Abstract

Future space telescopes, especially X-ray telescopes, will require thin mirrors to achieve high optical throughput. Thin mirrors are more difficult to fabricate than thick mirrors, but recent advances have made accurate fabrication of thin mirrors possible. However, mirrors must have a reflective coating, which typically has non-repeatable and non-uniform intrinsic stress that deforms a thin mirror. Reducing coating stress by controlling deposition parameters typically reduces reflectivity. Non-uniform integrated stress compensation (NISC) methods, in which spatially controlled stress is applied to the mirror substrate backside to balance the frontside coating stress, decouple the film stress from the reflectivity. Ion implantation is one NISC method, where high-energy ions are implanted into a glass or silicon substrate to generate stress near the substrate surface. In this paper, we demonstrate the use of ion implantation for stress compensation of 30 nm thick chromium films applied to the front of five silicon wafers. The reflective films have mean integrated stress between −8 and −35 N/m, which cause deformations between 400 and 1600 nm RMS. We demonstrate that these wafers can be restored to the pre-coating shape to within 60 nm RMS, in most cases within 1/20th of the coating deformation.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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  2. R. K. Heilmann, M. Akilian, C.-H. Chang, R. Hallock, E. Cleaveland, and M. L. Schattenburg, “Shaping of thin grazing-incidence reflection grating substrates via magnetorheological finishing,” Proc. SPIE 5900, 590009 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  3. W. W. Zhang, K. D. Allgood, M. P. Biskach, K.-W. Chan, M. Hlinka, J. D. Kearney, J. R. Mazzarella, R. S. McClelland, A. Numata, R. E. Riveros, T. T. Saha, and P. M. Solly, “Astronomical x-ray optics using mono-crystalline silicon: high resolution, light weight, and low cost,” Proc. SPIE 10699, 106990O (2018).
    [Crossref]
  4. R. E. Riveros, M. P. Biskach, K. D. Allgood, J. D. Kearney, M. Hlinka, A. Numata, and W. W. Zhang, “Fabrication of lightweight silicon x-ray mirrors for high-resolution x-ray optics,” Proc. SPIE 10699, 106990P (2018).
    [Crossref]
  5. M. Ghigo, S. Basso, M. Civitani, R. Gilli, G. Pareschi, B. Salmaso, G. Vecchi, and W. W. Zhang, “Final correction by Ion Beam Figuring of thin shells for X-ray telescopes,” Proc. SPIE 10706, 107063I (2018).
    [Crossref]
  6. D. M. Broadway, J. Weimer, D. Gurgew, T. Lis, B. D. Ramsey, S. L. O’Dell, M. Gubarev, A. Ames, and R. Bruni, “Achieving zero stress in iridium, chromium, and nickel thin films,” Proc. SPIE 9510, 95100E (2015).
  7. K.-W. Chan, M. Sharpe, W. Zhang, L. Kolos, M. Hong, R. McClelland, B. Hohl, T. Saha, and J. Mazzarella, “Coating thin mirror segments for lightweight x-ray optics,” Proc. SPIE 8861, 88610X (2013).
    [Crossref]
  8. H. Mori, T. Okajima, W. W. Zhang, K.-W. Chan, R. Koenecke, J. R. Mazzarella, A. Numata, L. G. Olsen, R. E. Riveros, and M. Yukita, “Reflective coatings for the future x-ray mirror substrates,” Proc. SPIE 10699, 1069941 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  9. D. D. M. Ferreira, S. Svendsen, S. Massahi, A. Jafari, L. M. Vu, J. Korman, N. C. Gellert, F. E. Christensen, S. Kadkhodazadeh, T. Kasama, B. Shortt, M. Bavdaz, M. J. Collon, B. Landgraf, M. Krumrey, L. Cibik, S. Schreiber, and A. Schubert, “Performance and stability of mirror coatings for the ATHENA mission,” Proc. SPIE 10699, 106993K (2018).
  10. D. M. Broadway, B. D. Ramsey, S. L. O’Dell, and D. Gurgew, “In-situ stress measurement of single and multilayer thin-films used in x-ray astronomy optics applications,” Proc. SPIE 10399, 103991B (2017).
    [Crossref]
  11. Y. Yao, H. Kunieda, H. Matsumoto, K. Tamura, and Y. Miyata, “Design and fabrication of a supermirror with smooth and broad response for hard x-ray telescopes,” Appl. Opt. 52(27), 6824–6833 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. F. E. Christensen, A. C. Jakobsen, N. F. Brejnholt, K. K. Madsen, A. Hornstrup, N. J. Westergaard, J. Momberg, J. Koglin, A. M. Fabricant, M. Stern, W. W. Craig, M. J. Pivovaroff, and D. Windt, “Coatings for the NuSTAR mission,” Proc. SPIE 8147, 81470U (2011).
    [Crossref]
  13. B. D. Chalifoux, Y. Yao, R. K. Heilmann, and M. L. Schattenburg, “Simulations of film stress effects on mirror segments for the Lynx X-ray Observatory concept,” J. Astron. Telesc. Instrum. Syst. 5, 021004 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  14. S. Kohli, C. D. Rithner, and P. K. Dorhout, “X-ray characterization of annealed iridium films,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(3), 1149–1154 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  15. Z. Jiang, X. Jiang, W. Liu, and Z. Wu, “Thermal stability of multilayer films Pt/Si, W/Si, Mo/Si, and W/C,” J. Appl. Phys. 65(1), 196–200 (1989).
    [Crossref]
  16. J. Walker, T. Liu, M. Tendulkar, D. N. Burrows, C. T. DeRoo, R. Allured, E. N. Hertz, V. Cotroneo, P. B. Reid, E. D. Schwartz, T. N. Jackson, and S. Trolier-McKinstry, “Design and fabrication of prototype piezoelectric adjustable X-ray mirrors,” Opt. Express 26(21), 27757–27772 (2018).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. Y. Yao, B. D. Chalifoux, R. K. Heilmann, and M. L. Schattenburg, “Thermal oxide patterning method for compensating coating stress in silicon substrates,” Opt. Express 27(2), 1010–1024 (2019).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. Y. Yao, B. D. Chalifoux, R. K. Heilmann, K.-W. Chan, H. Mori, T. Okajima, W. W. Zhang, and M. L. Schattenburg, “Progress of coating stress compensation of silicon mirrors for the Lynx X-ray telescope mission concept using a thermal oxide patterning method,” J. Astron. Telesc. Instrum. Syst. (submitted).
  19. C. T. DeRoo, R. Allured, V. Cotroneo, E. N. Hertz, V. Marquez, P. B. Reid, E. D. Schwartz, A. A. Vikhlinin, S. Trolier-McKinstry, J. Walker, T. N. Jackson, T. Liu, and M. Tendulkar, “Deterministic figure correction of piezoelectrically adjustable slumped glass optics,” J. Astron. Telesc. Instrum. Syst. 4, 019004 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  20. D. L. Windt and R. Conley, “Two-dimensional differential deposition for figure correction of thin-shell mirror substrates for x-ray astronomy,” Proc. SPIE 9603, 96031H (2015).
    [Crossref]
  21. C. Atkins, K. Kilaru, B. D. Ramsey, D. M. Broadway, M. V. Gubarev, S. L. O’Dell, and W. W. Zhang, “Differential deposition correction of segmented glass x-ray optics,” Proc. SPIE 9603, 96031G (2015).
    [Crossref]
  22. Y. Yao, X. Wang, J. Cao, and M. Ulmer, “Stress manipulated coating for fabricating lightweight X-ray telescope mirrors,” Opt. Express 23(22), 28605–28618 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  23. X. Wang, Y. Yao, T. Liu, C. Liu, M. P. Ulmer, and J. Cao, “Deformation of rectangular thin glass plate coated with magnetostrictive material,” Smart Mater. Struct. 25(8), 085038 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  24. H. E. Zuo, B. D. Chalifoux, R. K. Heilmann, and M. L. Schattenburg, “Ultrafast laser micro-stressing for correction of thin fused silica optics for the Lynx X-Ray Telescope Mission,” Proc. SPIE 10699, 1069954 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  25. C. A. Volkert, “Stress and plastic flow in silicon during amorphization by ion bombardment,” J. Appl. Phys. 70(7), 3521–3527 (1991).
    [Crossref]
  26. C. R. Forest, C. R. Canizares, D. R. Neal, M. McGuirk, and M. L. Schattenburg, “Metrology of thin transparent optics using Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensing,” Opt. Eng. 43(3), 742–753 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  27. M. Akilian, C. R. Forest, A. H. Slocum, D. L. Trumper, and M. L. Schattenburg, “Thin optic constraint,” Precis. Eng. 31(2), 130–138 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  28. B. D. Chalifoux, R. K. Heilmann, and M. L. Schattenburg, “Correcting flat mirrors with surface stress: analytical stress fields,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 35(10), 1705–1716 (2018).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  29. B. Chalifoux, E. Sung, R. K. Heilmann, and M. L. Schattenburg, “High-precision figure correction of x-ray telescope optics using ion implantation,” Proc. SPIE 8861, 88610T (2013).
    [Crossref]
  30. H. Windischmann, “Intrinsic stress in sputter-deposited thin films,” Crit. Rev. Solid State Mater. Sci. 17(6), 547–596 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  31. J. A. Thornton and D. W. Hoffman, “Stress-related effects in thin films,” Thin Solid Films 171(1), 5–31 (1989).
    [Crossref]

2019 (2)

B. D. Chalifoux, Y. Yao, R. K. Heilmann, and M. L. Schattenburg, “Simulations of film stress effects on mirror segments for the Lynx X-ray Observatory concept,” J. Astron. Telesc. Instrum. Syst. 5, 021004 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y. Yao, B. D. Chalifoux, R. K. Heilmann, and M. L. Schattenburg, “Thermal oxide patterning method for compensating coating stress in silicon substrates,” Opt. Express 27(2), 1010–1024 (2019).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2018 (10)

B. D. Chalifoux, R. K. Heilmann, and M. L. Schattenburg, “Correcting flat mirrors with surface stress: analytical stress fields,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 35(10), 1705–1716 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Walker, T. Liu, M. Tendulkar, D. N. Burrows, C. T. DeRoo, R. Allured, E. N. Hertz, V. Cotroneo, P. B. Reid, E. D. Schwartz, T. N. Jackson, and S. Trolier-McKinstry, “Design and fabrication of prototype piezoelectric adjustable X-ray mirrors,” Opt. Express 26(21), 27757–27772 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. A. Gaskin, A. Dominguez, K. Gelmis, J. Mulqueen, D. Swartz, K. McCarley, F. Özel, A. Vikhlinin, D. Schwartz, H. Tananbaum, G. Blackwood, J. Arenberg, W. Purcell, and L. Allen, “The Lynx X-ray Observatory: concept study overview and status,” Proc. SPIE 10699, 106990N (2018).

C. T. DeRoo, R. Allured, V. Cotroneo, E. N. Hertz, V. Marquez, P. B. Reid, E. D. Schwartz, A. A. Vikhlinin, S. Trolier-McKinstry, J. Walker, T. N. Jackson, T. Liu, and M. Tendulkar, “Deterministic figure correction of piezoelectrically adjustable slumped glass optics,” J. Astron. Telesc. Instrum. Syst. 4, 019004 (2018).
[Crossref]

H. E. Zuo, B. D. Chalifoux, R. K. Heilmann, and M. L. Schattenburg, “Ultrafast laser micro-stressing for correction of thin fused silica optics for the Lynx X-Ray Telescope Mission,” Proc. SPIE 10699, 1069954 (2018).
[Crossref]

W. W. Zhang, K. D. Allgood, M. P. Biskach, K.-W. Chan, M. Hlinka, J. D. Kearney, J. R. Mazzarella, R. S. McClelland, A. Numata, R. E. Riveros, T. T. Saha, and P. M. Solly, “Astronomical x-ray optics using mono-crystalline silicon: high resolution, light weight, and low cost,” Proc. SPIE 10699, 106990O (2018).
[Crossref]

R. E. Riveros, M. P. Biskach, K. D. Allgood, J. D. Kearney, M. Hlinka, A. Numata, and W. W. Zhang, “Fabrication of lightweight silicon x-ray mirrors for high-resolution x-ray optics,” Proc. SPIE 10699, 106990P (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Ghigo, S. Basso, M. Civitani, R. Gilli, G. Pareschi, B. Salmaso, G. Vecchi, and W. W. Zhang, “Final correction by Ion Beam Figuring of thin shells for X-ray telescopes,” Proc. SPIE 10706, 107063I (2018).
[Crossref]

H. Mori, T. Okajima, W. W. Zhang, K.-W. Chan, R. Koenecke, J. R. Mazzarella, A. Numata, L. G. Olsen, R. E. Riveros, and M. Yukita, “Reflective coatings for the future x-ray mirror substrates,” Proc. SPIE 10699, 1069941 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. D. M. Ferreira, S. Svendsen, S. Massahi, A. Jafari, L. M. Vu, J. Korman, N. C. Gellert, F. E. Christensen, S. Kadkhodazadeh, T. Kasama, B. Shortt, M. Bavdaz, M. J. Collon, B. Landgraf, M. Krumrey, L. Cibik, S. Schreiber, and A. Schubert, “Performance and stability of mirror coatings for the ATHENA mission,” Proc. SPIE 10699, 106993K (2018).

2017 (1)

D. M. Broadway, B. D. Ramsey, S. L. O’Dell, and D. Gurgew, “In-situ stress measurement of single and multilayer thin-films used in x-ray astronomy optics applications,” Proc. SPIE 10399, 103991B (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (1)

X. Wang, Y. Yao, T. Liu, C. Liu, M. P. Ulmer, and J. Cao, “Deformation of rectangular thin glass plate coated with magnetostrictive material,” Smart Mater. Struct. 25(8), 085038 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (4)

Y. Yao, X. Wang, J. Cao, and M. Ulmer, “Stress manipulated coating for fabricating lightweight X-ray telescope mirrors,” Opt. Express 23(22), 28605–28618 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. M. Broadway, J. Weimer, D. Gurgew, T. Lis, B. D. Ramsey, S. L. O’Dell, M. Gubarev, A. Ames, and R. Bruni, “Achieving zero stress in iridium, chromium, and nickel thin films,” Proc. SPIE 9510, 95100E (2015).

D. L. Windt and R. Conley, “Two-dimensional differential deposition for figure correction of thin-shell mirror substrates for x-ray astronomy,” Proc. SPIE 9603, 96031H (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Atkins, K. Kilaru, B. D. Ramsey, D. M. Broadway, M. V. Gubarev, S. L. O’Dell, and W. W. Zhang, “Differential deposition correction of segmented glass x-ray optics,” Proc. SPIE 9603, 96031G (2015).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

K.-W. Chan, M. Sharpe, W. Zhang, L. Kolos, M. Hong, R. McClelland, B. Hohl, T. Saha, and J. Mazzarella, “Coating thin mirror segments for lightweight x-ray optics,” Proc. SPIE 8861, 88610X (2013).
[Crossref]

B. Chalifoux, E. Sung, R. K. Heilmann, and M. L. Schattenburg, “High-precision figure correction of x-ray telescope optics using ion implantation,” Proc. SPIE 8861, 88610T (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Yao, H. Kunieda, H. Matsumoto, K. Tamura, and Y. Miyata, “Design and fabrication of a supermirror with smooth and broad response for hard x-ray telescopes,” Appl. Opt. 52(27), 6824–6833 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

F. E. Christensen, A. C. Jakobsen, N. F. Brejnholt, K. K. Madsen, A. Hornstrup, N. J. Westergaard, J. Momberg, J. Koglin, A. M. Fabricant, M. Stern, W. W. Craig, M. J. Pivovaroff, and D. Windt, “Coatings for the NuSTAR mission,” Proc. SPIE 8147, 81470U (2011).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

M. Akilian, C. R. Forest, A. H. Slocum, D. L. Trumper, and M. L. Schattenburg, “Thin optic constraint,” Precis. Eng. 31(2), 130–138 (2007).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

R. K. Heilmann, M. Akilian, C.-H. Chang, R. Hallock, E. Cleaveland, and M. L. Schattenburg, “Shaping of thin grazing-incidence reflection grating substrates via magnetorheological finishing,” Proc. SPIE 5900, 590009 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

C. R. Forest, C. R. Canizares, D. R. Neal, M. McGuirk, and M. L. Schattenburg, “Metrology of thin transparent optics using Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensing,” Opt. Eng. 43(3), 742–753 (2004).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

S. Kohli, C. D. Rithner, and P. K. Dorhout, “X-ray characterization of annealed iridium films,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(3), 1149–1154 (2002).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

H. Windischmann, “Intrinsic stress in sputter-deposited thin films,” Crit. Rev. Solid State Mater. Sci. 17(6), 547–596 (1992).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

C. A. Volkert, “Stress and plastic flow in silicon during amorphization by ion bombardment,” J. Appl. Phys. 70(7), 3521–3527 (1991).
[Crossref]

1989 (2)

Z. Jiang, X. Jiang, W. Liu, and Z. Wu, “Thermal stability of multilayer films Pt/Si, W/Si, Mo/Si, and W/C,” J. Appl. Phys. 65(1), 196–200 (1989).
[Crossref]

J. A. Thornton and D. W. Hoffman, “Stress-related effects in thin films,” Thin Solid Films 171(1), 5–31 (1989).
[Crossref]

Akilian, M.

M. Akilian, C. R. Forest, A. H. Slocum, D. L. Trumper, and M. L. Schattenburg, “Thin optic constraint,” Precis. Eng. 31(2), 130–138 (2007).
[Crossref]

R. K. Heilmann, M. Akilian, C.-H. Chang, R. Hallock, E. Cleaveland, and M. L. Schattenburg, “Shaping of thin grazing-incidence reflection grating substrates via magnetorheological finishing,” Proc. SPIE 5900, 590009 (2005).
[Crossref]

Allen, L.

J. A. Gaskin, A. Dominguez, K. Gelmis, J. Mulqueen, D. Swartz, K. McCarley, F. Özel, A. Vikhlinin, D. Schwartz, H. Tananbaum, G. Blackwood, J. Arenberg, W. Purcell, and L. Allen, “The Lynx X-ray Observatory: concept study overview and status,” Proc. SPIE 10699, 106990N (2018).

Allgood, K. D.

W. W. Zhang, K. D. Allgood, M. P. Biskach, K.-W. Chan, M. Hlinka, J. D. Kearney, J. R. Mazzarella, R. S. McClelland, A. Numata, R. E. Riveros, T. T. Saha, and P. M. Solly, “Astronomical x-ray optics using mono-crystalline silicon: high resolution, light weight, and low cost,” Proc. SPIE 10699, 106990O (2018).
[Crossref]

R. E. Riveros, M. P. Biskach, K. D. Allgood, J. D. Kearney, M. Hlinka, A. Numata, and W. W. Zhang, “Fabrication of lightweight silicon x-ray mirrors for high-resolution x-ray optics,” Proc. SPIE 10699, 106990P (2018).
[Crossref]

Allured, R.

C. T. DeRoo, R. Allured, V. Cotroneo, E. N. Hertz, V. Marquez, P. B. Reid, E. D. Schwartz, A. A. Vikhlinin, S. Trolier-McKinstry, J. Walker, T. N. Jackson, T. Liu, and M. Tendulkar, “Deterministic figure correction of piezoelectrically adjustable slumped glass optics,” J. Astron. Telesc. Instrum. Syst. 4, 019004 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Walker, T. Liu, M. Tendulkar, D. N. Burrows, C. T. DeRoo, R. Allured, E. N. Hertz, V. Cotroneo, P. B. Reid, E. D. Schwartz, T. N. Jackson, and S. Trolier-McKinstry, “Design and fabrication of prototype piezoelectric adjustable X-ray mirrors,” Opt. Express 26(21), 27757–27772 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ames, A.

D. M. Broadway, J. Weimer, D. Gurgew, T. Lis, B. D. Ramsey, S. L. O’Dell, M. Gubarev, A. Ames, and R. Bruni, “Achieving zero stress in iridium, chromium, and nickel thin films,” Proc. SPIE 9510, 95100E (2015).

Arenberg, J.

J. A. Gaskin, A. Dominguez, K. Gelmis, J. Mulqueen, D. Swartz, K. McCarley, F. Özel, A. Vikhlinin, D. Schwartz, H. Tananbaum, G. Blackwood, J. Arenberg, W. Purcell, and L. Allen, “The Lynx X-ray Observatory: concept study overview and status,” Proc. SPIE 10699, 106990N (2018).

Atkins, C.

C. Atkins, K. Kilaru, B. D. Ramsey, D. M. Broadway, M. V. Gubarev, S. L. O’Dell, and W. W. Zhang, “Differential deposition correction of segmented glass x-ray optics,” Proc. SPIE 9603, 96031G (2015).
[Crossref]

Basso, S.

M. Ghigo, S. Basso, M. Civitani, R. Gilli, G. Pareschi, B. Salmaso, G. Vecchi, and W. W. Zhang, “Final correction by Ion Beam Figuring of thin shells for X-ray telescopes,” Proc. SPIE 10706, 107063I (2018).
[Crossref]

Bavdaz, M.

D. D. M. Ferreira, S. Svendsen, S. Massahi, A. Jafari, L. M. Vu, J. Korman, N. C. Gellert, F. E. Christensen, S. Kadkhodazadeh, T. Kasama, B. Shortt, M. Bavdaz, M. J. Collon, B. Landgraf, M. Krumrey, L. Cibik, S. Schreiber, and A. Schubert, “Performance and stability of mirror coatings for the ATHENA mission,” Proc. SPIE 10699, 106993K (2018).

Biskach, M. P.

R. E. Riveros, M. P. Biskach, K. D. Allgood, J. D. Kearney, M. Hlinka, A. Numata, and W. W. Zhang, “Fabrication of lightweight silicon x-ray mirrors for high-resolution x-ray optics,” Proc. SPIE 10699, 106990P (2018).
[Crossref]

W. W. Zhang, K. D. Allgood, M. P. Biskach, K.-W. Chan, M. Hlinka, J. D. Kearney, J. R. Mazzarella, R. S. McClelland, A. Numata, R. E. Riveros, T. T. Saha, and P. M. Solly, “Astronomical x-ray optics using mono-crystalline silicon: high resolution, light weight, and low cost,” Proc. SPIE 10699, 106990O (2018).
[Crossref]

Blackwood, G.

J. A. Gaskin, A. Dominguez, K. Gelmis, J. Mulqueen, D. Swartz, K. McCarley, F. Özel, A. Vikhlinin, D. Schwartz, H. Tananbaum, G. Blackwood, J. Arenberg, W. Purcell, and L. Allen, “The Lynx X-ray Observatory: concept study overview and status,” Proc. SPIE 10699, 106990N (2018).

Brejnholt, N. F.

F. E. Christensen, A. C. Jakobsen, N. F. Brejnholt, K. K. Madsen, A. Hornstrup, N. J. Westergaard, J. Momberg, J. Koglin, A. M. Fabricant, M. Stern, W. W. Craig, M. J. Pivovaroff, and D. Windt, “Coatings for the NuSTAR mission,” Proc. SPIE 8147, 81470U (2011).
[Crossref]

Broadway, D. M.

D. M. Broadway, B. D. Ramsey, S. L. O’Dell, and D. Gurgew, “In-situ stress measurement of single and multilayer thin-films used in x-ray astronomy optics applications,” Proc. SPIE 10399, 103991B (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Atkins, K. Kilaru, B. D. Ramsey, D. M. Broadway, M. V. Gubarev, S. L. O’Dell, and W. W. Zhang, “Differential deposition correction of segmented glass x-ray optics,” Proc. SPIE 9603, 96031G (2015).
[Crossref]

D. M. Broadway, J. Weimer, D. Gurgew, T. Lis, B. D. Ramsey, S. L. O’Dell, M. Gubarev, A. Ames, and R. Bruni, “Achieving zero stress in iridium, chromium, and nickel thin films,” Proc. SPIE 9510, 95100E (2015).

Bruni, R.

D. M. Broadway, J. Weimer, D. Gurgew, T. Lis, B. D. Ramsey, S. L. O’Dell, M. Gubarev, A. Ames, and R. Bruni, “Achieving zero stress in iridium, chromium, and nickel thin films,” Proc. SPIE 9510, 95100E (2015).

Burrows, D. N.

Canizares, C. R.

C. R. Forest, C. R. Canizares, D. R. Neal, M. McGuirk, and M. L. Schattenburg, “Metrology of thin transparent optics using Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensing,” Opt. Eng. 43(3), 742–753 (2004).
[Crossref]

Cao, J.

X. Wang, Y. Yao, T. Liu, C. Liu, M. P. Ulmer, and J. Cao, “Deformation of rectangular thin glass plate coated with magnetostrictive material,” Smart Mater. Struct. 25(8), 085038 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Yao, X. Wang, J. Cao, and M. Ulmer, “Stress manipulated coating for fabricating lightweight X-ray telescope mirrors,” Opt. Express 23(22), 28605–28618 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chalifoux, B.

B. Chalifoux, E. Sung, R. K. Heilmann, and M. L. Schattenburg, “High-precision figure correction of x-ray telescope optics using ion implantation,” Proc. SPIE 8861, 88610T (2013).
[Crossref]

Chalifoux, B. D.

Y. Yao, B. D. Chalifoux, R. K. Heilmann, and M. L. Schattenburg, “Thermal oxide patterning method for compensating coating stress in silicon substrates,” Opt. Express 27(2), 1010–1024 (2019).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. D. Chalifoux, Y. Yao, R. K. Heilmann, and M. L. Schattenburg, “Simulations of film stress effects on mirror segments for the Lynx X-ray Observatory concept,” J. Astron. Telesc. Instrum. Syst. 5, 021004 (2019).
[Crossref]

B. D. Chalifoux, R. K. Heilmann, and M. L. Schattenburg, “Correcting flat mirrors with surface stress: analytical stress fields,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 35(10), 1705–1716 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. E. Zuo, B. D. Chalifoux, R. K. Heilmann, and M. L. Schattenburg, “Ultrafast laser micro-stressing for correction of thin fused silica optics for the Lynx X-Ray Telescope Mission,” Proc. SPIE 10699, 1069954 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Yao, B. D. Chalifoux, R. K. Heilmann, K.-W. Chan, H. Mori, T. Okajima, W. W. Zhang, and M. L. Schattenburg, “Progress of coating stress compensation of silicon mirrors for the Lynx X-ray telescope mission concept using a thermal oxide patterning method,” J. Astron. Telesc. Instrum. Syst. (submitted).

Chan, K.-W.

H. Mori, T. Okajima, W. W. Zhang, K.-W. Chan, R. Koenecke, J. R. Mazzarella, A. Numata, L. G. Olsen, R. E. Riveros, and M. Yukita, “Reflective coatings for the future x-ray mirror substrates,” Proc. SPIE 10699, 1069941 (2018).
[Crossref]

W. W. Zhang, K. D. Allgood, M. P. Biskach, K.-W. Chan, M. Hlinka, J. D. Kearney, J. R. Mazzarella, R. S. McClelland, A. Numata, R. E. Riveros, T. T. Saha, and P. M. Solly, “Astronomical x-ray optics using mono-crystalline silicon: high resolution, light weight, and low cost,” Proc. SPIE 10699, 106990O (2018).
[Crossref]

K.-W. Chan, M. Sharpe, W. Zhang, L. Kolos, M. Hong, R. McClelland, B. Hohl, T. Saha, and J. Mazzarella, “Coating thin mirror segments for lightweight x-ray optics,” Proc. SPIE 8861, 88610X (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Yao, B. D. Chalifoux, R. K. Heilmann, K.-W. Chan, H. Mori, T. Okajima, W. W. Zhang, and M. L. Schattenburg, “Progress of coating stress compensation of silicon mirrors for the Lynx X-ray telescope mission concept using a thermal oxide patterning method,” J. Astron. Telesc. Instrum. Syst. (submitted).

Chang, C.-H.

R. K. Heilmann, M. Akilian, C.-H. Chang, R. Hallock, E. Cleaveland, and M. L. Schattenburg, “Shaping of thin grazing-incidence reflection grating substrates via magnetorheological finishing,” Proc. SPIE 5900, 590009 (2005).
[Crossref]

Christensen, F. E.

D. D. M. Ferreira, S. Svendsen, S. Massahi, A. Jafari, L. M. Vu, J. Korman, N. C. Gellert, F. E. Christensen, S. Kadkhodazadeh, T. Kasama, B. Shortt, M. Bavdaz, M. J. Collon, B. Landgraf, M. Krumrey, L. Cibik, S. Schreiber, and A. Schubert, “Performance and stability of mirror coatings for the ATHENA mission,” Proc. SPIE 10699, 106993K (2018).

F. E. Christensen, A. C. Jakobsen, N. F. Brejnholt, K. K. Madsen, A. Hornstrup, N. J. Westergaard, J. Momberg, J. Koglin, A. M. Fabricant, M. Stern, W. W. Craig, M. J. Pivovaroff, and D. Windt, “Coatings for the NuSTAR mission,” Proc. SPIE 8147, 81470U (2011).
[Crossref]

Cibik, L.

D. D. M. Ferreira, S. Svendsen, S. Massahi, A. Jafari, L. M. Vu, J. Korman, N. C. Gellert, F. E. Christensen, S. Kadkhodazadeh, T. Kasama, B. Shortt, M. Bavdaz, M. J. Collon, B. Landgraf, M. Krumrey, L. Cibik, S. Schreiber, and A. Schubert, “Performance and stability of mirror coatings for the ATHENA mission,” Proc. SPIE 10699, 106993K (2018).

Civitani, M.

M. Ghigo, S. Basso, M. Civitani, R. Gilli, G. Pareschi, B. Salmaso, G. Vecchi, and W. W. Zhang, “Final correction by Ion Beam Figuring of thin shells for X-ray telescopes,” Proc. SPIE 10706, 107063I (2018).
[Crossref]

Cleaveland, E.

R. K. Heilmann, M. Akilian, C.-H. Chang, R. Hallock, E. Cleaveland, and M. L. Schattenburg, “Shaping of thin grazing-incidence reflection grating substrates via magnetorheological finishing,” Proc. SPIE 5900, 590009 (2005).
[Crossref]

Collon, M. J.

D. D. M. Ferreira, S. Svendsen, S. Massahi, A. Jafari, L. M. Vu, J. Korman, N. C. Gellert, F. E. Christensen, S. Kadkhodazadeh, T. Kasama, B. Shortt, M. Bavdaz, M. J. Collon, B. Landgraf, M. Krumrey, L. Cibik, S. Schreiber, and A. Schubert, “Performance and stability of mirror coatings for the ATHENA mission,” Proc. SPIE 10699, 106993K (2018).

Conley, R.

D. L. Windt and R. Conley, “Two-dimensional differential deposition for figure correction of thin-shell mirror substrates for x-ray astronomy,” Proc. SPIE 9603, 96031H (2015).
[Crossref]

Cotroneo, V.

J. Walker, T. Liu, M. Tendulkar, D. N. Burrows, C. T. DeRoo, R. Allured, E. N. Hertz, V. Cotroneo, P. B. Reid, E. D. Schwartz, T. N. Jackson, and S. Trolier-McKinstry, “Design and fabrication of prototype piezoelectric adjustable X-ray mirrors,” Opt. Express 26(21), 27757–27772 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. T. DeRoo, R. Allured, V. Cotroneo, E. N. Hertz, V. Marquez, P. B. Reid, E. D. Schwartz, A. A. Vikhlinin, S. Trolier-McKinstry, J. Walker, T. N. Jackson, T. Liu, and M. Tendulkar, “Deterministic figure correction of piezoelectrically adjustable slumped glass optics,” J. Astron. Telesc. Instrum. Syst. 4, 019004 (2018).
[Crossref]

Craig, W. W.

F. E. Christensen, A. C. Jakobsen, N. F. Brejnholt, K. K. Madsen, A. Hornstrup, N. J. Westergaard, J. Momberg, J. Koglin, A. M. Fabricant, M. Stern, W. W. Craig, M. J. Pivovaroff, and D. Windt, “Coatings for the NuSTAR mission,” Proc. SPIE 8147, 81470U (2011).
[Crossref]

DeRoo, C. T.

C. T. DeRoo, R. Allured, V. Cotroneo, E. N. Hertz, V. Marquez, P. B. Reid, E. D. Schwartz, A. A. Vikhlinin, S. Trolier-McKinstry, J. Walker, T. N. Jackson, T. Liu, and M. Tendulkar, “Deterministic figure correction of piezoelectrically adjustable slumped glass optics,” J. Astron. Telesc. Instrum. Syst. 4, 019004 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Walker, T. Liu, M. Tendulkar, D. N. Burrows, C. T. DeRoo, R. Allured, E. N. Hertz, V. Cotroneo, P. B. Reid, E. D. Schwartz, T. N. Jackson, and S. Trolier-McKinstry, “Design and fabrication of prototype piezoelectric adjustable X-ray mirrors,” Opt. Express 26(21), 27757–27772 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dominguez, A.

J. A. Gaskin, A. Dominguez, K. Gelmis, J. Mulqueen, D. Swartz, K. McCarley, F. Özel, A. Vikhlinin, D. Schwartz, H. Tananbaum, G. Blackwood, J. Arenberg, W. Purcell, and L. Allen, “The Lynx X-ray Observatory: concept study overview and status,” Proc. SPIE 10699, 106990N (2018).

Dorhout, P. K.

S. Kohli, C. D. Rithner, and P. K. Dorhout, “X-ray characterization of annealed iridium films,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(3), 1149–1154 (2002).
[Crossref]

Fabricant, A. M.

F. E. Christensen, A. C. Jakobsen, N. F. Brejnholt, K. K. Madsen, A. Hornstrup, N. J. Westergaard, J. Momberg, J. Koglin, A. M. Fabricant, M. Stern, W. W. Craig, M. J. Pivovaroff, and D. Windt, “Coatings for the NuSTAR mission,” Proc. SPIE 8147, 81470U (2011).
[Crossref]

Ferreira, D. D. M.

D. D. M. Ferreira, S. Svendsen, S. Massahi, A. Jafari, L. M. Vu, J. Korman, N. C. Gellert, F. E. Christensen, S. Kadkhodazadeh, T. Kasama, B. Shortt, M. Bavdaz, M. J. Collon, B. Landgraf, M. Krumrey, L. Cibik, S. Schreiber, and A. Schubert, “Performance and stability of mirror coatings for the ATHENA mission,” Proc. SPIE 10699, 106993K (2018).

Forest, C. R.

M. Akilian, C. R. Forest, A. H. Slocum, D. L. Trumper, and M. L. Schattenburg, “Thin optic constraint,” Precis. Eng. 31(2), 130–138 (2007).
[Crossref]

C. R. Forest, C. R. Canizares, D. R. Neal, M. McGuirk, and M. L. Schattenburg, “Metrology of thin transparent optics using Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensing,” Opt. Eng. 43(3), 742–753 (2004).
[Crossref]

Gaskin, J. A.

J. A. Gaskin, A. Dominguez, K. Gelmis, J. Mulqueen, D. Swartz, K. McCarley, F. Özel, A. Vikhlinin, D. Schwartz, H. Tananbaum, G. Blackwood, J. Arenberg, W. Purcell, and L. Allen, “The Lynx X-ray Observatory: concept study overview and status,” Proc. SPIE 10699, 106990N (2018).

Gellert, N. C.

D. D. M. Ferreira, S. Svendsen, S. Massahi, A. Jafari, L. M. Vu, J. Korman, N. C. Gellert, F. E. Christensen, S. Kadkhodazadeh, T. Kasama, B. Shortt, M. Bavdaz, M. J. Collon, B. Landgraf, M. Krumrey, L. Cibik, S. Schreiber, and A. Schubert, “Performance and stability of mirror coatings for the ATHENA mission,” Proc. SPIE 10699, 106993K (2018).

Gelmis, K.

J. A. Gaskin, A. Dominguez, K. Gelmis, J. Mulqueen, D. Swartz, K. McCarley, F. Özel, A. Vikhlinin, D. Schwartz, H. Tananbaum, G. Blackwood, J. Arenberg, W. Purcell, and L. Allen, “The Lynx X-ray Observatory: concept study overview and status,” Proc. SPIE 10699, 106990N (2018).

Ghigo, M.

M. Ghigo, S. Basso, M. Civitani, R. Gilli, G. Pareschi, B. Salmaso, G. Vecchi, and W. W. Zhang, “Final correction by Ion Beam Figuring of thin shells for X-ray telescopes,” Proc. SPIE 10706, 107063I (2018).
[Crossref]

Gilli, R.

M. Ghigo, S. Basso, M. Civitani, R. Gilli, G. Pareschi, B. Salmaso, G. Vecchi, and W. W. Zhang, “Final correction by Ion Beam Figuring of thin shells for X-ray telescopes,” Proc. SPIE 10706, 107063I (2018).
[Crossref]

Gubarev, M.

D. M. Broadway, J. Weimer, D. Gurgew, T. Lis, B. D. Ramsey, S. L. O’Dell, M. Gubarev, A. Ames, and R. Bruni, “Achieving zero stress in iridium, chromium, and nickel thin films,” Proc. SPIE 9510, 95100E (2015).

Gubarev, M. V.

C. Atkins, K. Kilaru, B. D. Ramsey, D. M. Broadway, M. V. Gubarev, S. L. O’Dell, and W. W. Zhang, “Differential deposition correction of segmented glass x-ray optics,” Proc. SPIE 9603, 96031G (2015).
[Crossref]

Gurgew, D.

D. M. Broadway, B. D. Ramsey, S. L. O’Dell, and D. Gurgew, “In-situ stress measurement of single and multilayer thin-films used in x-ray astronomy optics applications,” Proc. SPIE 10399, 103991B (2017).
[Crossref]

D. M. Broadway, J. Weimer, D. Gurgew, T. Lis, B. D. Ramsey, S. L. O’Dell, M. Gubarev, A. Ames, and R. Bruni, “Achieving zero stress in iridium, chromium, and nickel thin films,” Proc. SPIE 9510, 95100E (2015).

Hallock, R.

R. K. Heilmann, M. Akilian, C.-H. Chang, R. Hallock, E. Cleaveland, and M. L. Schattenburg, “Shaping of thin grazing-incidence reflection grating substrates via magnetorheological finishing,” Proc. SPIE 5900, 590009 (2005).
[Crossref]

Heilmann, R. K.

B. D. Chalifoux, Y. Yao, R. K. Heilmann, and M. L. Schattenburg, “Simulations of film stress effects on mirror segments for the Lynx X-ray Observatory concept,” J. Astron. Telesc. Instrum. Syst. 5, 021004 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y. Yao, B. D. Chalifoux, R. K. Heilmann, and M. L. Schattenburg, “Thermal oxide patterning method for compensating coating stress in silicon substrates,” Opt. Express 27(2), 1010–1024 (2019).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. D. Chalifoux, R. K. Heilmann, and M. L. Schattenburg, “Correcting flat mirrors with surface stress: analytical stress fields,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 35(10), 1705–1716 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. E. Zuo, B. D. Chalifoux, R. K. Heilmann, and M. L. Schattenburg, “Ultrafast laser micro-stressing for correction of thin fused silica optics for the Lynx X-Ray Telescope Mission,” Proc. SPIE 10699, 1069954 (2018).
[Crossref]

B. Chalifoux, E. Sung, R. K. Heilmann, and M. L. Schattenburg, “High-precision figure correction of x-ray telescope optics using ion implantation,” Proc. SPIE 8861, 88610T (2013).
[Crossref]

R. K. Heilmann, M. Akilian, C.-H. Chang, R. Hallock, E. Cleaveland, and M. L. Schattenburg, “Shaping of thin grazing-incidence reflection grating substrates via magnetorheological finishing,” Proc. SPIE 5900, 590009 (2005).
[Crossref]

Y. Yao, B. D. Chalifoux, R. K. Heilmann, K.-W. Chan, H. Mori, T. Okajima, W. W. Zhang, and M. L. Schattenburg, “Progress of coating stress compensation of silicon mirrors for the Lynx X-ray telescope mission concept using a thermal oxide patterning method,” J. Astron. Telesc. Instrum. Syst. (submitted).

Hertz, E. N.

C. T. DeRoo, R. Allured, V. Cotroneo, E. N. Hertz, V. Marquez, P. B. Reid, E. D. Schwartz, A. A. Vikhlinin, S. Trolier-McKinstry, J. Walker, T. N. Jackson, T. Liu, and M. Tendulkar, “Deterministic figure correction of piezoelectrically adjustable slumped glass optics,” J. Astron. Telesc. Instrum. Syst. 4, 019004 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Walker, T. Liu, M. Tendulkar, D. N. Burrows, C. T. DeRoo, R. Allured, E. N. Hertz, V. Cotroneo, P. B. Reid, E. D. Schwartz, T. N. Jackson, and S. Trolier-McKinstry, “Design and fabrication of prototype piezoelectric adjustable X-ray mirrors,” Opt. Express 26(21), 27757–27772 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hlinka, M.

R. E. Riveros, M. P. Biskach, K. D. Allgood, J. D. Kearney, M. Hlinka, A. Numata, and W. W. Zhang, “Fabrication of lightweight silicon x-ray mirrors for high-resolution x-ray optics,” Proc. SPIE 10699, 106990P (2018).
[Crossref]

W. W. Zhang, K. D. Allgood, M. P. Biskach, K.-W. Chan, M. Hlinka, J. D. Kearney, J. R. Mazzarella, R. S. McClelland, A. Numata, R. E. Riveros, T. T. Saha, and P. M. Solly, “Astronomical x-ray optics using mono-crystalline silicon: high resolution, light weight, and low cost,” Proc. SPIE 10699, 106990O (2018).
[Crossref]

Hoffman, D. W.

J. A. Thornton and D. W. Hoffman, “Stress-related effects in thin films,” Thin Solid Films 171(1), 5–31 (1989).
[Crossref]

Hohl, B.

K.-W. Chan, M. Sharpe, W. Zhang, L. Kolos, M. Hong, R. McClelland, B. Hohl, T. Saha, and J. Mazzarella, “Coating thin mirror segments for lightweight x-ray optics,” Proc. SPIE 8861, 88610X (2013).
[Crossref]

Hong, M.

K.-W. Chan, M. Sharpe, W. Zhang, L. Kolos, M. Hong, R. McClelland, B. Hohl, T. Saha, and J. Mazzarella, “Coating thin mirror segments for lightweight x-ray optics,” Proc. SPIE 8861, 88610X (2013).
[Crossref]

Hornstrup, A.

F. E. Christensen, A. C. Jakobsen, N. F. Brejnholt, K. K. Madsen, A. Hornstrup, N. J. Westergaard, J. Momberg, J. Koglin, A. M. Fabricant, M. Stern, W. W. Craig, M. J. Pivovaroff, and D. Windt, “Coatings for the NuSTAR mission,” Proc. SPIE 8147, 81470U (2011).
[Crossref]

Jackson, T. N.

C. T. DeRoo, R. Allured, V. Cotroneo, E. N. Hertz, V. Marquez, P. B. Reid, E. D. Schwartz, A. A. Vikhlinin, S. Trolier-McKinstry, J. Walker, T. N. Jackson, T. Liu, and M. Tendulkar, “Deterministic figure correction of piezoelectrically adjustable slumped glass optics,” J. Astron. Telesc. Instrum. Syst. 4, 019004 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Walker, T. Liu, M. Tendulkar, D. N. Burrows, C. T. DeRoo, R. Allured, E. N. Hertz, V. Cotroneo, P. B. Reid, E. D. Schwartz, T. N. Jackson, and S. Trolier-McKinstry, “Design and fabrication of prototype piezoelectric adjustable X-ray mirrors,” Opt. Express 26(21), 27757–27772 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jafari, A.

D. D. M. Ferreira, S. Svendsen, S. Massahi, A. Jafari, L. M. Vu, J. Korman, N. C. Gellert, F. E. Christensen, S. Kadkhodazadeh, T. Kasama, B. Shortt, M. Bavdaz, M. J. Collon, B. Landgraf, M. Krumrey, L. Cibik, S. Schreiber, and A. Schubert, “Performance and stability of mirror coatings for the ATHENA mission,” Proc. SPIE 10699, 106993K (2018).

Jakobsen, A. C.

F. E. Christensen, A. C. Jakobsen, N. F. Brejnholt, K. K. Madsen, A. Hornstrup, N. J. Westergaard, J. Momberg, J. Koglin, A. M. Fabricant, M. Stern, W. W. Craig, M. J. Pivovaroff, and D. Windt, “Coatings for the NuSTAR mission,” Proc. SPIE 8147, 81470U (2011).
[Crossref]

Jiang, X.

Z. Jiang, X. Jiang, W. Liu, and Z. Wu, “Thermal stability of multilayer films Pt/Si, W/Si, Mo/Si, and W/C,” J. Appl. Phys. 65(1), 196–200 (1989).
[Crossref]

Jiang, Z.

Z. Jiang, X. Jiang, W. Liu, and Z. Wu, “Thermal stability of multilayer films Pt/Si, W/Si, Mo/Si, and W/C,” J. Appl. Phys. 65(1), 196–200 (1989).
[Crossref]

Kadkhodazadeh, S.

D. D. M. Ferreira, S. Svendsen, S. Massahi, A. Jafari, L. M. Vu, J. Korman, N. C. Gellert, F. E. Christensen, S. Kadkhodazadeh, T. Kasama, B. Shortt, M. Bavdaz, M. J. Collon, B. Landgraf, M. Krumrey, L. Cibik, S. Schreiber, and A. Schubert, “Performance and stability of mirror coatings for the ATHENA mission,” Proc. SPIE 10699, 106993K (2018).

Kasama, T.

D. D. M. Ferreira, S. Svendsen, S. Massahi, A. Jafari, L. M. Vu, J. Korman, N. C. Gellert, F. E. Christensen, S. Kadkhodazadeh, T. Kasama, B. Shortt, M. Bavdaz, M. J. Collon, B. Landgraf, M. Krumrey, L. Cibik, S. Schreiber, and A. Schubert, “Performance and stability of mirror coatings for the ATHENA mission,” Proc. SPIE 10699, 106993K (2018).

Kearney, J. D.

W. W. Zhang, K. D. Allgood, M. P. Biskach, K.-W. Chan, M. Hlinka, J. D. Kearney, J. R. Mazzarella, R. S. McClelland, A. Numata, R. E. Riveros, T. T. Saha, and P. M. Solly, “Astronomical x-ray optics using mono-crystalline silicon: high resolution, light weight, and low cost,” Proc. SPIE 10699, 106990O (2018).
[Crossref]

R. E. Riveros, M. P. Biskach, K. D. Allgood, J. D. Kearney, M. Hlinka, A. Numata, and W. W. Zhang, “Fabrication of lightweight silicon x-ray mirrors for high-resolution x-ray optics,” Proc. SPIE 10699, 106990P (2018).
[Crossref]

Kilaru, K.

C. Atkins, K. Kilaru, B. D. Ramsey, D. M. Broadway, M. V. Gubarev, S. L. O’Dell, and W. W. Zhang, “Differential deposition correction of segmented glass x-ray optics,” Proc. SPIE 9603, 96031G (2015).
[Crossref]

Koenecke, R.

H. Mori, T. Okajima, W. W. Zhang, K.-W. Chan, R. Koenecke, J. R. Mazzarella, A. Numata, L. G. Olsen, R. E. Riveros, and M. Yukita, “Reflective coatings for the future x-ray mirror substrates,” Proc. SPIE 10699, 1069941 (2018).
[Crossref]

Koglin, J.

F. E. Christensen, A. C. Jakobsen, N. F. Brejnholt, K. K. Madsen, A. Hornstrup, N. J. Westergaard, J. Momberg, J. Koglin, A. M. Fabricant, M. Stern, W. W. Craig, M. J. Pivovaroff, and D. Windt, “Coatings for the NuSTAR mission,” Proc. SPIE 8147, 81470U (2011).
[Crossref]

Kohli, S.

S. Kohli, C. D. Rithner, and P. K. Dorhout, “X-ray characterization of annealed iridium films,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(3), 1149–1154 (2002).
[Crossref]

Kolos, L.

K.-W. Chan, M. Sharpe, W. Zhang, L. Kolos, M. Hong, R. McClelland, B. Hohl, T. Saha, and J. Mazzarella, “Coating thin mirror segments for lightweight x-ray optics,” Proc. SPIE 8861, 88610X (2013).
[Crossref]

Korman, J.

D. D. M. Ferreira, S. Svendsen, S. Massahi, A. Jafari, L. M. Vu, J. Korman, N. C. Gellert, F. E. Christensen, S. Kadkhodazadeh, T. Kasama, B. Shortt, M. Bavdaz, M. J. Collon, B. Landgraf, M. Krumrey, L. Cibik, S. Schreiber, and A. Schubert, “Performance and stability of mirror coatings for the ATHENA mission,” Proc. SPIE 10699, 106993K (2018).

Krumrey, M.

D. D. M. Ferreira, S. Svendsen, S. Massahi, A. Jafari, L. M. Vu, J. Korman, N. C. Gellert, F. E. Christensen, S. Kadkhodazadeh, T. Kasama, B. Shortt, M. Bavdaz, M. J. Collon, B. Landgraf, M. Krumrey, L. Cibik, S. Schreiber, and A. Schubert, “Performance and stability of mirror coatings for the ATHENA mission,” Proc. SPIE 10699, 106993K (2018).

Kunieda, H.

Landgraf, B.

D. D. M. Ferreira, S. Svendsen, S. Massahi, A. Jafari, L. M. Vu, J. Korman, N. C. Gellert, F. E. Christensen, S. Kadkhodazadeh, T. Kasama, B. Shortt, M. Bavdaz, M. J. Collon, B. Landgraf, M. Krumrey, L. Cibik, S. Schreiber, and A. Schubert, “Performance and stability of mirror coatings for the ATHENA mission,” Proc. SPIE 10699, 106993K (2018).

Lis, T.

D. M. Broadway, J. Weimer, D. Gurgew, T. Lis, B. D. Ramsey, S. L. O’Dell, M. Gubarev, A. Ames, and R. Bruni, “Achieving zero stress in iridium, chromium, and nickel thin films,” Proc. SPIE 9510, 95100E (2015).

Liu, C.

X. Wang, Y. Yao, T. Liu, C. Liu, M. P. Ulmer, and J. Cao, “Deformation of rectangular thin glass plate coated with magnetostrictive material,” Smart Mater. Struct. 25(8), 085038 (2016).
[Crossref]

Liu, T.

J. Walker, T. Liu, M. Tendulkar, D. N. Burrows, C. T. DeRoo, R. Allured, E. N. Hertz, V. Cotroneo, P. B. Reid, E. D. Schwartz, T. N. Jackson, and S. Trolier-McKinstry, “Design and fabrication of prototype piezoelectric adjustable X-ray mirrors,” Opt. Express 26(21), 27757–27772 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. T. DeRoo, R. Allured, V. Cotroneo, E. N. Hertz, V. Marquez, P. B. Reid, E. D. Schwartz, A. A. Vikhlinin, S. Trolier-McKinstry, J. Walker, T. N. Jackson, T. Liu, and M. Tendulkar, “Deterministic figure correction of piezoelectrically adjustable slumped glass optics,” J. Astron. Telesc. Instrum. Syst. 4, 019004 (2018).
[Crossref]

X. Wang, Y. Yao, T. Liu, C. Liu, M. P. Ulmer, and J. Cao, “Deformation of rectangular thin glass plate coated with magnetostrictive material,” Smart Mater. Struct. 25(8), 085038 (2016).
[Crossref]

Liu, W.

Z. Jiang, X. Jiang, W. Liu, and Z. Wu, “Thermal stability of multilayer films Pt/Si, W/Si, Mo/Si, and W/C,” J. Appl. Phys. 65(1), 196–200 (1989).
[Crossref]

Madsen, K. K.

F. E. Christensen, A. C. Jakobsen, N. F. Brejnholt, K. K. Madsen, A. Hornstrup, N. J. Westergaard, J. Momberg, J. Koglin, A. M. Fabricant, M. Stern, W. W. Craig, M. J. Pivovaroff, and D. Windt, “Coatings for the NuSTAR mission,” Proc. SPIE 8147, 81470U (2011).
[Crossref]

Marquez, V.

C. T. DeRoo, R. Allured, V. Cotroneo, E. N. Hertz, V. Marquez, P. B. Reid, E. D. Schwartz, A. A. Vikhlinin, S. Trolier-McKinstry, J. Walker, T. N. Jackson, T. Liu, and M. Tendulkar, “Deterministic figure correction of piezoelectrically adjustable slumped glass optics,” J. Astron. Telesc. Instrum. Syst. 4, 019004 (2018).
[Crossref]

Massahi, S.

D. D. M. Ferreira, S. Svendsen, S. Massahi, A. Jafari, L. M. Vu, J. Korman, N. C. Gellert, F. E. Christensen, S. Kadkhodazadeh, T. Kasama, B. Shortt, M. Bavdaz, M. J. Collon, B. Landgraf, M. Krumrey, L. Cibik, S. Schreiber, and A. Schubert, “Performance and stability of mirror coatings for the ATHENA mission,” Proc. SPIE 10699, 106993K (2018).

Matsumoto, H.

Mazzarella, J.

K.-W. Chan, M. Sharpe, W. Zhang, L. Kolos, M. Hong, R. McClelland, B. Hohl, T. Saha, and J. Mazzarella, “Coating thin mirror segments for lightweight x-ray optics,” Proc. SPIE 8861, 88610X (2013).
[Crossref]

Mazzarella, J. R.

H. Mori, T. Okajima, W. W. Zhang, K.-W. Chan, R. Koenecke, J. R. Mazzarella, A. Numata, L. G. Olsen, R. E. Riveros, and M. Yukita, “Reflective coatings for the future x-ray mirror substrates,” Proc. SPIE 10699, 1069941 (2018).
[Crossref]

W. W. Zhang, K. D. Allgood, M. P. Biskach, K.-W. Chan, M. Hlinka, J. D. Kearney, J. R. Mazzarella, R. S. McClelland, A. Numata, R. E. Riveros, T. T. Saha, and P. M. Solly, “Astronomical x-ray optics using mono-crystalline silicon: high resolution, light weight, and low cost,” Proc. SPIE 10699, 106990O (2018).
[Crossref]

McCarley, K.

J. A. Gaskin, A. Dominguez, K. Gelmis, J. Mulqueen, D. Swartz, K. McCarley, F. Özel, A. Vikhlinin, D. Schwartz, H. Tananbaum, G. Blackwood, J. Arenberg, W. Purcell, and L. Allen, “The Lynx X-ray Observatory: concept study overview and status,” Proc. SPIE 10699, 106990N (2018).

McClelland, R.

K.-W. Chan, M. Sharpe, W. Zhang, L. Kolos, M. Hong, R. McClelland, B. Hohl, T. Saha, and J. Mazzarella, “Coating thin mirror segments for lightweight x-ray optics,” Proc. SPIE 8861, 88610X (2013).
[Crossref]

McClelland, R. S.

W. W. Zhang, K. D. Allgood, M. P. Biskach, K.-W. Chan, M. Hlinka, J. D. Kearney, J. R. Mazzarella, R. S. McClelland, A. Numata, R. E. Riveros, T. T. Saha, and P. M. Solly, “Astronomical x-ray optics using mono-crystalline silicon: high resolution, light weight, and low cost,” Proc. SPIE 10699, 106990O (2018).
[Crossref]

McGuirk, M.

C. R. Forest, C. R. Canizares, D. R. Neal, M. McGuirk, and M. L. Schattenburg, “Metrology of thin transparent optics using Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensing,” Opt. Eng. 43(3), 742–753 (2004).
[Crossref]

Miyata, Y.

Momberg, J.

F. E. Christensen, A. C. Jakobsen, N. F. Brejnholt, K. K. Madsen, A. Hornstrup, N. J. Westergaard, J. Momberg, J. Koglin, A. M. Fabricant, M. Stern, W. W. Craig, M. J. Pivovaroff, and D. Windt, “Coatings for the NuSTAR mission,” Proc. SPIE 8147, 81470U (2011).
[Crossref]

Mori, H.

H. Mori, T. Okajima, W. W. Zhang, K.-W. Chan, R. Koenecke, J. R. Mazzarella, A. Numata, L. G. Olsen, R. E. Riveros, and M. Yukita, “Reflective coatings for the future x-ray mirror substrates,” Proc. SPIE 10699, 1069941 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Yao, B. D. Chalifoux, R. K. Heilmann, K.-W. Chan, H. Mori, T. Okajima, W. W. Zhang, and M. L. Schattenburg, “Progress of coating stress compensation of silicon mirrors for the Lynx X-ray telescope mission concept using a thermal oxide patterning method,” J. Astron. Telesc. Instrum. Syst. (submitted).

Mulqueen, J.

J. A. Gaskin, A. Dominguez, K. Gelmis, J. Mulqueen, D. Swartz, K. McCarley, F. Özel, A. Vikhlinin, D. Schwartz, H. Tananbaum, G. Blackwood, J. Arenberg, W. Purcell, and L. Allen, “The Lynx X-ray Observatory: concept study overview and status,” Proc. SPIE 10699, 106990N (2018).

Neal, D. R.

C. R. Forest, C. R. Canizares, D. R. Neal, M. McGuirk, and M. L. Schattenburg, “Metrology of thin transparent optics using Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensing,” Opt. Eng. 43(3), 742–753 (2004).
[Crossref]

Numata, A.

W. W. Zhang, K. D. Allgood, M. P. Biskach, K.-W. Chan, M. Hlinka, J. D. Kearney, J. R. Mazzarella, R. S. McClelland, A. Numata, R. E. Riveros, T. T. Saha, and P. M. Solly, “Astronomical x-ray optics using mono-crystalline silicon: high resolution, light weight, and low cost,” Proc. SPIE 10699, 106990O (2018).
[Crossref]

R. E. Riveros, M. P. Biskach, K. D. Allgood, J. D. Kearney, M. Hlinka, A. Numata, and W. W. Zhang, “Fabrication of lightweight silicon x-ray mirrors for high-resolution x-ray optics,” Proc. SPIE 10699, 106990P (2018).
[Crossref]

H. Mori, T. Okajima, W. W. Zhang, K.-W. Chan, R. Koenecke, J. R. Mazzarella, A. Numata, L. G. Olsen, R. E. Riveros, and M. Yukita, “Reflective coatings for the future x-ray mirror substrates,” Proc. SPIE 10699, 1069941 (2018).
[Crossref]

O’Dell, S. L.

D. M. Broadway, B. D. Ramsey, S. L. O’Dell, and D. Gurgew, “In-situ stress measurement of single and multilayer thin-films used in x-ray astronomy optics applications,” Proc. SPIE 10399, 103991B (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Atkins, K. Kilaru, B. D. Ramsey, D. M. Broadway, M. V. Gubarev, S. L. O’Dell, and W. W. Zhang, “Differential deposition correction of segmented glass x-ray optics,” Proc. SPIE 9603, 96031G (2015).
[Crossref]

D. M. Broadway, J. Weimer, D. Gurgew, T. Lis, B. D. Ramsey, S. L. O’Dell, M. Gubarev, A. Ames, and R. Bruni, “Achieving zero stress in iridium, chromium, and nickel thin films,” Proc. SPIE 9510, 95100E (2015).

Okajima, T.

H. Mori, T. Okajima, W. W. Zhang, K.-W. Chan, R. Koenecke, J. R. Mazzarella, A. Numata, L. G. Olsen, R. E. Riveros, and M. Yukita, “Reflective coatings for the future x-ray mirror substrates,” Proc. SPIE 10699, 1069941 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Yao, B. D. Chalifoux, R. K. Heilmann, K.-W. Chan, H. Mori, T. Okajima, W. W. Zhang, and M. L. Schattenburg, “Progress of coating stress compensation of silicon mirrors for the Lynx X-ray telescope mission concept using a thermal oxide patterning method,” J. Astron. Telesc. Instrum. Syst. (submitted).

Olsen, L. G.

H. Mori, T. Okajima, W. W. Zhang, K.-W. Chan, R. Koenecke, J. R. Mazzarella, A. Numata, L. G. Olsen, R. E. Riveros, and M. Yukita, “Reflective coatings for the future x-ray mirror substrates,” Proc. SPIE 10699, 1069941 (2018).
[Crossref]

Özel, F.

J. A. Gaskin, A. Dominguez, K. Gelmis, J. Mulqueen, D. Swartz, K. McCarley, F. Özel, A. Vikhlinin, D. Schwartz, H. Tananbaum, G. Blackwood, J. Arenberg, W. Purcell, and L. Allen, “The Lynx X-ray Observatory: concept study overview and status,” Proc. SPIE 10699, 106990N (2018).

Pareschi, G.

M. Ghigo, S. Basso, M. Civitani, R. Gilli, G. Pareschi, B. Salmaso, G. Vecchi, and W. W. Zhang, “Final correction by Ion Beam Figuring of thin shells for X-ray telescopes,” Proc. SPIE 10706, 107063I (2018).
[Crossref]

Pivovaroff, M. J.

F. E. Christensen, A. C. Jakobsen, N. F. Brejnholt, K. K. Madsen, A. Hornstrup, N. J. Westergaard, J. Momberg, J. Koglin, A. M. Fabricant, M. Stern, W. W. Craig, M. J. Pivovaroff, and D. Windt, “Coatings for the NuSTAR mission,” Proc. SPIE 8147, 81470U (2011).
[Crossref]

Purcell, W.

J. A. Gaskin, A. Dominguez, K. Gelmis, J. Mulqueen, D. Swartz, K. McCarley, F. Özel, A. Vikhlinin, D. Schwartz, H. Tananbaum, G. Blackwood, J. Arenberg, W. Purcell, and L. Allen, “The Lynx X-ray Observatory: concept study overview and status,” Proc. SPIE 10699, 106990N (2018).

Ramsey, B. D.

D. M. Broadway, B. D. Ramsey, S. L. O’Dell, and D. Gurgew, “In-situ stress measurement of single and multilayer thin-films used in x-ray astronomy optics applications,” Proc. SPIE 10399, 103991B (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Atkins, K. Kilaru, B. D. Ramsey, D. M. Broadway, M. V. Gubarev, S. L. O’Dell, and W. W. Zhang, “Differential deposition correction of segmented glass x-ray optics,” Proc. SPIE 9603, 96031G (2015).
[Crossref]

D. M. Broadway, J. Weimer, D. Gurgew, T. Lis, B. D. Ramsey, S. L. O’Dell, M. Gubarev, A. Ames, and R. Bruni, “Achieving zero stress in iridium, chromium, and nickel thin films,” Proc. SPIE 9510, 95100E (2015).

Reid, P. B.

C. T. DeRoo, R. Allured, V. Cotroneo, E. N. Hertz, V. Marquez, P. B. Reid, E. D. Schwartz, A. A. Vikhlinin, S. Trolier-McKinstry, J. Walker, T. N. Jackson, T. Liu, and M. Tendulkar, “Deterministic figure correction of piezoelectrically adjustable slumped glass optics,” J. Astron. Telesc. Instrum. Syst. 4, 019004 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Walker, T. Liu, M. Tendulkar, D. N. Burrows, C. T. DeRoo, R. Allured, E. N. Hertz, V. Cotroneo, P. B. Reid, E. D. Schwartz, T. N. Jackson, and S. Trolier-McKinstry, “Design and fabrication of prototype piezoelectric adjustable X-ray mirrors,” Opt. Express 26(21), 27757–27772 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rithner, C. D.

S. Kohli, C. D. Rithner, and P. K. Dorhout, “X-ray characterization of annealed iridium films,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(3), 1149–1154 (2002).
[Crossref]

Riveros, R. E.

H. Mori, T. Okajima, W. W. Zhang, K.-W. Chan, R. Koenecke, J. R. Mazzarella, A. Numata, L. G. Olsen, R. E. Riveros, and M. Yukita, “Reflective coatings for the future x-ray mirror substrates,” Proc. SPIE 10699, 1069941 (2018).
[Crossref]

R. E. Riveros, M. P. Biskach, K. D. Allgood, J. D. Kearney, M. Hlinka, A. Numata, and W. W. Zhang, “Fabrication of lightweight silicon x-ray mirrors for high-resolution x-ray optics,” Proc. SPIE 10699, 106990P (2018).
[Crossref]

W. W. Zhang, K. D. Allgood, M. P. Biskach, K.-W. Chan, M. Hlinka, J. D. Kearney, J. R. Mazzarella, R. S. McClelland, A. Numata, R. E. Riveros, T. T. Saha, and P. M. Solly, “Astronomical x-ray optics using mono-crystalline silicon: high resolution, light weight, and low cost,” Proc. SPIE 10699, 106990O (2018).
[Crossref]

Saha, T.

K.-W. Chan, M. Sharpe, W. Zhang, L. Kolos, M. Hong, R. McClelland, B. Hohl, T. Saha, and J. Mazzarella, “Coating thin mirror segments for lightweight x-ray optics,” Proc. SPIE 8861, 88610X (2013).
[Crossref]

Saha, T. T.

W. W. Zhang, K. D. Allgood, M. P. Biskach, K.-W. Chan, M. Hlinka, J. D. Kearney, J. R. Mazzarella, R. S. McClelland, A. Numata, R. E. Riveros, T. T. Saha, and P. M. Solly, “Astronomical x-ray optics using mono-crystalline silicon: high resolution, light weight, and low cost,” Proc. SPIE 10699, 106990O (2018).
[Crossref]

Salmaso, B.

M. Ghigo, S. Basso, M. Civitani, R. Gilli, G. Pareschi, B. Salmaso, G. Vecchi, and W. W. Zhang, “Final correction by Ion Beam Figuring of thin shells for X-ray telescopes,” Proc. SPIE 10706, 107063I (2018).
[Crossref]

Schattenburg, M. L.

B. D. Chalifoux, Y. Yao, R. K. Heilmann, and M. L. Schattenburg, “Simulations of film stress effects on mirror segments for the Lynx X-ray Observatory concept,” J. Astron. Telesc. Instrum. Syst. 5, 021004 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y. Yao, B. D. Chalifoux, R. K. Heilmann, and M. L. Schattenburg, “Thermal oxide patterning method for compensating coating stress in silicon substrates,” Opt. Express 27(2), 1010–1024 (2019).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. D. Chalifoux, R. K. Heilmann, and M. L. Schattenburg, “Correcting flat mirrors with surface stress: analytical stress fields,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 35(10), 1705–1716 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. E. Zuo, B. D. Chalifoux, R. K. Heilmann, and M. L. Schattenburg, “Ultrafast laser micro-stressing for correction of thin fused silica optics for the Lynx X-Ray Telescope Mission,” Proc. SPIE 10699, 1069954 (2018).
[Crossref]

B. Chalifoux, E. Sung, R. K. Heilmann, and M. L. Schattenburg, “High-precision figure correction of x-ray telescope optics using ion implantation,” Proc. SPIE 8861, 88610T (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Akilian, C. R. Forest, A. H. Slocum, D. L. Trumper, and M. L. Schattenburg, “Thin optic constraint,” Precis. Eng. 31(2), 130–138 (2007).
[Crossref]

R. K. Heilmann, M. Akilian, C.-H. Chang, R. Hallock, E. Cleaveland, and M. L. Schattenburg, “Shaping of thin grazing-incidence reflection grating substrates via magnetorheological finishing,” Proc. SPIE 5900, 590009 (2005).
[Crossref]

C. R. Forest, C. R. Canizares, D. R. Neal, M. McGuirk, and M. L. Schattenburg, “Metrology of thin transparent optics using Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensing,” Opt. Eng. 43(3), 742–753 (2004).
[Crossref]

Y. Yao, B. D. Chalifoux, R. K. Heilmann, K.-W. Chan, H. Mori, T. Okajima, W. W. Zhang, and M. L. Schattenburg, “Progress of coating stress compensation of silicon mirrors for the Lynx X-ray telescope mission concept using a thermal oxide patterning method,” J. Astron. Telesc. Instrum. Syst. (submitted).

Schreiber, S.

D. D. M. Ferreira, S. Svendsen, S. Massahi, A. Jafari, L. M. Vu, J. Korman, N. C. Gellert, F. E. Christensen, S. Kadkhodazadeh, T. Kasama, B. Shortt, M. Bavdaz, M. J. Collon, B. Landgraf, M. Krumrey, L. Cibik, S. Schreiber, and A. Schubert, “Performance and stability of mirror coatings for the ATHENA mission,” Proc. SPIE 10699, 106993K (2018).

Schubert, A.

D. D. M. Ferreira, S. Svendsen, S. Massahi, A. Jafari, L. M. Vu, J. Korman, N. C. Gellert, F. E. Christensen, S. Kadkhodazadeh, T. Kasama, B. Shortt, M. Bavdaz, M. J. Collon, B. Landgraf, M. Krumrey, L. Cibik, S. Schreiber, and A. Schubert, “Performance and stability of mirror coatings for the ATHENA mission,” Proc. SPIE 10699, 106993K (2018).

Schwartz, D.

J. A. Gaskin, A. Dominguez, K. Gelmis, J. Mulqueen, D. Swartz, K. McCarley, F. Özel, A. Vikhlinin, D. Schwartz, H. Tananbaum, G. Blackwood, J. Arenberg, W. Purcell, and L. Allen, “The Lynx X-ray Observatory: concept study overview and status,” Proc. SPIE 10699, 106990N (2018).

Schwartz, E. D.

C. T. DeRoo, R. Allured, V. Cotroneo, E. N. Hertz, V. Marquez, P. B. Reid, E. D. Schwartz, A. A. Vikhlinin, S. Trolier-McKinstry, J. Walker, T. N. Jackson, T. Liu, and M. Tendulkar, “Deterministic figure correction of piezoelectrically adjustable slumped glass optics,” J. Astron. Telesc. Instrum. Syst. 4, 019004 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Walker, T. Liu, M. Tendulkar, D. N. Burrows, C. T. DeRoo, R. Allured, E. N. Hertz, V. Cotroneo, P. B. Reid, E. D. Schwartz, T. N. Jackson, and S. Trolier-McKinstry, “Design and fabrication of prototype piezoelectric adjustable X-ray mirrors,” Opt. Express 26(21), 27757–27772 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sharpe, M.

K.-W. Chan, M. Sharpe, W. Zhang, L. Kolos, M. Hong, R. McClelland, B. Hohl, T. Saha, and J. Mazzarella, “Coating thin mirror segments for lightweight x-ray optics,” Proc. SPIE 8861, 88610X (2013).
[Crossref]

Shortt, B.

D. D. M. Ferreira, S. Svendsen, S. Massahi, A. Jafari, L. M. Vu, J. Korman, N. C. Gellert, F. E. Christensen, S. Kadkhodazadeh, T. Kasama, B. Shortt, M. Bavdaz, M. J. Collon, B. Landgraf, M. Krumrey, L. Cibik, S. Schreiber, and A. Schubert, “Performance and stability of mirror coatings for the ATHENA mission,” Proc. SPIE 10699, 106993K (2018).

Slocum, A. H.

M. Akilian, C. R. Forest, A. H. Slocum, D. L. Trumper, and M. L. Schattenburg, “Thin optic constraint,” Precis. Eng. 31(2), 130–138 (2007).
[Crossref]

Solly, P. M.

W. W. Zhang, K. D. Allgood, M. P. Biskach, K.-W. Chan, M. Hlinka, J. D. Kearney, J. R. Mazzarella, R. S. McClelland, A. Numata, R. E. Riveros, T. T. Saha, and P. M. Solly, “Astronomical x-ray optics using mono-crystalline silicon: high resolution, light weight, and low cost,” Proc. SPIE 10699, 106990O (2018).
[Crossref]

Stern, M.

F. E. Christensen, A. C. Jakobsen, N. F. Brejnholt, K. K. Madsen, A. Hornstrup, N. J. Westergaard, J. Momberg, J. Koglin, A. M. Fabricant, M. Stern, W. W. Craig, M. J. Pivovaroff, and D. Windt, “Coatings for the NuSTAR mission,” Proc. SPIE 8147, 81470U (2011).
[Crossref]

Sung, E.

B. Chalifoux, E. Sung, R. K. Heilmann, and M. L. Schattenburg, “High-precision figure correction of x-ray telescope optics using ion implantation,” Proc. SPIE 8861, 88610T (2013).
[Crossref]

Svendsen, S.

D. D. M. Ferreira, S. Svendsen, S. Massahi, A. Jafari, L. M. Vu, J. Korman, N. C. Gellert, F. E. Christensen, S. Kadkhodazadeh, T. Kasama, B. Shortt, M. Bavdaz, M. J. Collon, B. Landgraf, M. Krumrey, L. Cibik, S. Schreiber, and A. Schubert, “Performance and stability of mirror coatings for the ATHENA mission,” Proc. SPIE 10699, 106993K (2018).

Swartz, D.

J. A. Gaskin, A. Dominguez, K. Gelmis, J. Mulqueen, D. Swartz, K. McCarley, F. Özel, A. Vikhlinin, D. Schwartz, H. Tananbaum, G. Blackwood, J. Arenberg, W. Purcell, and L. Allen, “The Lynx X-ray Observatory: concept study overview and status,” Proc. SPIE 10699, 106990N (2018).

Tamura, K.

Tananbaum, H.

J. A. Gaskin, A. Dominguez, K. Gelmis, J. Mulqueen, D. Swartz, K. McCarley, F. Özel, A. Vikhlinin, D. Schwartz, H. Tananbaum, G. Blackwood, J. Arenberg, W. Purcell, and L. Allen, “The Lynx X-ray Observatory: concept study overview and status,” Proc. SPIE 10699, 106990N (2018).

Tendulkar, M.

C. T. DeRoo, R. Allured, V. Cotroneo, E. N. Hertz, V. Marquez, P. B. Reid, E. D. Schwartz, A. A. Vikhlinin, S. Trolier-McKinstry, J. Walker, T. N. Jackson, T. Liu, and M. Tendulkar, “Deterministic figure correction of piezoelectrically adjustable slumped glass optics,” J. Astron. Telesc. Instrum. Syst. 4, 019004 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Walker, T. Liu, M. Tendulkar, D. N. Burrows, C. T. DeRoo, R. Allured, E. N. Hertz, V. Cotroneo, P. B. Reid, E. D. Schwartz, T. N. Jackson, and S. Trolier-McKinstry, “Design and fabrication of prototype piezoelectric adjustable X-ray mirrors,” Opt. Express 26(21), 27757–27772 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thornton, J. A.

J. A. Thornton and D. W. Hoffman, “Stress-related effects in thin films,” Thin Solid Films 171(1), 5–31 (1989).
[Crossref]

Trolier-McKinstry, S.

J. Walker, T. Liu, M. Tendulkar, D. N. Burrows, C. T. DeRoo, R. Allured, E. N. Hertz, V. Cotroneo, P. B. Reid, E. D. Schwartz, T. N. Jackson, and S. Trolier-McKinstry, “Design and fabrication of prototype piezoelectric adjustable X-ray mirrors,” Opt. Express 26(21), 27757–27772 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. T. DeRoo, R. Allured, V. Cotroneo, E. N. Hertz, V. Marquez, P. B. Reid, E. D. Schwartz, A. A. Vikhlinin, S. Trolier-McKinstry, J. Walker, T. N. Jackson, T. Liu, and M. Tendulkar, “Deterministic figure correction of piezoelectrically adjustable slumped glass optics,” J. Astron. Telesc. Instrum. Syst. 4, 019004 (2018).
[Crossref]

Trumper, D. L.

M. Akilian, C. R. Forest, A. H. Slocum, D. L. Trumper, and M. L. Schattenburg, “Thin optic constraint,” Precis. Eng. 31(2), 130–138 (2007).
[Crossref]

Ulmer, M.

Ulmer, M. P.

X. Wang, Y. Yao, T. Liu, C. Liu, M. P. Ulmer, and J. Cao, “Deformation of rectangular thin glass plate coated with magnetostrictive material,” Smart Mater. Struct. 25(8), 085038 (2016).
[Crossref]

Vecchi, G.

M. Ghigo, S. Basso, M. Civitani, R. Gilli, G. Pareschi, B. Salmaso, G. Vecchi, and W. W. Zhang, “Final correction by Ion Beam Figuring of thin shells for X-ray telescopes,” Proc. SPIE 10706, 107063I (2018).
[Crossref]

Vikhlinin, A.

J. A. Gaskin, A. Dominguez, K. Gelmis, J. Mulqueen, D. Swartz, K. McCarley, F. Özel, A. Vikhlinin, D. Schwartz, H. Tananbaum, G. Blackwood, J. Arenberg, W. Purcell, and L. Allen, “The Lynx X-ray Observatory: concept study overview and status,” Proc. SPIE 10699, 106990N (2018).

Vikhlinin, A. A.

C. T. DeRoo, R. Allured, V. Cotroneo, E. N. Hertz, V. Marquez, P. B. Reid, E. D. Schwartz, A. A. Vikhlinin, S. Trolier-McKinstry, J. Walker, T. N. Jackson, T. Liu, and M. Tendulkar, “Deterministic figure correction of piezoelectrically adjustable slumped glass optics,” J. Astron. Telesc. Instrum. Syst. 4, 019004 (2018).
[Crossref]

Volkert, C. A.

C. A. Volkert, “Stress and plastic flow in silicon during amorphization by ion bombardment,” J. Appl. Phys. 70(7), 3521–3527 (1991).
[Crossref]

Vu, L. M.

D. D. M. Ferreira, S. Svendsen, S. Massahi, A. Jafari, L. M. Vu, J. Korman, N. C. Gellert, F. E. Christensen, S. Kadkhodazadeh, T. Kasama, B. Shortt, M. Bavdaz, M. J. Collon, B. Landgraf, M. Krumrey, L. Cibik, S. Schreiber, and A. Schubert, “Performance and stability of mirror coatings for the ATHENA mission,” Proc. SPIE 10699, 106993K (2018).

Walker, J.

C. T. DeRoo, R. Allured, V. Cotroneo, E. N. Hertz, V. Marquez, P. B. Reid, E. D. Schwartz, A. A. Vikhlinin, S. Trolier-McKinstry, J. Walker, T. N. Jackson, T. Liu, and M. Tendulkar, “Deterministic figure correction of piezoelectrically adjustable slumped glass optics,” J. Astron. Telesc. Instrum. Syst. 4, 019004 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Walker, T. Liu, M. Tendulkar, D. N. Burrows, C. T. DeRoo, R. Allured, E. N. Hertz, V. Cotroneo, P. B. Reid, E. D. Schwartz, T. N. Jackson, and S. Trolier-McKinstry, “Design and fabrication of prototype piezoelectric adjustable X-ray mirrors,” Opt. Express 26(21), 27757–27772 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, X.

X. Wang, Y. Yao, T. Liu, C. Liu, M. P. Ulmer, and J. Cao, “Deformation of rectangular thin glass plate coated with magnetostrictive material,” Smart Mater. Struct. 25(8), 085038 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Yao, X. Wang, J. Cao, and M. Ulmer, “Stress manipulated coating for fabricating lightweight X-ray telescope mirrors,” Opt. Express 23(22), 28605–28618 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Weimer, J.

D. M. Broadway, J. Weimer, D. Gurgew, T. Lis, B. D. Ramsey, S. L. O’Dell, M. Gubarev, A. Ames, and R. Bruni, “Achieving zero stress in iridium, chromium, and nickel thin films,” Proc. SPIE 9510, 95100E (2015).

Westergaard, N. J.

F. E. Christensen, A. C. Jakobsen, N. F. Brejnholt, K. K. Madsen, A. Hornstrup, N. J. Westergaard, J. Momberg, J. Koglin, A. M. Fabricant, M. Stern, W. W. Craig, M. J. Pivovaroff, and D. Windt, “Coatings for the NuSTAR mission,” Proc. SPIE 8147, 81470U (2011).
[Crossref]

Windischmann, H.

H. Windischmann, “Intrinsic stress in sputter-deposited thin films,” Crit. Rev. Solid State Mater. Sci. 17(6), 547–596 (1992).
[Crossref]

Windt, D.

F. E. Christensen, A. C. Jakobsen, N. F. Brejnholt, K. K. Madsen, A. Hornstrup, N. J. Westergaard, J. Momberg, J. Koglin, A. M. Fabricant, M. Stern, W. W. Craig, M. J. Pivovaroff, and D. Windt, “Coatings for the NuSTAR mission,” Proc. SPIE 8147, 81470U (2011).
[Crossref]

Windt, D. L.

D. L. Windt and R. Conley, “Two-dimensional differential deposition for figure correction of thin-shell mirror substrates for x-ray astronomy,” Proc. SPIE 9603, 96031H (2015).
[Crossref]

Wu, Z.

Z. Jiang, X. Jiang, W. Liu, and Z. Wu, “Thermal stability of multilayer films Pt/Si, W/Si, Mo/Si, and W/C,” J. Appl. Phys. 65(1), 196–200 (1989).
[Crossref]

Yao, Y.

B. D. Chalifoux, Y. Yao, R. K. Heilmann, and M. L. Schattenburg, “Simulations of film stress effects on mirror segments for the Lynx X-ray Observatory concept,” J. Astron. Telesc. Instrum. Syst. 5, 021004 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y. Yao, B. D. Chalifoux, R. K. Heilmann, and M. L. Schattenburg, “Thermal oxide patterning method for compensating coating stress in silicon substrates,” Opt. Express 27(2), 1010–1024 (2019).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Wang, Y. Yao, T. Liu, C. Liu, M. P. Ulmer, and J. Cao, “Deformation of rectangular thin glass plate coated with magnetostrictive material,” Smart Mater. Struct. 25(8), 085038 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Yao, X. Wang, J. Cao, and M. Ulmer, “Stress manipulated coating for fabricating lightweight X-ray telescope mirrors,” Opt. Express 23(22), 28605–28618 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Yao, H. Kunieda, H. Matsumoto, K. Tamura, and Y. Miyata, “Design and fabrication of a supermirror with smooth and broad response for hard x-ray telescopes,” Appl. Opt. 52(27), 6824–6833 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Yao, B. D. Chalifoux, R. K. Heilmann, K.-W. Chan, H. Mori, T. Okajima, W. W. Zhang, and M. L. Schattenburg, “Progress of coating stress compensation of silicon mirrors for the Lynx X-ray telescope mission concept using a thermal oxide patterning method,” J. Astron. Telesc. Instrum. Syst. (submitted).

Yukita, M.

H. Mori, T. Okajima, W. W. Zhang, K.-W. Chan, R. Koenecke, J. R. Mazzarella, A. Numata, L. G. Olsen, R. E. Riveros, and M. Yukita, “Reflective coatings for the future x-ray mirror substrates,” Proc. SPIE 10699, 1069941 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zhang, W.

K.-W. Chan, M. Sharpe, W. Zhang, L. Kolos, M. Hong, R. McClelland, B. Hohl, T. Saha, and J. Mazzarella, “Coating thin mirror segments for lightweight x-ray optics,” Proc. SPIE 8861, 88610X (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhang, W. W.

M. Ghigo, S. Basso, M. Civitani, R. Gilli, G. Pareschi, B. Salmaso, G. Vecchi, and W. W. Zhang, “Final correction by Ion Beam Figuring of thin shells for X-ray telescopes,” Proc. SPIE 10706, 107063I (2018).
[Crossref]

H. Mori, T. Okajima, W. W. Zhang, K.-W. Chan, R. Koenecke, J. R. Mazzarella, A. Numata, L. G. Olsen, R. E. Riveros, and M. Yukita, “Reflective coatings for the future x-ray mirror substrates,” Proc. SPIE 10699, 1069941 (2018).
[Crossref]

W. W. Zhang, K. D. Allgood, M. P. Biskach, K.-W. Chan, M. Hlinka, J. D. Kearney, J. R. Mazzarella, R. S. McClelland, A. Numata, R. E. Riveros, T. T. Saha, and P. M. Solly, “Astronomical x-ray optics using mono-crystalline silicon: high resolution, light weight, and low cost,” Proc. SPIE 10699, 106990O (2018).
[Crossref]

R. E. Riveros, M. P. Biskach, K. D. Allgood, J. D. Kearney, M. Hlinka, A. Numata, and W. W. Zhang, “Fabrication of lightweight silicon x-ray mirrors for high-resolution x-ray optics,” Proc. SPIE 10699, 106990P (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Atkins, K. Kilaru, B. D. Ramsey, D. M. Broadway, M. V. Gubarev, S. L. O’Dell, and W. W. Zhang, “Differential deposition correction of segmented glass x-ray optics,” Proc. SPIE 9603, 96031G (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Yao, B. D. Chalifoux, R. K. Heilmann, K.-W. Chan, H. Mori, T. Okajima, W. W. Zhang, and M. L. Schattenburg, “Progress of coating stress compensation of silicon mirrors for the Lynx X-ray telescope mission concept using a thermal oxide patterning method,” J. Astron. Telesc. Instrum. Syst. (submitted).

Zuo, H. E.

H. E. Zuo, B. D. Chalifoux, R. K. Heilmann, and M. L. Schattenburg, “Ultrafast laser micro-stressing for correction of thin fused silica optics for the Lynx X-Ray Telescope Mission,” Proc. SPIE 10699, 1069954 (2018).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Crit. Rev. Solid State Mater. Sci. (1)

H. Windischmann, “Intrinsic stress in sputter-deposited thin films,” Crit. Rev. Solid State Mater. Sci. 17(6), 547–596 (1992).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (3)

C. A. Volkert, “Stress and plastic flow in silicon during amorphization by ion bombardment,” J. Appl. Phys. 70(7), 3521–3527 (1991).
[Crossref]

S. Kohli, C. D. Rithner, and P. K. Dorhout, “X-ray characterization of annealed iridium films,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(3), 1149–1154 (2002).
[Crossref]

Z. Jiang, X. Jiang, W. Liu, and Z. Wu, “Thermal stability of multilayer films Pt/Si, W/Si, Mo/Si, and W/C,” J. Appl. Phys. 65(1), 196–200 (1989).
[Crossref]

J. Astron. Telesc. Instrum. Syst. (2)

C. T. DeRoo, R. Allured, V. Cotroneo, E. N. Hertz, V. Marquez, P. B. Reid, E. D. Schwartz, A. A. Vikhlinin, S. Trolier-McKinstry, J. Walker, T. N. Jackson, T. Liu, and M. Tendulkar, “Deterministic figure correction of piezoelectrically adjustable slumped glass optics,” J. Astron. Telesc. Instrum. Syst. 4, 019004 (2018).
[Crossref]

B. D. Chalifoux, Y. Yao, R. K. Heilmann, and M. L. Schattenburg, “Simulations of film stress effects on mirror segments for the Lynx X-ray Observatory concept,” J. Astron. Telesc. Instrum. Syst. 5, 021004 (2019).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Opt. Eng. (1)

C. R. Forest, C. R. Canizares, D. R. Neal, M. McGuirk, and M. L. Schattenburg, “Metrology of thin transparent optics using Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensing,” Opt. Eng. 43(3), 742–753 (2004).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (3)

Precis. Eng. (1)

M. Akilian, C. R. Forest, A. H. Slocum, D. L. Trumper, and M. L. Schattenburg, “Thin optic constraint,” Precis. Eng. 31(2), 130–138 (2007).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (15)

B. Chalifoux, E. Sung, R. K. Heilmann, and M. L. Schattenburg, “High-precision figure correction of x-ray telescope optics using ion implantation,” Proc. SPIE 8861, 88610T (2013).
[Crossref]

H. E. Zuo, B. D. Chalifoux, R. K. Heilmann, and M. L. Schattenburg, “Ultrafast laser micro-stressing for correction of thin fused silica optics for the Lynx X-Ray Telescope Mission,” Proc. SPIE 10699, 1069954 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. L. Windt and R. Conley, “Two-dimensional differential deposition for figure correction of thin-shell mirror substrates for x-ray astronomy,” Proc. SPIE 9603, 96031H (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Atkins, K. Kilaru, B. D. Ramsey, D. M. Broadway, M. V. Gubarev, S. L. O’Dell, and W. W. Zhang, “Differential deposition correction of segmented glass x-ray optics,” Proc. SPIE 9603, 96031G (2015).
[Crossref]

F. E. Christensen, A. C. Jakobsen, N. F. Brejnholt, K. K. Madsen, A. Hornstrup, N. J. Westergaard, J. Momberg, J. Koglin, A. M. Fabricant, M. Stern, W. W. Craig, M. J. Pivovaroff, and D. Windt, “Coatings for the NuSTAR mission,” Proc. SPIE 8147, 81470U (2011).
[Crossref]

J. A. Gaskin, A. Dominguez, K. Gelmis, J. Mulqueen, D. Swartz, K. McCarley, F. Özel, A. Vikhlinin, D. Schwartz, H. Tananbaum, G. Blackwood, J. Arenberg, W. Purcell, and L. Allen, “The Lynx X-ray Observatory: concept study overview and status,” Proc. SPIE 10699, 106990N (2018).

R. K. Heilmann, M. Akilian, C.-H. Chang, R. Hallock, E. Cleaveland, and M. L. Schattenburg, “Shaping of thin grazing-incidence reflection grating substrates via magnetorheological finishing,” Proc. SPIE 5900, 590009 (2005).
[Crossref]

W. W. Zhang, K. D. Allgood, M. P. Biskach, K.-W. Chan, M. Hlinka, J. D. Kearney, J. R. Mazzarella, R. S. McClelland, A. Numata, R. E. Riveros, T. T. Saha, and P. M. Solly, “Astronomical x-ray optics using mono-crystalline silicon: high resolution, light weight, and low cost,” Proc. SPIE 10699, 106990O (2018).
[Crossref]

R. E. Riveros, M. P. Biskach, K. D. Allgood, J. D. Kearney, M. Hlinka, A. Numata, and W. W. Zhang, “Fabrication of lightweight silicon x-ray mirrors for high-resolution x-ray optics,” Proc. SPIE 10699, 106990P (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Ghigo, S. Basso, M. Civitani, R. Gilli, G. Pareschi, B. Salmaso, G. Vecchi, and W. W. Zhang, “Final correction by Ion Beam Figuring of thin shells for X-ray telescopes,” Proc. SPIE 10706, 107063I (2018).
[Crossref]

D. M. Broadway, J. Weimer, D. Gurgew, T. Lis, B. D. Ramsey, S. L. O’Dell, M. Gubarev, A. Ames, and R. Bruni, “Achieving zero stress in iridium, chromium, and nickel thin films,” Proc. SPIE 9510, 95100E (2015).

K.-W. Chan, M. Sharpe, W. Zhang, L. Kolos, M. Hong, R. McClelland, B. Hohl, T. Saha, and J. Mazzarella, “Coating thin mirror segments for lightweight x-ray optics,” Proc. SPIE 8861, 88610X (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Mori, T. Okajima, W. W. Zhang, K.-W. Chan, R. Koenecke, J. R. Mazzarella, A. Numata, L. G. Olsen, R. E. Riveros, and M. Yukita, “Reflective coatings for the future x-ray mirror substrates,” Proc. SPIE 10699, 1069941 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. D. M. Ferreira, S. Svendsen, S. Massahi, A. Jafari, L. M. Vu, J. Korman, N. C. Gellert, F. E. Christensen, S. Kadkhodazadeh, T. Kasama, B. Shortt, M. Bavdaz, M. J. Collon, B. Landgraf, M. Krumrey, L. Cibik, S. Schreiber, and A. Schubert, “Performance and stability of mirror coatings for the ATHENA mission,” Proc. SPIE 10699, 106993K (2018).

D. M. Broadway, B. D. Ramsey, S. L. O’Dell, and D. Gurgew, “In-situ stress measurement of single and multilayer thin-films used in x-ray astronomy optics applications,” Proc. SPIE 10399, 103991B (2017).
[Crossref]

Smart Mater. Struct. (1)

X. Wang, Y. Yao, T. Liu, C. Liu, M. P. Ulmer, and J. Cao, “Deformation of rectangular thin glass plate coated with magnetostrictive material,” Smart Mater. Struct. 25(8), 085038 (2016).
[Crossref]

Thin Solid Films (1)

J. A. Thornton and D. W. Hoffman, “Stress-related effects in thin films,” Thin Solid Films 171(1), 5–31 (1989).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

Y. Yao, B. D. Chalifoux, R. K. Heilmann, K.-W. Chan, H. Mori, T. Okajima, W. W. Zhang, and M. L. Schattenburg, “Progress of coating stress compensation of silicon mirrors for the Lynx X-ray telescope mission concept using a thermal oxide patterning method,” J. Astron. Telesc. Instrum. Syst. (submitted).

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Diagram of an X-ray telescope, showing nested shells (primary and secondary mirrors). Thin mirrors are critical for building a large-aperture X-ray telescope in compact fashion.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Ion implantation film stress compensation concept. A mirror with excellent figure (left) must be coated, which causes deformation (center). Compensation with ion implantation allows restoration of the original figure (right). This allows the optical quality to be decoupled from the coating stress.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 The Zernike spectrum (excluding Z 2 0 ) of the deformation caused by the chromium coatings, after annealing for 2 hours at 200 °C. The dashed line is the repeatability of a reference wafer, defined as the standard deviation of each Zernike component over two weeks of daily measurements.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Stress generated by 2 MeV Si++ ions implanted into <100> silicon wafers. All data are from wafers annealed for 4 hours at 120 °C.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Comparison of temperature rise in wafers during ion implantation between the kinematic chuck and the solid chuck. The temperature is measured by a thermocouple located near the center of the wafer on the back side, and the oscillation occurs because the ion beam, which is scanning over the wafer, causes local heating. The typical implant time is less than 30 minutes.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Comparison of integrated stress variation as a function of beam current, between the kinematic chuck and the solid chuck (see text for description). The mean dose of the kinematic chuck group was (1.33 ± 0.02) × 1014 ions/cm2, and the mean integrated stress was −29.3 N/m. The mean dose of the solid chuck group was (1.66 ± 0.01) × 1014 ions/cm2, and the mean integrated stress was −85.4 N/m. All wafers were annealed for 4 hours at 80 °C.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Diagram (left) and photo (right) of the solid wafer chuck, which holds the wafer electrostatically to provide passive cooling of the wafer (relying on the thermal mass of the aluminum plate). Ion dose is measured by integrating the ion current hitting the wafer and aluminum rim, using a picoammeter. Secondary electron emission is suppressed by floating the rim, wafer, and picoammeter at a potential + 1 kV.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Post-implantation stress over time of wafers annealed for 4 hours at different temperatures. Annealing at higher temperature reduces stress but improves stability. The data from each temperature include at least two wafers.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Change in spherical curvature over time, for five wafers implanted to −20 to −30 N/m and annealed for 4 hours at 120 °C. The three wafers RT1-3 were held at room temperature, while HT1 and HT2 were baked three times for 4 hours at 70 °C. The black arrow indicates the direction in which the spherical curvature would be changing if the stress were relaxing over time. The metrology repeatability of spherical curvature is about 12 nm RMS.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Measured height map of the deformation caused by the coating (left), and the difference between pre-coating and post-compensation measurements (right), for Wafer 1.
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 The Zernike spectrum of the difference between the pre-coating and post-compensation surface measurements for each of the five wafers. The dashed line is the repeatability of a reference wafer, defined as the standard deviation of each Zernike component over two weeks of daily measurements.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Film stress compensation process summary. The details of each step are in the text. The process steps that are not otherwise required for making a mirror are in bold.

Tables Icon

Table 2 Coating deformation and post-compensation residual error of five wafers. The RMS slopes in the x- and y-directions are added as a root-sum-of-squares.

Metrics