Abstract

Chip-scale optical interconnects have been widely investigated using the wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) technology, while it has been rarely reported using the mode-division multiplexing (MDM) technology that further improves communication capacity by using multiple spatial mode channels. On the other hand, to achieve large-bandwidth multi-core computing, a flexible and reconfigurable network is highly desired. Here, we proposed and demonstrated a 4 × 4 chip-scale multifunctional MDM system to realize the interconnects among 4 dual-core computing processors. The proposed system integrates fundamental components such as high-speed modulator arrays, multimode switches, and large-bandwidth photodetector arrays, in addition to various multimode devices. The thermal heaters are utilized to achieve multifunctional routing, including inter-mode and inter-path cases. The transmission of 10 Gb/s On-Off Keying (OOK) signal is verified, which demonstrates the reconfigurable inter-core and inter-processor interconnects.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2018 (7)

H. Xu and Y. Shi, “Ultra-sharp multi-mode waveguide bending assisted with metamaterial-based mode converters,” Laser Photonics Rev. 12(3), 1700240 (2018).
[Crossref]

H. Xu and Y. Shi, “Metamaterial-based Maxwell’s fisheye lens for multimode waveguide crossing,” Laser Photonics Rev. 12(10), 1800094 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. Dai, C. Li, S. Wang, H. Wu, Y. Shi, Z. Wu, S. Gao, T. Dai, H. Yu, and H.-K. Tsang, “10-channel mode (de)multiplexer with dual polarizations,” Laser Photonics Rev. 12(1), 1700109 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Yu, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Silicon chip-scale space-division multiplexing: from devices to system,” Sci. China Inf. Sci. 61(8), 080403 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Sun, W. Wu, Y. Yu, G. Chen, X. Zhang, X. Chen, D. J. Thomson, and G. T. Reed, “De-multiplexing free on-chip low-loss multimode switch enabling reconfigurable inter-mode and inter-path routing,” Nanophotonics 7(9), 1571–1580 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. He, Y. Zhang, Q. Zhu, S. An, R. Cao, X. Guo, C. Qiu, and Y. Su, “Silicon high-order mode (De)multiplexer on single polarization,” J. Lightwave Technol. 36(24), 5746–5753 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Li, Y. Zhou, J. Dong, X. Zhang, E. Cassan, J. Hou, C. Yang, S. Chen, D. Gao, and H. Chen, “Universal multimode waveguide crossing based on transformation optics,” Optica 5(12), 1549–1556 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (2)

2016 (4)

2015 (2)

C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y.-H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528(7583), 534–538 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, Y. Xuan, M. Qi, H. Huang, Y. Li, M. Li, X. Chen, Z. Sheng, A. Wu, W. Li, X. Wang, S. Zou, and F. Gan, “Broadband and fabrication-tolerant on-chip scalable mode-division multiplexing based on mode-evolution counter-tapered couplers,” Opt. Lett. 40(9), 1956–1959 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (3)

P. Dong, Y.-K. Chen, G.-H. Duan, and T. Neilson David, “Silicon photonic devices and integrated circuits,” Nanophotonics 3(4–5), 215–228 (2014).

J. Wang, S. He, and D. Dai, “On-chip silicon 8-channel hybrid (de)multiplexer enabling simultaneous mode- and polarization-division-multiplexing,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(2), L18–L22 (2014).
[Crossref]

L.-W. Luo, N. Ophir, C. P. Chen, L. H. Gabrielli, C. B. Poitras, K. Bergmen, and M. Lipson, “WDM-compatible mode-division multiplexing on a silicon chip,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3069 (2014).

2012 (4)

L. H. Gabrielli, D. Liu, S. G. Johnson, and M. Lipson, “On-chip transformation optics for multimode waveguide bends,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1217 (2012).

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Gould, T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ding, and M. Hochberg, “Bandwidth enhancement of waveguide-coupled photodetectors with inductive gain peaking,” Opt. Express 20(7), 7101–7111 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Chen and Y. K. Chen, “Compact, low-loss and low-power 8×8 broadband silicon optical switch,” Opt. Express 20(17), 18977–18985 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

2010 (3)

S. Assefa, F. Xia, S. W. Bedell, Y. Zhang, T. Topuria, P. M. Rice, and Y. A. Vlasov, “CMOS-integrated high-speed MSM germanium waveguide photodetector,” Opt. Express 18(5), 4986–4999 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Michel, J. Liu, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-performance Ge-on-Si photodetectors,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 527–534 (2010).
[Crossref]

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 518–526 (2010).
[Crossref]

Absil, P.

Alic, N.

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).
[Crossref]

Alloatti, L.

C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y.-H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528(7583), 534–538 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

An, S.

Asanovic, K.

C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y.-H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528(7583), 534–538 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Assefa, S.

Atabaki, A. H.

C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y.-H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528(7583), 534–538 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Avizienis, R. R.

C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y.-H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528(7583), 534–538 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baehr-Jones, T.

Balakrishnan, S.

Bedell, S. W.

Bergmen, K.

L.-W. Luo, N. Ophir, C. P. Chen, L. H. Gabrielli, C. B. Poitras, K. Bergmen, and M. Lipson, “WDM-compatible mode-division multiplexing on a silicon chip,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3069 (2014).

Cao, R.

Cassan, E.

Chen, C. P.

L.-W. Luo, N. Ophir, C. P. Chen, L. H. Gabrielli, C. B. Poitras, K. Bergmen, and M. Lipson, “WDM-compatible mode-division multiplexing on a silicon chip,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3069 (2014).

Chen, G.

Chen, H.

Chen, L.

Chen, S.

Chen, X.

C. Sun, W. Wu, Y. Yu, G. Chen, X. Zhang, X. Chen, D. J. Thomson, and G. T. Reed, “De-multiplexing free on-chip low-loss multimode switch enabling reconfigurable inter-mode and inter-path routing,” Nanophotonics 7(9), 1571–1580 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Wang, Y. Xuan, M. Qi, H. Huang, Y. Li, M. Li, X. Chen, Z. Sheng, A. Wu, W. Li, X. Wang, S. Zou, and F. Gan, “Broadband and fabrication-tolerant on-chip scalable mode-division multiplexing based on mode-evolution counter-tapered couplers,” Opt. Lett. 40(9), 1956–1959 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Y. K.

Chen, Y.-H.

C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y.-H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528(7583), 534–538 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Y.-K.

P. Dong, Y.-K. Chen, G.-H. Duan, and T. Neilson David, “Silicon photonic devices and integrated circuits,” Nanophotonics 3(4–5), 215–228 (2014).

Cook, H. M.

C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y.-H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528(7583), 534–538 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cunningham, J. E.

Dai, D.

D. Dai, C. Li, S. Wang, H. Wu, Y. Shi, Z. Wu, S. Gao, T. Dai, H. Yu, and H.-K. Tsang, “10-channel mode (de)multiplexer with dual polarizations,” Laser Photonics Rev. 12(1), 1700109 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Wang, S. He, and D. Dai, “On-chip silicon 8-channel hybrid (de)multiplexer enabling simultaneous mode- and polarization-division-multiplexing,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(2), L18–L22 (2014).
[Crossref]

Dai, T.

D. Dai, C. Li, S. Wang, H. Wu, Y. Shi, Z. Wu, S. Gao, T. Dai, H. Yu, and H.-K. Tsang, “10-channel mode (de)multiplexer with dual polarizations,” Laser Photonics Rev. 12(1), 1700109 (2018).
[Crossref]

De Coster, J.

De Heyn, P.

Ding, R.

Dong, J.

Dong, P.

P. Dong, Y.-K. Chen, G.-H. Duan, and T. Neilson David, “Silicon photonic devices and integrated circuits,” Nanophotonics 3(4–5), 215–228 (2014).

Duan, G.-H.

P. Dong, Y.-K. Chen, G.-H. Duan, and T. Neilson David, “Silicon photonic devices and integrated circuits,” Nanophotonics 3(4–5), 215–228 (2014).

Fedeli, J.-M.

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).
[Crossref]

Gabrielli, L. H.

L.-W. Luo, N. Ophir, C. P. Chen, L. H. Gabrielli, C. B. Poitras, K. Bergmen, and M. Lipson, “WDM-compatible mode-division multiplexing on a silicon chip,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3069 (2014).

L. H. Gabrielli, D. Liu, S. G. Johnson, and M. Lipson, “On-chip transformation optics for multimode waveguide bends,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1217 (2012).

Gan, F.

Gao, D.

Gao, S.

D. Dai, C. Li, S. Wang, H. Wu, Y. Shi, Z. Wu, S. Gao, T. Dai, H. Yu, and H.-K. Tsang, “10-channel mode (de)multiplexer with dual polarizations,” Laser Photonics Rev. 12(1), 1700109 (2018).
[Crossref]

Gardes, F. Y.

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 518–526 (2010).
[Crossref]

Georgas, M. S.

C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y.-H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528(7583), 534–538 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gould, M.

Guo, X.

He, S.

J. Wang, S. He, and D. Dai, “On-chip silicon 8-channel hybrid (de)multiplexer enabling simultaneous mode- and polarization-division-multiplexing,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(2), L18–L22 (2014).
[Crossref]

He, Y.

Hochberg, M.

Hou, J.

Hu, Y.

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).
[Crossref]

Huang, H.

Johnson, S. G.

L. H. Gabrielli, D. Liu, S. G. Johnson, and M. Lipson, “On-chip transformation optics for multimode waveguide bends,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1217 (2012).

Kimerling, L. C.

J. Michel, J. Liu, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-performance Ge-on-Si photodetectors,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 527–534 (2010).
[Crossref]

Krishnamoorthy, A. V.

Kumar, R.

C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y.-H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528(7583), 534–538 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kuo, B. P. P.

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lee, Y.

C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y.-H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528(7583), 534–538 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lepage, G.

Leu, J. C.

C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y.-H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528(7583), 534–538 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, C.

D. Dai, C. Li, S. Wang, H. Wu, Y. Shi, Z. Wu, S. Gao, T. Dai, H. Yu, and H.-K. Tsang, “10-channel mode (de)multiplexer with dual polarizations,” Laser Photonics Rev. 12(1), 1700109 (2018).
[Crossref]

Li, G.

Li, M.

Li, S.

Li, W.

Li, Y.

Lin, S.

C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y.-H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528(7583), 534–538 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lipson, M.

L.-W. Luo, N. Ophir, C. P. Chen, L. H. Gabrielli, C. B. Poitras, K. Bergmen, and M. Lipson, “WDM-compatible mode-division multiplexing on a silicon chip,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3069 (2014).

L. H. Gabrielli, D. Liu, S. G. Johnson, and M. Lipson, “On-chip transformation optics for multimode waveguide bends,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1217 (2012).

Liu, D.

L. H. Gabrielli, D. Liu, S. G. Johnson, and M. Lipson, “On-chip transformation optics for multimode waveguide bends,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1217 (2012).

Liu, J.

J. Michel, J. Liu, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-performance Ge-on-Si photodetectors,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 527–534 (2010).
[Crossref]

Luo, L.-W.

L.-W. Luo, N. Ophir, C. P. Chen, L. H. Gabrielli, C. B. Poitras, K. Bergmen, and M. Lipson, “WDM-compatible mode-division multiplexing on a silicon chip,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3069 (2014).

Luo, Y.

Mashanovich, G.

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 518–526 (2010).
[Crossref]

Mashanovich, G. Z.

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).
[Crossref]

Michel, J.

J. Michel, J. Liu, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-performance Ge-on-Si photodetectors,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 527–534 (2010).
[Crossref]

Moss, B. R.

C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y.-H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528(7583), 534–538 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Myslivets, E.

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).
[Crossref]

Neilson David, T.

P. Dong, Y.-K. Chen, G.-H. Duan, and T. Neilson David, “Silicon photonic devices and integrated circuits,” Nanophotonics 3(4–5), 215–228 (2014).

Ophir, N.

L.-W. Luo, N. Ophir, C. P. Chen, L. H. Gabrielli, C. B. Poitras, K. Bergmen, and M. Lipson, “WDM-compatible mode-division multiplexing on a silicon chip,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3069 (2014).

Orcutt, J. S.

C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y.-H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528(7583), 534–538 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ou, A. J.

C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y.-H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528(7583), 534–538 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pavanello, F.

C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y.-H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528(7583), 534–538 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Poitras, C. B.

L.-W. Luo, N. Ophir, C. P. Chen, L. H. Gabrielli, C. B. Poitras, K. Bergmen, and M. Lipson, “WDM-compatible mode-division multiplexing on a silicon chip,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3069 (2014).

Popovic, M. A.

C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y.-H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528(7583), 534–538 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Qi, M.

Qiu, C.

Radic, S.

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).
[Crossref]

Raj, K.

Ram, R. J.

C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y.-H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528(7583), 534–538 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Reed, G. T.

C. Sun, W. Wu, Y. Yu, G. Chen, X. Zhang, X. Chen, D. J. Thomson, and G. T. Reed, “De-multiplexing free on-chip low-loss multimode switch enabling reconfigurable inter-mode and inter-path routing,” Nanophotonics 7(9), 1571–1580 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 518–526 (2010).
[Crossref]

Rice, P. M.

Roelkens, G.

Shainline, J. M.

C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y.-H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528(7583), 534–538 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shen, L.

Sheng, Z.

Shi, Y.

H. Xu and Y. Shi, “Metamaterial-based Maxwell’s fisheye lens for multimode waveguide crossing,” Laser Photonics Rev. 12(10), 1800094 (2018).
[Crossref]

H. Xu and Y. Shi, “Ultra-sharp multi-mode waveguide bending assisted with metamaterial-based mode converters,” Laser Photonics Rev. 12(3), 1700240 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. Dai, C. Li, S. Wang, H. Wu, Y. Shi, Z. Wu, S. Gao, T. Dai, H. Yu, and H.-K. Tsang, “10-channel mode (de)multiplexer with dual polarizations,” Laser Photonics Rev. 12(1), 1700109 (2018).
[Crossref]

Shubin, I.

Stojanovic, V. M.

C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y.-H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528(7583), 534–538 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Su, Y.

Sun, C.

Y. Yu, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Silicon chip-scale space-division multiplexing: from devices to system,” Sci. China Inf. Sci. 61(8), 080403 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Sun, W. Wu, Y. Yu, G. Chen, X. Zhang, X. Chen, D. J. Thomson, and G. T. Reed, “De-multiplexing free on-chip low-loss multimode switch enabling reconfigurable inter-mode and inter-path routing,” Nanophotonics 7(9), 1571–1580 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Sun, Y. Yu, and X. Zhang, “Ultra-compact waveguide crossing for a mode-division multiplexing optical network,” Opt. Lett. 42(23), 4913–4916 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Sun, Y. Yu, G. Chen, and X. Zhang, “Ultra-compact bent multimode silicon waveguide with ultralow inter-mode crosstalk,” Opt. Lett. 42(15), 3004–3007 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Sun, Y. Yu, G. Chen, and X. Zhang, “Integrated switchable mode exchange for reconfigurable mode-multiplexing optical networks,” Opt. Lett. 41(14), 3257–3260 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y.-H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528(7583), 534–538 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thacker, H.

Thomson, D. J.

C. Sun, W. Wu, Y. Yu, G. Chen, X. Zhang, X. Chen, D. J. Thomson, and G. T. Reed, “De-multiplexing free on-chip low-loss multimode switch enabling reconfigurable inter-mode and inter-path routing,” Nanophotonics 7(9), 1571–1580 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 518–526 (2010).
[Crossref]

Topuria, T.

Tsang, H.-K.

D. Dai, C. Li, S. Wang, H. Wu, Y. Shi, Z. Wu, S. Gao, T. Dai, H. Yu, and H.-K. Tsang, “10-channel mode (de)multiplexer with dual polarizations,” Laser Photonics Rev. 12(1), 1700109 (2018).
[Crossref]

Van Campenhout, J.

Verheyen, P.

Vlasov, Y. A.

Wade, M. T.

C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y.-H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528(7583), 534–538 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, J.

Wang, S.

D. Dai, C. Li, S. Wang, H. Wu, Y. Shi, Z. Wu, S. Gao, T. Dai, H. Yu, and H.-K. Tsang, “10-channel mode (de)multiplexer with dual polarizations,” Laser Photonics Rev. 12(1), 1700109 (2018).
[Crossref]

Wang, X.

Waterman, A. S.

C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y.-H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528(7583), 534–538 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, A.

Wu, H.

D. Dai, C. Li, S. Wang, H. Wu, Y. Shi, Z. Wu, S. Gao, T. Dai, H. Yu, and H.-K. Tsang, “10-channel mode (de)multiplexer with dual polarizations,” Laser Photonics Rev. 12(1), 1700109 (2018).
[Crossref]

Wu, W.

C. Sun, W. Wu, Y. Yu, G. Chen, X. Zhang, X. Chen, D. J. Thomson, and G. T. Reed, “De-multiplexing free on-chip low-loss multimode switch enabling reconfigurable inter-mode and inter-path routing,” Nanophotonics 7(9), 1571–1580 (2018).
[Crossref]

Wu, Z.

D. Dai, C. Li, S. Wang, H. Wu, Y. Shi, Z. Wu, S. Gao, T. Dai, H. Yu, and H.-K. Tsang, “10-channel mode (de)multiplexer with dual polarizations,” Laser Photonics Rev. 12(1), 1700109 (2018).
[Crossref]

Xia, F.

Xu, H.

H. Xu and Y. Shi, “Metamaterial-based Maxwell’s fisheye lens for multimode waveguide crossing,” Laser Photonics Rev. 12(10), 1800094 (2018).
[Crossref]

H. Xu and Y. Shi, “Ultra-sharp multi-mode waveguide bending assisted with metamaterial-based mode converters,” Laser Photonics Rev. 12(3), 1700240 (2018).
[Crossref]

Xuan, Y.

Yang, C.

Yao, J.

Yao, W.

Ye, M.

Yu, H.

D. Dai, C. Li, S. Wang, H. Wu, Y. Shi, Z. Wu, S. Gao, T. Dai, H. Yu, and H.-K. Tsang, “10-channel mode (de)multiplexer with dual polarizations,” Laser Photonics Rev. 12(1), 1700109 (2018).
[Crossref]

Yu, Y.

Zhang, X.

Y. Yu, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Silicon chip-scale space-division multiplexing: from devices to system,” Sci. China Inf. Sci. 61(8), 080403 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Sun, W. Wu, Y. Yu, G. Chen, X. Zhang, X. Chen, D. J. Thomson, and G. T. Reed, “De-multiplexing free on-chip low-loss multimode switch enabling reconfigurable inter-mode and inter-path routing,” Nanophotonics 7(9), 1571–1580 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Li, Y. Zhou, J. Dong, X. Zhang, E. Cassan, J. Hou, C. Yang, S. Chen, D. Gao, and H. Chen, “Universal multimode waveguide crossing based on transformation optics,” Optica 5(12), 1549–1556 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Sun, Y. Yu, and X. Zhang, “Ultra-compact waveguide crossing for a mode-division multiplexing optical network,” Opt. Lett. 42(23), 4913–4916 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Sun, Y. Yu, G. Chen, and X. Zhang, “Ultra-compact bent multimode silicon waveguide with ultralow inter-mode crosstalk,” Opt. Lett. 42(15), 3004–3007 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Chen, Y. Yu, and X. Zhang, “Monolithically mode division multiplexing photonic integrated circuit for large-capacity optical interconnection,” Opt. Lett. 41(15), 3543–3546 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Sun, Y. Yu, G. Chen, and X. Zhang, “Integrated switchable mode exchange for reconfigurable mode-multiplexing optical networks,” Opt. Lett. 41(14), 3257–3260 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Chen, Y. Yu, M. Ye, and X. Zhang, “Switchable in-line monitor for multi-dimensional multiplexed photonic integrated circuit,” Opt. Express 24(13), 14841–14850 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, Y.

Zheng, X.

Zhou, Y.

Zhu, Q.

Zlatanovic, S.

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zou, S.

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Laser Photonics Rev. (4)

D. Dai, C. Li, S. Wang, H. Wu, Y. Shi, Z. Wu, S. Gao, T. Dai, H. Yu, and H.-K. Tsang, “10-channel mode (de)multiplexer with dual polarizations,” Laser Photonics Rev. 12(1), 1700109 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Wang, S. He, and D. Dai, “On-chip silicon 8-channel hybrid (de)multiplexer enabling simultaneous mode- and polarization-division-multiplexing,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(2), L18–L22 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Xu and Y. Shi, “Ultra-sharp multi-mode waveguide bending assisted with metamaterial-based mode converters,” Laser Photonics Rev. 12(3), 1700240 (2018).
[Crossref]

H. Xu and Y. Shi, “Metamaterial-based Maxwell’s fisheye lens for multimode waveguide crossing,” Laser Photonics Rev. 12(10), 1800094 (2018).
[Crossref]

Nanophotonics (2)

P. Dong, Y.-K. Chen, G.-H. Duan, and T. Neilson David, “Silicon photonic devices and integrated circuits,” Nanophotonics 3(4–5), 215–228 (2014).

C. Sun, W. Wu, Y. Yu, G. Chen, X. Zhang, X. Chen, D. J. Thomson, and G. T. Reed, “De-multiplexing free on-chip low-loss multimode switch enabling reconfigurable inter-mode and inter-path routing,” Nanophotonics 7(9), 1571–1580 (2018).
[Crossref]

Nat. Commun. (2)

L. H. Gabrielli, D. Liu, S. G. Johnson, and M. Lipson, “On-chip transformation optics for multimode waveguide bends,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1217 (2012).

L.-W. Luo, N. Ophir, C. P. Chen, L. H. Gabrielli, C. B. Poitras, K. Bergmen, and M. Lipson, “WDM-compatible mode-division multiplexing on a silicon chip,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3069 (2014).

Nat. Photonics (2)

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 518–526 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Michel, J. Liu, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-performance Ge-on-Si photodetectors,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 527–534 (2010).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y.-H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528(7583), 534–538 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (6)

Opt. Lett. (5)

Optica (1)

Sci. China Inf. Sci. (1)

Y. Yu, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Silicon chip-scale space-division multiplexing: from devices to system,” Sci. China Inf. Sci. 61(8), 080403 (2018).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

G. Chen, Y. Yu, X. Xiao, S. Fu, and X. Zhang, “Three modes multiplexed photonic integrated circuit for large capacity optical interconnection,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2017).
[Crossref]

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) A schematic of the fully integrated on-chip MDM system; (b) the adiabatic couplers used as mode MUXs/DEMUXs; (c) the 2 × 2 multimode switches used in the passive network.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 The measured results of (a) the mode MUX/DEMUX and (b) 2 × 2 multimode switches.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 The cross-section view of (a) MRM and (b) Ge PD.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) The measured optical spectrum and (b) EO bandwidth of MRM.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 The measured (a) photocurrents and (b) bandwidth of Ge PD.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 The microscope image of (a) the fabricated MDM system, (b) MRM array with heat control, (c) 4 × 4 multimode switches and (d) Ge PD array with on-chip inductor.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 The experimental setup for the signal transmission.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 The 10 Gbit/s eye diagrams of the MDM system.

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