Abstract

Fundamental repetition rates of 3.1 GHz, 7.0 GHz, and 12.5 GHz in passively modelocked Yb-doped fiber lasers are demonstrated. To the best of our knowledge, the fundamental repetition rate of 12.5 GHz is the highest value for 1.0 μm mode-locked fiber lasers. The mode-locked oscillator has a peak wavelength of 1047.5 nm and a pulse duration of 1.9 ps. The repetition rate signal has a signal-to-noise ratio of 57 dB. The peak wavelength of mode-locked spectra gradually makes a blue-shift and the modelocked threshold power increases with an increase in pulse repetition rate. Furthermore, in contrast to most of the all-normal-dispersion mode-locked fiber lasers, the present linear resonator (e.g., length < 1 cm) allows the buildup of gain-guided soliton without any filter effect. To unveil the underlying pulse shaping mechanism, a combined model comprising dynamic rate equations and the generalized nonlinear Schrödinger equation is established. Surprisingly, an essential gain filtering effect, which is contributed by a 26-nm gain bandwidth, is revealed and can verify the gain-guided pulse dynamics. Moreover, the pulse build-up in temporal and frequency domain, like spectral evolution and gain bandwidths, is numerically carried out in detail.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2018 (6)

H. Hu, F. Da Ros, M. Pu, F. Ye, K. Ingerslev, E. Porto da Silva, M. Nooruzzaman, Y. Amma, Y. Sasaki, T. Mizuno, Y. Miyamoto, L. Ottaviano, E. Semenova, P. Guan, D. Zibar, M. Galili, K. Yvind, T. Morioka, and L. K. Oxenløwe, “Single-source chip-based frequency comb enabling extreme parallel data transmission,” Nat. Photonics 12(8), 469–473 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Grivas, R. Ismaeel, C. Corbari, C.-C. Huang, D. W. Hewak, P. Lagoudakis, and G. Brambilla, “Generation of multi-gigahertz trains of phase-coherent femtosecond laser pulses in Ti: Sapphire waveguides,” Laser Photonics Rev. 12(11), 1800167 (2018).
[Crossref]

H. Cheng, W. Lin, Z. Luo, and Z. Yang, “Passively mode-locked Tm3+ -doped fiber laser with gigahertz fundamental repetition rate,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24(3), 1 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhou, W. Lin, H. Cheng, W. Wang, T. Qiao, Q. Qian, S. Xu, and Z. Yang, “Composite filtering effect in a SESAM mode-locked fiber laser with a 32-GHz fundamental repetition rate: switchable states from single soliton to pulse bunch,” Opt. Express 26(8), 10842–10857 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Cheng, W. Wang, Y. Zhou, T. Qiao, W. Lin, Y. Guo, S. Xu, and Z. Yang, “High-repetition-rate ultrafast fiber lasers,” Opt. Express 26(13), 16411–16421 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Zeng, A. E. Akosman, and M. Y. Sander, “Scaling the repetition rate of thulium-doped ultrafast soliton fiber lasers to the GHz regime,” Opt. Express 26(19), 24687–24694 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2017 (4)

2016 (2)

C. Kerse, H. Kalaycıoğlu, P. Elahi, B. Çetin, D. K. Kesim, Ö. Akçaalan, S. Yavaş, M. D. Aşık, B. Öktem, H. Hoogland, R. Holzwarth, and F. Ö. Ilday, “Ablation-cooled material removal with ultrafast bursts of pulses,” Nature 537(7618), 84–88 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Cheng, W. Lin, T. Qiao, S. Xu, and Z. Yang, “Theoretical and experimental analysis of instability of continuous wave mode locking: Towards high fundamental repetition rate in Tm3+-doped fiber lasers,” Opt. Express 24(26), 29882–29895 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (2)

2014 (4)

2013 (2)

2012 (8)

V. J. Witter, M. Mangold, M. Hoffmann, O. D. Sieber, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “High-power integrated ultrafast semiconductor disk laser: multi-Watt 10 GHz pulse generation,” Electron. Lett. 48(18), 1144–1145 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Wilken, G. L. Curto, R. A. Probst, T. Steinmetz, A. Manescau, L. Pasquini, J. I. González Hernández, R. Rebolo, T. W. Hänsch, T. Udem, and R. Holzwarth, “A spectrograph for exoplanet observations calibrated at the centimetre-per-second level,” Nature 485(7400), 611–614 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Mangold, V. J. Wittwer, O. D. Sieber, M. Hoffmann, I. L. Krestnikov, D. A. Livshits, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “VECSEL gain characterization,” Opt. Express 20(4), 4136–4148 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. G. Ycas, F. Quinlan, S. A. Diddams, S. Osterman, S. Mahadevan, S. Redman, R. Terrien, L. Ramsey, C. F. Bender, B. Botzer, and S. Sigurdsson, “Demonstration of on-sky calibration of astronomical spectra using a 25 GHz near-IR laser frequency comb,” Opt. Express 20(6), 6631–6643 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Huang, J. Wang, H. Lin, D. Xu, R. Zhang, Y. Deng, and X. Wei, “Combined numerical model of laser rate equation and Ginzburg-Landau equation for ytterbium-doped fiber amplifier,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 29(6), 1418–1423 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Chong, H. Liu, B. Nie, B. G. Bale, S. Wabnitz, W. H. Renninger, M. Dantus, and F. W. Wise, “Pulse generation without gain-bandwidth limitation in a laser with self-similar evolution,” Opt. Express 20(13), 14213–14220 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H.-W. Chen, G. Chang, S. Xu, Z. Yang, and F. X. Kärtner, “3 GHz, fundamentally mode-locked, femtosecond Yb-fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 37(17), 3522–3524 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H.-W. Chen, J. Lim, S.-W. Huang, D. N. Schimpf, F. X. Kärtner, and G. Chang, “Optimization of femtosecond Yb-doped fiber amplifiers for high-quality pulse compression,” Opt. Express 20(27), 28672–28682 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (5)

A. Martinez and S. Yamashita, “Multi-gigahertz repetition rate passively modelocked fiber lasers using carbon nanotubes,” Opt. Express 19(7), 6155–6163 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Xu, Z. Yang, W. Zhang, X. Wei, Q. Qian, D. Chen, Q. Zhang, S. Shen, M. Peng, and J. Qiu, “400 mW ultrashort cavity low-noise single-frequency Yb³⁺-doped phosphate fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 36(18), 3708–3710 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. D. Sieber, V. J. Wittwer, M. Mangold, M. Hoffmann, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Femtosecond VECSEL with tunable multi-gigahertz repetition rate,” Opt. Express 19(23), 23538–23543 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, T. Schellinger, M. Jordan, M. Winter, G. Huber, T. Vallaitis, R. Bonk, P. Kleinow, F. Frey, M. Roeger, S. Koenig, A. Ludwig, A. Marculescu, J. Li, M. Hoh, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, S. Ben Ezra, N. Narkiss, B. Nebendahl, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, B. Resan, A. Oehler, K. Weingarten, T. Ellermeyer, J. Lutz, M. Moeller, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “26 Tbit s−1 line-rate super-channel transmission utilizing all-optical fast Fourier transform processing,” Nat. Photonics 5(6), 364–371 (2011).
[Crossref]

Z. Zhang and G. Dai, “All-normal-dispersion dissipative soliton ytterbium fiber laser without dispersion compernsation and additional filter,” IEEE Photonics J. 3(6), 1023–1029 (2011).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

A. G. Vladimirov, A. S. Pimenov, and D. Rachinskii, “Numerical study of dynamical regimes in a monolithic passively mode-locked semiconductor laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45(5), 462–468 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (4)

2007 (4)

2006 (2)

2004 (2)

R. Herda and O. G. Okhotnikov, “Dispersion compensation-free fiber laser mode-locked and stabilized by high-contrast saturable absorber mirror,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(7), 893–899 (2004).
[Crossref]

A. G. Vladimirov, D. Turaev, and G. Kozyreff, “Delay differential equations for mode-locked semiconductor lasers,” Opt. Lett. 29(11), 1221–1223 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (2)

1997 (1)

1996 (1)

M. Nakazawa, K. Tamura, and E. Yoshida, “Supermdoe noise suppression in a harmonically modelocked fiber laser by selfphase modulation and spectral filtering,” Electron. Lett. 32(5), 461 (1996).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

F. X. Kaertner, “Control of solid state laser dynamics by semiconductor devices,” Opt. Eng. 34(7), 2024–2036 (1995).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

G. P. Agrawal, “Optical pulse propagation in doped fiber amplifiers,” Phys. Rev. A 44(11), 7493–7501 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

1975 (1)

H. A. Haus, “Theory of mode locking with a fast saturable,” J. Appl. Phys. 46(7), 3049–3058 (1975).
[Crossref]

Agrawal, G. P.

G. P. Agrawal, “Optical pulse propagation in doped fiber amplifiers,” Phys. Rev. A 44(11), 7493–7501 (1991).
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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) The photograph of the Fabry-Perot fiber laser cavity, and the inset shows spectral reflectance of the DF and SESAM (b) Schematic diagram of the laser cavity for numerical simulation. DF, dielectric films; SESAM, semiconductor saturable absorber mirror; GF, gain fiber.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Experimental optical spectra and autocorrelation traces: Optical opectra of oscillators with repetition rate of 3.1 GHz (a) with a peak wavelength of 1060.7 nm, 7.0 GHz (b) with a peak wavelength of 1050.3 nm, and 12.5 GHz (c) with a peak wavelength of 1047.5 nm. The inset in the right of (c) is the optical spectrum at a span of 0.2 nm, indicating a longitudinal mode spacing of approximately 0.06 nm, as expected for a laser operating at a repetition rate of 12.5 GHz. Measured autocorrelation trace of (d) 3.1-GHz laser showing a pulse duration of 3.2 ps, (e) 7.0-GHz laser showing a pulse duration of 3.2 ps, and (f) 12.5-GHz laser showing pulse duration of 1.9 ps by fitting with a hyperbolic secant pulse profile.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 RF spectra and waveform measurements: Spectra of photodiode signal for laser cavity lengths of 30.5 mm (a), 13.8 mm (b) and 7.6 mm (c) acauired with an RF spectrum analyzer. Laser waveforms for laser cavity lengths of 30.5 mm (d), 13.8 mm (d) and 7.6 mm (f) measured using an oscilloscope and a photodiode having bandwidths of 25 GHz and 12.5 GHz, respectively, and the intervals between intensity peaks are ~313 ps, ~143 ps and ~79 ps.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Measured (blue dots) and simulated (olive line) variation of the laser average output power for 7 GHz oscillator with the launched pump power (976 nm). (b) False color map of optical spectra of 7 GHz mode-locked oscillator recorded for 12 h, one datum per 40 second. While recording the data, temperature of laser cavity was maintained at 20°C.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Averaged population inversion level Nave of the 7-GHz per roundtrip (RT) from 10 to 90 RTs; (b) The corresponding net gain profiles; (c) The net gain line shape at the 10th RT with a full width at half maximum (FWHM) of ~32 nm (blue line), together with line shape at the 90th RT with ~26 nm FWHM (green line).
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) The stimulated temporal evolution of the 7-GHz laser; (b) The corresponding optical spectral evolution.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Parameters of Mode-Locked Ytterbium Fiber Laser at 7-GHz Repetition Rates

Equations (9)

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u i ( z , t ) z = i β 2 2 2 u i ( z , t ) t 2 + i γ | u i ( z , t ) | 2 u i ( z , t ) + g ( z , ω ) 2 u i ( z , t ) .
u i , S E S A M = F 1 { F [ u i ( L c , t ) ] e i L ( w ) R S A M ( ω ) / ( 1 q a q 0 ) } ( 1 q a q ) η S A M , u i + 1 ( 0 , t ) = F 1 { F [ u i ( 2 L c , t ) ] 1 q l } , q t = q q 0 τ a q | u i ( L c , t ) | 2 E a .
P p ± ( z ) z = Γ p [ σ e ( λ p ) N 2 ( z ) σ a ( λ p ) N 1 ( z ) ] P p ± ( z ) α P p ± ( z ) ± P s ± ( z , λ k ) z = Γ s [ σ e ( λ k ) N 2 ( z ) σ a ( λ k ) N 1 ( z ) ] P s ± ( z , λ k ) α P s ± ( z , λ k ) + 2 σ e ( λ k ) N 2 ( z ) h c 2 λ k 3 Δ λ , where N 1 ( z ) = N Y b N 2 ( z ) .
N 2 ( z ) N Y b = Γ p λ p h c A σ a ( λ p ) [ P p + ( z ) + P p ( z ) ] + Γ s h c A k = 1 N λ k σ a ( λ k ) [ P s + ( z , λ k ) + P s ( z , λ k ) ] Γ p λ p h c A [ σ a ( λ p ) + σ e ( λ p ) ] [ P p + ( z ) + P p ( z ) ] + 1 τ G + Γ s h c A k = 1 N λ k [ σ a ( λ k ) + σ e ( λ k ) ] [ P s + ( z , λ k ) + P s ( z , λ k ) ]
g ( z , w k ) = Γ s ( [ σ e ( λ k ) + σ a ( λ k ) ] N 2 ( z ) σ a ( λ k ) N Y b ) α
| u ^ ( z , ω k ) | 2 d ω = P s ( z , λ k ) T R , u ^ ( z , ω ) = F [ u ( z , t ) ]
P s + ( 0 , λ k ) = | u ^ i ( 0 , ω k ) | 2 d ω / T R , P s ( L c , λ k ) = | u ^ i ( L c , ω k ) | 2 d ω / T R
P p + ( 0 ) = T p η D F P p , P p ( L c ) = 0
g n e t ( ω ) = 0 2 L c g ( z , ω ) d z , N a v e = 1 2 L c 0 2 L c N 2 ( z ) / N Y b d z

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