Abstract

Nanophotonic circuits using group III-nitrides on silicon are still lacking one key component: efficient electrical injection. In this paper we demonstrate an electrical injection scheme using a metal microbridge contact in thin III-nitride on silicon mushroom-type microrings that is compatible with integrated nanophotonic circuits with the goal of achieving electrically injected lasing. Using a central buried n-contact to bypass the insulating buffer layers, we are able to underetch the microring, which is essential for maintaining vertical confinement in a thin disk. We demonstrate direct current room-temperature electroluminescence with 440 mW/cm2 output power density at 20 mA from such microrings with diameters of 30 to 50 μm. The first steps towards achieving an integrated photonic circuit are demonstrated.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2018 (6)

I. Rousseau, G. Callsen, G. Jacopin, J.-F. Carlin, R. Butté, and N. Grandjean, “Optical absorption and oxygen passivation of surface states in III-nitride photonic devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 123, 113103 (2018).
[Crossref]

F. Tabataba-Vakili, L. Doyennette, C. Brimont, T. Guillet, S. Rennesson, E. Frayssinet, B. Damilano, J.-Y. Duboz, F. Semond, I. Roland, M. ElKurdi, X. Checoury, S. Sauvage, B. Gayral, and P. Boucaud, “Blue microlasers integrated on a photonic platform on silicon,” ACS Photonics 5, 3643–3648 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhang, M. Yuan, N. Chowdhury, K. Cheng, and T. Palacios, “720 V/0.35 mΩ⋅cm2 fully-vertical GaN-on-Si power diodes by selective removal of Si substrates and buffer layers,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 9, 715–718 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Feng, J. He, Q. Sun, H. Gao, Z. Li, Y. Zhou, J. Liu, S. Zhang, D. Li, L. Zhang, X. Sun, D. Li, H. Wang, M. Ikeda, R. Wang, and H. Yang, “Room-temperature electrically pumped InGaN based microdisk laser grown on Si,” Opt. Express 26, 5043–5051 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T.-J. Lu, M. Fanto, H. Choi, P. Thomas, J. Steidle, S. Mouradian, W. Kong, D. Zhu, H. Moon, K. Berggren, J. Kim, M. Soltani, S. Preble, and D. Englund, “Aluminum nitride integrated photonics platform for the ultraviolet to visible spectrum,” Opt. Express 26, 11147–11160 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Liu, A. W. Bruch, Z. Gong, J. Lu, J. B. Surya, L. Zhang, J. Wang, J. Yan, and H. X. Tang, “Ultra-high-Q UV microring resonators based on a single-crystalline AlN platform,” Optica 5, 1279–1282 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (4)

A. Tanaka, W. Choi, R. Chen, and S. A. Dayeh, “Si complies with GaN to overcome thermal mismatches for the heteroepitaxy of thick GaN on Si,” Adv. Mater. 29, 1702557 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Athanasiou, R. M. Smith, J. Pugh, Y. Gong, M. J. Cryan, and T. Wang, “Monolithically multi-color lasing from an InGaN microdisk on a Si substrate,” Sci. Rep. 7, 10086 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Shi, X. Gao, J. Yuan, S. Zhang, Y. Jiang, F. Zhang, Y. Jiang, H. Zhu, and Y. Wang, “Transferrable monolithic III-nitride photonic circuit for multifunctional optoelectronics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111, 241104 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. Gao, J. Yuan, Y. Yang, Y. Li, W. Yuan, G. Zhu, H. Zhu, M. Feng, Q. Sun, Y. Liu, and Y. Wang, “A 30mbps in-plane full-duplex light communication using a monolithic GaN photonic circuit,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 32, 075002 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (3)

J. Sellés, C. Brimont, G. Cassabois, P. Valvin, T. Guillet, I. Roland, Y. Zeng, X. Checoury, P. Boucaud, M. Mexis, F. Semond, and B. Gayral, “Deep-UV nitride-on-silicon microdisk lasers,” Sci. Rep. 6, 21650 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Sellés, V. Crepel, I. Roland, M. ElKurdi, X. Checoury, P. Boucaud, M. Mexis, M. Leroux, B. Damilano, S. Rennesson, F. Semond, B. Gayral, C. Brimont, and T. Guillet, “III-nitride-on-silicon microdisk lasers from the blue to the deep ultra-violet,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 231101 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Sun, K. Zhou, Q. Sun, J. Liu, M. Feng, Z. Li, Y. Zhou, L. Zhang, D. Li, S. Zhang, M. Ikeda, S. Liu, and H. Yang, “Room-temperature continuous-wave electrically injected InGaN-based laser directly grown on Si,” Nat. Photon. 10, 595–599 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (4)

K. S. Jeon, S.-W. Kim, D.-H. Ko, and H. Y. Ryu, “Relationship between threading dislocations and the optical properties in GaN-based LEDs on Si substrates,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 67, 1085–1088 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhang, X. Zhang, K. H. Li, Y. F. Cheung, C. Feng, and H. W. Choi, “Advances in III-nitride semiconductor microdisk lasers,” Phys. Status Solidi A 212, 960–973 (2015).
[Crossref]

N. VicoTriviño, R. Butté, J.-F. Carlin, and N. Grandjean, “Continuous wave blue lasing in III-nitride nanobeam cavity on silicon,” Nano Lett. 15, 1259–1263 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. W. Bruch, C. Xiong, B. Leung, M. Poot, J. Han, and H. X. Tang, “Broadband nanophotonic waveguides and resonators based on epitaxial GaN thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 141113 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (5)

M. Athanasiou, R. Smith, B. Liu, and T. Wang, “Room temperature continuous-wave green lasing from an InGaN microdisk on silicon,” Sci. Rep. 4, 7250 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Javůrek, J. J. Perina, and J. Svozilìk, “Spontaneous parametric down conversion in nonlinear metallo-dielectric layered media,” Proc. of SPIE 9441, 94410V (2014).
[Crossref]

N. VicoTriviño, M. Minkov, G. Urbinati, M. Galli, J.-F. Carlin, R. Butté, V. Savona, and N. Grandjean, “Gallium nitride L3 photonic crystal cavities with an average quality factor of 16 900 in the near infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 231119 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Gossler, C. Bierbrauer, R. Moser, M. Kunzer, K. Holc, W. Pletschen, K. Köhler, J. Wagner, M. Schwaerzle, P. Ruther, O. Paul, J. Neef, D. Keppeler, G. Hoch, T. Moser, and U. T. Schwarz, “GaN-based micro-LED arrays on flexible substrates for optical cochlear implants,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 47, 205401 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Stegmaier, J. Ebert, J. M. Meckbach, K. Ilin, M. Siegel, and W. H. P. Pernice, “Aluminum nitride nanophotonic circuits operating at ultraviolet wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 091108 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

M. J. Holmes, K. Choi, S. Kako, M. Arita, and Y. Arakawa, “Room-temperature triggered single photon emission from a III-nitride site-controlled nanowire quantum dot,” Nano Lett. 14, 982–986 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Jung, C. Xiong, K. Y. Fong, X. Zhang, and H. W. Tang, “Optical frequency comb generation from aluminum nitride microring resonator,” Opt. Lett. 38, 2810–2813 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (3)

W. H. Pernice, C. Xiong, and H. X. Tang, “High Q micro-ring resonators fabricated from polycrystalline aluminum nitride films for near infrared and visible photonics,” Opt. Express 20, 12261–12269 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Hofstetter, J. Howgate, M. Schmid, S. Schoell, M. Sachsenhauser, D. Adigúzel, M. Stutzmann, I. D. Sharp, and S. Thalhammer, “In vitro bio-functionality of gallium nitride sensors for radiation biophysics,” Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 424, 348–353 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Hossain, J. Wang, E. Frayssinet, S. Chenot, M. Leroux, B. Damilano, F. Demangeot, L. Durand, A. Ponchet, M. Rashid, F. Semond, and Y. Cordier, “Stress distribution of 12 μm thick crack free continuous GaN on patterned Si (110) substrate,” Phys. Status Solidi C 10, 425–428 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

2008 (2)

A. David, M. J. Grundmann, J. F. Kaeding, N. F. Gardner, T. G. Mihopoulos, and M. R. Krames, “Carrier distribution in 0001 InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 053502 (2008).
[Crossref]

D. Simeonov, E. Feltin, A. Altoukhov, A. Castiglia, J.-F. Carlin, R. Butté, and N. Grandjean, “High quality nitride based microdisks obtained via selective wet etching of AlInN sacrificial layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. tbf92, 171102 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

A. C. Tamboli, E. D. Haberer, R. Sharma, K. H. Lee, S. Nakamura, and E. L. Hu, “Room-temperature continuous-wave lasing in GaN/InGaN microdisks,” Nat. Photon. 1, 61–64 (2007).
[Crossref]

D. Simeonov, E. Feltin, H.-J. Bühlmann, T. Zhu, A. Castiglia, M. Mosca, J.-F. Carlin, R. Butté, and N. Grandjean, “Blue lasing at room temperature in high quality factor GaN/AlInN microdisks with InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 061106 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

H. W. Choi, K. N. Hui, P. T. Lai, P. Chen, X. H. Zhang, S. Tripathy, J. H. Teng, and S. J. Chua, “Lasing in GaN microdisks pivoted on Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 211101 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

M. Hikita, M. Yanagihara, K. Nakazawa, H. Ueno, Y. Hirose, T. Ueda, Y. Uemoto, T. Tanaka, D. Ueda, and T. Egawa, “AlGaN/GaN power HFET on silicon substrate with source-via grounding (SVG) structure,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 52, 1963–1968 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

M. Kneissl, M. Teepe, N. Miyashita, N. M. Johnson, G. D. Chern, and R. K. Chang, “Current-injection spiral-shaped microcavity disk laser diodes with unidirectional emission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2485 (2004).
[Crossref]

D. M. Lucas, A. Ramos, J. P. Home, M. J. McDonnell, S. Nakayama, J.-P. Stacey, S. C. Webster, D. N. Stacey, and A. M. Steane, “Isotope-selective photoionization for calcium ion trapping,” Phys. Rev. A 69, 012711 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

G. Steinhoff, O. Purrucker, M. Tanaka, M. Stutzmann, and M. Eickhoff, “Al xGa 1−xN - A new material system for biosensors,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 13, 841–846 (2003).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. ichi Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, Y. Sugimoto, T. Kozaki, H. Umemoto, M. Sano, and K. Chocho, “Present status of InGaN/GaN/AlGaN-based laser diodes,” J. Cryst. Growth 189-190, 820–825 (1998).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

G. Frankowsky, F. Steuber, V. Härle, F. Scholz, and A. Hangleiter, “Optical gain in GaInN/GaN heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 3746 (1996).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

S. Strite and H. Morkoç, “GaN, AlN, and InN: A review,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 10, 1237–1266 (1992).
[Crossref]

Adigúzel, D.

M. Hofstetter, J. Howgate, M. Schmid, S. Schoell, M. Sachsenhauser, D. Adigúzel, M. Stutzmann, I. D. Sharp, and S. Thalhammer, “In vitro bio-functionality of gallium nitride sensors for radiation biophysics,” Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 424, 348–353 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Altoukhov, A.

D. Simeonov, E. Feltin, A. Altoukhov, A. Castiglia, J.-F. Carlin, R. Butté, and N. Grandjean, “High quality nitride based microdisks obtained via selective wet etching of AlInN sacrificial layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. tbf92, 171102 (2008).
[Crossref]

Arakawa, Y.

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H. W. Choi, K. N. Hui, P. T. Lai, P. Chen, X. H. Zhang, S. Tripathy, J. H. Teng, and S. J. Chua, “Lasing in GaN microdisks pivoted on Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 211101 (2006).
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Thalhammer, S.

M. Hofstetter, J. Howgate, M. Schmid, S. Schoell, M. Sachsenhauser, D. Adigúzel, M. Stutzmann, I. D. Sharp, and S. Thalhammer, “In vitro bio-functionality of gallium nitride sensors for radiation biophysics,” Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 424, 348–353 (2012).
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Thomas, P.

Tripathy, S.

H. W. Choi, K. N. Hui, P. T. Lai, P. Chen, X. H. Zhang, S. Tripathy, J. H. Teng, and S. J. Chua, “Lasing in GaN microdisks pivoted on Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 211101 (2006).
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Ueda, D.

M. Hikita, M. Yanagihara, K. Nakazawa, H. Ueno, Y. Hirose, T. Ueda, Y. Uemoto, T. Tanaka, D. Ueda, and T. Egawa, “AlGaN/GaN power HFET on silicon substrate with source-via grounding (SVG) structure,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 52, 1963–1968 (2005).
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Ueda, T.

M. Hikita, M. Yanagihara, K. Nakazawa, H. Ueno, Y. Hirose, T. Ueda, Y. Uemoto, T. Tanaka, D. Ueda, and T. Egawa, “AlGaN/GaN power HFET on silicon substrate with source-via grounding (SVG) structure,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 52, 1963–1968 (2005).
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Uemoto, Y.

M. Hikita, M. Yanagihara, K. Nakazawa, H. Ueno, Y. Hirose, T. Ueda, Y. Uemoto, T. Tanaka, D. Ueda, and T. Egawa, “AlGaN/GaN power HFET on silicon substrate with source-via grounding (SVG) structure,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 52, 1963–1968 (2005).
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M. Hikita, H. Ueno, Y. Hirose, M. Yanagihara, Y. Uemoto, and T. Tanaka, “Semiconductor device and method for fabricating the same,” (June17, 2007). US Patent7291872B2.

Ueno, H.

M. Hikita, M. Yanagihara, K. Nakazawa, H. Ueno, Y. Hirose, T. Ueda, Y. Uemoto, T. Tanaka, D. Ueda, and T. Egawa, “AlGaN/GaN power HFET on silicon substrate with source-via grounding (SVG) structure,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 52, 1963–1968 (2005).
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Umemoto, H.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. ichi Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, Y. Sugimoto, T. Kozaki, H. Umemoto, M. Sano, and K. Chocho, “Present status of InGaN/GaN/AlGaN-based laser diodes,” J. Cryst. Growth 189-190, 820–825 (1998).
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N. VicoTriviño, M. Minkov, G. Urbinati, M. Galli, J.-F. Carlin, R. Butté, V. Savona, and N. Grandjean, “Gallium nitride L3 photonic crystal cavities with an average quality factor of 16 900 in the near infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 231119 (2014).
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Valvin, P.

J. Sellés, C. Brimont, G. Cassabois, P. Valvin, T. Guillet, I. Roland, Y. Zeng, X. Checoury, P. Boucaud, M. Mexis, F. Semond, and B. Gayral, “Deep-UV nitride-on-silicon microdisk lasers,” Sci. Rep. 6, 21650 (2016).
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N. VicoTriviño, R. Butté, J.-F. Carlin, and N. Grandjean, “Continuous wave blue lasing in III-nitride nanobeam cavity on silicon,” Nano Lett. 15, 1259–1263 (2015).
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N. VicoTriviño, M. Minkov, G. Urbinati, M. Galli, J.-F. Carlin, R. Butté, V. Savona, and N. Grandjean, “Gallium nitride L3 photonic crystal cavities with an average quality factor of 16 900 in the near infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 231119 (2014).
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C. Gossler, C. Bierbrauer, R. Moser, M. Kunzer, K. Holc, W. Pletschen, K. Köhler, J. Wagner, M. Schwaerzle, P. Ruther, O. Paul, J. Neef, D. Keppeler, G. Hoch, T. Moser, and U. T. Schwarz, “GaN-based micro-LED arrays on flexible substrates for optical cochlear implants,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 47, 205401 (2014).
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X. Liu, A. W. Bruch, Z. Gong, J. Lu, J. B. Surya, L. Zhang, J. Wang, J. Yan, and H. X. Tang, “Ultra-high-Q UV microring resonators based on a single-crystalline AlN platform,” Optica 5, 1279–1282 (2018).
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Wang, T.

M. Athanasiou, R. M. Smith, J. Pugh, Y. Gong, M. J. Cryan, and T. Wang, “Monolithically multi-color lasing from an InGaN microdisk on a Si substrate,” Sci. Rep. 7, 10086 (2017).
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M. Athanasiou, R. Smith, B. Liu, and T. Wang, “Room temperature continuous-wave green lasing from an InGaN microdisk on silicon,” Sci. Rep. 4, 7250 (2014).
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Z. Shi, X. Gao, J. Yuan, S. Zhang, Y. Jiang, F. Zhang, Y. Jiang, H. Zhu, and Y. Wang, “Transferrable monolithic III-nitride photonic circuit for multifunctional optoelectronics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111, 241104 (2017).
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X. Gao, J. Yuan, Y. Yang, Y. Li, W. Yuan, G. Zhu, H. Zhu, M. Feng, Q. Sun, Y. Liu, and Y. Wang, “A 30mbps in-plane full-duplex light communication using a monolithic GaN photonic circuit,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 32, 075002 (2017).
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D. M. Lucas, A. Ramos, J. P. Home, M. J. McDonnell, S. Nakayama, J.-P. Stacey, S. C. Webster, D. N. Stacey, and A. M. Steane, “Isotope-selective photoionization for calcium ion trapping,” Phys. Rev. A 69, 012711 (2004).
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Xiong, C.

Yamada, T.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. ichi Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, H. Kiyoku, Y. Sugimoto, T. Kozaki, H. Umemoto, M. Sano, and K. Chocho, “Present status of InGaN/GaN/AlGaN-based laser diodes,” J. Cryst. Growth 189-190, 820–825 (1998).
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Yanagihara, M.

M. Hikita, M. Yanagihara, K. Nakazawa, H. Ueno, Y. Hirose, T. Ueda, Y. Uemoto, T. Tanaka, D. Ueda, and T. Egawa, “AlGaN/GaN power HFET on silicon substrate with source-via grounding (SVG) structure,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 52, 1963–1968 (2005).
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M. Hikita, H. Ueno, Y. Hirose, M. Yanagihara, Y. Uemoto, and T. Tanaka, “Semiconductor device and method for fabricating the same,” (June17, 2007). US Patent7291872B2.

Yang, H.

M. Feng, J. He, Q. Sun, H. Gao, Z. Li, Y. Zhou, J. Liu, S. Zhang, D. Li, L. Zhang, X. Sun, D. Li, H. Wang, M. Ikeda, R. Wang, and H. Yang, “Room-temperature electrically pumped InGaN based microdisk laser grown on Si,” Opt. Express 26, 5043–5051 (2018).
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Y. Sun, K. Zhou, Q. Sun, J. Liu, M. Feng, Z. Li, Y. Zhou, L. Zhang, D. Li, S. Zhang, M. Ikeda, S. Liu, and H. Yang, “Room-temperature continuous-wave electrically injected InGaN-based laser directly grown on Si,” Nat. Photon. 10, 595–599 (2016).
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X. Gao, J. Yuan, Y. Yang, Y. Li, W. Yuan, G. Zhu, H. Zhu, M. Feng, Q. Sun, Y. Liu, and Y. Wang, “A 30mbps in-plane full-duplex light communication using a monolithic GaN photonic circuit,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 32, 075002 (2017).
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X. Gao, J. Yuan, Y. Yang, Y. Li, W. Yuan, G. Zhu, H. Zhu, M. Feng, Q. Sun, Y. Liu, and Y. Wang, “A 30mbps in-plane full-duplex light communication using a monolithic GaN photonic circuit,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 32, 075002 (2017).
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Z. Shi, X. Gao, J. Yuan, S. Zhang, Y. Jiang, F. Zhang, Y. Jiang, H. Zhu, and Y. Wang, “Transferrable monolithic III-nitride photonic circuit for multifunctional optoelectronics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111, 241104 (2017).
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Y. Zhang, M. Yuan, N. Chowdhury, K. Cheng, and T. Palacios, “720 V/0.35 mΩ⋅cm2 fully-vertical GaN-on-Si power diodes by selective removal of Si substrates and buffer layers,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 9, 715–718 (2018).
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X. Gao, J. Yuan, Y. Yang, Y. Li, W. Yuan, G. Zhu, H. Zhu, M. Feng, Q. Sun, Y. Liu, and Y. Wang, “A 30mbps in-plane full-duplex light communication using a monolithic GaN photonic circuit,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 32, 075002 (2017).
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J. Sellés, C. Brimont, G. Cassabois, P. Valvin, T. Guillet, I. Roland, Y. Zeng, X. Checoury, P. Boucaud, M. Mexis, F. Semond, and B. Gayral, “Deep-UV nitride-on-silicon microdisk lasers,” Sci. Rep. 6, 21650 (2016).
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Zhang, F.

Z. Shi, X. Gao, J. Yuan, S. Zhang, Y. Jiang, F. Zhang, Y. Jiang, H. Zhu, and Y. Wang, “Transferrable monolithic III-nitride photonic circuit for multifunctional optoelectronics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111, 241104 (2017).
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Zhang, S.

M. Feng, J. He, Q. Sun, H. Gao, Z. Li, Y. Zhou, J. Liu, S. Zhang, D. Li, L. Zhang, X. Sun, D. Li, H. Wang, M. Ikeda, R. Wang, and H. Yang, “Room-temperature electrically pumped InGaN based microdisk laser grown on Si,” Opt. Express 26, 5043–5051 (2018).
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Z. Shi, X. Gao, J. Yuan, S. Zhang, Y. Jiang, F. Zhang, Y. Jiang, H. Zhu, and Y. Wang, “Transferrable monolithic III-nitride photonic circuit for multifunctional optoelectronics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111, 241104 (2017).
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Y. Sun, K. Zhou, Q. Sun, J. Liu, M. Feng, Z. Li, Y. Zhou, L. Zhang, D. Li, S. Zhang, M. Ikeda, S. Liu, and H. Yang, “Room-temperature continuous-wave electrically injected InGaN-based laser directly grown on Si,” Nat. Photon. 10, 595–599 (2016).
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Zhang, X.

Y. Zhang, X. Zhang, K. H. Li, Y. F. Cheung, C. Feng, and H. W. Choi, “Advances in III-nitride semiconductor microdisk lasers,” Phys. Status Solidi A 212, 960–973 (2015).
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H. W. Choi, K. N. Hui, P. T. Lai, P. Chen, X. H. Zhang, S. Tripathy, J. H. Teng, and S. J. Chua, “Lasing in GaN microdisks pivoted on Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 211101 (2006).
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Zhang, Y.

Y. Zhang, M. Yuan, N. Chowdhury, K. Cheng, and T. Palacios, “720 V/0.35 mΩ⋅cm2 fully-vertical GaN-on-Si power diodes by selective removal of Si substrates and buffer layers,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 9, 715–718 (2018).
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Y. Zhang, X. Zhang, K. H. Li, Y. F. Cheung, C. Feng, and H. W. Choi, “Advances in III-nitride semiconductor microdisk lasers,” Phys. Status Solidi A 212, 960–973 (2015).
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Zhou, K.

Y. Sun, K. Zhou, Q. Sun, J. Liu, M. Feng, Z. Li, Y. Zhou, L. Zhang, D. Li, S. Zhang, M. Ikeda, S. Liu, and H. Yang, “Room-temperature continuous-wave electrically injected InGaN-based laser directly grown on Si,” Nat. Photon. 10, 595–599 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhou, Y.

M. Feng, J. He, Q. Sun, H. Gao, Z. Li, Y. Zhou, J. Liu, S. Zhang, D. Li, L. Zhang, X. Sun, D. Li, H. Wang, M. Ikeda, R. Wang, and H. Yang, “Room-temperature electrically pumped InGaN based microdisk laser grown on Si,” Opt. Express 26, 5043–5051 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Sun, K. Zhou, Q. Sun, J. Liu, M. Feng, Z. Li, Y. Zhou, L. Zhang, D. Li, S. Zhang, M. Ikeda, S. Liu, and H. Yang, “Room-temperature continuous-wave electrically injected InGaN-based laser directly grown on Si,” Nat. Photon. 10, 595–599 (2016).
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Zhu, G.

X. Gao, J. Yuan, Y. Yang, Y. Li, W. Yuan, G. Zhu, H. Zhu, M. Feng, Q. Sun, Y. Liu, and Y. Wang, “A 30mbps in-plane full-duplex light communication using a monolithic GaN photonic circuit,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 32, 075002 (2017).
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X. Gao, J. Yuan, Y. Yang, Y. Li, W. Yuan, G. Zhu, H. Zhu, M. Feng, Q. Sun, Y. Liu, and Y. Wang, “A 30mbps in-plane full-duplex light communication using a monolithic GaN photonic circuit,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 32, 075002 (2017).
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Z. Shi, X. Gao, J. Yuan, S. Zhang, Y. Jiang, F. Zhang, Y. Jiang, H. Zhu, and Y. Wang, “Transferrable monolithic III-nitride photonic circuit for multifunctional optoelectronics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111, 241104 (2017).
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D. Simeonov, E. Feltin, H.-J. Bühlmann, T. Zhu, A. Castiglia, M. Mosca, J.-F. Carlin, R. Butté, and N. Grandjean, “Blue lasing at room temperature in high quality factor GaN/AlInN microdisks with InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 061106 (2007).
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D. Simeonov, E. Feltin, H.-J. Bühlmann, T. Zhu, A. Castiglia, M. Mosca, J.-F. Carlin, R. Butté, and N. Grandjean, “Blue lasing at room temperature in high quality factor GaN/AlInN microdisks with InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 061106 (2007).
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Y. Zhang, M. Yuan, N. Chowdhury, K. Cheng, and T. Palacios, “720 V/0.35 mΩ⋅cm2 fully-vertical GaN-on-Si power diodes by selective removal of Si substrates and buffer layers,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 9, 715–718 (2018).
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M. Hikita, M. Yanagihara, K. Nakazawa, H. Ueno, Y. Hirose, T. Ueda, Y. Uemoto, T. Tanaka, D. Ueda, and T. Egawa, “AlGaN/GaN power HFET on silicon substrate with source-via grounding (SVG) structure,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 52, 1963–1968 (2005).
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Y. Zhang, X. Zhang, K. H. Li, Y. F. Cheung, C. Feng, and H. W. Choi, “Advances in III-nitride semiconductor microdisk lasers,” Phys. Status Solidi A 212, 960–973 (2015).
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J. Sellés, C. Brimont, G. Cassabois, P. Valvin, T. Guillet, I. Roland, Y. Zeng, X. Checoury, P. Boucaud, M. Mexis, F. Semond, and B. Gayral, “Deep-UV nitride-on-silicon microdisk lasers,” Sci. Rep. 6, 21650 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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X. Gao, J. Yuan, Y. Yang, Y. Li, W. Yuan, G. Zhu, H. Zhu, M. Feng, Q. Sun, Y. Liu, and Y. Wang, “A 30mbps in-plane full-duplex light communication using a monolithic GaN photonic circuit,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 32, 075002 (2017).
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M. Hikita, H. Ueno, Y. Hirose, M. Yanagihara, Y. Uemoto, and T. Tanaka, “Semiconductor device and method for fabricating the same,” (June17, 2007). US Patent7291872B2.

S. Nakamura, S. Pearton, and G. Fasol, The Blue Laser Diode: The Complete Story(Springer Science & Business Media, 2013).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Process flow of microrings for electrical injection.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 a) False color SEM images of a 50 μm diameter microring for electrical injection. b) Same device but from a different angle to emphasize the underetching of the microring. The metal microbridge and p-contact are highlighted in yellow,the insulator in red, and the III-nitride in purple. The rough gray area is the etched silicon.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 The sample structure: a) Detailed heterostructure, b) Simulated mode confinement of the TE0, TE1, and TE2 modes, the MQW region is highlighted in green, the heterostructure in gray, c) Energy band structure of the sample at 3.4 V bias.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 JV curves of a 40 μm diameter microring and a 180 μm lateral LED for reference.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Measurement results: a) Top: Cross-sectional view of the device along the red dashed line. Bottom: Photo of a powered 40 μm diameter device emitting blue electroluminescence. b) Spectra of a device with a 40 μm diameter at different injection currents. Maximum current density 4.2 kA/cm2. c) Integrated intensity of the measurements in b).
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Microring under electrical injection with bus waveguide side coupling: a) False color SEM image of device with a 50 μm diameter ring and a 100 μm long bus waveguide after several processing steps. b) Side-view sketch of a full device.

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