Abstract

We report on the demonstration of top emitting AlGaN tunnel junction deep ultraviolet (UV) light emitting didoes (LEDs) operating at ∼267 nm. We show, both theoretically and experimentally, that the light extraction efficiency can be enhanced by nearly a factor of two with the incorporation of AlGaN nanowire photonic crystal structures. A peak wall-plug efficiency (WPE) ∼3.5% and external quantum efficiency (EQE) ∼5.4% were measured for AlGaN LEDs directly on-wafer without any packaging. This work demonstrates a viable path for achieving high efficiency deep UV LEDs through the integration of AlGaN planar and nanoscale structures.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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    [Crossref]
  2. H. Hirayama, S. Fujikawa, N. Noguchi, J. Norimatsu, T. Takano, K. Tsubaki, and N. Kamata, “222–282 nm AlGaN and InAlGaN-based deep-UV LEDs fabricated on high-quality AlN on sapphire,” Phys. Status Solidi A 206(6), 1176–1182 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  3. S. Kamiyama, M. Iwaya, N. Hayashi, T. Takeuchi, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, S. Watanabe, Y. Kaneko, and N. Yamada, “Low-temperature-deposited AlGaN interlayer for improvement of AlGaN/GaN heterostructure,” J. Cryst. Growth 223(1-2), 83–91 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  4. M. Nakarmi, N. Nepal, C. Ugolini, T. Altahtamouni, J. Lin, and H. Jiang, “Correlation between optical and electrical properties of Mg-doped AlN epilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(15), 152120 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  5. C. Stampfl and C. Van de Walle, “Theoretical investigation of native defects, impurities, and complexes in aluminum nitride,” Phys. Rev. B 65(15), 155212 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  6. J. Li, T. Oder, M. Nakarmi, J. Lin, and H. Jiang, “Optical and electrical properties of Mg-doped p-type Al x Ga 1− x N,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(7), 1210–1212 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  7. M. Nakarmi, K. Kim, M. Khizar, Z. Fan, J. Lin, and H. Jiang, “Electrical and optical properties of Mg-doped Al 0.7 Ga 0.3 N alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(9), 092108 (2005).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  26. A. Pandey, X. Liu, Z. Deng, W. Shin, D. Laleyan, K. Mashooq, E. Reid, E. Kioupakis, P. Bhattacharya, and Z. Mi, “Enhanced doping efficiency of ultrawide band gap semiconductors by metal-semiconductor junction assisted epitaxy,” Phys. Rev. Mater. 3(5), 053401 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  27. B. Gunning, J. Lowder, M. Moseley, and W. Alan Doolittle, “Negligible carrier freeze-out facilitated by impurity band conduction in highly p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(8), 082106 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  28. Y. Zhang, Z. Jamal-Eddine, F. Akyol, S. Bajaj, J. M. Johnson, G. Calderon, A. A. Allerman, M. W. Moseley, A. M. Armstrong, and J. Hwang, “Tunnel-injected sub 290 nm ultra-violet light emitting diodes with 2.8% external quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112(7), 071107 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  29. Z.-H. Zhang, S. Tiam Tan, Z. Kyaw, Y. Ji, W. Liu, Z. Ju, N. Hasanov, X. Wei Sun, and H. Volkan Demir, “InGaN/GaN light-emitting diode with a polarization tunnel junction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(19), 193508 (2013).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  31. Y. Zhang, S. Krishnamoorthy, F. Akyol, S. Bajaj, A. A. Allerman, M. W. Moseley, A. M. Armstrong, and S. Rajan, “Tunnel-injected sub-260 nm ultraviolet light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(20), 201102 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  32. C. Kuhn, L. Sulmoni, M. Guttmann, J. Glaab, N. Susilo, T. Wernicke, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “MOVPE-grown AlGaN-based tunnel heterojunctions enabling fully transparent UVC LEDs,” Photonics Res. 7(5), B7–B11 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  33. T. Detchprohm, Y.-S. Liu, K. Mehta, S. Wang, H. Xie, T.-T. Kao, S.-C. Shen, P. D. Yoder, F. A. Ponce, and R. D. Dupuis, “Sub 250 nm deep-UV AlGaN/AlN distributed Bragg reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(1), 011105 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  34. J.-P. Bérenger, “Perfectly matched layer (PML) for computational electromagnetics,” Syn. Lect. on Comp. Electromag. 2(1), 1–117 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  35. S. D. Gedney, “An anisotropic perfectly matched layer-absorbing medium for the truncation of FDTD lattices,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 44(12), 1630–1639 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  36. P. Zhao and H. Zhao, “Analysis of light extraction efficiency enhancement for thin-film-flip-chip InGaN quantum wells light-emitting diodes with GaN micro-domes,” Opt. Express 20(S5), A765–A776 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  37. G.-B. Lin, D. Meyaard, J. Cho, E. Fred Schubert, H. Shim, and C. Sone, “Analytic model for the efficiency droop in semiconductors with asymmetric carrier-transport properties based on drift-induced reduction of injection efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(16), 161106 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  38. H. Hirayama, Y. Tsukada, T. Maeda, and N. Kamata, “Marked enhancement in the efficiency of deep-ultraviolet AlGaN light-emitting diodes by using a multiquantum-barrier electron blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(3), 031002 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  39. J. Yun, J.-I. Shim, and H. Hirayama, “Analysis of efficiency droop in 280-nm AlGaN multiple-quantum-well light-emitting diodes based on carrier rate equation,” Appl. Phys. Express 8(2), 022104 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  40. J. Iveland, L. Martinelli, J. Peretti, J. S. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Direct measurement of Auger electrons emitted from a semiconductor light-emitting diode under electrical injection: identification of the dominant mechanism for efficiency droop,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(17), 177406 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  41. C. De Santi, M. Meneghini, D. Monti, J. Glaab, M. Guttmann, J. Rass, S. Einfeldt, F. Mehnke, J. Enslin, and T. Wernicke, “Recombination mechanisms and thermal droop in AlGaN-based UV-B LEDs,” Photonics Res. 5(2), A44–A51 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  42. W. Sun, M. Shatalov, J. Deng, X. Hu, J. Yang, A. Lunev, Y. Bilenko, M. Shur, and R. Gaska, “Efficiency droop in 245–247 nm AlGaN light-emitting diodes with continuous wave 2 mW output power,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(6), 061102 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  43. X. Hai, R. Rashid, S. Sadaf, Z. Mi, and S. Zhao, “Effect of low hole mobility on the efficiency droop of AlGaN nanowire deep ultraviolet light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 114(10), 101104 (2019).
    [Crossref]

2019 (3)

A. Pandey, X. Liu, Z. Deng, W. Shin, D. Laleyan, K. Mashooq, E. Reid, E. Kioupakis, P. Bhattacharya, and Z. Mi, “Enhanced doping efficiency of ultrawide band gap semiconductors by metal-semiconductor junction assisted epitaxy,” Phys. Rev. Mater. 3(5), 053401 (2019).
[Crossref]

C. Kuhn, L. Sulmoni, M. Guttmann, J. Glaab, N. Susilo, T. Wernicke, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “MOVPE-grown AlGaN-based tunnel heterojunctions enabling fully transparent UVC LEDs,” Photonics Res. 7(5), B7–B11 (2019).
[Crossref]

X. Hai, R. Rashid, S. Sadaf, Z. Mi, and S. Zhao, “Effect of low hole mobility on the efficiency droop of AlGaN nanowire deep ultraviolet light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 114(10), 101104 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (4)

Y. Zhang, Z. Jamal-Eddine, F. Akyol, S. Bajaj, J. M. Johnson, G. Calderon, A. A. Allerman, M. W. Moseley, A. M. Armstrong, and J. Hwang, “Tunnel-injected sub 290 nm ultra-violet light emitting diodes with 2.8% external quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112(7), 071107 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Kashima, N. Maeda, E. Matsuura, M. Jo, T. Iwai, T. Morita, M. Kokubo, T. Tashiro, R. Kamimura, and Y. Osada, “High external quantum efficiency (10%) AlGaN-based deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes achieved by using highly reflective photonic crystal on p-AlGaN contact layer,” Appl. Phys. Express 11(1), 012101 (2018).
[Crossref]

X. Liu, K. Mashooq, T. Szkopek, and Z. Mi, “Improving the efficiency of transverse magnetic polarized emission from AlGaN based LEDs by using nanowire photonic crystal,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(4), 1–11 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. R. Philip, T. Bui, D. Choudhary, M. Djavid, P. Vu, and T. Pham, “Molecular Beam Epitaxial Growth and Device Characterization of AlGaN Nanowire Ultraviolet-B Light-Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 1, 1 (2018).

2017 (4)

T. Takano, T. Mino, J. Sakai, N. Noguchi, K. Tsubaki, and H. Hirayama, “Deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with external quantum efficiency higher than 20% at 275 nm achieved by improving light-extraction efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Express 10(3), 031002 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. Detchprohm, Y.-S. Liu, K. Mehta, S. Wang, H. Xie, T.-T. Kao, S.-C. Shen, P. D. Yoder, F. A. Ponce, and R. D. Dupuis, “Sub 250 nm deep-UV AlGaN/AlN distributed Bragg reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(1), 011105 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhang, S. Krishnamoorthy, F. Akyol, S. Bajaj, A. A. Allerman, M. W. Moseley, A. M. Armstrong, and S. Rajan, “Tunnel-injected sub-260 nm ultraviolet light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(20), 201102 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. De Santi, M. Meneghini, D. Monti, J. Glaab, M. Guttmann, J. Rass, S. Einfeldt, F. Mehnke, J. Enslin, and T. Wernicke, “Recombination mechanisms and thermal droop in AlGaN-based UV-B LEDs,” Photonics Res. 5(2), A44–A51 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (1)

M. Djavid and Z. Mi, “Enhancing the light extraction efficiency of AlGaN deep ultraviolet light emitting diodes by using nanowire structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(5), 051102 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (3)

K. Li, X. Liu, Q. Wang, S. Zhao, and Z. Mi, “Ultralow-threshold electrically injected AlGaN nanowire ultraviolet lasers on Si operating at low temperature,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(2), 140–144 (2015).
[Crossref]

S.-i. Inoue, T. Naoki, T. Kinoshita, T. Obata, and H. Yanagi, “Light extraction enhancement of 265 nm deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with over 90 mW output power via an AlN hybrid nanostructure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(13), 131104 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Yun, J.-I. Shim, and H. Hirayama, “Analysis of efficiency droop in 280-nm AlGaN multiple-quantum-well light-emitting diodes based on carrier rate equation,” Appl. Phys. Express 8(2), 022104 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

H. Hirayama, N. Maeda, S. Fujikawa, S. Toyoda, and N. Kamata, “Recent progress and future prospects of AlGaN-based high-efficiency deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 53(10), 100209 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

Z.-H. Zhang, S. Tiam Tan, Z. Kyaw, Y. Ji, W. Liu, Z. Ju, N. Hasanov, X. Wei Sun, and H. Volkan Demir, “InGaN/GaN light-emitting diode with a polarization tunnel junction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(19), 193508 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Iveland, L. Martinelli, J. Peretti, J. S. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Direct measurement of Auger electrons emitted from a semiconductor light-emitting diode under electrical injection: identification of the dominant mechanism for efficiency droop,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(17), 177406 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (4)

B. Gunning, J. Lowder, M. Moseley, and W. Alan Doolittle, “Negligible carrier freeze-out facilitated by impurity band conduction in highly p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(8), 082106 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. Zhao, L. Han, M. R. McGoogan, and H. Zhao, “Analysis of TM mode light extraction efficiency enhancement for deep ultraviolet AlGaN quantum wells light-emitting diodes with III-nitride micro-domes,” Opt. Mater. Express 2(10), 1397–1406 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. Zhao and H. Zhao, “Analysis of light extraction efficiency enhancement for thin-film-flip-chip InGaN quantum wells light-emitting diodes with GaN micro-domes,” Opt. Express 20(S5), A765–A776 (2012).
[Crossref]

G.-B. Lin, D. Meyaard, J. Cho, E. Fred Schubert, H. Shim, and C. Sone, “Analytic model for the efficiency droop in semiconductors with asymmetric carrier-transport properties based on drift-induced reduction of injection efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(16), 161106 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

K. Ban, J.-i. Yamamoto, K. Takeda, K. Ide, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, I. Akasaki, and H. Amano, “Internal quantum efficiency of whole-composition-range AlGaN multiquantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(5), 052101 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

H. Hirayama, Y. Tsukada, T. Maeda, and N. Kamata, “Marked enhancement in the efficiency of deep-ultraviolet AlGaN light-emitting diodes by using a multiquantum-barrier electron blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(3), 031002 (2010).
[Crossref]

W. Sun, M. Shatalov, J. Deng, X. Hu, J. Yang, A. Lunev, Y. Bilenko, M. Shur, and R. Gaska, “Efficiency droop in 245–247 nm AlGaN light-emitting diodes with continuous wave 2 mW output power,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(6), 061102 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (3)

J. J. Wierer Jr, A. David, and M. M. Megens, “III-nitride photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with high extraction efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 163–169 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. Hirayama, S. Fujikawa, N. Noguchi, J. Norimatsu, T. Takano, K. Tsubaki, and N. Kamata, “222–282 nm AlGaN and InAlGaN-based deep-UV LEDs fabricated on high-quality AlN on sapphire,” Phys. Status Solidi A 206(6), 1176–1182 (2009).
[Crossref]

C. Wiesmann, K. Bergenek, N. Linder, and U. T. Schwarz, “Photonic crystal LEDs–designing light extraction,” Laser Photonics Rev. 3(3), 262–286 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

A. Khan, K. Balakrishnan, and T. Katona, “Ultraviolet light-emitting diodes based on group three nitrides,” Nat. Photonics 2(2), 77–84 (2008).
[Crossref]

M.-K. Kwon, J.-Y. Kim, I.-K. Park, K. S. Kim, G.-Y. Jung, S.-J. Park, J. W. Kim, and Y. C. Kim, “Enhanced emission efficiency of Ga N∕ In Ga N multiple quantum well light-emitting diode with an embedded photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(25), 251110 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

M. J. Grundmann and U. K. Mishra, “Multi-color light emitting diode using polarization-induced tunnel junctions,” Phys. Status Solidi C 4(7), 2830–2833 (2007).
[Crossref]

J.-P. Bérenger, “Perfectly matched layer (PML) for computational electromagnetics,” Syn. Lect. on Comp. Electromag. 2(1), 1–117 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

M. Nakarmi, N. Nepal, C. Ugolini, T. Altahtamouni, J. Lin, and H. Jiang, “Correlation between optical and electrical properties of Mg-doped AlN epilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(15), 152120 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (3)

M. Nakarmi, K. Kim, M. Khizar, Z. Fan, J. Lin, and H. Jiang, “Electrical and optical properties of Mg-doped Al 0.7 Ga 0.3 N alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(9), 092108 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Shakya, K. Knabe, K. Kim, J. Li, J. Lin, and H. Jiang, “Polarization of III-nitride blue and ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(9), 091107 (2005).
[Crossref]

M. Fujita, S. Takahashi, Y. Tanaka, T. Asano, and S. Noda, “Simultaneous inhibition and redistribution of spontaneous light emission in photonic crystals,” Science 308(5726), 1296–1298 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

J. Shakya, K. Kim, J. Lin, and H. Jiang, “Enhanced light extraction in III-nitride ultraviolet photonic crystal light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(1), 142–144 (2004).
[Crossref]

T. Oder, K. Kim, J. Lin, and H. Jiang, “III-nitride blue and ultraviolet photonic crystal light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(4), 466–468 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

T. Oder, J. Shakya, J. Lin, and H. Jiang, “III-nitride photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(6), 1231–1233 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (2)

C. Stampfl and C. Van de Walle, “Theoretical investigation of native defects, impurities, and complexes in aluminum nitride,” Phys. Rev. B 65(15), 155212 (2002).
[Crossref]

J. Li, T. Oder, M. Nakarmi, J. Lin, and H. Jiang, “Optical and electrical properties of Mg-doped p-type Al x Ga 1− x N,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(7), 1210–1212 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

S. Kamiyama, M. Iwaya, N. Hayashi, T. Takeuchi, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, S. Watanabe, Y. Kaneko, and N. Yamada, “Low-temperature-deposited AlGaN interlayer for improvement of AlGaN/GaN heterostructure,” J. Cryst. Growth 223(1-2), 83–91 (2001).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

S. D. Gedney, “An anisotropic perfectly matched layer-absorbing medium for the truncation of FDTD lattices,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 44(12), 1630–1639 (1996).
[Crossref]

Akasaki, I.

K. Ban, J.-i. Yamamoto, K. Takeda, K. Ide, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, I. Akasaki, and H. Amano, “Internal quantum efficiency of whole-composition-range AlGaN multiquantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(5), 052101 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Kamiyama, M. Iwaya, N. Hayashi, T. Takeuchi, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, S. Watanabe, Y. Kaneko, and N. Yamada, “Low-temperature-deposited AlGaN interlayer for improvement of AlGaN/GaN heterostructure,” J. Cryst. Growth 223(1-2), 83–91 (2001).
[Crossref]

Akyol, F.

Y. Zhang, Z. Jamal-Eddine, F. Akyol, S. Bajaj, J. M. Johnson, G. Calderon, A. A. Allerman, M. W. Moseley, A. M. Armstrong, and J. Hwang, “Tunnel-injected sub 290 nm ultra-violet light emitting diodes with 2.8% external quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112(7), 071107 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhang, S. Krishnamoorthy, F. Akyol, S. Bajaj, A. A. Allerman, M. W. Moseley, A. M. Armstrong, and S. Rajan, “Tunnel-injected sub-260 nm ultraviolet light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(20), 201102 (2017).
[Crossref]

Alan Doolittle, W.

B. Gunning, J. Lowder, M. Moseley, and W. Alan Doolittle, “Negligible carrier freeze-out facilitated by impurity band conduction in highly p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(8), 082106 (2012).
[Crossref]

Allerman, A. A.

Y. Zhang, Z. Jamal-Eddine, F. Akyol, S. Bajaj, J. M. Johnson, G. Calderon, A. A. Allerman, M. W. Moseley, A. M. Armstrong, and J. Hwang, “Tunnel-injected sub 290 nm ultra-violet light emitting diodes with 2.8% external quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112(7), 071107 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhang, S. Krishnamoorthy, F. Akyol, S. Bajaj, A. A. Allerman, M. W. Moseley, A. M. Armstrong, and S. Rajan, “Tunnel-injected sub-260 nm ultraviolet light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(20), 201102 (2017).
[Crossref]

Altahtamouni, T.

M. Nakarmi, N. Nepal, C. Ugolini, T. Altahtamouni, J. Lin, and H. Jiang, “Correlation between optical and electrical properties of Mg-doped AlN epilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(15), 152120 (2006).
[Crossref]

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Y. Zhang, Z. Jamal-Eddine, F. Akyol, S. Bajaj, J. M. Johnson, G. Calderon, A. A. Allerman, M. W. Moseley, A. M. Armstrong, and J. Hwang, “Tunnel-injected sub 290 nm ultra-violet light emitting diodes with 2.8% external quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112(7), 071107 (2018).
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[Crossref]

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Z.-H. Zhang, S. Tiam Tan, Z. Kyaw, Y. Ji, W. Liu, Z. Ju, N. Hasanov, X. Wei Sun, and H. Volkan Demir, “InGaN/GaN light-emitting diode with a polarization tunnel junction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(19), 193508 (2013).
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M. Nakarmi, N. Nepal, C. Ugolini, T. Altahtamouni, J. Lin, and H. Jiang, “Correlation between optical and electrical properties of Mg-doped AlN epilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(15), 152120 (2006).
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J. Shakya, K. Knabe, K. Kim, J. Li, J. Lin, and H. Jiang, “Polarization of III-nitride blue and ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(9), 091107 (2005).
[Crossref]

M. Nakarmi, K. Kim, M. Khizar, Z. Fan, J. Lin, and H. Jiang, “Electrical and optical properties of Mg-doped Al 0.7 Ga 0.3 N alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(9), 092108 (2005).
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T. Oder, K. Kim, J. Lin, and H. Jiang, “III-nitride blue and ultraviolet photonic crystal light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(4), 466–468 (2004).
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Y. Zhang, Z. Jamal-Eddine, F. Akyol, S. Bajaj, J. M. Johnson, G. Calderon, A. A. Allerman, M. W. Moseley, A. M. Armstrong, and J. Hwang, “Tunnel-injected sub 290 nm ultra-violet light emitting diodes with 2.8% external quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112(7), 071107 (2018).
[Crossref]

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Z.-H. Zhang, S. Tiam Tan, Z. Kyaw, Y. Ji, W. Liu, Z. Ju, N. Hasanov, X. Wei Sun, and H. Volkan Demir, “InGaN/GaN light-emitting diode with a polarization tunnel junction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(19), 193508 (2013).
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M.-K. Kwon, J.-Y. Kim, I.-K. Park, K. S. Kim, G.-Y. Jung, S.-J. Park, J. W. Kim, and Y. C. Kim, “Enhanced emission efficiency of Ga N∕ In Ga N multiple quantum well light-emitting diode with an embedded photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(25), 251110 (2008).
[Crossref]

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H. Hirayama, N. Maeda, S. Fujikawa, S. Toyoda, and N. Kamata, “Recent progress and future prospects of AlGaN-based high-efficiency deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 53(10), 100209 (2014).
[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

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Y. Kashima, N. Maeda, E. Matsuura, M. Jo, T. Iwai, T. Morita, M. Kokubo, T. Tashiro, R. Kamimura, and Y. Osada, “High external quantum efficiency (10%) AlGaN-based deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes achieved by using highly reflective photonic crystal on p-AlGaN contact layer,” Appl. Phys. Express 11(1), 012101 (2018).
[Crossref]

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K. Ban, J.-i. Yamamoto, K. Takeda, K. Ide, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, I. Akasaki, and H. Amano, “Internal quantum efficiency of whole-composition-range AlGaN multiquantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(5), 052101 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Kamiyama, M. Iwaya, N. Hayashi, T. Takeuchi, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, S. Watanabe, Y. Kaneko, and N. Yamada, “Low-temperature-deposited AlGaN interlayer for improvement of AlGaN/GaN heterostructure,” J. Cryst. Growth 223(1-2), 83–91 (2001).
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S. Kamiyama, M. Iwaya, N. Hayashi, T. Takeuchi, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, S. Watanabe, Y. Kaneko, and N. Yamada, “Low-temperature-deposited AlGaN interlayer for improvement of AlGaN/GaN heterostructure,” J. Cryst. Growth 223(1-2), 83–91 (2001).
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T. Detchprohm, Y.-S. Liu, K. Mehta, S. Wang, H. Xie, T.-T. Kao, S.-C. Shen, P. D. Yoder, F. A. Ponce, and R. D. Dupuis, “Sub 250 nm deep-UV AlGaN/AlN distributed Bragg reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(1), 011105 (2017).
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Y. Kashima, N. Maeda, E. Matsuura, M. Jo, T. Iwai, T. Morita, M. Kokubo, T. Tashiro, R. Kamimura, and Y. Osada, “High external quantum efficiency (10%) AlGaN-based deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes achieved by using highly reflective photonic crystal on p-AlGaN contact layer,” Appl. Phys. Express 11(1), 012101 (2018).
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A. Khan, K. Balakrishnan, and T. Katona, “Ultraviolet light-emitting diodes based on group three nitrides,” Nat. Photonics 2(2), 77–84 (2008).
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A. Khan, K. Balakrishnan, and T. Katona, “Ultraviolet light-emitting diodes based on group three nitrides,” Nat. Photonics 2(2), 77–84 (2008).
[Crossref]

Khizar, M.

M. Nakarmi, K. Kim, M. Khizar, Z. Fan, J. Lin, and H. Jiang, “Electrical and optical properties of Mg-doped Al 0.7 Ga 0.3 N alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(9), 092108 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kim, J. W.

M.-K. Kwon, J.-Y. Kim, I.-K. Park, K. S. Kim, G.-Y. Jung, S.-J. Park, J. W. Kim, and Y. C. Kim, “Enhanced emission efficiency of Ga N∕ In Ga N multiple quantum well light-emitting diode with an embedded photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(25), 251110 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kim, J.-Y.

M.-K. Kwon, J.-Y. Kim, I.-K. Park, K. S. Kim, G.-Y. Jung, S.-J. Park, J. W. Kim, and Y. C. Kim, “Enhanced emission efficiency of Ga N∕ In Ga N multiple quantum well light-emitting diode with an embedded photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(25), 251110 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kim, K.

M. Nakarmi, K. Kim, M. Khizar, Z. Fan, J. Lin, and H. Jiang, “Electrical and optical properties of Mg-doped Al 0.7 Ga 0.3 N alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(9), 092108 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Shakya, K. Knabe, K. Kim, J. Li, J. Lin, and H. Jiang, “Polarization of III-nitride blue and ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(9), 091107 (2005).
[Crossref]

T. Oder, K. Kim, J. Lin, and H. Jiang, “III-nitride blue and ultraviolet photonic crystal light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(4), 466–468 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Shakya, K. Kim, J. Lin, and H. Jiang, “Enhanced light extraction in III-nitride ultraviolet photonic crystal light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(1), 142–144 (2004).
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M.-K. Kwon, J.-Y. Kim, I.-K. Park, K. S. Kim, G.-Y. Jung, S.-J. Park, J. W. Kim, and Y. C. Kim, “Enhanced emission efficiency of Ga N∕ In Ga N multiple quantum well light-emitting diode with an embedded photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(25), 251110 (2008).
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M.-K. Kwon, J.-Y. Kim, I.-K. Park, K. S. Kim, G.-Y. Jung, S.-J. Park, J. W. Kim, and Y. C. Kim, “Enhanced emission efficiency of Ga N∕ In Ga N multiple quantum well light-emitting diode with an embedded photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(25), 251110 (2008).
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S.-i. Inoue, T. Naoki, T. Kinoshita, T. Obata, and H. Yanagi, “Light extraction enhancement of 265 nm deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with over 90 mW output power via an AlN hybrid nanostructure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(13), 131104 (2015).
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A. Pandey, X. Liu, Z. Deng, W. Shin, D. Laleyan, K. Mashooq, E. Reid, E. Kioupakis, P. Bhattacharya, and Z. Mi, “Enhanced doping efficiency of ultrawide band gap semiconductors by metal-semiconductor junction assisted epitaxy,” Phys. Rev. Mater. 3(5), 053401 (2019).
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J. Shakya, K. Knabe, K. Kim, J. Li, J. Lin, and H. Jiang, “Polarization of III-nitride blue and ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(9), 091107 (2005).
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C. Kuhn, L. Sulmoni, M. Guttmann, J. Glaab, N. Susilo, T. Wernicke, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “MOVPE-grown AlGaN-based tunnel heterojunctions enabling fully transparent UVC LEDs,” Photonics Res. 7(5), B7–B11 (2019).
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Y. Kashima, N. Maeda, E. Matsuura, M. Jo, T. Iwai, T. Morita, M. Kokubo, T. Tashiro, R. Kamimura, and Y. Osada, “High external quantum efficiency (10%) AlGaN-based deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes achieved by using highly reflective photonic crystal on p-AlGaN contact layer,” Appl. Phys. Express 11(1), 012101 (2018).
[Crossref]

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Y. Zhang, S. Krishnamoorthy, F. Akyol, S. Bajaj, A. A. Allerman, M. W. Moseley, A. M. Armstrong, and S. Rajan, “Tunnel-injected sub-260 nm ultraviolet light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(20), 201102 (2017).
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C. Kuhn, L. Sulmoni, M. Guttmann, J. Glaab, N. Susilo, T. Wernicke, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “MOVPE-grown AlGaN-based tunnel heterojunctions enabling fully transparent UVC LEDs,” Photonics Res. 7(5), B7–B11 (2019).
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M.-K. Kwon, J.-Y. Kim, I.-K. Park, K. S. Kim, G.-Y. Jung, S.-J. Park, J. W. Kim, and Y. C. Kim, “Enhanced emission efficiency of Ga N∕ In Ga N multiple quantum well light-emitting diode with an embedded photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(25), 251110 (2008).
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Z.-H. Zhang, S. Tiam Tan, Z. Kyaw, Y. Ji, W. Liu, Z. Ju, N. Hasanov, X. Wei Sun, and H. Volkan Demir, “InGaN/GaN light-emitting diode with a polarization tunnel junction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(19), 193508 (2013).
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A. Pandey, X. Liu, Z. Deng, W. Shin, D. Laleyan, K. Mashooq, E. Reid, E. Kioupakis, P. Bhattacharya, and Z. Mi, “Enhanced doping efficiency of ultrawide band gap semiconductors by metal-semiconductor junction assisted epitaxy,” Phys. Rev. Mater. 3(5), 053401 (2019).
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J. Shakya, K. Knabe, K. Kim, J. Li, J. Lin, and H. Jiang, “Polarization of III-nitride blue and ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(9), 091107 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Li, T. Oder, M. Nakarmi, J. Lin, and H. Jiang, “Optical and electrical properties of Mg-doped p-type Al x Ga 1− x N,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(7), 1210–1212 (2002).
[Crossref]

Li, K.

K. Li, X. Liu, Q. Wang, S. Zhao, and Z. Mi, “Ultralow-threshold electrically injected AlGaN nanowire ultraviolet lasers on Si operating at low temperature,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(2), 140–144 (2015).
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G.-B. Lin, D. Meyaard, J. Cho, E. Fred Schubert, H. Shim, and C. Sone, “Analytic model for the efficiency droop in semiconductors with asymmetric carrier-transport properties based on drift-induced reduction of injection efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(16), 161106 (2012).
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M. Nakarmi, N. Nepal, C. Ugolini, T. Altahtamouni, J. Lin, and H. Jiang, “Correlation between optical and electrical properties of Mg-doped AlN epilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(15), 152120 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Shakya, K. Knabe, K. Kim, J. Li, J. Lin, and H. Jiang, “Polarization of III-nitride blue and ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(9), 091107 (2005).
[Crossref]

M. Nakarmi, K. Kim, M. Khizar, Z. Fan, J. Lin, and H. Jiang, “Electrical and optical properties of Mg-doped Al 0.7 Ga 0.3 N alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(9), 092108 (2005).
[Crossref]

T. Oder, K. Kim, J. Lin, and H. Jiang, “III-nitride blue and ultraviolet photonic crystal light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(4), 466–468 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Shakya, K. Kim, J. Lin, and H. Jiang, “Enhanced light extraction in III-nitride ultraviolet photonic crystal light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(1), 142–144 (2004).
[Crossref]

T. Oder, J. Shakya, J. Lin, and H. Jiang, “III-nitride photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(6), 1231–1233 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. Li, T. Oder, M. Nakarmi, J. Lin, and H. Jiang, “Optical and electrical properties of Mg-doped p-type Al x Ga 1− x N,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(7), 1210–1212 (2002).
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C. Wiesmann, K. Bergenek, N. Linder, and U. T. Schwarz, “Photonic crystal LEDs–designing light extraction,” Laser Photonics Rev. 3(3), 262–286 (2009).
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Z.-H. Zhang, S. Tiam Tan, Z. Kyaw, Y. Ji, W. Liu, Z. Ju, N. Hasanov, X. Wei Sun, and H. Volkan Demir, “InGaN/GaN light-emitting diode with a polarization tunnel junction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(19), 193508 (2013).
[Crossref]

Liu, X.

A. Pandey, X. Liu, Z. Deng, W. Shin, D. Laleyan, K. Mashooq, E. Reid, E. Kioupakis, P. Bhattacharya, and Z. Mi, “Enhanced doping efficiency of ultrawide band gap semiconductors by metal-semiconductor junction assisted epitaxy,” Phys. Rev. Mater. 3(5), 053401 (2019).
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X. Liu, K. Mashooq, T. Szkopek, and Z. Mi, “Improving the efficiency of transverse magnetic polarized emission from AlGaN based LEDs by using nanowire photonic crystal,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(4), 1–11 (2018).
[Crossref]

K. Li, X. Liu, Q. Wang, S. Zhao, and Z. Mi, “Ultralow-threshold electrically injected AlGaN nanowire ultraviolet lasers on Si operating at low temperature,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(2), 140–144 (2015).
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T. Detchprohm, Y.-S. Liu, K. Mehta, S. Wang, H. Xie, T.-T. Kao, S.-C. Shen, P. D. Yoder, F. A. Ponce, and R. D. Dupuis, “Sub 250 nm deep-UV AlGaN/AlN distributed Bragg reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(1), 011105 (2017).
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Y. Kashima, N. Maeda, E. Matsuura, M. Jo, T. Iwai, T. Morita, M. Kokubo, T. Tashiro, R. Kamimura, and Y. Osada, “High external quantum efficiency (10%) AlGaN-based deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes achieved by using highly reflective photonic crystal on p-AlGaN contact layer,” Appl. Phys. Express 11(1), 012101 (2018).
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H. Hirayama, Y. Tsukada, T. Maeda, and N. Kamata, “Marked enhancement in the efficiency of deep-ultraviolet AlGaN light-emitting diodes by using a multiquantum-barrier electron blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(3), 031002 (2010).
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J. Iveland, L. Martinelli, J. Peretti, J. S. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Direct measurement of Auger electrons emitted from a semiconductor light-emitting diode under electrical injection: identification of the dominant mechanism for efficiency droop,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(17), 177406 (2013).
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A. Pandey, X. Liu, Z. Deng, W. Shin, D. Laleyan, K. Mashooq, E. Reid, E. Kioupakis, P. Bhattacharya, and Z. Mi, “Enhanced doping efficiency of ultrawide band gap semiconductors by metal-semiconductor junction assisted epitaxy,” Phys. Rev. Mater. 3(5), 053401 (2019).
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X. Liu, K. Mashooq, T. Szkopek, and Z. Mi, “Improving the efficiency of transverse magnetic polarized emission from AlGaN based LEDs by using nanowire photonic crystal,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(4), 1–11 (2018).
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Y. Kashima, N. Maeda, E. Matsuura, M. Jo, T. Iwai, T. Morita, M. Kokubo, T. Tashiro, R. Kamimura, and Y. Osada, “High external quantum efficiency (10%) AlGaN-based deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes achieved by using highly reflective photonic crystal on p-AlGaN contact layer,” Appl. Phys. Express 11(1), 012101 (2018).
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T. Detchprohm, Y.-S. Liu, K. Mehta, S. Wang, H. Xie, T.-T. Kao, S.-C. Shen, P. D. Yoder, F. A. Ponce, and R. D. Dupuis, “Sub 250 nm deep-UV AlGaN/AlN distributed Bragg reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(1), 011105 (2017).
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C. De Santi, M. Meneghini, D. Monti, J. Glaab, M. Guttmann, J. Rass, S. Einfeldt, F. Mehnke, J. Enslin, and T. Wernicke, “Recombination mechanisms and thermal droop in AlGaN-based UV-B LEDs,” Photonics Res. 5(2), A44–A51 (2017).
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G.-B. Lin, D. Meyaard, J. Cho, E. Fred Schubert, H. Shim, and C. Sone, “Analytic model for the efficiency droop in semiconductors with asymmetric carrier-transport properties based on drift-induced reduction of injection efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(16), 161106 (2012).
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Mi, Z.

A. Pandey, X. Liu, Z. Deng, W. Shin, D. Laleyan, K. Mashooq, E. Reid, E. Kioupakis, P. Bhattacharya, and Z. Mi, “Enhanced doping efficiency of ultrawide band gap semiconductors by metal-semiconductor junction assisted epitaxy,” Phys. Rev. Mater. 3(5), 053401 (2019).
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X. Hai, R. Rashid, S. Sadaf, Z. Mi, and S. Zhao, “Effect of low hole mobility on the efficiency droop of AlGaN nanowire deep ultraviolet light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 114(10), 101104 (2019).
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X. Liu, K. Mashooq, T. Szkopek, and Z. Mi, “Improving the efficiency of transverse magnetic polarized emission from AlGaN based LEDs by using nanowire photonic crystal,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(4), 1–11 (2018).
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M. Djavid and Z. Mi, “Enhancing the light extraction efficiency of AlGaN deep ultraviolet light emitting diodes by using nanowire structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(5), 051102 (2016).
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K. Li, X. Liu, Q. Wang, S. Zhao, and Z. Mi, “Ultralow-threshold electrically injected AlGaN nanowire ultraviolet lasers on Si operating at low temperature,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(2), 140–144 (2015).
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T. Takano, T. Mino, J. Sakai, N. Noguchi, K. Tsubaki, and H. Hirayama, “Deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with external quantum efficiency higher than 20% at 275 nm achieved by improving light-extraction efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Express 10(3), 031002 (2017).
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Y. Kashima, N. Maeda, E. Matsuura, M. Jo, T. Iwai, T. Morita, M. Kokubo, T. Tashiro, R. Kamimura, and Y. Osada, “High external quantum efficiency (10%) AlGaN-based deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes achieved by using highly reflective photonic crystal on p-AlGaN contact layer,” Appl. Phys. Express 11(1), 012101 (2018).
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B. Gunning, J. Lowder, M. Moseley, and W. Alan Doolittle, “Negligible carrier freeze-out facilitated by impurity band conduction in highly p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(8), 082106 (2012).
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Moseley, M. W.

Y. Zhang, Z. Jamal-Eddine, F. Akyol, S. Bajaj, J. M. Johnson, G. Calderon, A. A. Allerman, M. W. Moseley, A. M. Armstrong, and J. Hwang, “Tunnel-injected sub 290 nm ultra-violet light emitting diodes with 2.8% external quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112(7), 071107 (2018).
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Y. Zhang, S. Krishnamoorthy, F. Akyol, S. Bajaj, A. A. Allerman, M. W. Moseley, A. M. Armstrong, and S. Rajan, “Tunnel-injected sub-260 nm ultraviolet light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(20), 201102 (2017).
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Nakarmi, M.

M. Nakarmi, N. Nepal, C. Ugolini, T. Altahtamouni, J. Lin, and H. Jiang, “Correlation between optical and electrical properties of Mg-doped AlN epilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(15), 152120 (2006).
[Crossref]

M. Nakarmi, K. Kim, M. Khizar, Z. Fan, J. Lin, and H. Jiang, “Electrical and optical properties of Mg-doped Al 0.7 Ga 0.3 N alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(9), 092108 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Li, T. Oder, M. Nakarmi, J. Lin, and H. Jiang, “Optical and electrical properties of Mg-doped p-type Al x Ga 1− x N,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(7), 1210–1212 (2002).
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S.-i. Inoue, T. Naoki, T. Kinoshita, T. Obata, and H. Yanagi, “Light extraction enhancement of 265 nm deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with over 90 mW output power via an AlN hybrid nanostructure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(13), 131104 (2015).
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M. Nakarmi, N. Nepal, C. Ugolini, T. Altahtamouni, J. Lin, and H. Jiang, “Correlation between optical and electrical properties of Mg-doped AlN epilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(15), 152120 (2006).
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H. Hirayama, S. Fujikawa, N. Noguchi, J. Norimatsu, T. Takano, K. Tsubaki, and N. Kamata, “222–282 nm AlGaN and InAlGaN-based deep-UV LEDs fabricated on high-quality AlN on sapphire,” Phys. Status Solidi A 206(6), 1176–1182 (2009).
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H. Hirayama, S. Fujikawa, N. Noguchi, J. Norimatsu, T. Takano, K. Tsubaki, and N. Kamata, “222–282 nm AlGaN and InAlGaN-based deep-UV LEDs fabricated on high-quality AlN on sapphire,” Phys. Status Solidi A 206(6), 1176–1182 (2009).
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Obata, T.

S.-i. Inoue, T. Naoki, T. Kinoshita, T. Obata, and H. Yanagi, “Light extraction enhancement of 265 nm deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with over 90 mW output power via an AlN hybrid nanostructure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(13), 131104 (2015).
[Crossref]

Oder, T.

T. Oder, K. Kim, J. Lin, and H. Jiang, “III-nitride blue and ultraviolet photonic crystal light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(4), 466–468 (2004).
[Crossref]

T. Oder, J. Shakya, J. Lin, and H. Jiang, “III-nitride photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(6), 1231–1233 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. Li, T. Oder, M. Nakarmi, J. Lin, and H. Jiang, “Optical and electrical properties of Mg-doped p-type Al x Ga 1− x N,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(7), 1210–1212 (2002).
[Crossref]

Osada, Y.

Y. Kashima, N. Maeda, E. Matsuura, M. Jo, T. Iwai, T. Morita, M. Kokubo, T. Tashiro, R. Kamimura, and Y. Osada, “High external quantum efficiency (10%) AlGaN-based deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes achieved by using highly reflective photonic crystal on p-AlGaN contact layer,” Appl. Phys. Express 11(1), 012101 (2018).
[Crossref]

Pandey, A.

A. Pandey, X. Liu, Z. Deng, W. Shin, D. Laleyan, K. Mashooq, E. Reid, E. Kioupakis, P. Bhattacharya, and Z. Mi, “Enhanced doping efficiency of ultrawide band gap semiconductors by metal-semiconductor junction assisted epitaxy,” Phys. Rev. Mater. 3(5), 053401 (2019).
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Park, I.-K.

M.-K. Kwon, J.-Y. Kim, I.-K. Park, K. S. Kim, G.-Y. Jung, S.-J. Park, J. W. Kim, and Y. C. Kim, “Enhanced emission efficiency of Ga N∕ In Ga N multiple quantum well light-emitting diode with an embedded photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(25), 251110 (2008).
[Crossref]

Park, S.-J.

M.-K. Kwon, J.-Y. Kim, I.-K. Park, K. S. Kim, G.-Y. Jung, S.-J. Park, J. W. Kim, and Y. C. Kim, “Enhanced emission efficiency of Ga N∕ In Ga N multiple quantum well light-emitting diode with an embedded photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(25), 251110 (2008).
[Crossref]

Peretti, J.

J. Iveland, L. Martinelli, J. Peretti, J. S. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Direct measurement of Auger electrons emitted from a semiconductor light-emitting diode under electrical injection: identification of the dominant mechanism for efficiency droop,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(17), 177406 (2013).
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M. R. Philip, T. Bui, D. Choudhary, M. Djavid, P. Vu, and T. Pham, “Molecular Beam Epitaxial Growth and Device Characterization of AlGaN Nanowire Ultraviolet-B Light-Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 1, 1 (2018).

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M. R. Philip, T. Bui, D. Choudhary, M. Djavid, P. Vu, and T. Pham, “Molecular Beam Epitaxial Growth and Device Characterization of AlGaN Nanowire Ultraviolet-B Light-Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 1, 1 (2018).

Ponce, F. A.

T. Detchprohm, Y.-S. Liu, K. Mehta, S. Wang, H. Xie, T.-T. Kao, S.-C. Shen, P. D. Yoder, F. A. Ponce, and R. D. Dupuis, “Sub 250 nm deep-UV AlGaN/AlN distributed Bragg reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(1), 011105 (2017).
[Crossref]

Rajan, S.

Y. Zhang, S. Krishnamoorthy, F. Akyol, S. Bajaj, A. A. Allerman, M. W. Moseley, A. M. Armstrong, and S. Rajan, “Tunnel-injected sub-260 nm ultraviolet light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(20), 201102 (2017).
[Crossref]

Rashid, R.

X. Hai, R. Rashid, S. Sadaf, Z. Mi, and S. Zhao, “Effect of low hole mobility on the efficiency droop of AlGaN nanowire deep ultraviolet light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 114(10), 101104 (2019).
[Crossref]

Rass, J.

C. De Santi, M. Meneghini, D. Monti, J. Glaab, M. Guttmann, J. Rass, S. Einfeldt, F. Mehnke, J. Enslin, and T. Wernicke, “Recombination mechanisms and thermal droop in AlGaN-based UV-B LEDs,” Photonics Res. 5(2), A44–A51 (2017).
[Crossref]

Reid, E.

A. Pandey, X. Liu, Z. Deng, W. Shin, D. Laleyan, K. Mashooq, E. Reid, E. Kioupakis, P. Bhattacharya, and Z. Mi, “Enhanced doping efficiency of ultrawide band gap semiconductors by metal-semiconductor junction assisted epitaxy,” Phys. Rev. Mater. 3(5), 053401 (2019).
[Crossref]

Sadaf, S.

X. Hai, R. Rashid, S. Sadaf, Z. Mi, and S. Zhao, “Effect of low hole mobility on the efficiency droop of AlGaN nanowire deep ultraviolet light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 114(10), 101104 (2019).
[Crossref]

Sakai, J.

T. Takano, T. Mino, J. Sakai, N. Noguchi, K. Tsubaki, and H. Hirayama, “Deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with external quantum efficiency higher than 20% at 275 nm achieved by improving light-extraction efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Express 10(3), 031002 (2017).
[Crossref]

Schwarz, U. T.

C. Wiesmann, K. Bergenek, N. Linder, and U. T. Schwarz, “Photonic crystal LEDs–designing light extraction,” Laser Photonics Rev. 3(3), 262–286 (2009).
[Crossref]

Shakya, J.

J. Shakya, K. Knabe, K. Kim, J. Li, J. Lin, and H. Jiang, “Polarization of III-nitride blue and ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(9), 091107 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Shakya, K. Kim, J. Lin, and H. Jiang, “Enhanced light extraction in III-nitride ultraviolet photonic crystal light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(1), 142–144 (2004).
[Crossref]

T. Oder, J. Shakya, J. Lin, and H. Jiang, “III-nitride photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(6), 1231–1233 (2003).
[Crossref]

Shatalov, M.

W. Sun, M. Shatalov, J. Deng, X. Hu, J. Yang, A. Lunev, Y. Bilenko, M. Shur, and R. Gaska, “Efficiency droop in 245–247 nm AlGaN light-emitting diodes with continuous wave 2 mW output power,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(6), 061102 (2010).
[Crossref]

Shen, S.-C.

T. Detchprohm, Y.-S. Liu, K. Mehta, S. Wang, H. Xie, T.-T. Kao, S.-C. Shen, P. D. Yoder, F. A. Ponce, and R. D. Dupuis, “Sub 250 nm deep-UV AlGaN/AlN distributed Bragg reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(1), 011105 (2017).
[Crossref]

Shim, H.

G.-B. Lin, D. Meyaard, J. Cho, E. Fred Schubert, H. Shim, and C. Sone, “Analytic model for the efficiency droop in semiconductors with asymmetric carrier-transport properties based on drift-induced reduction of injection efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(16), 161106 (2012).
[Crossref]

Shim, J.-I.

J. Yun, J.-I. Shim, and H. Hirayama, “Analysis of efficiency droop in 280-nm AlGaN multiple-quantum-well light-emitting diodes based on carrier rate equation,” Appl. Phys. Express 8(2), 022104 (2015).
[Crossref]

Shin, W.

A. Pandey, X. Liu, Z. Deng, W. Shin, D. Laleyan, K. Mashooq, E. Reid, E. Kioupakis, P. Bhattacharya, and Z. Mi, “Enhanced doping efficiency of ultrawide band gap semiconductors by metal-semiconductor junction assisted epitaxy,” Phys. Rev. Mater. 3(5), 053401 (2019).
[Crossref]

Shur, M.

W. Sun, M. Shatalov, J. Deng, X. Hu, J. Yang, A. Lunev, Y. Bilenko, M. Shur, and R. Gaska, “Efficiency droop in 245–247 nm AlGaN light-emitting diodes with continuous wave 2 mW output power,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(6), 061102 (2010).
[Crossref]

Sone, C.

G.-B. Lin, D. Meyaard, J. Cho, E. Fred Schubert, H. Shim, and C. Sone, “Analytic model for the efficiency droop in semiconductors with asymmetric carrier-transport properties based on drift-induced reduction of injection efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(16), 161106 (2012).
[Crossref]

Speck, J. S.

J. Iveland, L. Martinelli, J. Peretti, J. S. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Direct measurement of Auger electrons emitted from a semiconductor light-emitting diode under electrical injection: identification of the dominant mechanism for efficiency droop,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(17), 177406 (2013).
[Crossref]

Stampfl, C.

C. Stampfl and C. Van de Walle, “Theoretical investigation of native defects, impurities, and complexes in aluminum nitride,” Phys. Rev. B 65(15), 155212 (2002).
[Crossref]

Sulmoni, L.

C. Kuhn, L. Sulmoni, M. Guttmann, J. Glaab, N. Susilo, T. Wernicke, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “MOVPE-grown AlGaN-based tunnel heterojunctions enabling fully transparent UVC LEDs,” Photonics Res. 7(5), B7–B11 (2019).
[Crossref]

Sun, W.

W. Sun, M. Shatalov, J. Deng, X. Hu, J. Yang, A. Lunev, Y. Bilenko, M. Shur, and R. Gaska, “Efficiency droop in 245–247 nm AlGaN light-emitting diodes with continuous wave 2 mW output power,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(6), 061102 (2010).
[Crossref]

Susilo, N.

C. Kuhn, L. Sulmoni, M. Guttmann, J. Glaab, N. Susilo, T. Wernicke, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “MOVPE-grown AlGaN-based tunnel heterojunctions enabling fully transparent UVC LEDs,” Photonics Res. 7(5), B7–B11 (2019).
[Crossref]

Szkopek, T.

X. Liu, K. Mashooq, T. Szkopek, and Z. Mi, “Improving the efficiency of transverse magnetic polarized emission from AlGaN based LEDs by using nanowire photonic crystal,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(4), 1–11 (2018).
[Crossref]

Takahashi, S.

M. Fujita, S. Takahashi, Y. Tanaka, T. Asano, and S. Noda, “Simultaneous inhibition and redistribution of spontaneous light emission in photonic crystals,” Science 308(5726), 1296–1298 (2005).
[Crossref]

Takano, T.

T. Takano, T. Mino, J. Sakai, N. Noguchi, K. Tsubaki, and H. Hirayama, “Deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with external quantum efficiency higher than 20% at 275 nm achieved by improving light-extraction efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Express 10(3), 031002 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Hirayama, S. Fujikawa, N. Noguchi, J. Norimatsu, T. Takano, K. Tsubaki, and N. Kamata, “222–282 nm AlGaN and InAlGaN-based deep-UV LEDs fabricated on high-quality AlN on sapphire,” Phys. Status Solidi A 206(6), 1176–1182 (2009).
[Crossref]

Takeda, K.

K. Ban, J.-i. Yamamoto, K. Takeda, K. Ide, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, I. Akasaki, and H. Amano, “Internal quantum efficiency of whole-composition-range AlGaN multiquantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(5), 052101 (2011).
[Crossref]

Takeuchi, T.

K. Ban, J.-i. Yamamoto, K. Takeda, K. Ide, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, I. Akasaki, and H. Amano, “Internal quantum efficiency of whole-composition-range AlGaN multiquantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(5), 052101 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Kamiyama, M. Iwaya, N. Hayashi, T. Takeuchi, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, S. Watanabe, Y. Kaneko, and N. Yamada, “Low-temperature-deposited AlGaN interlayer for improvement of AlGaN/GaN heterostructure,” J. Cryst. Growth 223(1-2), 83–91 (2001).
[Crossref]

Tanaka, Y.

M. Fujita, S. Takahashi, Y. Tanaka, T. Asano, and S. Noda, “Simultaneous inhibition and redistribution of spontaneous light emission in photonic crystals,” Science 308(5726), 1296–1298 (2005).
[Crossref]

Tashiro, T.

Y. Kashima, N. Maeda, E. Matsuura, M. Jo, T. Iwai, T. Morita, M. Kokubo, T. Tashiro, R. Kamimura, and Y. Osada, “High external quantum efficiency (10%) AlGaN-based deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes achieved by using highly reflective photonic crystal on p-AlGaN contact layer,” Appl. Phys. Express 11(1), 012101 (2018).
[Crossref]

Tiam Tan, S.

Z.-H. Zhang, S. Tiam Tan, Z. Kyaw, Y. Ji, W. Liu, Z. Ju, N. Hasanov, X. Wei Sun, and H. Volkan Demir, “InGaN/GaN light-emitting diode with a polarization tunnel junction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(19), 193508 (2013).
[Crossref]

Toyoda, S.

H. Hirayama, N. Maeda, S. Fujikawa, S. Toyoda, and N. Kamata, “Recent progress and future prospects of AlGaN-based high-efficiency deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 53(10), 100209 (2014).
[Crossref]

Tsubaki, K.

T. Takano, T. Mino, J. Sakai, N. Noguchi, K. Tsubaki, and H. Hirayama, “Deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with external quantum efficiency higher than 20% at 275 nm achieved by improving light-extraction efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Express 10(3), 031002 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Hirayama, S. Fujikawa, N. Noguchi, J. Norimatsu, T. Takano, K. Tsubaki, and N. Kamata, “222–282 nm AlGaN and InAlGaN-based deep-UV LEDs fabricated on high-quality AlN on sapphire,” Phys. Status Solidi A 206(6), 1176–1182 (2009).
[Crossref]

Tsukada, Y.

H. Hirayama, Y. Tsukada, T. Maeda, and N. Kamata, “Marked enhancement in the efficiency of deep-ultraviolet AlGaN light-emitting diodes by using a multiquantum-barrier electron blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(3), 031002 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ugolini, C.

M. Nakarmi, N. Nepal, C. Ugolini, T. Altahtamouni, J. Lin, and H. Jiang, “Correlation between optical and electrical properties of Mg-doped AlN epilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(15), 152120 (2006).
[Crossref]

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C. Stampfl and C. Van de Walle, “Theoretical investigation of native defects, impurities, and complexes in aluminum nitride,” Phys. Rev. B 65(15), 155212 (2002).
[Crossref]

Volkan Demir, H.

Z.-H. Zhang, S. Tiam Tan, Z. Kyaw, Y. Ji, W. Liu, Z. Ju, N. Hasanov, X. Wei Sun, and H. Volkan Demir, “InGaN/GaN light-emitting diode with a polarization tunnel junction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(19), 193508 (2013).
[Crossref]

Vu, P.

M. R. Philip, T. Bui, D. Choudhary, M. Djavid, P. Vu, and T. Pham, “Molecular Beam Epitaxial Growth and Device Characterization of AlGaN Nanowire Ultraviolet-B Light-Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 1, 1 (2018).

Wang, Q.

K. Li, X. Liu, Q. Wang, S. Zhao, and Z. Mi, “Ultralow-threshold electrically injected AlGaN nanowire ultraviolet lasers on Si operating at low temperature,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(2), 140–144 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wang, S.

T. Detchprohm, Y.-S. Liu, K. Mehta, S. Wang, H. Xie, T.-T. Kao, S.-C. Shen, P. D. Yoder, F. A. Ponce, and R. D. Dupuis, “Sub 250 nm deep-UV AlGaN/AlN distributed Bragg reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(1), 011105 (2017).
[Crossref]

Watanabe, S.

S. Kamiyama, M. Iwaya, N. Hayashi, T. Takeuchi, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, S. Watanabe, Y. Kaneko, and N. Yamada, “Low-temperature-deposited AlGaN interlayer for improvement of AlGaN/GaN heterostructure,” J. Cryst. Growth 223(1-2), 83–91 (2001).
[Crossref]

Wei Sun, X.

Z.-H. Zhang, S. Tiam Tan, Z. Kyaw, Y. Ji, W. Liu, Z. Ju, N. Hasanov, X. Wei Sun, and H. Volkan Demir, “InGaN/GaN light-emitting diode with a polarization tunnel junction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(19), 193508 (2013).
[Crossref]

Weisbuch, C.

J. Iveland, L. Martinelli, J. Peretti, J. S. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Direct measurement of Auger electrons emitted from a semiconductor light-emitting diode under electrical injection: identification of the dominant mechanism for efficiency droop,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(17), 177406 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wernicke, T.

C. Kuhn, L. Sulmoni, M. Guttmann, J. Glaab, N. Susilo, T. Wernicke, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “MOVPE-grown AlGaN-based tunnel heterojunctions enabling fully transparent UVC LEDs,” Photonics Res. 7(5), B7–B11 (2019).
[Crossref]

C. De Santi, M. Meneghini, D. Monti, J. Glaab, M. Guttmann, J. Rass, S. Einfeldt, F. Mehnke, J. Enslin, and T. Wernicke, “Recombination mechanisms and thermal droop in AlGaN-based UV-B LEDs,” Photonics Res. 5(2), A44–A51 (2017).
[Crossref]

Weyers, M.

C. Kuhn, L. Sulmoni, M. Guttmann, J. Glaab, N. Susilo, T. Wernicke, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “MOVPE-grown AlGaN-based tunnel heterojunctions enabling fully transparent UVC LEDs,” Photonics Res. 7(5), B7–B11 (2019).
[Crossref]

Wierer Jr, J. J.

J. J. Wierer Jr, A. David, and M. M. Megens, “III-nitride photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with high extraction efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 163–169 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wiesmann, C.

C. Wiesmann, K. Bergenek, N. Linder, and U. T. Schwarz, “Photonic crystal LEDs–designing light extraction,” Laser Photonics Rev. 3(3), 262–286 (2009).
[Crossref]

Xie, H.

T. Detchprohm, Y.-S. Liu, K. Mehta, S. Wang, H. Xie, T.-T. Kao, S.-C. Shen, P. D. Yoder, F. A. Ponce, and R. D. Dupuis, “Sub 250 nm deep-UV AlGaN/AlN distributed Bragg reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(1), 011105 (2017).
[Crossref]

Yamada, N.

S. Kamiyama, M. Iwaya, N. Hayashi, T. Takeuchi, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, S. Watanabe, Y. Kaneko, and N. Yamada, “Low-temperature-deposited AlGaN interlayer for improvement of AlGaN/GaN heterostructure,” J. Cryst. Growth 223(1-2), 83–91 (2001).
[Crossref]

Yamamoto, J.-i.

K. Ban, J.-i. Yamamoto, K. Takeda, K. Ide, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, I. Akasaki, and H. Amano, “Internal quantum efficiency of whole-composition-range AlGaN multiquantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(5), 052101 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yanagi, H.

S.-i. Inoue, T. Naoki, T. Kinoshita, T. Obata, and H. Yanagi, “Light extraction enhancement of 265 nm deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with over 90 mW output power via an AlN hybrid nanostructure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(13), 131104 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yang, J.

W. Sun, M. Shatalov, J. Deng, X. Hu, J. Yang, A. Lunev, Y. Bilenko, M. Shur, and R. Gaska, “Efficiency droop in 245–247 nm AlGaN light-emitting diodes with continuous wave 2 mW output power,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(6), 061102 (2010).
[Crossref]

Yoder, P. D.

T. Detchprohm, Y.-S. Liu, K. Mehta, S. Wang, H. Xie, T.-T. Kao, S.-C. Shen, P. D. Yoder, F. A. Ponce, and R. D. Dupuis, “Sub 250 nm deep-UV AlGaN/AlN distributed Bragg reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(1), 011105 (2017).
[Crossref]

Yun, J.

J. Yun, J.-I. Shim, and H. Hirayama, “Analysis of efficiency droop in 280-nm AlGaN multiple-quantum-well light-emitting diodes based on carrier rate equation,” Appl. Phys. Express 8(2), 022104 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Y.

Y. Zhang, Z. Jamal-Eddine, F. Akyol, S. Bajaj, J. M. Johnson, G. Calderon, A. A. Allerman, M. W. Moseley, A. M. Armstrong, and J. Hwang, “Tunnel-injected sub 290 nm ultra-violet light emitting diodes with 2.8% external quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112(7), 071107 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhang, S. Krishnamoorthy, F. Akyol, S. Bajaj, A. A. Allerman, M. W. Moseley, A. M. Armstrong, and S. Rajan, “Tunnel-injected sub-260 nm ultraviolet light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(20), 201102 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Z.-H.

Z.-H. Zhang, S. Tiam Tan, Z. Kyaw, Y. Ji, W. Liu, Z. Ju, N. Hasanov, X. Wei Sun, and H. Volkan Demir, “InGaN/GaN light-emitting diode with a polarization tunnel junction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(19), 193508 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhao, H.

Zhao, P.

Zhao, S.

X. Hai, R. Rashid, S. Sadaf, Z. Mi, and S. Zhao, “Effect of low hole mobility on the efficiency droop of AlGaN nanowire deep ultraviolet light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 114(10), 101104 (2019).
[Crossref]

K. Li, X. Liu, Q. Wang, S. Zhao, and Z. Mi, “Ultralow-threshold electrically injected AlGaN nanowire ultraviolet lasers on Si operating at low temperature,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(2), 140–144 (2015).
[Crossref]

Adv. Opt. Photonics (1)

M. R. Philip, T. Bui, D. Choudhary, M. Djavid, P. Vu, and T. Pham, “Molecular Beam Epitaxial Growth and Device Characterization of AlGaN Nanowire Ultraviolet-B Light-Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 1, 1 (2018).

Appl. Phys. Express (5)

K. Ban, J.-i. Yamamoto, K. Takeda, K. Ide, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, I. Akasaki, and H. Amano, “Internal quantum efficiency of whole-composition-range AlGaN multiquantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(5), 052101 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. Takano, T. Mino, J. Sakai, N. Noguchi, K. Tsubaki, and H. Hirayama, “Deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with external quantum efficiency higher than 20% at 275 nm achieved by improving light-extraction efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Express 10(3), 031002 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Kashima, N. Maeda, E. Matsuura, M. Jo, T. Iwai, T. Morita, M. Kokubo, T. Tashiro, R. Kamimura, and Y. Osada, “High external quantum efficiency (10%) AlGaN-based deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes achieved by using highly reflective photonic crystal on p-AlGaN contact layer,” Appl. Phys. Express 11(1), 012101 (2018).
[Crossref]

H. Hirayama, Y. Tsukada, T. Maeda, and N. Kamata, “Marked enhancement in the efficiency of deep-ultraviolet AlGaN light-emitting diodes by using a multiquantum-barrier electron blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(3), 031002 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Yun, J.-I. Shim, and H. Hirayama, “Analysis of efficiency droop in 280-nm AlGaN multiple-quantum-well light-emitting diodes based on carrier rate equation,” Appl. Phys. Express 8(2), 022104 (2015).
[Crossref]

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M.-K. Kwon, J.-Y. Kim, I.-K. Park, K. S. Kim, G.-Y. Jung, S.-J. Park, J. W. Kim, and Y. C. Kim, “Enhanced emission efficiency of Ga N∕ In Ga N multiple quantum well light-emitting diode with an embedded photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(25), 251110 (2008).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhang, S. Krishnamoorthy, F. Akyol, S. Bajaj, A. A. Allerman, M. W. Moseley, A. M. Armstrong, and S. Rajan, “Tunnel-injected sub-260 nm ultraviolet light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(20), 201102 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. Detchprohm, Y.-S. Liu, K. Mehta, S. Wang, H. Xie, T.-T. Kao, S.-C. Shen, P. D. Yoder, F. A. Ponce, and R. D. Dupuis, “Sub 250 nm deep-UV AlGaN/AlN distributed Bragg reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(1), 011105 (2017).
[Crossref]

S.-i. Inoue, T. Naoki, T. Kinoshita, T. Obata, and H. Yanagi, “Light extraction enhancement of 265 nm deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with over 90 mW output power via an AlN hybrid nanostructure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(13), 131104 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Oder, K. Kim, J. Lin, and H. Jiang, “III-nitride blue and ultraviolet photonic crystal light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(4), 466–468 (2004).
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T. Oder, J. Shakya, J. Lin, and H. Jiang, “III-nitride photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(6), 1231–1233 (2003).
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Y. Zhang, Z. Jamal-Eddine, F. Akyol, S. Bajaj, J. M. Johnson, G. Calderon, A. A. Allerman, M. W. Moseley, A. M. Armstrong, and J. Hwang, “Tunnel-injected sub 290 nm ultra-violet light emitting diodes with 2.8% external quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112(7), 071107 (2018).
[Crossref]

Z.-H. Zhang, S. Tiam Tan, Z. Kyaw, Y. Ji, W. Liu, Z. Ju, N. Hasanov, X. Wei Sun, and H. Volkan Demir, “InGaN/GaN light-emitting diode with a polarization tunnel junction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(19), 193508 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Li, T. Oder, M. Nakarmi, J. Lin, and H. Jiang, “Optical and electrical properties of Mg-doped p-type Al x Ga 1− x N,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(7), 1210–1212 (2002).
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M. Nakarmi, K. Kim, M. Khizar, Z. Fan, J. Lin, and H. Jiang, “Electrical and optical properties of Mg-doped Al 0.7 Ga 0.3 N alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(9), 092108 (2005).
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J. Shakya, K. Knabe, K. Kim, J. Li, J. Lin, and H. Jiang, “Polarization of III-nitride blue and ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(9), 091107 (2005).
[Crossref]

M. Nakarmi, N. Nepal, C. Ugolini, T. Altahtamouni, J. Lin, and H. Jiang, “Correlation between optical and electrical properties of Mg-doped AlN epilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(15), 152120 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Shakya, K. Kim, J. Lin, and H. Jiang, “Enhanced light extraction in III-nitride ultraviolet photonic crystal light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(1), 142–144 (2004).
[Crossref]

M. Djavid and Z. Mi, “Enhancing the light extraction efficiency of AlGaN deep ultraviolet light emitting diodes by using nanowire structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(5), 051102 (2016).
[Crossref]

G.-B. Lin, D. Meyaard, J. Cho, E. Fred Schubert, H. Shim, and C. Sone, “Analytic model for the efficiency droop in semiconductors with asymmetric carrier-transport properties based on drift-induced reduction of injection efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(16), 161106 (2012).
[Crossref]

W. Sun, M. Shatalov, J. Deng, X. Hu, J. Yang, A. Lunev, Y. Bilenko, M. Shur, and R. Gaska, “Efficiency droop in 245–247 nm AlGaN light-emitting diodes with continuous wave 2 mW output power,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(6), 061102 (2010).
[Crossref]

X. Hai, R. Rashid, S. Sadaf, Z. Mi, and S. Zhao, “Effect of low hole mobility on the efficiency droop of AlGaN nanowire deep ultraviolet light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 114(10), 101104 (2019).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics J. (1)

X. Liu, K. Mashooq, T. Szkopek, and Z. Mi, “Improving the efficiency of transverse magnetic polarized emission from AlGaN based LEDs by using nanowire photonic crystal,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(4), 1–11 (2018).
[Crossref]

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J. Cryst. Growth (1)

S. Kamiyama, M. Iwaya, N. Hayashi, T. Takeuchi, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, S. Watanabe, Y. Kaneko, and N. Yamada, “Low-temperature-deposited AlGaN interlayer for improvement of AlGaN/GaN heterostructure,” J. Cryst. Growth 223(1-2), 83–91 (2001).
[Crossref]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

H. Hirayama, N. Maeda, S. Fujikawa, S. Toyoda, and N. Kamata, “Recent progress and future prospects of AlGaN-based high-efficiency deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 53(10), 100209 (2014).
[Crossref]

Laser Photonics Rev. (1)

C. Wiesmann, K. Bergenek, N. Linder, and U. T. Schwarz, “Photonic crystal LEDs–designing light extraction,” Laser Photonics Rev. 3(3), 262–286 (2009).
[Crossref]

Nat. Nanotechnol. (1)

K. Li, X. Liu, Q. Wang, S. Zhao, and Z. Mi, “Ultralow-threshold electrically injected AlGaN nanowire ultraviolet lasers on Si operating at low temperature,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(2), 140–144 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (2)

A. Khan, K. Balakrishnan, and T. Katona, “Ultraviolet light-emitting diodes based on group three nitrides,” Nat. Photonics 2(2), 77–84 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. J. Wierer Jr, A. David, and M. M. Megens, “III-nitride photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with high extraction efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 163–169 (2009).
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Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Mater. Express (1)

Photonics Res. (2)

C. Kuhn, L. Sulmoni, M. Guttmann, J. Glaab, N. Susilo, T. Wernicke, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “MOVPE-grown AlGaN-based tunnel heterojunctions enabling fully transparent UVC LEDs,” Photonics Res. 7(5), B7–B11 (2019).
[Crossref]

C. De Santi, M. Meneghini, D. Monti, J. Glaab, M. Guttmann, J. Rass, S. Einfeldt, F. Mehnke, J. Enslin, and T. Wernicke, “Recombination mechanisms and thermal droop in AlGaN-based UV-B LEDs,” Photonics Res. 5(2), A44–A51 (2017).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

C. Stampfl and C. Van de Walle, “Theoretical investigation of native defects, impurities, and complexes in aluminum nitride,” Phys. Rev. B 65(15), 155212 (2002).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

J. Iveland, L. Martinelli, J. Peretti, J. S. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Direct measurement of Auger electrons emitted from a semiconductor light-emitting diode under electrical injection: identification of the dominant mechanism for efficiency droop,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(17), 177406 (2013).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Mater. (1)

A. Pandey, X. Liu, Z. Deng, W. Shin, D. Laleyan, K. Mashooq, E. Reid, E. Kioupakis, P. Bhattacharya, and Z. Mi, “Enhanced doping efficiency of ultrawide band gap semiconductors by metal-semiconductor junction assisted epitaxy,” Phys. Rev. Mater. 3(5), 053401 (2019).
[Crossref]

Phys. Status Solidi A (1)

H. Hirayama, S. Fujikawa, N. Noguchi, J. Norimatsu, T. Takano, K. Tsubaki, and N. Kamata, “222–282 nm AlGaN and InAlGaN-based deep-UV LEDs fabricated on high-quality AlN on sapphire,” Phys. Status Solidi A 206(6), 1176–1182 (2009).
[Crossref]

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M. J. Grundmann and U. K. Mishra, “Multi-color light emitting diode using polarization-induced tunnel junctions,” Phys. Status Solidi C 4(7), 2830–2833 (2007).
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Science (1)

M. Fujita, S. Takahashi, Y. Tanaka, T. Asano, and S. Noda, “Simultaneous inhibition and redistribution of spontaneous light emission in photonic crystals,” Science 308(5726), 1296–1298 (2005).
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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Schematic of (a) tunnel junction deep UV LED heterostructure and (b) nanowire photonic crystal integrated deep UV LED. (c) Top view of the nanowire photonic crystal.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) Contour plot of average LEE as a function of nanowire diameter (d) and lattice constant (a) at nanowire height L = 240nm. (b) Variations of the average LEE vs. nanowire diameter (d) for a constant lattice constant (a) of 320nm and nanowire height (L) of 240nm.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. 45°-tilted view SEM image of hexagonal nanowire photonic crystal arranged in triangular lattice with nanowire diameter (d) of 160nm and lattice constant (a) of 320nm. The inset shows a magnified image of photonic crystal.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (a) Current-voltage characteristics for both LEDs with and without incorporation of nanowire photonic crystal. (b) Electroluminescence spectra of the LED with photonic crystal measured with different current injections. (c) Top emitting optical power density measurement using 10kHz repetition rate and 1% duty cycle.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. (a) External quantum efficiency (EQE) and (b) wall-plug efficiency (WPE) as a function of injected current density.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. List of refractive indices for tunnel junction deep UV LED structure

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