Abstract

In this work, we present two-dimensional beam steering in the near-infrared using a SiN integrated circuit, containing optical phased arrays. Beam steering was achieved over a range of 17.6° × 3°, at a fixed wavelength of 905 nm. The first dimension was steered via phase differences between the optical phased array channels. The second dimension was accessed by actively switching between various optical phased array sub-devices containing output diffraction gratings with different periods. The characterisation was performed on a wafer-level test station.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2018 (5)

A. Martin, D. Dodane, L. Leviandier, D. Dolfi, A. Naughton, P. O’Brien, T. Spuessens, R. Baets, G. Lepage, P. Verheyen, P. De Heyn, P. Absil, P. Feneyrou, and J. Bourderionnet, “Photonic integrated circuit based FMCW coherent LiDAR,” J. Lit. Technol. 36(19), 4640–4645 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Sabouri and K. Jamshidi, “Design Considerations of Silicon Nitride Optical Phased Array for Visible Light Communications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24(6), 1–7 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Chung, H. Abediasl, and H. Hashemi, “A monolithically integrated large-scale optical phased array in silicon-on-insulator CMOS,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 53(1), 275–296 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Zadka, Y.-C. Chang, A. Mohanty, C. T. Phare, S. P. Roberts, and M. Lipson, “On-chip platform for a phased array with minimal beam divergence and wide field-of-view,” Opt. Express 26(3), 2528–2534 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Abe, M. Takeuchi, G. Takeuchi, H. Ito, T. Yokokawa, K. Kondo, Y. Furukado, and T. Baba, “Two-dimensional beam-steering device using a doubly periodic Si photonic-crystal waveguide,” Opt. Express 26(8), 9389–9397 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2017 (3)

2015 (1)

2013 (3)

W. Guo, P. R. Binetti, C. Althouse, M. L. Mašanović, H. P. Ambrosius, L. A. Johansson, and L. A. Coldren, “Two-dimensional optical beam steering with InP-based photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(4), 6100212 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Z. Subramanian, P. Neutens, A. Dhakal, R. Jansen, T. Claes, X. Rottenberg, F. Peyskens, S. Selvaraja, P. Helin, B. Du Bois, K. Leyssens, S. Severi, P. Deshpande, R. Baets, and P. Van Dorpe, “Low-Loss Singlemode PECVD Silicon Nitride Photonic Wire Waveguides for 532–900 nm Wavelength Window Fabricated Within a CMOS Pilot Line,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(6), 2202809 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Sun, E. Timurdogan, A. Yaacobi, E. S. Hosseini, and M. R. Watts, “Large-scale nanophotonic phased array,” Nature 493(7431), 195–199 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

2006 (1)

B. Jalali and S. Fathpour, “Silicon photonics,” J. Lit. Technol. 24(12), 4600–4615 (2006).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

Abe, H.

Abediasl, H.

S. Chung, H. Abediasl, and H. Hashemi, “A monolithically integrated large-scale optical phased array in silicon-on-insulator CMOS,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 53(1), 275–296 (2018).
[Crossref]

Absil, P.

A. Martin, D. Dodane, L. Leviandier, D. Dolfi, A. Naughton, P. O’Brien, T. Spuessens, R. Baets, G. Lepage, P. Verheyen, P. De Heyn, P. Absil, P. Feneyrou, and J. Bourderionnet, “Photonic integrated circuit based FMCW coherent LiDAR,” J. Lit. Technol. 36(19), 4640–4645 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. Masood, M. Pantouvaki, G. Lepage, P. Verheyen, J. Van Campenhout, P. Absil, D. Van Thourhout, and W. Bogaerts, “Comparison of heater architectures for thermal control of silicon photonic circuits,” in Proc. 10th Int. Conf. Group IV Photon., 2013, pp. 83–84.
[Crossref]

Althouse, C.

W. Guo, P. R. Binetti, C. Althouse, M. L. Mašanović, H. P. Ambrosius, L. A. Johansson, and L. A. Coldren, “Two-dimensional optical beam steering with InP-based photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(4), 6100212 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ambrosius, H. P.

W. Guo, P. R. Binetti, C. Althouse, M. L. Mašanović, H. P. Ambrosius, L. A. Johansson, and L. A. Coldren, “Two-dimensional optical beam steering with InP-based photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(4), 6100212 (2013).
[Crossref]

Baba, T.

Baets, R.

A. Martin, D. Dodane, L. Leviandier, D. Dolfi, A. Naughton, P. O’Brien, T. Spuessens, R. Baets, G. Lepage, P. Verheyen, P. De Heyn, P. Absil, P. Feneyrou, and J. Bourderionnet, “Photonic integrated circuit based FMCW coherent LiDAR,” J. Lit. Technol. 36(19), 4640–4645 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. Z. Subramanian, P. Neutens, A. Dhakal, R. Jansen, T. Claes, X. Rottenberg, F. Peyskens, S. Selvaraja, P. Helin, B. Du Bois, K. Leyssens, S. Severi, P. Deshpande, R. Baets, and P. Van Dorpe, “Low-Loss Singlemode PECVD Silicon Nitride Photonic Wire Waveguides for 532–900 nm Wavelength Window Fabricated Within a CMOS Pilot Line,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(6), 2202809 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. Van Acoleyen, W. Bogaerts, J. Jágerská, N. Le Thomas, R. Houdré, and R. Baets, “Off-chip beam steering with a one-dimensional optical phased array on silicon-on-insulator,” Opt. Lett. 34(9), 1477–1479 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Binetti, P. R.

W. Guo, P. R. Binetti, C. Althouse, M. L. Mašanović, H. P. Ambrosius, L. A. Johansson, and L. A. Coldren, “Two-dimensional optical beam steering with InP-based photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(4), 6100212 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bogaerts, W.

K. Van Acoleyen, W. Bogaerts, J. Jágerská, N. Le Thomas, R. Houdré, and R. Baets, “Off-chip beam steering with a one-dimensional optical phased array on silicon-on-insulator,” Opt. Lett. 34(9), 1477–1479 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Masood, M. Pantouvaki, G. Lepage, P. Verheyen, J. Van Campenhout, P. Absil, D. Van Thourhout, and W. Bogaerts, “Comparison of heater architectures for thermal control of silicon photonic circuits,” in Proc. 10th Int. Conf. Group IV Photon., 2013, pp. 83–84.
[Crossref]

Bourderionnet, J.

A. Martin, D. Dodane, L. Leviandier, D. Dolfi, A. Naughton, P. O’Brien, T. Spuessens, R. Baets, G. Lepage, P. Verheyen, P. De Heyn, P. Absil, P. Feneyrou, and J. Bourderionnet, “Photonic integrated circuit based FMCW coherent LiDAR,” J. Lit. Technol. 36(19), 4640–4645 (2018).
[Crossref]

Bovington, J. T.

Bowers, J. E.

Byrd, M. J.

Chang, Y.-C.

Chung, S.

S. Chung, H. Abediasl, and H. Hashemi, “A monolithically integrated large-scale optical phased array in silicon-on-insulator CMOS,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 53(1), 275–296 (2018).
[Crossref]

Claes, T.

A. Z. Subramanian, P. Neutens, A. Dhakal, R. Jansen, T. Claes, X. Rottenberg, F. Peyskens, S. Selvaraja, P. Helin, B. Du Bois, K. Leyssens, S. Severi, P. Deshpande, R. Baets, and P. Van Dorpe, “Low-Loss Singlemode PECVD Silicon Nitride Photonic Wire Waveguides for 532–900 nm Wavelength Window Fabricated Within a CMOS Pilot Line,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(6), 2202809 (2013).
[Crossref]

Coldren, L. A.

J. C. Hulme, J. K. Doylend, M. J. R. Heck, J. D. Peters, M. L. Davenport, J. T. Bovington, L. A. Coldren, and J. E. Bowers, “Fully integrated hybrid silicon two dimensional beam scanner,” Opt. Express 23(5), 5861–5874 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Guo, P. R. Binetti, C. Althouse, M. L. Mašanović, H. P. Ambrosius, L. A. Johansson, and L. A. Coldren, “Two-dimensional optical beam steering with InP-based photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(4), 6100212 (2013).
[Crossref]

Cole, D. B.

Coolbaugh, D.

Davenport, M. L.

De Heyn, P.

A. Martin, D. Dodane, L. Leviandier, D. Dolfi, A. Naughton, P. O’Brien, T. Spuessens, R. Baets, G. Lepage, P. Verheyen, P. De Heyn, P. Absil, P. Feneyrou, and J. Bourderionnet, “Photonic integrated circuit based FMCW coherent LiDAR,” J. Lit. Technol. 36(19), 4640–4645 (2018).
[Crossref]

Deshpande, P.

A. Z. Subramanian, P. Neutens, A. Dhakal, R. Jansen, T. Claes, X. Rottenberg, F. Peyskens, S. Selvaraja, P. Helin, B. Du Bois, K. Leyssens, S. Severi, P. Deshpande, R. Baets, and P. Van Dorpe, “Low-Loss Singlemode PECVD Silicon Nitride Photonic Wire Waveguides for 532–900 nm Wavelength Window Fabricated Within a CMOS Pilot Line,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(6), 2202809 (2013).
[Crossref]

Dhakal, A.

A. Z. Subramanian, P. Neutens, A. Dhakal, R. Jansen, T. Claes, X. Rottenberg, F. Peyskens, S. Selvaraja, P. Helin, B. Du Bois, K. Leyssens, S. Severi, P. Deshpande, R. Baets, and P. Van Dorpe, “Low-Loss Singlemode PECVD Silicon Nitride Photonic Wire Waveguides for 532–900 nm Wavelength Window Fabricated Within a CMOS Pilot Line,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(6), 2202809 (2013).
[Crossref]

Dodane, D.

A. Martin, D. Dodane, L. Leviandier, D. Dolfi, A. Naughton, P. O’Brien, T. Spuessens, R. Baets, G. Lepage, P. Verheyen, P. De Heyn, P. Absil, P. Feneyrou, and J. Bourderionnet, “Photonic integrated circuit based FMCW coherent LiDAR,” J. Lit. Technol. 36(19), 4640–4645 (2018).
[Crossref]

Dolfi, D.

A. Martin, D. Dodane, L. Leviandier, D. Dolfi, A. Naughton, P. O’Brien, T. Spuessens, R. Baets, G. Lepage, P. Verheyen, P. De Heyn, P. Absil, P. Feneyrou, and J. Bourderionnet, “Photonic integrated circuit based FMCW coherent LiDAR,” J. Lit. Technol. 36(19), 4640–4645 (2018).
[Crossref]

Doylend, J. K.

Du Bois, B.

A. Z. Subramanian, P. Neutens, A. Dhakal, R. Jansen, T. Claes, X. Rottenberg, F. Peyskens, S. Selvaraja, P. Helin, B. Du Bois, K. Leyssens, S. Severi, P. Deshpande, R. Baets, and P. Van Dorpe, “Low-Loss Singlemode PECVD Silicon Nitride Photonic Wire Waveguides for 532–900 nm Wavelength Window Fabricated Within a CMOS Pilot Line,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(6), 2202809 (2013).
[Crossref]

Fathpour, S.

B. Jalali and S. Fathpour, “Silicon photonics,” J. Lit. Technol. 24(12), 4600–4615 (2006).
[Crossref]

Feneyrou, P.

A. Martin, D. Dodane, L. Leviandier, D. Dolfi, A. Naughton, P. O’Brien, T. Spuessens, R. Baets, G. Lepage, P. Verheyen, P. De Heyn, P. Absil, P. Feneyrou, and J. Bourderionnet, “Photonic integrated circuit based FMCW coherent LiDAR,” J. Lit. Technol. 36(19), 4640–4645 (2018).
[Crossref]

Furukado, Y.

Guo, W.

W. Guo, P. R. Binetti, C. Althouse, M. L. Mašanović, H. P. Ambrosius, L. A. Johansson, and L. A. Coldren, “Two-dimensional optical beam steering with InP-based photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(4), 6100212 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hashemi, H.

S. Chung, H. Abediasl, and H. Hashemi, “A monolithically integrated large-scale optical phased array in silicon-on-insulator CMOS,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 53(1), 275–296 (2018).
[Crossref]

Heck, M. J.

M. J. Heck, “Highly integrated optical phased arrays: photonic integrated circuits for optical beam shaping and beam steering,” Nanophotonics 6(1), 93–107 (2017).
[Crossref]

Heck, M. J. R.

Helin, P.

A. Z. Subramanian, P. Neutens, A. Dhakal, R. Jansen, T. Claes, X. Rottenberg, F. Peyskens, S. Selvaraja, P. Helin, B. Du Bois, K. Leyssens, S. Severi, P. Deshpande, R. Baets, and P. Van Dorpe, “Low-Loss Singlemode PECVD Silicon Nitride Photonic Wire Waveguides for 532–900 nm Wavelength Window Fabricated Within a CMOS Pilot Line,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(6), 2202809 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hosseini, E. S.

J. Sun, E. Timurdogan, A. Yaacobi, E. S. Hosseini, and M. R. Watts, “Large-scale nanophotonic phased array,” Nature 493(7431), 195–199 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Houdré, R.

Hulme, J. C.

Ito, H.

Jágerská, J.

Jalali, B.

B. Jalali and S. Fathpour, “Silicon photonics,” J. Lit. Technol. 24(12), 4600–4615 (2006).
[Crossref]

Jamshidi, K.

S. Sabouri and K. Jamshidi, “Design Considerations of Silicon Nitride Optical Phased Array for Visible Light Communications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24(6), 1–7 (2018).
[Crossref]

Jansen, R.

A. Z. Subramanian, P. Neutens, A. Dhakal, R. Jansen, T. Claes, X. Rottenberg, F. Peyskens, S. Selvaraja, P. Helin, B. Du Bois, K. Leyssens, S. Severi, P. Deshpande, R. Baets, and P. Van Dorpe, “Low-Loss Singlemode PECVD Silicon Nitride Photonic Wire Waveguides for 532–900 nm Wavelength Window Fabricated Within a CMOS Pilot Line,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(6), 2202809 (2013).
[Crossref]

Johansson, L. A.

W. Guo, P. R. Binetti, C. Althouse, M. L. Mašanović, H. P. Ambrosius, L. A. Johansson, and L. A. Coldren, “Two-dimensional optical beam steering with InP-based photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(4), 6100212 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kondo, K.

Le Thomas, N.

Lepage, G.

A. Martin, D. Dodane, L. Leviandier, D. Dolfi, A. Naughton, P. O’Brien, T. Spuessens, R. Baets, G. Lepage, P. Verheyen, P. De Heyn, P. Absil, P. Feneyrou, and J. Bourderionnet, “Photonic integrated circuit based FMCW coherent LiDAR,” J. Lit. Technol. 36(19), 4640–4645 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. Masood, M. Pantouvaki, G. Lepage, P. Verheyen, J. Van Campenhout, P. Absil, D. Van Thourhout, and W. Bogaerts, “Comparison of heater architectures for thermal control of silicon photonic circuits,” in Proc. 10th Int. Conf. Group IV Photon., 2013, pp. 83–84.
[Crossref]

Leviandier, L.

A. Martin, D. Dodane, L. Leviandier, D. Dolfi, A. Naughton, P. O’Brien, T. Spuessens, R. Baets, G. Lepage, P. Verheyen, P. De Heyn, P. Absil, P. Feneyrou, and J. Bourderionnet, “Photonic integrated circuit based FMCW coherent LiDAR,” J. Lit. Technol. 36(19), 4640–4645 (2018).
[Crossref]

Leyssens, K.

A. Z. Subramanian, P. Neutens, A. Dhakal, R. Jansen, T. Claes, X. Rottenberg, F. Peyskens, S. Selvaraja, P. Helin, B. Du Bois, K. Leyssens, S. Severi, P. Deshpande, R. Baets, and P. Van Dorpe, “Low-Loss Singlemode PECVD Silicon Nitride Photonic Wire Waveguides for 532–900 nm Wavelength Window Fabricated Within a CMOS Pilot Line,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(6), 2202809 (2013).
[Crossref]

Li, N.

Lipson, M.

Martin, A.

A. Martin, D. Dodane, L. Leviandier, D. Dolfi, A. Naughton, P. O’Brien, T. Spuessens, R. Baets, G. Lepage, P. Verheyen, P. De Heyn, P. Absil, P. Feneyrou, and J. Bourderionnet, “Photonic integrated circuit based FMCW coherent LiDAR,” J. Lit. Technol. 36(19), 4640–4645 (2018).
[Crossref]

Mašanovic, M. L.

W. Guo, P. R. Binetti, C. Althouse, M. L. Mašanović, H. P. Ambrosius, L. A. Johansson, and L. A. Coldren, “Two-dimensional optical beam steering with InP-based photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(4), 6100212 (2013).
[Crossref]

Masood, A.

A. Masood, M. Pantouvaki, G. Lepage, P. Verheyen, J. Van Campenhout, P. Absil, D. Van Thourhout, and W. Bogaerts, “Comparison of heater architectures for thermal control of silicon photonic circuits,” in Proc. 10th Int. Conf. Group IV Photon., 2013, pp. 83–84.
[Crossref]

Mohanty, A.

Naughton, A.

A. Martin, D. Dodane, L. Leviandier, D. Dolfi, A. Naughton, P. O’Brien, T. Spuessens, R. Baets, G. Lepage, P. Verheyen, P. De Heyn, P. Absil, P. Feneyrou, and J. Bourderionnet, “Photonic integrated circuit based FMCW coherent LiDAR,” J. Lit. Technol. 36(19), 4640–4645 (2018).
[Crossref]

Neutens, P.

A. Z. Subramanian, P. Neutens, A. Dhakal, R. Jansen, T. Claes, X. Rottenberg, F. Peyskens, S. Selvaraja, P. Helin, B. Du Bois, K. Leyssens, S. Severi, P. Deshpande, R. Baets, and P. Van Dorpe, “Low-Loss Singlemode PECVD Silicon Nitride Photonic Wire Waveguides for 532–900 nm Wavelength Window Fabricated Within a CMOS Pilot Line,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(6), 2202809 (2013).
[Crossref]

O’Brien, P.

A. Martin, D. Dodane, L. Leviandier, D. Dolfi, A. Naughton, P. O’Brien, T. Spuessens, R. Baets, G. Lepage, P. Verheyen, P. De Heyn, P. Absil, P. Feneyrou, and J. Bourderionnet, “Photonic integrated circuit based FMCW coherent LiDAR,” J. Lit. Technol. 36(19), 4640–4645 (2018).
[Crossref]

Pantouvaki, M.

A. Masood, M. Pantouvaki, G. Lepage, P. Verheyen, J. Van Campenhout, P. Absil, D. Van Thourhout, and W. Bogaerts, “Comparison of heater architectures for thermal control of silicon photonic circuits,” in Proc. 10th Int. Conf. Group IV Photon., 2013, pp. 83–84.
[Crossref]

Peters, J. D.

Peyskens, F.

A. Z. Subramanian, P. Neutens, A. Dhakal, R. Jansen, T. Claes, X. Rottenberg, F. Peyskens, S. Selvaraja, P. Helin, B. Du Bois, K. Leyssens, S. Severi, P. Deshpande, R. Baets, and P. Van Dorpe, “Low-Loss Singlemode PECVD Silicon Nitride Photonic Wire Waveguides for 532–900 nm Wavelength Window Fabricated Within a CMOS Pilot Line,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(6), 2202809 (2013).
[Crossref]

Phare, C. T.

Poulton, C. V.

Raval, M.

Reinhart, F. K.

Roberts, S. P.

Rottenberg, X.

A. Z. Subramanian, P. Neutens, A. Dhakal, R. Jansen, T. Claes, X. Rottenberg, F. Peyskens, S. Selvaraja, P. Helin, B. Du Bois, K. Leyssens, S. Severi, P. Deshpande, R. Baets, and P. Van Dorpe, “Low-Loss Singlemode PECVD Silicon Nitride Photonic Wire Waveguides for 532–900 nm Wavelength Window Fabricated Within a CMOS Pilot Line,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(6), 2202809 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sabouri, S.

S. Sabouri and K. Jamshidi, “Design Considerations of Silicon Nitride Optical Phased Array for Visible Light Communications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24(6), 1–7 (2018).
[Crossref]

Selvaraja, S.

A. Z. Subramanian, P. Neutens, A. Dhakal, R. Jansen, T. Claes, X. Rottenberg, F. Peyskens, S. Selvaraja, P. Helin, B. Du Bois, K. Leyssens, S. Severi, P. Deshpande, R. Baets, and P. Van Dorpe, “Low-Loss Singlemode PECVD Silicon Nitride Photonic Wire Waveguides for 532–900 nm Wavelength Window Fabricated Within a CMOS Pilot Line,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(6), 2202809 (2013).
[Crossref]

Severi, S.

A. Z. Subramanian, P. Neutens, A. Dhakal, R. Jansen, T. Claes, X. Rottenberg, F. Peyskens, S. Selvaraja, P. Helin, B. Du Bois, K. Leyssens, S. Severi, P. Deshpande, R. Baets, and P. Van Dorpe, “Low-Loss Singlemode PECVD Silicon Nitride Photonic Wire Waveguides for 532–900 nm Wavelength Window Fabricated Within a CMOS Pilot Line,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(6), 2202809 (2013).
[Crossref]

Spuessens, T.

A. Martin, D. Dodane, L. Leviandier, D. Dolfi, A. Naughton, P. O’Brien, T. Spuessens, R. Baets, G. Lepage, P. Verheyen, P. De Heyn, P. Absil, P. Feneyrou, and J. Bourderionnet, “Photonic integrated circuit based FMCW coherent LiDAR,” J. Lit. Technol. 36(19), 4640–4645 (2018).
[Crossref]

Stauffer, J. M.

Su, Z.

Subramanian, A. Z.

A. Z. Subramanian, P. Neutens, A. Dhakal, R. Jansen, T. Claes, X. Rottenberg, F. Peyskens, S. Selvaraja, P. Helin, B. Du Bois, K. Leyssens, S. Severi, P. Deshpande, R. Baets, and P. Van Dorpe, “Low-Loss Singlemode PECVD Silicon Nitride Photonic Wire Waveguides for 532–900 nm Wavelength Window Fabricated Within a CMOS Pilot Line,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(6), 2202809 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sun, J.

J. Sun, E. Timurdogan, A. Yaacobi, E. S. Hosseini, and M. R. Watts, “Large-scale nanophotonic phased array,” Nature 493(7431), 195–199 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Takeuchi, G.

Takeuchi, M.

Timurdogan, E.

Van Acoleyen, K.

Van Campenhout, J.

A. Masood, M. Pantouvaki, G. Lepage, P. Verheyen, J. Van Campenhout, P. Absil, D. Van Thourhout, and W. Bogaerts, “Comparison of heater architectures for thermal control of silicon photonic circuits,” in Proc. 10th Int. Conf. Group IV Photon., 2013, pp. 83–84.
[Crossref]

Van Dorpe, P.

A. Z. Subramanian, P. Neutens, A. Dhakal, R. Jansen, T. Claes, X. Rottenberg, F. Peyskens, S. Selvaraja, P. Helin, B. Du Bois, K. Leyssens, S. Severi, P. Deshpande, R. Baets, and P. Van Dorpe, “Low-Loss Singlemode PECVD Silicon Nitride Photonic Wire Waveguides for 532–900 nm Wavelength Window Fabricated Within a CMOS Pilot Line,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(6), 2202809 (2013).
[Crossref]

Van Thourhout, D.

A. Masood, M. Pantouvaki, G. Lepage, P. Verheyen, J. Van Campenhout, P. Absil, D. Van Thourhout, and W. Bogaerts, “Comparison of heater architectures for thermal control of silicon photonic circuits,” in Proc. 10th Int. Conf. Group IV Photon., 2013, pp. 83–84.
[Crossref]

Vasey, F.

Verheyen, P.

A. Martin, D. Dodane, L. Leviandier, D. Dolfi, A. Naughton, P. O’Brien, T. Spuessens, R. Baets, G. Lepage, P. Verheyen, P. De Heyn, P. Absil, P. Feneyrou, and J. Bourderionnet, “Photonic integrated circuit based FMCW coherent LiDAR,” J. Lit. Technol. 36(19), 4640–4645 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. Masood, M. Pantouvaki, G. Lepage, P. Verheyen, J. Van Campenhout, P. Absil, D. Van Thourhout, and W. Bogaerts, “Comparison of heater architectures for thermal control of silicon photonic circuits,” in Proc. 10th Int. Conf. Group IV Photon., 2013, pp. 83–84.
[Crossref]

Vermeulen, D.

Watts, M. R.

Yaacobi, A.

Yokokawa, T.

Zadka, M.

Appl. Opt. (1)

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (2)

W. Guo, P. R. Binetti, C. Althouse, M. L. Mašanović, H. P. Ambrosius, L. A. Johansson, and L. A. Coldren, “Two-dimensional optical beam steering with InP-based photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(4), 6100212 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Sabouri and K. Jamshidi, “Design Considerations of Silicon Nitride Optical Phased Array for Visible Light Communications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24(6), 1–7 (2018).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits (1)

S. Chung, H. Abediasl, and H. Hashemi, “A monolithically integrated large-scale optical phased array in silicon-on-insulator CMOS,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 53(1), 275–296 (2018).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics J. (1)

A. Z. Subramanian, P. Neutens, A. Dhakal, R. Jansen, T. Claes, X. Rottenberg, F. Peyskens, S. Selvaraja, P. Helin, B. Du Bois, K. Leyssens, S. Severi, P. Deshpande, R. Baets, and P. Van Dorpe, “Low-Loss Singlemode PECVD Silicon Nitride Photonic Wire Waveguides for 532–900 nm Wavelength Window Fabricated Within a CMOS Pilot Line,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(6), 2202809 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Lit. Technol. (2)

B. Jalali and S. Fathpour, “Silicon photonics,” J. Lit. Technol. 24(12), 4600–4615 (2006).
[Crossref]

A. Martin, D. Dodane, L. Leviandier, D. Dolfi, A. Naughton, P. O’Brien, T. Spuessens, R. Baets, G. Lepage, P. Verheyen, P. De Heyn, P. Absil, P. Feneyrou, and J. Bourderionnet, “Photonic integrated circuit based FMCW coherent LiDAR,” J. Lit. Technol. 36(19), 4640–4645 (2018).
[Crossref]

Nanophotonics (1)

M. J. Heck, “Highly integrated optical phased arrays: photonic integrated circuits for optical beam shaping and beam steering,” Nanophotonics 6(1), 93–107 (2017).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

J. Sun, E. Timurdogan, A. Yaacobi, E. S. Hosseini, and M. R. Watts, “Large-scale nanophotonic phased array,” Nature 493(7431), 195–199 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Other (2)

A. Masood, M. Pantouvaki, G. Lepage, P. Verheyen, J. Van Campenhout, P. Absil, D. Van Thourhout, and W. Bogaerts, “Comparison of heater architectures for thermal control of silicon photonic circuits,” in Proc. 10th Int. Conf. Group IV Photon., 2013, pp. 83–84.
[Crossref]

R. Baets, A. Z. Subramanian, S. Clemmen, B. Kuyken, P. Bienstman, N. Le Thomas, G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, P. Helin, and S. Severi, “Silicon Photonics: silicon nitride versus silicon-on-insulator,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2016), paper Th3J.1.
[Crossref]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Artistic illustration of an integrated OPA. The output beam (depicted in white) can be steered in two dimensions (represented in yellow).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Schematic and microscope image of the proposed two-dimensional beam steering device. A switching network allows access to four different OPAs, each with distinct emission angle. Phase shifters allow the routing of the light and the introduction of a phase difference between the OPA channels for beam steering.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Schematic of layer structure for SiN integrated circuit for near-infrared wavelengths.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Schematic and picture of wafer-scale characterisation set-up for OPA measurements. An electronic circuit controls the phase shifter on the optical circuit. The phases can be adjusted and the output beam steered with the feedback of a CMOS sensor imaging the chip output in the far-field.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 a) Top: Intensity recorded at the far field camera versus pixel number. The known distance of 17.6° between the two interference maxima was used to obtain a conversion between pixel number and emission angle. The 0° emission is an estimation, as explained in the main text. Bottom: Calibrated intensity image versus ϕ and θ. b) Cross sections in ϕ and θ of the main lobe to determine the FWHM.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Beam steering in two dimensions. a) The beam was steered by introducing a phase difference between the OPA channels. b) Bam steering was achieved by switching between three different OPA devices with varying grating periods. Note that the scale in θ varies between the plots in a) and b).

Equations (4)

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sinΔϕ= λ d
Φ 3dB λ Nd
sin θ c = Λ n eff λ n c Λ
sinϕ= ψλ d

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