ultra bright AlGaInP light emitting diodes with pyramidally patterned GaP spreading layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(12), 121104 (2011).
[Crossref]

Fletcher, R. M.

C. P. Kuo, R. M. Fletcher, T. D. Osentowski, M. C. Lardizabal, M. G. Craford, and V. M. Robbins, “High performance AlGaInP visible light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57(27), 2937–2939 (1990).
[Crossref]

Gardner, N. F.

M. R. Krames, M. Ochiai-Holcomb, G. E. Hofler, C. Carter-Coman, E. I. Chen, I.-H. Tan, P. Grillot, N. F. Gardner, H. C. Chui, J.-W. Huang, S. A. Stockman, F. A. Kish, M. G. Craford, T. S. Tan, C. P. Kocot, M. Hueschen, J. Posselt, B. Loh, G. Sasser, and D. Collins, “High-power truncated-inverted-pyramid (AlxGa1-x)0.5In0.5P/GaP, Light emitting diodes exhibiting >50% external quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(16), 2365–2367 (1999).
[Crossref]

Gessmann, T.

T. Gessmann and E. F. Schubert, “High-efficiency AlGaInP light emitting diodes for solid-state lighting applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(5), 2203–2216 (2004).
[Crossref]

Gmitter, T. J.

I. Schnitzer, E. Yablonovitch, C. Caneau, and T. J. Gmitter, “Ultrahigh spontaneous emission quantum efficiency 99.7% internally and 72% externally from AlGaAs/ GaAs/AlGaAs double hetero-structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62(2), 131–133 (1993).
[Crossref]

Grillot, P.

M. R. Krames, M. Ochiai-Holcomb, G. E. Hofler, C. Carter-Coman, E. I. Chen, I.-H. Tan, P. Grillot, N. F. Gardner, H. C. Chui, J.-W. Huang, S. A. Stockman, F. A. Kish, M. G. Craford, T. S. Tan, C. P. Kocot, M. Hueschen, J. Posselt, B. Loh, G. Sasser, and D. Collins, “High-power truncated-inverted-pyramid (AlxGa1-x)0.5In0.5P/GaP, Light emitting diodes exhibiting >50% external quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(16), 2365–2367 (1999).
[Crossref]

Harbers, G.

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state Lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 3(2), 160–175 (2007).
[Crossref]

Hatakoshi, G.

H. Sugawara, M. Ishikawa, and G. Hatakoshi, “High-efficiency InGaAlP/GaAs visible light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58(10), 1010–1012 (1991).
[Crossref]

Hofler, G. E.

M. R. Krames, M. Ochiai-Holcomb, G. E. Hofler, C. Carter-Coman, E. I. Chen, I.-H. Tan, P. Grillot, N. F. Gardner, H. C. Chui, J.-W. Huang, S. A. Stockman, F. A. Kish, M. G. Craford, T. S. Tan, C. P. Kocot, M. Hueschen, J. Posselt, B. Loh, G. Sasser, and D. Collins, “High-power truncated-inverted-pyramid (AlxGa1-x)0.5In0.5P/GaP, Light emitting diodes exhibiting >50% external quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(16), 2365–2367 (1999).
[Crossref]

Horng, R. H.

R. H. Horng, H. Y. Chien, K. Y. Chen, W. Y. Tseng, Y. T. Tsai, and F. G. Tarn Tair, “Development and Fabrication of AlGaInP-Based Flip-Chip Micro-LEDs,” IEEE J. Electron Devi. 6, 475–479 (2018).

F. L. Wu, S. L. Ou, Y. C. Kao, C. L. Chen, M. C. Tseng, F. C. Lu, M. T. Lin, and R. H. Horng, “Thin-film vertical-type AlGaInP LEDs fabricated by epitaxial lift-off process via the patterned design of Cu substrate,” Opt. Express 23(14), 18156–18165 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. C. Tseng, C. L. Chen, N. K. Lai, S. I. Chen, T. C. Hsu, Y. R. Peng, and R. H. Horng, “P-side-up thin-film AlGaInP-based light emitting diodes with direct ohmic contact of an ITO layer with a GaP window layer,” Opt. Express 22(S7Suppl 7), A1862–A1867 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. H. Horng, C. E. Lee, C. Y. Kung, S. H. Huang, and D. S. Wuu, “High-power AlGaInP light-emitting diodes with patterned copper substrates by electroplating,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(4B4B), L576–L578 (2004).
[Crossref]

Hsu, T. C.

Huang, J.-W.

M. R. Krames, M. Ochiai-Holcomb, G. E. Hofler, C. Carter-Coman, E. I. Chen, I.-H. Tan, P. Grillot, N. F. Gardner, H. C. Chui, J.-W. Huang, S. A. Stockman, F. A. Kish, M. G. Craford, T. S. Tan, C. P. Kocot, M. Hueschen, J. Posselt, B. Loh, G. Sasser, and D. Collins, “High-power truncated-inverted-pyramid (AlxGa1-x)0.5In0.5P/GaP, Light emitting diodes exhibiting >50% external quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(16), 2365–2367 (1999).
[Crossref]

Huang, S. H.

R. H. Horng, C. E. Lee, C. Y. Kung, S. H. Huang, and D. S. Wuu, “High-power AlGaInP light-emitting diodes with patterned copper substrates by electroplating,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(4B4B), L576–L578 (2004).
[Crossref]

Hueschen, M.

M. R. Krames, M. Ochiai-Holcomb, G. E. Hofler, C. Carter-Coman, E. I. Chen, I.-H. Tan, P. Grillot, N. F. Gardner, H. C. Chui, J.-W. Huang, S. A. Stockman, F. A. Kish, M. G. Craford, T. S. Tan, C. P. Kocot, M. Hueschen, J. Posselt, B. Loh, G. Sasser, and D. Collins, “High-power truncated-inverted-pyramid (AlxGa1-x)0.5In0.5P/GaP, Light emitting diodes exhibiting >50% external quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(16), 2365–2367 (1999).
[Crossref]

Ishikawa, M.

H. Sugawara, M. Ishikawa, and G. Hatakoshi, “High-efficiency InGaAlP/GaAs visible light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58(10), 1010–1012 (1991).
[Crossref]

Kao, Y. C.

Kish, F. A.

M. R. Krames, M. Ochiai-Holcomb, G. E. Hofler, C. Carter-Coman, E. I. Chen, I.-H. Tan, P. Grillot, N. F. Gardner, H. C. Chui, J.-W. Huang, S. A. Stockman, F. A. Kish, M. G. Craford, T. S. Tan, C. P. Kocot, M. Hueschen, J. Posselt, B. Loh, G. Sasser, and D. Collins, “High-power truncated-inverted-pyramid (AlxGa1-x)0.5In0.5P/GaP, Light emitting diodes exhibiting >50% external quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(16), 2365–2367 (1999).
[Crossref]

Kocot, C. P.

M. R. Krames, M. Ochiai-Holcomb, G. E. Hofler, C. Carter-Coman, E. I. Chen, I.-H. Tan, P. Grillot, N. F. Gardner, H. C. Chui, J.-W. Huang, S. A. Stockman, F. A. Kish, M. G. Craford, T. S. Tan, C. P. Kocot, M. Hueschen, J. Posselt, B. Loh, G. Sasser, and D. Collins, “High-power truncated-inverted-pyramid (AlxGa1-x)0.5In0.5P/GaP, Light emitting diodes exhibiting >50% external quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(16), 2365–2367 (1999).
[Crossref]

Krames, M. R.

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state Lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 3(2), 160–175 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. R. Krames, M. Ochiai-Holcomb, G. E. Hofler, C. Carter-Coman, E. I. Chen, I.-H. Tan, P. Grillot, N. F. Gardner, H. C. Chui, J.-W. Huang, S. A. Stockman, F. A. Kish, M. G. Craford, T. S. Tan, C. P. Kocot, M. Hueschen, J. Posselt, B. Loh, G. Sasser, and D. Collins, “High-power truncated-inverted-pyramid (AlxGa1-x)0.5In0.5P/GaP, Light emitting diodes exhibiting >50% external quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(16), 2365–2367 (1999).
[Crossref]

Kung, C. Y.

R. H. Horng, C. E. Lee, C. Y. Kung, S. H. Huang, and D. S. Wuu, “High-power AlGaInP light-emitting diodes with patterned copper substrates by electroplating,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(4B4B), L576–L578 (2004).
[Crossref]

Kuo, C. P.

C. P. Kuo, R. M. Fletcher, T. D. Osentowski, M. C. Lardizabal, M. G. Craford, and V. M. Robbins, “High performance AlGaInP visible light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57(27), 2937–2939 (1990).
[Crossref]

Lai, N. K.

Lardizabal, M. C.

C. P. Kuo, R. M. Fletcher, T. D. Osentowski, M. C. Lardizabal, M. G. Craford, and V. M. Robbins, “High performance AlGaInP visible light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57(27), 2937–2939 (1990).
[Crossref]

Lee, C. E.

R. H. Horng, C. E. Lee, C. Y. Kung, S. H. Huang, and D. S. Wuu, “High-power AlGaInP light-emitting diodes with patterned copper substrates by electroplating,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(4B4B), L576–L578 (2004).
[Crossref]

Lin, M. T.

Liu, D.

Z. Zuo, R. Wang, D. Liu, Q. Yu, Z. Feng, and X. Xu, “Ultra bright AlGaInP light emitting diodes with pyramidally patterned GaP spreading layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(12), 121104 (2011).
[Crossref]

Loh, B.

M. R. Krames, M. Ochiai-Holcomb, G. E. Hofler, C. Carter-Coman, E. I. Chen, I.-H. Tan, P. Grillot, N. F. Gardner, H. C. Chui, J.-W. Huang, S. A. Stockman, F. A. Kish, M. G. Craford, T. S. Tan, C. P. Kocot, M. Hueschen, J. Posselt, B. Loh, G. Sasser, and D. Collins, “High-power truncated-inverted-pyramid (AlxGa1-x)0.5In0.5P/GaP, Light emitting diodes exhibiting >50% external quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(16), 2365–2367 (1999).
[Crossref]

Lu, F. C.

Morita, D.

D. Morita, M. Sano, M. Yamamoto, T. Murayama, S. I. Nagahama, and T. Mukai, “High Output Power 365 nm Ultraviolet Light Emitting Diode of GaN-Free Structure,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41(12B), L1434–L1436 (2002).
[Crossref]

Mueller, G. O.

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state Lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 3(2), 160–175 (2007).
[Crossref]

Mueller-Mach, R.

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state Lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 3(2), 160–175 (2007).
[Crossref]

Mukai, T.

D. Morita, M. Sano, M. Yamamoto, T. Murayama, S. I. Nagahama, and T. Mukai, “High Output Power 365 nm Ultraviolet Light Emitting Diode of GaN-Free Structure,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41(12B), L1434–L1436 (2002).
[Crossref]

Murayama, T.

D. Morita, M. Sano, M. Yamamoto, T. Murayama, S. I. Nagahama, and T. Mukai, “High Output Power 365 nm Ultraviolet Light Emitting Diode of GaN-Free Structure,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41(12B), L1434–L1436 (2002).
[Crossref]

Nagahama, S. I.

D. Morita, M. Sano, M. Yamamoto, T. Murayama, S. I. Nagahama, and T. Mukai, “High Output Power 365 nm Ultraviolet Light Emitting Diode of GaN-Free Structure,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41(12B), L1434–L1436 (2002).
[Crossref]

Ochiai-Holcomb, M.

M. R. Krames, M. Ochiai-Holcomb, G. E. Hofler, C. Carter-Coman, E. I. Chen, I.-H. Tan, P. Grillot, N. F. Gardner, H. C. Chui, J.-W. Huang, S. A. Stockman, F. A. Kish, M. G. Craford, T. S. Tan, C. P. Kocot, M. Hueschen, J. Posselt, B. Loh, G. Sasser, and D. Collins, “High-power truncated-inverted-pyramid (AlxGa1-x)0.5In0.5P/GaP, Light emitting diodes exhibiting >50% external quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(16), 2365–2367 (1999).
[Crossref]

Osentowski, T. D.

C. P. Kuo, R. M. Fletcher, T. D. Osentowski, M. C. Lardizabal, M. G. Craford, and V. M. Robbins, “High performance AlGaInP visible light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57(27), 2937–2939 (1990).
[Crossref]

Ou, S. L.

Peng, Y. R.

Pitely, S.

S. Pitely, L. Zavalij, S. Zarembo, and E. J. Cotts, “Linear coefficients of thermal expansion of Au0.5Ni0.5Sn4, Au0.75Ni0.25Sn4, and AuSn4,” Scr. Mater. 51(7), 745–749 (2004).
[Crossref]

Posselt, J.

M. R. Krames, M. Ochiai-Holcomb, G. E. Hofler, C. Carter-Coman, E. I. Chen, I.-H. Tan, P. Grillot, N. F. Gardner, H. C. Chui, J.-W. Huang, S. A. Stockman, F. A. Kish, M. G. Craford, T. S. Tan, C. P. Kocot, M. Hueschen, J. Posselt, B. Loh, G. Sasser, and D. Collins, “High-power truncated-inverted-pyramid (AlxGa1-x)0.5In0.5P/GaP, Light emitting diodes exhibiting >50% external quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(16), 2365–2367 (1999).
[Crossref]

Robbins, V. M.

C. P. Kuo, R. M. Fletcher, T. D. Osentowski, M. C. Lardizabal, M. G. Craford, and V. M. Robbins, “High performance AlGaInP visible light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57(27), 2937–2939 (1990).
[Crossref]

Sano, M.

D. Morita, M. Sano, M. Yamamoto, T. Murayama, S. I. Nagahama, and T. Mukai, “High Output Power 365 nm Ultraviolet Light Emitting Diode of GaN-Free Structure,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41(12B), L1434–L1436 (2002).
[Crossref]

Sasser, G.

M. R. Krames, M. Ochiai-Holcomb, G. E. Hofler, C. Carter-Coman, E. I. Chen, I.-H. Tan, P. Grillot, N. F. Gardner, H. C. Chui, J.-W. Huang, S. A. Stockman, F. A. Kish, M. G. Craford, T. S. Tan, C. P. Kocot, M. Hueschen, J. Posselt, B. Loh, G. Sasser, and D. Collins, “High-power truncated-inverted-pyramid (AlxGa1-x)0.5In0.5P/GaP, Light emitting diodes exhibiting >50% external quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(16), 2365–2367 (1999).
[Crossref]

Schnitzer, I.

I. Schnitzer, E. Yablonovitch, C. Caneau, and T. J. Gmitter, “Ultrahigh spontaneous emission quantum efficiency 99.7% internally and 72% externally from AlGaAs/ GaAs/AlGaAs double hetero-structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62(2), 131–133 (1993).
[Crossref]

Schubert, E. F.

T. Gessmann and E. F. Schubert, “High-efficiency AlGaInP light emitting diodes for solid-state lighting applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(5), 2203–2216 (2004).
[Crossref]

Shchekin, O. B.

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state Lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 3(2), 160–175 (2007).
[Crossref]

Stockman, S. A.

M. R. Krames, M. Ochiai-Holcomb, G. E. Hofler, C. Carter-Coman, E. I. Chen, I.-H. Tan, P. Grillot, N. F. Gardner, H. C. Chui, J.-W. Huang, S. A. Stockman, F. A. Kish, M. G. Craford, T. S. Tan, C. P. Kocot, M. Hueschen, J. Posselt, B. Loh, G. Sasser, and D. Collins, “High-power truncated-inverted-pyramid (AlxGa1-x)0.5In0.5P/GaP, Light emitting diodes exhibiting >50% external quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(16), 2365–2367 (1999).
[Crossref]

Sugawara, H.

H. Sugawara, M. Ishikawa, and G. Hatakoshi, “High-efficiency InGaAlP/GaAs visible light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58(10), 1010–1012 (1991).
[Crossref]

Tan, I.-H.

M. R. Krames, M. Ochiai-Holcomb, G. E. Hofler, C. Carter-Coman, E. I. Chen, I.-H. Tan, P. Grillot, N. F. Gardner, H. C. Chui, J.-W. Huang, S. A. Stockman, F. A. Kish, M. G. Craford, T. S. Tan, C. P. Kocot, M. Hueschen, J. Posselt, B. Loh, G. Sasser, and D. Collins, “High-power truncated-inverted-pyramid (AlxGa1-x)0.5In0.5P/GaP, Light emitting diodes exhibiting >50% external quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(16), 2365–2367 (1999).
[Crossref]

Tan, T. S.

M. R. Krames, M. Ochiai-Holcomb, G. E. Hofler, C. Carter-Coman, E. I. Chen, I.-H. Tan, P. Grillot, N. F. Gardner, H. C. Chui, J.-W. Huang, S. A. Stockman, F. A. Kish, M. G. Craford, T. S. Tan, C. P. Kocot, M. Hueschen, J. Posselt, B. Loh, G. Sasser, and D. Collins, “High-power truncated-inverted-pyramid (AlxGa1-x)0.5In0.5P/GaP, Light emitting diodes exhibiting >50% external quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(16), 2365–2367 (1999).
[Crossref]

Tarn Tair, F. G.

R. H. Horng, H. Y. Chien, K. Y. Chen, W. Y. Tseng, Y. T. Tsai, and F. G. Tarn Tair, “Development and Fabrication of AlGaInP-Based Flip-Chip Micro-LEDs,” IEEE J. Electron Devi. 6, 475–479 (2018).

Tsai, Y. T.

R. H. Horng, H. Y. Chien, K. Y. Chen, W. Y. Tseng, Y. T. Tsai, and F. G. Tarn Tair, “Development and Fabrication of AlGaInP-Based Flip-Chip Micro-LEDs,” IEEE J. Electron Devi. 6, 475–479 (2018).

Tseng, M. C.

Tseng, W. Y.

R. H. Horng, H. Y. Chien, K. Y. Chen, W. Y. Tseng, Y. T. Tsai, and F. G. Tarn Tair, “Development and Fabrication of AlGaInP-Based Flip-Chip Micro-LEDs,” IEEE J. Electron Devi. 6, 475–479 (2018).

Wang, R.

Z. Zuo, R. Wang, D. Liu, Q. Yu, Z. Feng, and X. Xu, “Ultra bright AlGaInP light emitting diodes with pyramidally patterned GaP spreading layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(12), 121104 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wu, F. L.

Wuu, D. S.

R. H. Horng, C. E. Lee, C. Y. Kung, S. H. Huang, and D. S. Wuu, “High-power AlGaInP light-emitting diodes with patterned copper substrates by electroplating,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(4B4B), L576–L578 (2004).
[Crossref]

Xu, X.

Z. Zuo, R. Wang, D. Liu, Q. Yu, Z. Feng, and X. Xu, “Ultra bright AlGaInP light emitting diodes with pyramidally patterned GaP spreading layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(12), 121104 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yablonovitch, E.

I. Schnitzer, E. Yablonovitch, C. Caneau, and T. J. Gmitter, “Ultrahigh spontaneous emission quantum efficiency 99.7% internally and 72% externally from AlGaAs/ GaAs/AlGaAs double hetero-structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62(2), 131–133 (1993).
[Crossref]

Yamamoto, M.

D. Morita, M. Sano, M. Yamamoto, T. Murayama, S. I. Nagahama, and T. Mukai, “High Output Power 365 nm Ultraviolet Light Emitting Diode of GaN-Free Structure,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41(12B), L1434–L1436 (2002).
[Crossref]

Yu, Q.

Z. Zuo, R. Wang, D. Liu, Q. Yu, Z. Feng, and X. Xu, “Ultra bright AlGaInP light emitting diodes with pyramidally patterned GaP spreading layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(12), 121104 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zarembo, S.

S. Pitely, L. Zavalij, S. Zarembo, and E. J. Cotts, “Linear coefficients of thermal expansion of Au0.5Ni0.5Sn4, Au0.75Ni0.25Sn4, and AuSn4,” Scr. Mater. 51(7), 745–749 (2004).
[Crossref]

Zavalij, L.

S. Pitely, L. Zavalij, S. Zarembo, and E. J. Cotts, “Linear coefficients of thermal expansion of Au0.5Ni0.5Sn4, Au0.75Ni0.25Sn4, and AuSn4,” Scr. Mater. 51(7), 745–749 (2004).
[Crossref]

Zhou, L.

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state Lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 3(2), 160–175 (2007).
[Crossref]

Zuo, Z.

Z. Zuo, R. Wang, D. Liu, Q. Yu, Z. Feng, and X. Xu, “Ultra bright AlGaInP light emitting diodes with pyramidally patterned GaP spreading layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(12), 121104 (2011).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

I. Schnitzer, E. Yablonovitch, C. Caneau, and T. J. Gmitter, “Ultrahigh spontaneous emission quantum efficiency 99.7% internally and 72% externally from AlGaAs/ GaAs/AlGaAs double hetero-structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62(2), 131–133 (1993).
[Crossref]

C. P. Kuo, R. M. Fletcher, T. D. Osentowski, M. C. Lardizabal, M. G. Craford, and V. M. Robbins, “High performance AlGaInP visible light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57(27), 2937–2939 (1990).
[Crossref]

H. Sugawara, M. Ishikawa, and G. Hatakoshi, “High-efficiency InGaAlP/GaAs visible light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58(10), 1010–1012 (1991).
[Crossref]

M. R. Krames, M. Ochiai-Holcomb, G. E. Hofler, C. Carter-Coman, E. I. Chen, I.-H. Tan, P. Grillot, N. F. Gardner, H. C. Chui, J.-W. Huang, S. A. Stockman, F. A. Kish, M. G. Craford, T. S. Tan, C. P. Kocot, M. Hueschen, J. Posselt, B. Loh, G. Sasser, and D. Collins, “High-power truncated-inverted-pyramid (AlxGa1-x)0.5In0.5P/GaP, Light emitting diodes exhibiting >50% external quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(16), 2365–2367 (1999).
[Crossref]

Z. Zuo, R. Wang, D. Liu, Q. Yu, Z. Feng, and X. Xu, “Ultra bright AlGaInP light emitting diodes with pyramidally patterned GaP spreading layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(12), 121104 (2011).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Electron Devi. (1)

R. H. Horng, H. Y. Chien, K. Y. Chen, W. Y. Tseng, Y. T. Tsai, and F. G. Tarn Tair, “Development and Fabrication of AlGaInP-Based Flip-Chip Micro-LEDs,” IEEE J. Electron Devi. 6, 475–479 (2018).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

T. Gessmann and E. F. Schubert, “High-efficiency AlGaInP light emitting diodes for solid-state lighting applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(5), 2203–2216 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Disp. Technol. (1)

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state Lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 3(2), 160–175 (2007).
[Crossref]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (2)

D. Morita, M. Sano, M. Yamamoto, T. Murayama, S. I. Nagahama, and T. Mukai, “High Output Power 365 nm Ultraviolet Light Emitting Diode of GaN-Free Structure,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41(12B), L1434–L1436 (2002).
[Crossref]

R. H. Horng, C. E. Lee, C. Y. Kung, S. H. Huang, and D. S. Wuu, “High-power AlGaInP light-emitting diodes with patterned copper substrates by electroplating,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(4B4B), L576–L578 (2004).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (2)

Scr. Mater. (1)

S. Pitely, L. Zavalij, S. Zarembo, and E. J. Cotts, “Linear coefficients of thermal expansion of Au0.5Ni0.5Sn4, Au0.75Ni0.25Sn4, and AuSn4,” Scr. Mater. 51(7), 745–749 (2004).
[Crossref]

Other (2)

R. E. Taylor and C. Y. Ho, Thermal expansion of solids: CINDAS Data series on material properties, 1–4 (ASM International, 1998).

Y. S. Touloukian, Thermal expansion: metallic elements and alloys (IFI/Plenum, 1975).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Cross-sectional SEM image of CIC substrate.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Expansion displacement of CIC as function of temperature. The inset is the side view of the AlGaInP transferring on the CIC substrate.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Contact angles of CIC substrates treated by various methods.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Low adhesive strength of bonding metal Sn with CIC substrate without surface treatment and (b) Strong adhesion of bonding metal Sn with CIC substrate with surface treatment.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Radius and curve of CIC with 4-inch diameter before wafer bonding and (b) Radius and curve of CIC with 4-inch diameter after wafer bonding.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 I-V characteristics of LEDs/CIC. Inset shows the reverse currents of an LED chip as a function of the voltage.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Output power of LEDs/CIC as function of current. Inset shows the wavelength-current characteristics.

Equations (1)

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α= ΔL L o ΔT

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