Abstract

A novel back-contacted solar cell based on a submicron copper indium gallium (di)selenide (CIGS) absorber is proposed and optically investigated. First, charge carrier collection feasibility is studied by band diagram analysis. Then, two back-contacted configurations are suggested and optimized for maximum current production. The results are compared with a reference front/back-contacted CIGS solar cell with a 750-nm-thick absorber. Current density production of 38.84 mA/cm2 is predicted according to our simulations for a realistic front-side texturing. This shows more than 38% improvement in optical performance compared to the reference cell and only 7.7% deviation from the theoretical Green absorption benchmark.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2019 (2)

N. Rezaei, O. Isabella, Z. A. E. P. Vroon, and M. Zeman, “Optical optimization of a multi-layer wideband anti-reflection coating using porous MgF2 for sub-micron-thick CIGS solar cells,” Sol. Energy 177, 59–67 (2019).

R. Vismara, O. Isabella, A. Ingenito, F. T. Si, and M. Zeman, “Geometrical optimisation of core-shell nanowire array for enhanced absorption in thin crystalline silicon heterojunction solar cells,” Beilstein J. Nanotechnol. 10, 322-331 (2019).

2018 (9)

O. Isabella, R. Vismara, D. N. P. Linssen, K. X. Wang, S. Fan, and M. Zeman, “Advanced light trapping scheme in decoupled front and rear textured thin-film silicon solar cells,” Sol. Energy 162, 344–356 (2018).
[Crossref]

N. Rezaei, O. Isabella, Z. Vroon, and M. Zeman, “Quenching Mo optical losses in CIGS solar cells by a point contacted dual-layer dielectric spacer: a 3-D optical study,” Opt. Express 26(2), A39–A53 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. M. Mansfield, A. Kanevce, S. P. Harvey, K. Bowers, C. Beall, S. Glynn, and I. L. Repins, “Efficiency increased to 15.2% for ultra-thin Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 26(11), 949–954 (2018).
[Crossref]

G. Yin, P. Manley, and M. Schmid, “Light trapping in ultrathin CuIn1-xGaxSe2 solar cells by dielectric nanoparticles,” Sol. Energy 163, 443–452 (2018).
[Crossref]

G. Yang, P. Guo, P. Procel, G. Limodio, A. Weeber, O. Isabella, and M. Zeman, “High-efficiency black IBC c-Si solar cells with poly-Si as carrier-selective passivating contacts,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 186, 9–13 (2018).
[Crossref]

P. Wagner, J. C. Stang, M. Mews, A. B. Morales-Vilches, B. Stannowski, B. Stegemann, and L. Korte, “Interdigitated back contact silicon heterojunction solar cells: Towards an industrially applicable structuring method,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1999, 60001 (2018).
[Crossref]

F. Haase, C. Hollemann, S. Schäfer, A. Merkle, M. Rienäcker, J. Krügener, R. Brendel, and R. Peibst, “Laser contact openings for local poly-Si-metal contacts enabling 26.1%-efficient POLO-IBC solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 186, 184–193 (2018).
[Crossref]

P. Procel, G. Yang, O. Isabella, and M. Zeman, “Theoretical evaluation of contact stack for high efficiency IBC-SHJ solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 186(May), 66–77 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. J. Blanker, P. Berendsen, N. Phung, Z. Vroon, M. Zeman, and A. H. M. Smets, “Advanced light management techniques for two-terminal hybrid tandem solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 181, 77–82 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (7)

D. J. Hwang, S. Kuk, Z. Wang, S. Fu, T. Zhang, G. Kim, W. M. Kim, and J.-H. Jeong, “Laser scribing of CIGS thin-film solar cell on flexible substrate,” Appl. Phys. A 123(1), 55 (2017).
[Crossref]

P. Procel, A. Ingenito, R. De Rose, S. Pierro, F. Crupi, M. Lanuzza, G. Cocorullo, O. Isabella, and M. Zeman, “Opto-electrical modelling and optimization study of a novel IBC c-Si solar cell,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 25(6), 452–469 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Tomasi, B. Paviet-Salomon, Q. Jeangros, J. Haschke, G. Christmann, L. Barraud, A. Descoeudres, J. P. Seif, S. Nicolay, M. Despeisse, S. De Wolf, and C. Ballif, “Simple processing of back-contacted silicon heterojunction solar cells using selective-area crystalline growth,” Nat. Energy 2(5), 17062 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. Yoshikawa, H. Kawasaki, W. Yoshida, T. Irie, K. Konishi, K. Nakano, T. Uto, D. Adachi, M. Kanematsu, H. Uzu, and K. Yamamoto, “Silicon heterojunction solar cell with interdigitated back contacts for a photoconversion efficiency over 26%,” Nat. Energy 2(5), 17032 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Goffard, C. Colin, F. Mollica, A. Cattoni, C. Sauvan, P. Lalanne, J.-F. Guillemoles, N. Naghavi, and S. Collin, “Light trapping in ultrathin CIGS solar cells with nanostructured back mirrors,” IEEE J. Photovolt. 7(5), 1433–1441 (2017).
[Crossref]

R. Vismara, O. Isabella, and M. Zeman, “Back-contacted BaSi2 solar cells: an optical study,” Opt. Express 25(8), A402–A408 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Schmid, “Review on light management by nanostructures in chalcopyrite solar cells,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 32(4), 43003 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (6)

C. Onwudinanti, R. Vismara, O. Isabella, L. Grenet, F. Emieux, and M. Zeman, “Advanced light management based on periodic textures for Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin-film solar cells,” Opt. Express 24(6), A693–A707 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Onwudinanti, R. Vismara, O. Isabella, L. Grenet, F. Emieux, and M. Zeman, “Advanced light management based on periodic textures for Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin-film solar cells,” Opt. Express 24(6), A693–A707 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Krc, M. Sever, A. Campa, Z. Lokar, B. Lipovsek, and M. Topic, “Optical confinement in chalcopyrite based solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 633, 193–201 (2016).

M. Schmid, P. Manley, A. Ott, M. Song, and G. Yin, “Nanoparticles for light management in ultrathin chalcopyrite solar cells,” J. Mater. Res. 31(21), 3273–3289 (2016).

P. Jackson, R. Wuerz, D. Hariskos, E. Lotter, W. Witte, and M. Powalla, “Effects of heavy alkali elements in Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells with efficiencies up to 22.6%,” Phys. Status Solidi-R 10(8), 583–586, Wiley Online Library (2016).

S. R. Thomas, C.-W. Chen, M. Date, Y.-C. Wang, H.-W. Tsai, Z. M. Wang, and Y.-L. Chueh, “Recent developments in the synthesis of nanostructured chalcopyrite materials and their applications: a review,” RSC Advances 6(65), 60643–60656 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (5)

R. Kotipalli, B. Vermang, J. Joel, R. Rajkumar, M. Edoff, and D. Flandre, “Investigating the electronic properties of Al2O3 Cu(In,Ga)Se2 interface,” AIP Adv. 5(10), 107101 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Ingenito, O. Isabella, and M. Zeman, “Nano‐cones on micro‐pyramids: modulated surface textures for maximal spectral response and high‐efficiency solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 23(11), 1649–1659 (2015).
[Crossref]

E. Jarzembowski, M. Maiberg, F. Obereigner, K. Kaufmann, S. Krause, and R. Scheer, “Optical and electrical characterization of Cu (In, Ga) Se2 thin film solar cells with varied absorber layer thickness,” Thin Solid Films 576, 75–80 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. Vermang, J. T. Wätjen, V. Fjällström, F. Rostvall, M. Edoff, R. Gunnarsson, I. Pilch, U. Helmersson, R. Kotipalli, F. Henry, and D. Flandre, “Highly reflective rear surface passivation design for ultra-thin Cu (In, Ga) Se2 solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 582, 300–303 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. Vermang, J. T. Wätjen, V. Fjällström, F. Rostvall, M. Edoff, R. Gunnarsson, I. Pilch, U. Helmersson, R. Kotipalli, F. Henry, and D. Flandre, “Highly reflective rear surface passivation design for ultra-thin Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 582, 300–303 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (5)

K. Masuko, M. Shigematsu, T. Hashiguchi, D. Fujishima, M. Kai, N. Yoshimura, T. Yamaguchi, Y. Ichihashi, T. Mishima, N. Matsubara, T. Yamanishi, T. Takahama, M. Taguchi, E. Maruyama, and S. Okamoto, “Achievement of more than 25% conversion efficiency with crystalline silicon heterojunction solar cell,” IEEE J. Photovolt. 4(6), 1433–1435 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Nakamura, N. Asano, T. Hieda, C. Okamoto, H. Katayama, and K. Nakamura, “Development of heterojunction back contact Si solar cells,” IEEE J. Photovolt. 4(6), 1491–1495 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Hara, T. Maekawa, S. Minoura, Y. Sago, S. Niki, and H. Fujiwara, “Quantitative Assessment of Optical Gain and Loss in Submicron-Textured CuIn 1−x Ga x Se2 Solar Cells Fabricated by Three-Stage Coevaporation,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 2(3), 34012 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. S. Schuster, A. Bozzola, L. C. Andreani, and T. F. Krauss, “How to assess light trapping structures versus a Lambertian Scatterer for solar cells?” Opt. Express 22(S2Suppl 2), A542–A551 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Isabella, H. Sai, M. Kondo, and M. Zeman, “Full-wave optoelectrical modeling of optimized flattened light-scattering substrate for high efficiency thin-film silicon solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 22(6), 671–689 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

O. Isabella, S. Solntsev, D. Caratelli, and M. Zeman, “3-D optical modeling of thin-film silicon solar cells on diffraction gratings,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 21(1), 94–108 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

K. X. Wang, Z. Yu, V. Liu, Y. Cui, and S. Fan, “Absorption enhancement in ultrathin crystalline silicon solar cells with antireflection and light-trapping nanocone gratings,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1616–1619 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Dingemans and W. M. M. Kessels, “Status and prospects of Al2O3-based surface passivation schemes for silicon solar cells,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 30(4), 040802 (2012).

2011 (3)

J. Pettersson, C. Platzer-Björkman, U. Zimmermann, and M. Edoff, “Baseline model of graded-absorber Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells applied to cells with Zn1−xMgxO buffer layers,” Thin Solid Films 519(21), 7476–7480 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. H. Liu, C. H. Chen, S. Y. Chen, Y. T. Yen, W. C. Kuo, Y. K. Liao, J. Y. Juang, H. C. Kuo, C. H. Lai, L. J. Chen, and Y. L. Chueh, “Large scale single-crystal Cu(In,Ga)Se2 nanotip arrays for high efficiency solar cell,” Nano Lett. 11(10), 4443–4448 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Jehl, F. Erfurth, N. Naghavi, L. Lombez, I. Gerard, M. Bouttemy, P. Tran-Van, A. Etcheberry, G. Voorwinden, B. Dimmler, W. Wischmann, M. Powalla, J. F. Guillemoles, and D. Lincot, “Thinning of CIGS solar cells: Part II: Cell characterizations,” Thin Solid Films 519(21), 7212–7215 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (3)

G. Brown, V. Faifer, A. Pudov, S. Anikeev, E. Bykov, M. Contreras, and J. Wu, “Determination of the minority carrier diffusion length in compositionally graded Cu(In, Ga)Se2 solar cells using electron beam induced current,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(2), 22104 (2010).
[Crossref]

L. Aé, D. Kieven, J. Chen, R. Klenk, T. Rissom, Y. Tang, and M. C. Lux-Steiner, “ZnO nanorod arrays as an antireflective coating for Cu (In, Ga) Se2 thin film solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 18(3), 209–213 (2010).
[Crossref]

G. Dingemans, M. C. M. van de Sanden, and W. M. M. Kessels, “Influence of the Deposition Temperature on the c-Si Surface Passivation by Al2O3 Films Synthesized by ALD and PECVD,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 13(3), H76 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

R. Kniese, M. Powalla, and U. Rau, “Evaluation of electron beam induced current profiles of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells with different Ga-contents,” Thin Solid Films 517(7), 2357–2359 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

J. D. Bass, C. Boissiere, L. Nicole, D. Grosso, and C. Sanchez, “Thermally Induced Porosity in CSD MgF2-Based Optical Coatings: An Easy Method to Tune the Refractive Index,” Chem. Mater. 20(17), 5550–5556 (2008).
[Crossref]

I. Repins, M. A. Contreras, B. Egaas, C. DeHart, J. Scharf, C. L. Perkins, B. To, and R. Noufi, “19· 9%‐efficient ZnO/CdS/CuInGaSe2 solar cell with 81· 2% fill factor,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 16(3), 235–239 (2008).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

O. Lundberg, M. Edoff, and L. Stolt, “The effect of Ga-grading in CIGS thin film solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 480, 520–525 (2005).
[Crossref]

H. Fujiwara and M. Kondo, “Effects of carrier concentration on the dielectric function of ZnO:Ga and In2O3:Sn studied by spectroscopic ellipsometry: Analysis of free-carrier and band-edge absorption,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 71(7), 75109 (2005).
[Crossref]

2003 (2)

K. Orgassa, H. W. Schock, and J. H. Werner, “Alternative back contact materials for thin film Cu (In, Ga) Se2 solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 431, 387–391 (2003).
[Crossref]

O. Lundberg, M. Bodegård, J. Malmström, and L. Stolt, “Influence of the Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thickness and Ga grading on solar cell performance,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 11(2), 77–88 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

M. A. Green, “Lambertian light trapping in textured solar cells and light-emitting diodes: Analytical solutions,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 10(4), 235–241 (2002).
[Crossref]

1984 (1)

1977 (1)

M. D. Lammert and R. J. Schwartz, “The interdigitated back contact solar cell: a silicon solar cell for use in concentrated sunlight,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 24(4), 337–342 (1977).
[Crossref]

Adachi, D.

K. Yoshikawa, H. Kawasaki, W. Yoshida, T. Irie, K. Konishi, K. Nakano, T. Uto, D. Adachi, M. Kanematsu, H. Uzu, and K. Yamamoto, “Silicon heterojunction solar cell with interdigitated back contacts for a photoconversion efficiency over 26%,” Nat. Energy 2(5), 17032 (2017).
[Crossref]

Aé, L.

L. Aé, D. Kieven, J. Chen, R. Klenk, T. Rissom, Y. Tang, and M. C. Lux-Steiner, “ZnO nanorod arrays as an antireflective coating for Cu (In, Ga) Se2 thin film solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 18(3), 209–213 (2010).
[Crossref]

Andreani, L. C.

Anikeev, S.

G. Brown, V. Faifer, A. Pudov, S. Anikeev, E. Bykov, M. Contreras, and J. Wu, “Determination of the minority carrier diffusion length in compositionally graded Cu(In, Ga)Se2 solar cells using electron beam induced current,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(2), 22104 (2010).
[Crossref]

Anita, E.

Y. Hishikawa, E. D. Dunlop, M. A. Green, J. Hohl, E. Anita, W. Y. H. Baillie, and D. H. Levi, “Solar cell efficiency tables (version 52),” 427–436 (2018).

Asano, N.

J. Nakamura, N. Asano, T. Hieda, C. Okamoto, H. Katayama, and K. Nakamura, “Development of heterojunction back contact Si solar cells,” IEEE J. Photovolt. 4(6), 1491–1495 (2014).
[Crossref]

Baillie, W. Y. H.

Y. Hishikawa, E. D. Dunlop, M. A. Green, J. Hohl, E. Anita, W. Y. H. Baillie, and D. H. Levi, “Solar cell efficiency tables (version 52),” 427–436 (2018).

Baldrias, M.

D. D. Smith, G. Reich, M. Baldrias, M. Reich, N. Boitnott, and G. Bunea, “Silicon solar cells with total area efficiency above 25%,” in Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC), 2016 IEEE 43rd, 3351–3355IEEE, (2016).
[Crossref]

Ballif, C.

A. Tomasi, B. Paviet-Salomon, Q. Jeangros, J. Haschke, G. Christmann, L. Barraud, A. Descoeudres, J. P. Seif, S. Nicolay, M. Despeisse, S. De Wolf, and C. Ballif, “Simple processing of back-contacted silicon heterojunction solar cells using selective-area crystalline growth,” Nat. Energy 2(5), 17062 (2017).
[Crossref]

Barraud, L.

A. Tomasi, B. Paviet-Salomon, Q. Jeangros, J. Haschke, G. Christmann, L. Barraud, A. Descoeudres, J. P. Seif, S. Nicolay, M. Despeisse, S. De Wolf, and C. Ballif, “Simple processing of back-contacted silicon heterojunction solar cells using selective-area crystalline growth,” Nat. Energy 2(5), 17062 (2017).
[Crossref]

Bass, J. D.

J. D. Bass, C. Boissiere, L. Nicole, D. Grosso, and C. Sanchez, “Thermally Induced Porosity in CSD MgF2-Based Optical Coatings: An Easy Method to Tune the Refractive Index,” Chem. Mater. 20(17), 5550–5556 (2008).
[Crossref]

Beall, C.

L. M. Mansfield, A. Kanevce, S. P. Harvey, K. Bowers, C. Beall, S. Glynn, and I. L. Repins, “Efficiency increased to 15.2% for ultra-thin Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 26(11), 949–954 (2018).
[Crossref]

Berendsen, P.

A. J. Blanker, P. Berendsen, N. Phung, Z. Vroon, M. Zeman, and A. H. M. Smets, “Advanced light management techniques for two-terminal hybrid tandem solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 181, 77–82 (2018).
[Crossref]

Blanker, A. J.

A. J. Blanker, P. Berendsen, N. Phung, Z. Vroon, M. Zeman, and A. H. M. Smets, “Advanced light management techniques for two-terminal hybrid tandem solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 181, 77–82 (2018).
[Crossref]

Bodegård, M.

O. Lundberg, M. Bodegård, J. Malmström, and L. Stolt, “Influence of the Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thickness and Ga grading on solar cell performance,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 11(2), 77–88 (2003).
[Crossref]

Boissiere, C.

J. D. Bass, C. Boissiere, L. Nicole, D. Grosso, and C. Sanchez, “Thermally Induced Porosity in CSD MgF2-Based Optical Coatings: An Easy Method to Tune the Refractive Index,” Chem. Mater. 20(17), 5550–5556 (2008).
[Crossref]

Boitnott, N.

D. D. Smith, G. Reich, M. Baldrias, M. Reich, N. Boitnott, and G. Bunea, “Silicon solar cells with total area efficiency above 25%,” in Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC), 2016 IEEE 43rd, 3351–3355IEEE, (2016).
[Crossref]

Bouttemy, M.

Z. Jehl, F. Erfurth, N. Naghavi, L. Lombez, I. Gerard, M. Bouttemy, P. Tran-Van, A. Etcheberry, G. Voorwinden, B. Dimmler, W. Wischmann, M. Powalla, J. F. Guillemoles, and D. Lincot, “Thinning of CIGS solar cells: Part II: Cell characterizations,” Thin Solid Films 519(21), 7212–7215 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bowers, K.

L. M. Mansfield, A. Kanevce, S. P. Harvey, K. Bowers, C. Beall, S. Glynn, and I. L. Repins, “Efficiency increased to 15.2% for ultra-thin Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 26(11), 949–954 (2018).
[Crossref]

Bozzola, A.

Brendel, R.

F. Haase, C. Hollemann, S. Schäfer, A. Merkle, M. Rienäcker, J. Krügener, R. Brendel, and R. Peibst, “Laser contact openings for local poly-Si-metal contacts enabling 26.1%-efficient POLO-IBC solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 186, 184–193 (2018).
[Crossref]

Britt, J.

R. Kaczynski, J. Lee, J. van Alsburg, B. Sang, U. Schoop, and J. Britt, “In-line Potassium Fluoride Treatment of CIGS Absorbers Deposited on Flexible Substrates in a Production-Scale Process Tool,” in IEEE PVSC, 1455–1458IEEE, (2017).

Brown, G.

G. Brown, V. Faifer, A. Pudov, S. Anikeev, E. Bykov, M. Contreras, and J. Wu, “Determination of the minority carrier diffusion length in compositionally graded Cu(In, Ga)Se2 solar cells using electron beam induced current,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(2), 22104 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bunea, G.

D. D. Smith, G. Reich, M. Baldrias, M. Reich, N. Boitnott, and G. Bunea, “Silicon solar cells with total area efficiency above 25%,” in Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC), 2016 IEEE 43rd, 3351–3355IEEE, (2016).
[Crossref]

Bykov, E.

G. Brown, V. Faifer, A. Pudov, S. Anikeev, E. Bykov, M. Contreras, and J. Wu, “Determination of the minority carrier diffusion length in compositionally graded Cu(In, Ga)Se2 solar cells using electron beam induced current,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(2), 22104 (2010).
[Crossref]

Campa, A.

J. Krc, M. Sever, A. Campa, Z. Lokar, B. Lipovsek, and M. Topic, “Optical confinement in chalcopyrite based solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 633, 193–201 (2016).

Caratelli, D.

O. Isabella, S. Solntsev, D. Caratelli, and M. Zeman, “3-D optical modeling of thin-film silicon solar cells on diffraction gratings,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 21(1), 94–108 (2013).
[Crossref]

Cattoni, A.

J. Goffard, C. Colin, F. Mollica, A. Cattoni, C. Sauvan, P. Lalanne, J.-F. Guillemoles, N. Naghavi, and S. Collin, “Light trapping in ultrathin CIGS solar cells with nanostructured back mirrors,” IEEE J. Photovolt. 7(5), 1433–1441 (2017).
[Crossref]

F. Mollica, J. Goffard, M. Jubault, F. Donsanti, S. Collin, A. Cattoni, L. Lombez, N. Naghavi, R. Edf, I. Umr, and D. Renaissance, “Comparative study of patterned TiO 2 and Al 2 O 3 layers as passivated back-contact for ultra-thin Cu (In, Ga)Se2 solar cells,” in Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC), 2016 IEEE 43rd, 6–10IEEE, (2016).

Chen, C. H.

C. H. Liu, C. H. Chen, S. Y. Chen, Y. T. Yen, W. C. Kuo, Y. K. Liao, J. Y. Juang, H. C. Kuo, C. H. Lai, L. J. Chen, and Y. L. Chueh, “Large scale single-crystal Cu(In,Ga)Se2 nanotip arrays for high efficiency solar cell,” Nano Lett. 11(10), 4443–4448 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, C.-W.

S. R. Thomas, C.-W. Chen, M. Date, Y.-C. Wang, H.-W. Tsai, Z. M. Wang, and Y.-L. Chueh, “Recent developments in the synthesis of nanostructured chalcopyrite materials and their applications: a review,” RSC Advances 6(65), 60643–60656 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chen, J.

L. Aé, D. Kieven, J. Chen, R. Klenk, T. Rissom, Y. Tang, and M. C. Lux-Steiner, “ZnO nanorod arrays as an antireflective coating for Cu (In, Ga) Se2 thin film solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 18(3), 209–213 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chen, L. J.

C. H. Liu, C. H. Chen, S. Y. Chen, Y. T. Yen, W. C. Kuo, Y. K. Liao, J. Y. Juang, H. C. Kuo, C. H. Lai, L. J. Chen, and Y. L. Chueh, “Large scale single-crystal Cu(In,Ga)Se2 nanotip arrays for high efficiency solar cell,” Nano Lett. 11(10), 4443–4448 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, S. Y.

C. H. Liu, C. H. Chen, S. Y. Chen, Y. T. Yen, W. C. Kuo, Y. K. Liao, J. Y. Juang, H. C. Kuo, C. H. Lai, L. J. Chen, and Y. L. Chueh, “Large scale single-crystal Cu(In,Ga)Se2 nanotip arrays for high efficiency solar cell,” Nano Lett. 11(10), 4443–4448 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Christmann, G.

A. Tomasi, B. Paviet-Salomon, Q. Jeangros, J. Haschke, G. Christmann, L. Barraud, A. Descoeudres, J. P. Seif, S. Nicolay, M. Despeisse, S. De Wolf, and C. Ballif, “Simple processing of back-contacted silicon heterojunction solar cells using selective-area crystalline growth,” Nat. Energy 2(5), 17062 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chueh, Y. L.

C. H. Liu, C. H. Chen, S. Y. Chen, Y. T. Yen, W. C. Kuo, Y. K. Liao, J. Y. Juang, H. C. Kuo, C. H. Lai, L. J. Chen, and Y. L. Chueh, “Large scale single-crystal Cu(In,Ga)Se2 nanotip arrays for high efficiency solar cell,” Nano Lett. 11(10), 4443–4448 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chueh, Y.-L.

S. R. Thomas, C.-W. Chen, M. Date, Y.-C. Wang, H.-W. Tsai, Z. M. Wang, and Y.-L. Chueh, “Recent developments in the synthesis of nanostructured chalcopyrite materials and their applications: a review,” RSC Advances 6(65), 60643–60656 (2016).
[Crossref]

Cocorullo, G.

P. Procel, A. Ingenito, R. De Rose, S. Pierro, F. Crupi, M. Lanuzza, G. Cocorullo, O. Isabella, and M. Zeman, “Opto-electrical modelling and optimization study of a novel IBC c-Si solar cell,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 25(6), 452–469 (2017).
[Crossref]

Colin, C.

J. Goffard, C. Colin, F. Mollica, A. Cattoni, C. Sauvan, P. Lalanne, J.-F. Guillemoles, N. Naghavi, and S. Collin, “Light trapping in ultrathin CIGS solar cells with nanostructured back mirrors,” IEEE J. Photovolt. 7(5), 1433–1441 (2017).
[Crossref]

Collin, S.

J. Goffard, C. Colin, F. Mollica, A. Cattoni, C. Sauvan, P. Lalanne, J.-F. Guillemoles, N. Naghavi, and S. Collin, “Light trapping in ultrathin CIGS solar cells with nanostructured back mirrors,” IEEE J. Photovolt. 7(5), 1433–1441 (2017).
[Crossref]

F. Mollica, J. Goffard, M. Jubault, F. Donsanti, S. Collin, A. Cattoni, L. Lombez, N. Naghavi, R. Edf, I. Umr, and D. Renaissance, “Comparative study of patterned TiO 2 and Al 2 O 3 layers as passivated back-contact for ultra-thin Cu (In, Ga)Se2 solar cells,” in Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC), 2016 IEEE 43rd, 6–10IEEE, (2016).

Contreras, M.

G. Brown, V. Faifer, A. Pudov, S. Anikeev, E. Bykov, M. Contreras, and J. Wu, “Determination of the minority carrier diffusion length in compositionally graded Cu(In, Ga)Se2 solar cells using electron beam induced current,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(2), 22104 (2010).
[Crossref]

Contreras, M. A.

I. Repins, M. A. Contreras, B. Egaas, C. DeHart, J. Scharf, C. L. Perkins, B. To, and R. Noufi, “19· 9%‐efficient ZnO/CdS/CuInGaSe2 solar cell with 81· 2% fill factor,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 16(3), 235–239 (2008).
[Crossref]

Crupi, F.

P. Procel, A. Ingenito, R. De Rose, S. Pierro, F. Crupi, M. Lanuzza, G. Cocorullo, O. Isabella, and M. Zeman, “Opto-electrical modelling and optimization study of a novel IBC c-Si solar cell,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 25(6), 452–469 (2017).
[Crossref]

Cui, Y.

K. X. Wang, Z. Yu, V. Liu, Y. Cui, and S. Fan, “Absorption enhancement in ultrathin crystalline silicon solar cells with antireflection and light-trapping nanocone gratings,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1616–1619 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Date, M.

S. R. Thomas, C.-W. Chen, M. Date, Y.-C. Wang, H.-W. Tsai, Z. M. Wang, and Y.-L. Chueh, “Recent developments in the synthesis of nanostructured chalcopyrite materials and their applications: a review,” RSC Advances 6(65), 60643–60656 (2016).
[Crossref]

De Rose, R.

P. Procel, A. Ingenito, R. De Rose, S. Pierro, F. Crupi, M. Lanuzza, G. Cocorullo, O. Isabella, and M. Zeman, “Opto-electrical modelling and optimization study of a novel IBC c-Si solar cell,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 25(6), 452–469 (2017).
[Crossref]

De Wolf, S.

A. Tomasi, B. Paviet-Salomon, Q. Jeangros, J. Haschke, G. Christmann, L. Barraud, A. Descoeudres, J. P. Seif, S. Nicolay, M. Despeisse, S. De Wolf, and C. Ballif, “Simple processing of back-contacted silicon heterojunction solar cells using selective-area crystalline growth,” Nat. Energy 2(5), 17062 (2017).
[Crossref]

DeHart, C.

I. Repins, M. A. Contreras, B. Egaas, C. DeHart, J. Scharf, C. L. Perkins, B. To, and R. Noufi, “19· 9%‐efficient ZnO/CdS/CuInGaSe2 solar cell with 81· 2% fill factor,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 16(3), 235–239 (2008).
[Crossref]

Descoeudres, A.

A. Tomasi, B. Paviet-Salomon, Q. Jeangros, J. Haschke, G. Christmann, L. Barraud, A. Descoeudres, J. P. Seif, S. Nicolay, M. Despeisse, S. De Wolf, and C. Ballif, “Simple processing of back-contacted silicon heterojunction solar cells using selective-area crystalline growth,” Nat. Energy 2(5), 17062 (2017).
[Crossref]

Despeisse, M.

A. Tomasi, B. Paviet-Salomon, Q. Jeangros, J. Haschke, G. Christmann, L. Barraud, A. Descoeudres, J. P. Seif, S. Nicolay, M. Despeisse, S. De Wolf, and C. Ballif, “Simple processing of back-contacted silicon heterojunction solar cells using selective-area crystalline growth,” Nat. Energy 2(5), 17062 (2017).
[Crossref]

Dimmler, B.

Z. Jehl, F. Erfurth, N. Naghavi, L. Lombez, I. Gerard, M. Bouttemy, P. Tran-Van, A. Etcheberry, G. Voorwinden, B. Dimmler, W. Wischmann, M. Powalla, J. F. Guillemoles, and D. Lincot, “Thinning of CIGS solar cells: Part II: Cell characterizations,” Thin Solid Films 519(21), 7212–7215 (2011).
[Crossref]

Dingemans, G.

G. Dingemans and W. M. M. Kessels, “Status and prospects of Al2O3-based surface passivation schemes for silicon solar cells,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 30(4), 040802 (2012).

G. Dingemans, M. C. M. van de Sanden, and W. M. M. Kessels, “Influence of the Deposition Temperature on the c-Si Surface Passivation by Al2O3 Films Synthesized by ALD and PECVD,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 13(3), H76 (2010).
[Crossref]

Dodge, M. J.

Donsanti, F.

F. Mollica, J. Goffard, M. Jubault, F. Donsanti, S. Collin, A. Cattoni, L. Lombez, N. Naghavi, R. Edf, I. Umr, and D. Renaissance, “Comparative study of patterned TiO 2 and Al 2 O 3 layers as passivated back-contact for ultra-thin Cu (In, Ga)Se2 solar cells,” in Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC), 2016 IEEE 43rd, 6–10IEEE, (2016).

Dunlop, E. D.

Y. Hishikawa, E. D. Dunlop, M. A. Green, J. Hohl, E. Anita, W. Y. H. Baillie, and D. H. Levi, “Solar cell efficiency tables (version 52),” 427–436 (2018).

Edf, R.

F. Mollica, J. Goffard, M. Jubault, F. Donsanti, S. Collin, A. Cattoni, L. Lombez, N. Naghavi, R. Edf, I. Umr, and D. Renaissance, “Comparative study of patterned TiO 2 and Al 2 O 3 layers as passivated back-contact for ultra-thin Cu (In, Ga)Se2 solar cells,” in Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC), 2016 IEEE 43rd, 6–10IEEE, (2016).

Edoff, M.

R. Kotipalli, B. Vermang, J. Joel, R. Rajkumar, M. Edoff, and D. Flandre, “Investigating the electronic properties of Al2O3 Cu(In,Ga)Se2 interface,” AIP Adv. 5(10), 107101 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. Vermang, J. T. Wätjen, V. Fjällström, F. Rostvall, M. Edoff, R. Gunnarsson, I. Pilch, U. Helmersson, R. Kotipalli, F. Henry, and D. Flandre, “Highly reflective rear surface passivation design for ultra-thin Cu (In, Ga) Se2 solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 582, 300–303 (2015).
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B. Vermang, J. T. Wätjen, V. Fjällström, F. Rostvall, M. Edoff, R. Gunnarsson, I. Pilch, U. Helmersson, R. Kotipalli, F. Henry, and D. Flandre, “Highly reflective rear surface passivation design for ultra-thin Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 582, 300–303 (2015).
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J. Pettersson, C. Platzer-Björkman, U. Zimmermann, and M. Edoff, “Baseline model of graded-absorber Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells applied to cells with Zn1−xMgxO buffer layers,” Thin Solid Films 519(21), 7476–7480 (2011).
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O. Lundberg, M. Edoff, and L. Stolt, “The effect of Ga-grading in CIGS thin film solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 480, 520–525 (2005).
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I. Repins, M. A. Contreras, B. Egaas, C. DeHart, J. Scharf, C. L. Perkins, B. To, and R. Noufi, “19· 9%‐efficient ZnO/CdS/CuInGaSe2 solar cell with 81· 2% fill factor,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 16(3), 235–239 (2008).
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Emieux, F.

Erfurth, F.

Z. Jehl, F. Erfurth, N. Naghavi, L. Lombez, I. Gerard, M. Bouttemy, P. Tran-Van, A. Etcheberry, G. Voorwinden, B. Dimmler, W. Wischmann, M. Powalla, J. F. Guillemoles, and D. Lincot, “Thinning of CIGS solar cells: Part II: Cell characterizations,” Thin Solid Films 519(21), 7212–7215 (2011).
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Etcheberry, A.

Z. Jehl, F. Erfurth, N. Naghavi, L. Lombez, I. Gerard, M. Bouttemy, P. Tran-Van, A. Etcheberry, G. Voorwinden, B. Dimmler, W. Wischmann, M. Powalla, J. F. Guillemoles, and D. Lincot, “Thinning of CIGS solar cells: Part II: Cell characterizations,” Thin Solid Films 519(21), 7212–7215 (2011).
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Faifer, V.

G. Brown, V. Faifer, A. Pudov, S. Anikeev, E. Bykov, M. Contreras, and J. Wu, “Determination of the minority carrier diffusion length in compositionally graded Cu(In, Ga)Se2 solar cells using electron beam induced current,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(2), 22104 (2010).
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Fan, S.

O. Isabella, R. Vismara, D. N. P. Linssen, K. X. Wang, S. Fan, and M. Zeman, “Advanced light trapping scheme in decoupled front and rear textured thin-film silicon solar cells,” Sol. Energy 162, 344–356 (2018).
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K. X. Wang, Z. Yu, V. Liu, Y. Cui, and S. Fan, “Absorption enhancement in ultrathin crystalline silicon solar cells with antireflection and light-trapping nanocone gratings,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1616–1619 (2012).
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Fjällström, V.

B. Vermang, J. T. Wätjen, V. Fjällström, F. Rostvall, M. Edoff, R. Gunnarsson, I. Pilch, U. Helmersson, R. Kotipalli, F. Henry, and D. Flandre, “Highly reflective rear surface passivation design for ultra-thin Cu (In, Ga) Se2 solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 582, 300–303 (2015).
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B. Vermang, J. T. Wätjen, V. Fjällström, F. Rostvall, M. Edoff, R. Gunnarsson, I. Pilch, U. Helmersson, R. Kotipalli, F. Henry, and D. Flandre, “Highly reflective rear surface passivation design for ultra-thin Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 582, 300–303 (2015).
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Flandre, D.

B. Vermang, J. T. Wätjen, V. Fjällström, F. Rostvall, M. Edoff, R. Gunnarsson, I. Pilch, U. Helmersson, R. Kotipalli, F. Henry, and D. Flandre, “Highly reflective rear surface passivation design for ultra-thin Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 582, 300–303 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. Vermang, J. T. Wätjen, V. Fjällström, F. Rostvall, M. Edoff, R. Gunnarsson, I. Pilch, U. Helmersson, R. Kotipalli, F. Henry, and D. Flandre, “Highly reflective rear surface passivation design for ultra-thin Cu (In, Ga) Se2 solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 582, 300–303 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Kotipalli, B. Vermang, J. Joel, R. Rajkumar, M. Edoff, and D. Flandre, “Investigating the electronic properties of Al2O3 Cu(In,Ga)Se2 interface,” AIP Adv. 5(10), 107101 (2015).
[Crossref]

Fu, S.

D. J. Hwang, S. Kuk, Z. Wang, S. Fu, T. Zhang, G. Kim, W. M. Kim, and J.-H. Jeong, “Laser scribing of CIGS thin-film solar cell on flexible substrate,” Appl. Phys. A 123(1), 55 (2017).
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Fujishima, D.

K. Masuko, M. Shigematsu, T. Hashiguchi, D. Fujishima, M. Kai, N. Yoshimura, T. Yamaguchi, Y. Ichihashi, T. Mishima, N. Matsubara, T. Yamanishi, T. Takahama, M. Taguchi, E. Maruyama, and S. Okamoto, “Achievement of more than 25% conversion efficiency with crystalline silicon heterojunction solar cell,” IEEE J. Photovolt. 4(6), 1433–1435 (2014).
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Fujiwara, H.

T. Hara, T. Maekawa, S. Minoura, Y. Sago, S. Niki, and H. Fujiwara, “Quantitative Assessment of Optical Gain and Loss in Submicron-Textured CuIn 1−x Ga x Se2 Solar Cells Fabricated by Three-Stage Coevaporation,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 2(3), 34012 (2014).
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H. Fujiwara and M. Kondo, “Effects of carrier concentration on the dielectric function of ZnO:Ga and In2O3:Sn studied by spectroscopic ellipsometry: Analysis of free-carrier and band-edge absorption,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 71(7), 75109 (2005).
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Gerard, I.

Z. Jehl, F. Erfurth, N. Naghavi, L. Lombez, I. Gerard, M. Bouttemy, P. Tran-Van, A. Etcheberry, G. Voorwinden, B. Dimmler, W. Wischmann, M. Powalla, J. F. Guillemoles, and D. Lincot, “Thinning of CIGS solar cells: Part II: Cell characterizations,” Thin Solid Films 519(21), 7212–7215 (2011).
[Crossref]

Glynn, S.

L. M. Mansfield, A. Kanevce, S. P. Harvey, K. Bowers, C. Beall, S. Glynn, and I. L. Repins, “Efficiency increased to 15.2% for ultra-thin Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 26(11), 949–954 (2018).
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Goffard, J.

J. Goffard, C. Colin, F. Mollica, A. Cattoni, C. Sauvan, P. Lalanne, J.-F. Guillemoles, N. Naghavi, and S. Collin, “Light trapping in ultrathin CIGS solar cells with nanostructured back mirrors,” IEEE J. Photovolt. 7(5), 1433–1441 (2017).
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F. Mollica, J. Goffard, M. Jubault, F. Donsanti, S. Collin, A. Cattoni, L. Lombez, N. Naghavi, R. Edf, I. Umr, and D. Renaissance, “Comparative study of patterned TiO 2 and Al 2 O 3 layers as passivated back-contact for ultra-thin Cu (In, Ga)Se2 solar cells,” in Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC), 2016 IEEE 43rd, 6–10IEEE, (2016).

Green, M. A.

M. A. Green, “Lambertian light trapping in textured solar cells and light-emitting diodes: Analytical solutions,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 10(4), 235–241 (2002).
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Y. Hishikawa, E. D. Dunlop, M. A. Green, J. Hohl, E. Anita, W. Y. H. Baillie, and D. H. Levi, “Solar cell efficiency tables (version 52),” 427–436 (2018).

Grenet, L.

Grosso, D.

J. D. Bass, C. Boissiere, L. Nicole, D. Grosso, and C. Sanchez, “Thermally Induced Porosity in CSD MgF2-Based Optical Coatings: An Easy Method to Tune the Refractive Index,” Chem. Mater. 20(17), 5550–5556 (2008).
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Guillemoles, J. F.

Z. Jehl, F. Erfurth, N. Naghavi, L. Lombez, I. Gerard, M. Bouttemy, P. Tran-Van, A. Etcheberry, G. Voorwinden, B. Dimmler, W. Wischmann, M. Powalla, J. F. Guillemoles, and D. Lincot, “Thinning of CIGS solar cells: Part II: Cell characterizations,” Thin Solid Films 519(21), 7212–7215 (2011).
[Crossref]

Guillemoles, J.-F.

J. Goffard, C. Colin, F. Mollica, A. Cattoni, C. Sauvan, P. Lalanne, J.-F. Guillemoles, N. Naghavi, and S. Collin, “Light trapping in ultrathin CIGS solar cells with nanostructured back mirrors,” IEEE J. Photovolt. 7(5), 1433–1441 (2017).
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Gunnarsson, R.

B. Vermang, J. T. Wätjen, V. Fjällström, F. Rostvall, M. Edoff, R. Gunnarsson, I. Pilch, U. Helmersson, R. Kotipalli, F. Henry, and D. Flandre, “Highly reflective rear surface passivation design for ultra-thin Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 582, 300–303 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. Vermang, J. T. Wätjen, V. Fjällström, F. Rostvall, M. Edoff, R. Gunnarsson, I. Pilch, U. Helmersson, R. Kotipalli, F. Henry, and D. Flandre, “Highly reflective rear surface passivation design for ultra-thin Cu (In, Ga) Se2 solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 582, 300–303 (2015).
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Guo, P.

G. Yang, P. Guo, P. Procel, G. Limodio, A. Weeber, O. Isabella, and M. Zeman, “High-efficiency black IBC c-Si solar cells with poly-Si as carrier-selective passivating contacts,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 186, 9–13 (2018).
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Haase, F.

F. Haase, C. Hollemann, S. Schäfer, A. Merkle, M. Rienäcker, J. Krügener, R. Brendel, and R. Peibst, “Laser contact openings for local poly-Si-metal contacts enabling 26.1%-efficient POLO-IBC solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 186, 184–193 (2018).
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Hara, T.

T. Hara, T. Maekawa, S. Minoura, Y. Sago, S. Niki, and H. Fujiwara, “Quantitative Assessment of Optical Gain and Loss in Submicron-Textured CuIn 1−x Ga x Se2 Solar Cells Fabricated by Three-Stage Coevaporation,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 2(3), 34012 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hariskos, D.

P. Jackson, R. Wuerz, D. Hariskos, E. Lotter, W. Witte, and M. Powalla, “Effects of heavy alkali elements in Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells with efficiencies up to 22.6%,” Phys. Status Solidi-R 10(8), 583–586, Wiley Online Library (2016).

Harvey, S. P.

L. M. Mansfield, A. Kanevce, S. P. Harvey, K. Bowers, C. Beall, S. Glynn, and I. L. Repins, “Efficiency increased to 15.2% for ultra-thin Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 26(11), 949–954 (2018).
[Crossref]

Haschke, J.

A. Tomasi, B. Paviet-Salomon, Q. Jeangros, J. Haschke, G. Christmann, L. Barraud, A. Descoeudres, J. P. Seif, S. Nicolay, M. Despeisse, S. De Wolf, and C. Ballif, “Simple processing of back-contacted silicon heterojunction solar cells using selective-area crystalline growth,” Nat. Energy 2(5), 17062 (2017).
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Hashiguchi, T.

K. Masuko, M. Shigematsu, T. Hashiguchi, D. Fujishima, M. Kai, N. Yoshimura, T. Yamaguchi, Y. Ichihashi, T. Mishima, N. Matsubara, T. Yamanishi, T. Takahama, M. Taguchi, E. Maruyama, and S. Okamoto, “Achievement of more than 25% conversion efficiency with crystalline silicon heterojunction solar cell,” IEEE J. Photovolt. 4(6), 1433–1435 (2014).
[Crossref]

Helmersson, U.

B. Vermang, J. T. Wätjen, V. Fjällström, F. Rostvall, M. Edoff, R. Gunnarsson, I. Pilch, U. Helmersson, R. Kotipalli, F. Henry, and D. Flandre, “Highly reflective rear surface passivation design for ultra-thin Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 582, 300–303 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. Vermang, J. T. Wätjen, V. Fjällström, F. Rostvall, M. Edoff, R. Gunnarsson, I. Pilch, U. Helmersson, R. Kotipalli, F. Henry, and D. Flandre, “Highly reflective rear surface passivation design for ultra-thin Cu (In, Ga) Se2 solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 582, 300–303 (2015).
[Crossref]

Henry, F.

B. Vermang, J. T. Wätjen, V. Fjällström, F. Rostvall, M. Edoff, R. Gunnarsson, I. Pilch, U. Helmersson, R. Kotipalli, F. Henry, and D. Flandre, “Highly reflective rear surface passivation design for ultra-thin Cu (In, Ga) Se2 solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 582, 300–303 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. Vermang, J. T. Wätjen, V. Fjällström, F. Rostvall, M. Edoff, R. Gunnarsson, I. Pilch, U. Helmersson, R. Kotipalli, F. Henry, and D. Flandre, “Highly reflective rear surface passivation design for ultra-thin Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 582, 300–303 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hieda, T.

J. Nakamura, N. Asano, T. Hieda, C. Okamoto, H. Katayama, and K. Nakamura, “Development of heterojunction back contact Si solar cells,” IEEE J. Photovolt. 4(6), 1491–1495 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hishikawa, Y.

Y. Hishikawa, E. D. Dunlop, M. A. Green, J. Hohl, E. Anita, W. Y. H. Baillie, and D. H. Levi, “Solar cell efficiency tables (version 52),” 427–436 (2018).

Hohl, J.

Y. Hishikawa, E. D. Dunlop, M. A. Green, J. Hohl, E. Anita, W. Y. H. Baillie, and D. H. Levi, “Solar cell efficiency tables (version 52),” 427–436 (2018).

Hollemann, C.

F. Haase, C. Hollemann, S. Schäfer, A. Merkle, M. Rienäcker, J. Krügener, R. Brendel, and R. Peibst, “Laser contact openings for local poly-Si-metal contacts enabling 26.1%-efficient POLO-IBC solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 186, 184–193 (2018).
[Crossref]

Hwang, D. J.

D. J. Hwang, S. Kuk, Z. Wang, S. Fu, T. Zhang, G. Kim, W. M. Kim, and J.-H. Jeong, “Laser scribing of CIGS thin-film solar cell on flexible substrate,” Appl. Phys. A 123(1), 55 (2017).
[Crossref]

Hwang, S.

S. Hwang and J.-H. Jang, “3D simulations for the optimization of antireflection subwavelength structures in CIGS solar cells,” in Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC), 2012 38th IEEE, 864–867IEEE, (2012).
[Crossref]

Ichihashi, Y.

K. Masuko, M. Shigematsu, T. Hashiguchi, D. Fujishima, M. Kai, N. Yoshimura, T. Yamaguchi, Y. Ichihashi, T. Mishima, N. Matsubara, T. Yamanishi, T. Takahama, M. Taguchi, E. Maruyama, and S. Okamoto, “Achievement of more than 25% conversion efficiency with crystalline silicon heterojunction solar cell,” IEEE J. Photovolt. 4(6), 1433–1435 (2014).
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Ingenito, A.

R. Vismara, O. Isabella, A. Ingenito, F. T. Si, and M. Zeman, “Geometrical optimisation of core-shell nanowire array for enhanced absorption in thin crystalline silicon heterojunction solar cells,” Beilstein J. Nanotechnol. 10, 322-331 (2019).

P. Procel, A. Ingenito, R. De Rose, S. Pierro, F. Crupi, M. Lanuzza, G. Cocorullo, O. Isabella, and M. Zeman, “Opto-electrical modelling and optimization study of a novel IBC c-Si solar cell,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 25(6), 452–469 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Ingenito, O. Isabella, and M. Zeman, “Nano‐cones on micro‐pyramids: modulated surface textures for maximal spectral response and high‐efficiency solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 23(11), 1649–1659 (2015).
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Irie, T.

K. Yoshikawa, H. Kawasaki, W. Yoshida, T. Irie, K. Konishi, K. Nakano, T. Uto, D. Adachi, M. Kanematsu, H. Uzu, and K. Yamamoto, “Silicon heterojunction solar cell with interdigitated back contacts for a photoconversion efficiency over 26%,” Nat. Energy 2(5), 17032 (2017).
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Isabella, O.

N. Rezaei, O. Isabella, Z. A. E. P. Vroon, and M. Zeman, “Optical optimization of a multi-layer wideband anti-reflection coating using porous MgF2 for sub-micron-thick CIGS solar cells,” Sol. Energy 177, 59–67 (2019).

R. Vismara, O. Isabella, A. Ingenito, F. T. Si, and M. Zeman, “Geometrical optimisation of core-shell nanowire array for enhanced absorption in thin crystalline silicon heterojunction solar cells,” Beilstein J. Nanotechnol. 10, 322-331 (2019).

N. Rezaei, O. Isabella, Z. Vroon, and M. Zeman, “Quenching Mo optical losses in CIGS solar cells by a point contacted dual-layer dielectric spacer: a 3-D optical study,” Opt. Express 26(2), A39–A53 (2018).
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P. Procel, G. Yang, O. Isabella, and M. Zeman, “Theoretical evaluation of contact stack for high efficiency IBC-SHJ solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 186(May), 66–77 (2018).
[Crossref]

G. Yang, P. Guo, P. Procel, G. Limodio, A. Weeber, O. Isabella, and M. Zeman, “High-efficiency black IBC c-Si solar cells with poly-Si as carrier-selective passivating contacts,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 186, 9–13 (2018).
[Crossref]

O. Isabella, R. Vismara, D. N. P. Linssen, K. X. Wang, S. Fan, and M. Zeman, “Advanced light trapping scheme in decoupled front and rear textured thin-film silicon solar cells,” Sol. Energy 162, 344–356 (2018).
[Crossref]

P. Procel, A. Ingenito, R. De Rose, S. Pierro, F. Crupi, M. Lanuzza, G. Cocorullo, O. Isabella, and M. Zeman, “Opto-electrical modelling and optimization study of a novel IBC c-Si solar cell,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 25(6), 452–469 (2017).
[Crossref]

R. Vismara, O. Isabella, and M. Zeman, “Back-contacted BaSi2 solar cells: an optical study,” Opt. Express 25(8), A402–A408 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Onwudinanti, R. Vismara, O. Isabella, L. Grenet, F. Emieux, and M. Zeman, “Advanced light management based on periodic textures for Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin-film solar cells,” Opt. Express 24(6), A693–A707 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Onwudinanti, R. Vismara, O. Isabella, L. Grenet, F. Emieux, and M. Zeman, “Advanced light management based on periodic textures for Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin-film solar cells,” Opt. Express 24(6), A693–A707 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Ingenito, O. Isabella, and M. Zeman, “Nano‐cones on micro‐pyramids: modulated surface textures for maximal spectral response and high‐efficiency solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 23(11), 1649–1659 (2015).
[Crossref]

O. Isabella, H. Sai, M. Kondo, and M. Zeman, “Full-wave optoelectrical modeling of optimized flattened light-scattering substrate for high efficiency thin-film silicon solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 22(6), 671–689 (2014).
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O. Isabella, S. Solntsev, D. Caratelli, and M. Zeman, “3-D optical modeling of thin-film silicon solar cells on diffraction gratings,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 21(1), 94–108 (2013).
[Crossref]

Jackson, P.

P. Jackson, R. Wuerz, D. Hariskos, E. Lotter, W. Witte, and M. Powalla, “Effects of heavy alkali elements in Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells with efficiencies up to 22.6%,” Phys. Status Solidi-R 10(8), 583–586, Wiley Online Library (2016).

Jang, J.-H.

S. Hwang and J.-H. Jang, “3D simulations for the optimization of antireflection subwavelength structures in CIGS solar cells,” in Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC), 2012 38th IEEE, 864–867IEEE, (2012).
[Crossref]

Jarzembowski, E.

E. Jarzembowski, M. Maiberg, F. Obereigner, K. Kaufmann, S. Krause, and R. Scheer, “Optical and electrical characterization of Cu (In, Ga) Se2 thin film solar cells with varied absorber layer thickness,” Thin Solid Films 576, 75–80 (2015).
[Crossref]

Jeangros, Q.

A. Tomasi, B. Paviet-Salomon, Q. Jeangros, J. Haschke, G. Christmann, L. Barraud, A. Descoeudres, J. P. Seif, S. Nicolay, M. Despeisse, S. De Wolf, and C. Ballif, “Simple processing of back-contacted silicon heterojunction solar cells using selective-area crystalline growth,” Nat. Energy 2(5), 17062 (2017).
[Crossref]

Jehl, Z.

Z. Jehl, F. Erfurth, N. Naghavi, L. Lombez, I. Gerard, M. Bouttemy, P. Tran-Van, A. Etcheberry, G. Voorwinden, B. Dimmler, W. Wischmann, M. Powalla, J. F. Guillemoles, and D. Lincot, “Thinning of CIGS solar cells: Part II: Cell characterizations,” Thin Solid Films 519(21), 7212–7215 (2011).
[Crossref]

Jeong, J.-H.

D. J. Hwang, S. Kuk, Z. Wang, S. Fu, T. Zhang, G. Kim, W. M. Kim, and J.-H. Jeong, “Laser scribing of CIGS thin-film solar cell on flexible substrate,” Appl. Phys. A 123(1), 55 (2017).
[Crossref]

Joel, J.

R. Kotipalli, B. Vermang, J. Joel, R. Rajkumar, M. Edoff, and D. Flandre, “Investigating the electronic properties of Al2O3 Cu(In,Ga)Se2 interface,” AIP Adv. 5(10), 107101 (2015).
[Crossref]

Juang, J. Y.

C. H. Liu, C. H. Chen, S. Y. Chen, Y. T. Yen, W. C. Kuo, Y. K. Liao, J. Y. Juang, H. C. Kuo, C. H. Lai, L. J. Chen, and Y. L. Chueh, “Large scale single-crystal Cu(In,Ga)Se2 nanotip arrays for high efficiency solar cell,” Nano Lett. 11(10), 4443–4448 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jubault, M.

F. Mollica, J. Goffard, M. Jubault, F. Donsanti, S. Collin, A. Cattoni, L. Lombez, N. Naghavi, R. Edf, I. Umr, and D. Renaissance, “Comparative study of patterned TiO 2 and Al 2 O 3 layers as passivated back-contact for ultra-thin Cu (In, Ga)Se2 solar cells,” in Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC), 2016 IEEE 43rd, 6–10IEEE, (2016).

Kaczynski, R.

R. Kaczynski, J. Lee, J. van Alsburg, B. Sang, U. Schoop, and J. Britt, “In-line Potassium Fluoride Treatment of CIGS Absorbers Deposited on Flexible Substrates in a Production-Scale Process Tool,” in IEEE PVSC, 1455–1458IEEE, (2017).

Kai, M.

K. Masuko, M. Shigematsu, T. Hashiguchi, D. Fujishima, M. Kai, N. Yoshimura, T. Yamaguchi, Y. Ichihashi, T. Mishima, N. Matsubara, T. Yamanishi, T. Takahama, M. Taguchi, E. Maruyama, and S. Okamoto, “Achievement of more than 25% conversion efficiency with crystalline silicon heterojunction solar cell,” IEEE J. Photovolt. 4(6), 1433–1435 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kanematsu, M.

K. Yoshikawa, H. Kawasaki, W. Yoshida, T. Irie, K. Konishi, K. Nakano, T. Uto, D. Adachi, M. Kanematsu, H. Uzu, and K. Yamamoto, “Silicon heterojunction solar cell with interdigitated back contacts for a photoconversion efficiency over 26%,” Nat. Energy 2(5), 17032 (2017).
[Crossref]

Kanevce, A.

L. M. Mansfield, A. Kanevce, S. P. Harvey, K. Bowers, C. Beall, S. Glynn, and I. L. Repins, “Efficiency increased to 15.2% for ultra-thin Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 26(11), 949–954 (2018).
[Crossref]

Katayama, H.

J. Nakamura, N. Asano, T. Hieda, C. Okamoto, H. Katayama, and K. Nakamura, “Development of heterojunction back contact Si solar cells,” IEEE J. Photovolt. 4(6), 1491–1495 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kaufmann, K.

E. Jarzembowski, M. Maiberg, F. Obereigner, K. Kaufmann, S. Krause, and R. Scheer, “Optical and electrical characterization of Cu (In, Ga) Se2 thin film solar cells with varied absorber layer thickness,” Thin Solid Films 576, 75–80 (2015).
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O. Isabella, R. Vismara, D. N. P. Linssen, K. X. Wang, S. Fan, and M. Zeman, “Advanced light trapping scheme in decoupled front and rear textured thin-film silicon solar cells,” Sol. Energy 162, 344–356 (2018).
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G. Yang, P. Guo, P. Procel, G. Limodio, A. Weeber, O. Isabella, and M. Zeman, “High-efficiency black IBC c-Si solar cells with poly-Si as carrier-selective passivating contacts,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 186, 9–13 (2018).
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Werner, J. H.

K. Orgassa, H. W. Schock, and J. H. Werner, “Alternative back contact materials for thin film Cu (In, Ga) Se2 solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 431, 387–391 (2003).
[Crossref]

Wischmann, W.

Z. Jehl, F. Erfurth, N. Naghavi, L. Lombez, I. Gerard, M. Bouttemy, P. Tran-Van, A. Etcheberry, G. Voorwinden, B. Dimmler, W. Wischmann, M. Powalla, J. F. Guillemoles, and D. Lincot, “Thinning of CIGS solar cells: Part II: Cell characterizations,” Thin Solid Films 519(21), 7212–7215 (2011).
[Crossref]

Witte, W.

P. Jackson, R. Wuerz, D. Hariskos, E. Lotter, W. Witte, and M. Powalla, “Effects of heavy alkali elements in Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells with efficiencies up to 22.6%,” Phys. Status Solidi-R 10(8), 583–586, Wiley Online Library (2016).

Wu, J.

G. Brown, V. Faifer, A. Pudov, S. Anikeev, E. Bykov, M. Contreras, and J. Wu, “Determination of the minority carrier diffusion length in compositionally graded Cu(In, Ga)Se2 solar cells using electron beam induced current,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(2), 22104 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wuerz, R.

P. Jackson, R. Wuerz, D. Hariskos, E. Lotter, W. Witte, and M. Powalla, “Effects of heavy alkali elements in Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells with efficiencies up to 22.6%,” Phys. Status Solidi-R 10(8), 583–586, Wiley Online Library (2016).

Yamaguchi, T.

K. Masuko, M. Shigematsu, T. Hashiguchi, D. Fujishima, M. Kai, N. Yoshimura, T. Yamaguchi, Y. Ichihashi, T. Mishima, N. Matsubara, T. Yamanishi, T. Takahama, M. Taguchi, E. Maruyama, and S. Okamoto, “Achievement of more than 25% conversion efficiency with crystalline silicon heterojunction solar cell,” IEEE J. Photovolt. 4(6), 1433–1435 (2014).
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Yamamoto, K.

K. Yoshikawa, H. Kawasaki, W. Yoshida, T. Irie, K. Konishi, K. Nakano, T. Uto, D. Adachi, M. Kanematsu, H. Uzu, and K. Yamamoto, “Silicon heterojunction solar cell with interdigitated back contacts for a photoconversion efficiency over 26%,” Nat. Energy 2(5), 17032 (2017).
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Yamanishi, T.

K. Masuko, M. Shigematsu, T. Hashiguchi, D. Fujishima, M. Kai, N. Yoshimura, T. Yamaguchi, Y. Ichihashi, T. Mishima, N. Matsubara, T. Yamanishi, T. Takahama, M. Taguchi, E. Maruyama, and S. Okamoto, “Achievement of more than 25% conversion efficiency with crystalline silicon heterojunction solar cell,” IEEE J. Photovolt. 4(6), 1433–1435 (2014).
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Yang, G.

P. Procel, G. Yang, O. Isabella, and M. Zeman, “Theoretical evaluation of contact stack for high efficiency IBC-SHJ solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 186(May), 66–77 (2018).
[Crossref]

G. Yang, P. Guo, P. Procel, G. Limodio, A. Weeber, O. Isabella, and M. Zeman, “High-efficiency black IBC c-Si solar cells with poly-Si as carrier-selective passivating contacts,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 186, 9–13 (2018).
[Crossref]

Yen, Y. T.

C. H. Liu, C. H. Chen, S. Y. Chen, Y. T. Yen, W. C. Kuo, Y. K. Liao, J. Y. Juang, H. C. Kuo, C. H. Lai, L. J. Chen, and Y. L. Chueh, “Large scale single-crystal Cu(In,Ga)Se2 nanotip arrays for high efficiency solar cell,” Nano Lett. 11(10), 4443–4448 (2011).
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Yin, G.

G. Yin, P. Manley, and M. Schmid, “Light trapping in ultrathin CuIn1-xGaxSe2 solar cells by dielectric nanoparticles,” Sol. Energy 163, 443–452 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Schmid, P. Manley, A. Ott, M. Song, and G. Yin, “Nanoparticles for light management in ultrathin chalcopyrite solar cells,” J. Mater. Res. 31(21), 3273–3289 (2016).

Yoshida, W.

K. Yoshikawa, H. Kawasaki, W. Yoshida, T. Irie, K. Konishi, K. Nakano, T. Uto, D. Adachi, M. Kanematsu, H. Uzu, and K. Yamamoto, “Silicon heterojunction solar cell with interdigitated back contacts for a photoconversion efficiency over 26%,” Nat. Energy 2(5), 17032 (2017).
[Crossref]

Yoshikawa, K.

K. Yoshikawa, H. Kawasaki, W. Yoshida, T. Irie, K. Konishi, K. Nakano, T. Uto, D. Adachi, M. Kanematsu, H. Uzu, and K. Yamamoto, “Silicon heterojunction solar cell with interdigitated back contacts for a photoconversion efficiency over 26%,” Nat. Energy 2(5), 17032 (2017).
[Crossref]

Yoshimura, N.

K. Masuko, M. Shigematsu, T. Hashiguchi, D. Fujishima, M. Kai, N. Yoshimura, T. Yamaguchi, Y. Ichihashi, T. Mishima, N. Matsubara, T. Yamanishi, T. Takahama, M. Taguchi, E. Maruyama, and S. Okamoto, “Achievement of more than 25% conversion efficiency with crystalline silicon heterojunction solar cell,” IEEE J. Photovolt. 4(6), 1433–1435 (2014).
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Yu, Z.

K. X. Wang, Z. Yu, V. Liu, Y. Cui, and S. Fan, “Absorption enhancement in ultrathin crystalline silicon solar cells with antireflection and light-trapping nanocone gratings,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1616–1619 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zeman, M.

N. Rezaei, O. Isabella, Z. A. E. P. Vroon, and M. Zeman, “Optical optimization of a multi-layer wideband anti-reflection coating using porous MgF2 for sub-micron-thick CIGS solar cells,” Sol. Energy 177, 59–67 (2019).

R. Vismara, O. Isabella, A. Ingenito, F. T. Si, and M. Zeman, “Geometrical optimisation of core-shell nanowire array for enhanced absorption in thin crystalline silicon heterojunction solar cells,” Beilstein J. Nanotechnol. 10, 322-331 (2019).

N. Rezaei, O. Isabella, Z. Vroon, and M. Zeman, “Quenching Mo optical losses in CIGS solar cells by a point contacted dual-layer dielectric spacer: a 3-D optical study,” Opt. Express 26(2), A39–A53 (2018).
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P. Procel, G. Yang, O. Isabella, and M. Zeman, “Theoretical evaluation of contact stack for high efficiency IBC-SHJ solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 186(May), 66–77 (2018).
[Crossref]

G. Yang, P. Guo, P. Procel, G. Limodio, A. Weeber, O. Isabella, and M. Zeman, “High-efficiency black IBC c-Si solar cells with poly-Si as carrier-selective passivating contacts,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 186, 9–13 (2018).
[Crossref]

O. Isabella, R. Vismara, D. N. P. Linssen, K. X. Wang, S. Fan, and M. Zeman, “Advanced light trapping scheme in decoupled front and rear textured thin-film silicon solar cells,” Sol. Energy 162, 344–356 (2018).
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A. J. Blanker, P. Berendsen, N. Phung, Z. Vroon, M. Zeman, and A. H. M. Smets, “Advanced light management techniques for two-terminal hybrid tandem solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 181, 77–82 (2018).
[Crossref]

P. Procel, A. Ingenito, R. De Rose, S. Pierro, F. Crupi, M. Lanuzza, G. Cocorullo, O. Isabella, and M. Zeman, “Opto-electrical modelling and optimization study of a novel IBC c-Si solar cell,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 25(6), 452–469 (2017).
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R. Vismara, O. Isabella, and M. Zeman, “Back-contacted BaSi2 solar cells: an optical study,” Opt. Express 25(8), A402–A408 (2017).
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C. Onwudinanti, R. Vismara, O. Isabella, L. Grenet, F. Emieux, and M. Zeman, “Advanced light management based on periodic textures for Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin-film solar cells,” Opt. Express 24(6), A693–A707 (2016).
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C. Onwudinanti, R. Vismara, O. Isabella, L. Grenet, F. Emieux, and M. Zeman, “Advanced light management based on periodic textures for Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin-film solar cells,” Opt. Express 24(6), A693–A707 (2016).
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A. Ingenito, O. Isabella, and M. Zeman, “Nano‐cones on micro‐pyramids: modulated surface textures for maximal spectral response and high‐efficiency solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 23(11), 1649–1659 (2015).
[Crossref]

O. Isabella, H. Sai, M. Kondo, and M. Zeman, “Full-wave optoelectrical modeling of optimized flattened light-scattering substrate for high efficiency thin-film silicon solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 22(6), 671–689 (2014).
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O. Isabella, S. Solntsev, D. Caratelli, and M. Zeman, “3-D optical modeling of thin-film silicon solar cells on diffraction gratings,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 21(1), 94–108 (2013).
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Zhang, T.

D. J. Hwang, S. Kuk, Z. Wang, S. Fu, T. Zhang, G. Kim, W. M. Kim, and J.-H. Jeong, “Laser scribing of CIGS thin-film solar cell on flexible substrate,” Appl. Phys. A 123(1), 55 (2017).
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Zimmermann, U.

J. Pettersson, C. Platzer-Björkman, U. Zimmermann, and M. Edoff, “Baseline model of graded-absorber Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells applied to cells with Zn1−xMgxO buffer layers,” Thin Solid Films 519(21), 7476–7480 (2011).
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AIP Adv. (1)

R. Kotipalli, B. Vermang, J. Joel, R. Rajkumar, M. Edoff, and D. Flandre, “Investigating the electronic properties of Al2O3 Cu(In,Ga)Se2 interface,” AIP Adv. 5(10), 107101 (2015).
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P. Wagner, J. C. Stang, M. Mews, A. B. Morales-Vilches, B. Stannowski, B. Stegemann, and L. Korte, “Interdigitated back contact silicon heterojunction solar cells: Towards an industrially applicable structuring method,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1999, 60001 (2018).
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Appl. Phys. A (1)

D. J. Hwang, S. Kuk, Z. Wang, S. Fu, T. Zhang, G. Kim, W. M. Kim, and J.-H. Jeong, “Laser scribing of CIGS thin-film solar cell on flexible substrate,” Appl. Phys. A 123(1), 55 (2017).
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Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

G. Brown, V. Faifer, A. Pudov, S. Anikeev, E. Bykov, M. Contreras, and J. Wu, “Determination of the minority carrier diffusion length in compositionally graded Cu(In, Ga)Se2 solar cells using electron beam induced current,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(2), 22104 (2010).
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Beilstein J. Nanotechnol. (1)

R. Vismara, O. Isabella, A. Ingenito, F. T. Si, and M. Zeman, “Geometrical optimisation of core-shell nanowire array for enhanced absorption in thin crystalline silicon heterojunction solar cells,” Beilstein J. Nanotechnol. 10, 322-331 (2019).

Chem. Mater. (1)

J. D. Bass, C. Boissiere, L. Nicole, D. Grosso, and C. Sanchez, “Thermally Induced Porosity in CSD MgF2-Based Optical Coatings: An Easy Method to Tune the Refractive Index,” Chem. Mater. 20(17), 5550–5556 (2008).
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Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. (1)

G. Dingemans, M. C. M. van de Sanden, and W. M. M. Kessels, “Influence of the Deposition Temperature on the c-Si Surface Passivation by Al2O3 Films Synthesized by ALD and PECVD,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 13(3), H76 (2010).
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IEEE J. Photovolt. (3)

K. Masuko, M. Shigematsu, T. Hashiguchi, D. Fujishima, M. Kai, N. Yoshimura, T. Yamaguchi, Y. Ichihashi, T. Mishima, N. Matsubara, T. Yamanishi, T. Takahama, M. Taguchi, E. Maruyama, and S. Okamoto, “Achievement of more than 25% conversion efficiency with crystalline silicon heterojunction solar cell,” IEEE J. Photovolt. 4(6), 1433–1435 (2014).
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J. Nakamura, N. Asano, T. Hieda, C. Okamoto, H. Katayama, and K. Nakamura, “Development of heterojunction back contact Si solar cells,” IEEE J. Photovolt. 4(6), 1491–1495 (2014).
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M. D. Lammert and R. J. Schwartz, “The interdigitated back contact solar cell: a silicon solar cell for use in concentrated sunlight,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 24(4), 337–342 (1977).
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M. Schmid, P. Manley, A. Ott, M. Song, and G. Yin, “Nanoparticles for light management in ultrathin chalcopyrite solar cells,” J. Mater. Res. 31(21), 3273–3289 (2016).

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A (1)

G. Dingemans and W. M. M. Kessels, “Status and prospects of Al2O3-based surface passivation schemes for silicon solar cells,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 30(4), 040802 (2012).

Nano Lett. (2)

K. X. Wang, Z. Yu, V. Liu, Y. Cui, and S. Fan, “Absorption enhancement in ultrathin crystalline silicon solar cells with antireflection and light-trapping nanocone gratings,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1616–1619 (2012).
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C. H. Liu, C. H. Chen, S. Y. Chen, Y. T. Yen, W. C. Kuo, Y. K. Liao, J. Y. Juang, H. C. Kuo, C. H. Lai, L. J. Chen, and Y. L. Chueh, “Large scale single-crystal Cu(In,Ga)Se2 nanotip arrays for high efficiency solar cell,” Nano Lett. 11(10), 4443–4448 (2011).
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Nat. Energy (2)

A. Tomasi, B. Paviet-Salomon, Q. Jeangros, J. Haschke, G. Christmann, L. Barraud, A. Descoeudres, J. P. Seif, S. Nicolay, M. Despeisse, S. De Wolf, and C. Ballif, “Simple processing of back-contacted silicon heterojunction solar cells using selective-area crystalline growth,” Nat. Energy 2(5), 17062 (2017).
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K. Yoshikawa, H. Kawasaki, W. Yoshida, T. Irie, K. Konishi, K. Nakano, T. Uto, D. Adachi, M. Kanematsu, H. Uzu, and K. Yamamoto, “Silicon heterojunction solar cell with interdigitated back contacts for a photoconversion efficiency over 26%,” Nat. Energy 2(5), 17032 (2017).
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Opt. Express (5)

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H. Fujiwara and M. Kondo, “Effects of carrier concentration on the dielectric function of ZnO:Ga and In2O3:Sn studied by spectroscopic ellipsometry: Analysis of free-carrier and band-edge absorption,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 71(7), 75109 (2005).
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Phys. Status Solidi-R (1)

P. Jackson, R. Wuerz, D. Hariskos, E. Lotter, W. Witte, and M. Powalla, “Effects of heavy alkali elements in Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells with efficiencies up to 22.6%,” Phys. Status Solidi-R 10(8), 583–586, Wiley Online Library (2016).

Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. (9)

I. Repins, M. A. Contreras, B. Egaas, C. DeHart, J. Scharf, C. L. Perkins, B. To, and R. Noufi, “19· 9%‐efficient ZnO/CdS/CuInGaSe2 solar cell with 81· 2% fill factor,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 16(3), 235–239 (2008).
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A. Ingenito, O. Isabella, and M. Zeman, “Nano‐cones on micro‐pyramids: modulated surface textures for maximal spectral response and high‐efficiency solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 23(11), 1649–1659 (2015).
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M. A. Green, “Lambertian light trapping in textured solar cells and light-emitting diodes: Analytical solutions,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 10(4), 235–241 (2002).
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O. Isabella, S. Solntsev, D. Caratelli, and M. Zeman, “3-D optical modeling of thin-film silicon solar cells on diffraction gratings,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 21(1), 94–108 (2013).
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O. Isabella, H. Sai, M. Kondo, and M. Zeman, “Full-wave optoelectrical modeling of optimized flattened light-scattering substrate for high efficiency thin-film silicon solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 22(6), 671–689 (2014).
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O. Lundberg, M. Bodegård, J. Malmström, and L. Stolt, “Influence of the Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thickness and Ga grading on solar cell performance,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 11(2), 77–88 (2003).
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P. Procel, A. Ingenito, R. De Rose, S. Pierro, F. Crupi, M. Lanuzza, G. Cocorullo, O. Isabella, and M. Zeman, “Opto-electrical modelling and optimization study of a novel IBC c-Si solar cell,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 25(6), 452–469 (2017).
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L. Aé, D. Kieven, J. Chen, R. Klenk, T. Rissom, Y. Tang, and M. C. Lux-Steiner, “ZnO nanorod arrays as an antireflective coating for Cu (In, Ga) Se2 thin film solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 18(3), 209–213 (2010).
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RSC Advances (1)

S. R. Thomas, C.-W. Chen, M. Date, Y.-C. Wang, H.-W. Tsai, Z. M. Wang, and Y.-L. Chueh, “Recent developments in the synthesis of nanostructured chalcopyrite materials and their applications: a review,” RSC Advances 6(65), 60643–60656 (2016).
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M. Schmid, “Review on light management by nanostructures in chalcopyrite solar cells,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 32(4), 43003 (2017).
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Sol. Energy (3)

O. Isabella, R. Vismara, D. N. P. Linssen, K. X. Wang, S. Fan, and M. Zeman, “Advanced light trapping scheme in decoupled front and rear textured thin-film silicon solar cells,” Sol. Energy 162, 344–356 (2018).
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G. Yin, P. Manley, and M. Schmid, “Light trapping in ultrathin CuIn1-xGaxSe2 solar cells by dielectric nanoparticles,” Sol. Energy 163, 443–452 (2018).
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N. Rezaei, O. Isabella, Z. A. E. P. Vroon, and M. Zeman, “Optical optimization of a multi-layer wideband anti-reflection coating using porous MgF2 for sub-micron-thick CIGS solar cells,” Sol. Energy 177, 59–67 (2019).

Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells (4)

G. Yang, P. Guo, P. Procel, G. Limodio, A. Weeber, O. Isabella, and M. Zeman, “High-efficiency black IBC c-Si solar cells with poly-Si as carrier-selective passivating contacts,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 186, 9–13 (2018).
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F. Haase, C. Hollemann, S. Schäfer, A. Merkle, M. Rienäcker, J. Krügener, R. Brendel, and R. Peibst, “Laser contact openings for local poly-Si-metal contacts enabling 26.1%-efficient POLO-IBC solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 186, 184–193 (2018).
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P. Procel, G. Yang, O. Isabella, and M. Zeman, “Theoretical evaluation of contact stack for high efficiency IBC-SHJ solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 186(May), 66–77 (2018).
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A. J. Blanker, P. Berendsen, N. Phung, Z. Vroon, M. Zeman, and A. H. M. Smets, “Advanced light management techniques for two-terminal hybrid tandem solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 181, 77–82 (2018).
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K. Orgassa, H. W. Schock, and J. H. Werner, “Alternative back contact materials for thin film Cu (In, Ga) Se2 solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 431, 387–391 (2003).
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E. Jarzembowski, M. Maiberg, F. Obereigner, K. Kaufmann, S. Krause, and R. Scheer, “Optical and electrical characterization of Cu (In, Ga) Se2 thin film solar cells with varied absorber layer thickness,” Thin Solid Films 576, 75–80 (2015).
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Z. Jehl, F. Erfurth, N. Naghavi, L. Lombez, I. Gerard, M. Bouttemy, P. Tran-Van, A. Etcheberry, G. Voorwinden, B. Dimmler, W. Wischmann, M. Powalla, J. F. Guillemoles, and D. Lincot, “Thinning of CIGS solar cells: Part II: Cell characterizations,” Thin Solid Films 519(21), 7212–7215 (2011).
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J. Pettersson, C. Platzer-Björkman, U. Zimmermann, and M. Edoff, “Baseline model of graded-absorber Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells applied to cells with Zn1−xMgxO buffer layers,” Thin Solid Films 519(21), 7476–7480 (2011).
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B. Vermang, J. T. Wätjen, V. Fjällström, F. Rostvall, M. Edoff, R. Gunnarsson, I. Pilch, U. Helmersson, R. Kotipalli, F. Henry, and D. Flandre, “Highly reflective rear surface passivation design for ultra-thin Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 582, 300–303 (2015).
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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Visual rendering of the back-contacted CIGS solar cell with high aspect ratio features at the front. WTCO and HTCO indicate, respectively, width and height of the TCO.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Visual rendering of the back-contacted solar cell with natural CIGS morphology and optimized ARC. WTCO and HTCO indicate, respectively, width and height of the TCO.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 a) Simplified layer stack of the e- and h-contacts in the envisioned IBC solar cell. From top to bottom: MgF2, Al2O3, CIGS, GZO (e-contact on left-hand side) and Mo (h-contact on the right-hand side). Band diagrams in equilibrium b) and c) refer to e- and h-contact, respectively. EF, Ev and Ec are Fermi, valance band edge and conduction band edge energies, respectively.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 a) Implied photocurrent density in CIGS layer (Jph-CIGS) as a function of width and height of TCO. b) absorptance and 1-R spectra of the IBC solar cell when WTCO = 1000 nm and HTCO = 320 nm.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 a) Implied photocurrent density (Jph) as a function of width and height of TCO. b) absorptance and 1-R spectra of the IBC solar cell when WTCO = 1000 nm and HTCO = 320 nm.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 a) CIGS absorption for TM (blue line), TE (black line) and average of TM and TE (brown area) polarizations and average 1-R (yellow area) spectra. The graphs correspond to the optimized IBC solar cell with as-grown CIGS grains. b) – d) Electric field magnitude at wavelength b) 1020 nm, c) 1070 nm and d) 1110 nm for TM polarization corresponding to local maxima in CIGS absorption, also indicated with red arrows in a).

Tables (1)

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Table 1 The model parameters used for band diagram modelling in TCAD software. Density of states of electrons and holes are indicated with eDOS and hDOS, respectively. Subscripts A and D stand for acceptor and donor, respectively.

Equations (3)

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J phi =q 300 1200 A i (λ)Φ(λ) dλ
A Green = 1 e 4αd 1(11/ n 2 ) e 4αd
ΔGreen= J phCIGS J Green J Green %

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