Abstract

An LED chip containing monolithically integrated red, green, and blue channels was fabricated and characterized. Using local strain engineering in gallium nitride p-i-n nanopillar structures, each color channel emits a distinct color with emission wavelength determined entirely by the diameter of the nanopillar. The crosstalk between color channels is negligible. As a result, individually addressable color channels can be integrated on the same substrate which will be suitable for color-tunable lighting applications. Optical and electrical properties were measured and discussed. Fabrication challenges which degraded power efficiency of the shorter-wavelength channel were analyzed. Potential strategies for improvements were proposed.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  23. X. A. Cao, S. J. Pearton, G. T. Dang, A. P. Zhang, F. Ren, and J. M. Van Hove, “GaN n- and p-type Schottky diodes: Effect of dry etch damage,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 47(7), 1320–1324 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  24. J. M. Lee, K. S. Lee, and S. J. Park, “Removal of dry etch damage in p-type GaN by wet etching of sacrificial oxide layer,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B Microelectron. Nanom. Struct. 22(2), 479–482 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  25. H. Sun, M. K. Shakfa, M. M. Muhammed, B. Janjua, K. H. Li, R. Lin, T. K. Ng, I. S. Roqan, B. S. Ooi, and X. Li, “Surface-Passivated AlGaN Nanowires for Enhanced Luminescence of Ultraviolet Light Emitting Diodes,” ACS Photonics 5(3), 964–970 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  26. M. Biswas, V. Chavan, S. Zhao, Z. Mi, and S. Chakrabarti, “Passivation of Surface States of AlGaN Nanowires Using H 3 PO 4 Treatment To Enhance the Performance of UV-LEDs and Photoanodes,” ACS Appl. Nano Mater. 1(4), 1968–1975 (2018).
    [Crossref]

2018 (4)

H. Haas, “LiFi is a paradigm-shifting 5G technology,” Rev. Phys. 3(October 2017), 26–31 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. M. Kang, J. Y. Lee, D. J. Kong, J. P. Shim, S. Kim, S. H. Mun, S. Y. Choi, M. Do Park, J. Kim, and D. S. Lee, “Hybrid Full-Color Inorganic Light-Emitting Diodes Integrated on a Single Wafer Using Selective Area Growth and Adhesive Bonding,” ACS Photonics 5(11), 4413–4422 (2018).
[Crossref]

H. Sun, M. K. Shakfa, M. M. Muhammed, B. Janjua, K. H. Li, R. Lin, T. K. Ng, I. S. Roqan, B. S. Ooi, and X. Li, “Surface-Passivated AlGaN Nanowires for Enhanced Luminescence of Ultraviolet Light Emitting Diodes,” ACS Photonics 5(3), 964–970 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Biswas, V. Chavan, S. Zhao, Z. Mi, and S. Chakrabarti, “Passivation of Surface States of AlGaN Nanowires Using H 3 PO 4 Treatment To Enhance the Performance of UV-LEDs and Photoanodes,” ACS Appl. Nano Mater. 1(4), 1968–1975 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (4)

S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. McKendry, J. Herrnsdorf, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, H. Haas, I. M. Watson, D. O’Brien, and M. D. Dawson, “A review of gallium nitride LEDs for multi-gigabit-per-second visible light data communications,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 32(2), 023001 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. A. Bower, M. A. Meitl, B. Raymond, E. Radauscher, R. Cok, S. Bonafede, D. Gomez, T. Moore, C. Prevatte, B. Fisher, R. Rotzoll, G. A. Melnik, A. Fecioru, and A. J. Trindade, “Emissive displays with transfer-printed assemblies of 8 µm × 15 µm inorganic light-emitting diodes,” Photonics Res. 5(2), A23 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. Chung, J. Sui, B. Demory, and P.-C. Ku, “Color mixing from monolithically integrated InGaN-based light-emitting diodes by local strain engineering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(4), 041101 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. Chung, J. Sui, B. Demory, C. H. Teng, and P. C. Ku, “Monolithic integration of individually addressable light-emitting diode color pixels,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(11), 111103 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (3)

Y.-H. Ra, R. Wang, S. Y. Woo, M. Djavid, S. M. Sadaf, J. Lee, G. A. Botton, and Z. Mi, “Full-color single nanowire pixels for projection displays,” Nano Lett. 16(7), 4608–4615 (2016).
[Crossref]

C.-H. Teng, L. Zhang, H. Deng, and P.-C. Ku, “Strain-induced red-green-blue wavelength tuning in InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(7), 071104 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. S. El-Ghoroury, M. Yeh, J. C. Chen, X. Li, and C.-L. Chuang, “Growth of monolithic full-color GaN-based LED with intermediate carrier blocking layers,” AIP Adv. 6(7), 075316 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (2)

2014 (2)

R. Wang, H. P. T. Nguyen, A. T. Connie, J. Lee, I. Shih, and Z. Mi, “Color-tunable, phosphor-free InGaN nanowire light-emitting diode arrays monolithically integrated on silicon,” Opt. Express 22(S7), A1768–75 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Zhang, L. K. Lee, C.-H. Teng, T. Hill, P.-C. Ku, and H. Deng, “How much better are InGaN/GaN nanodisks than quantum wells - oscillator strength enhancement and changes in optical properties,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(5), 051116 (2014).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

T.-H. Kim, K.-S. Cho, E. K. Lee, S. J. Lee, J. Chae, J. W. Kim, D. H. Kim, J.-Y. Kwon, G. Amaratunga, S. Y. Lee, B. L. Choi, Y. Kuk, J. M. Kim, and K. Kim, “Full-colour quantum dot displays fabricated by transfer printing,” Nat. Photonics 5(3), 176–182 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y.-J. J. Lu, H.-W. W. Lin, H.-Y. Y. Chen, Y.-C. C. Yang, and S. Gwo, “Single InGaN nanodisk light emitting diodes as full-color subwavelength light sources,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(23), 96–99 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

Y. Kawakami, A. Kaneta, L. Su, Y. Zhu, K. Okamoto, M. Funato, A. Kikuchi, and K. Kishino, “Optical properties of InGaN/GaN nanopillars fabricated by postgrowth chemically assisted ion beam etching,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(2), 023522 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

J. J. Wierer, A. David, and M. M. Megens, “III-nitride photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with high extraction efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 163–169 (2009).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

J. M. Lee, K. S. Lee, and S. J. Park, “Removal of dry etch damage in p-type GaN by wet etching of sacrificial oxide layer,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B Microelectron. Nanom. Struct. 22(2), 479–482 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (2)

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, “High-Q photonic nanocavity in a two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Nature 425(6961), 944–947 (2003).
[Crossref]

Y. C. Lin, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, T. Y. Tsai, C. S. Chang, S. C. Shei, C. W. Kuo, and S. C. Chen, “InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes with Ni/Au, Ni/ITO and ITO p-type contacts,” Solid. State. Electron. 47(5), 849–853 (2003).
[Crossref]

2000 (2)

X. A. Cao, A. P. Zhang, G. T. Dang, F. Ren, S. J. Pearton, J. M. Van Hove, R. A. Hickman, R. J. Shul, and L. Zhang, “Plasma damage in p-GaN,” J. Electron. Mater. 29(3), 256–261 (2000).
[Crossref]

X. A. Cao, S. J. Pearton, G. T. Dang, A. P. Zhang, F. Ren, and J. M. Van Hove, “GaN n- and p-type Schottky diodes: Effect of dry etch damage,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 47(7), 1320–1324 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

T. Mukai, M. Yamada, and S. Nakamura, “Characteristics of InGaN-Based UV/Blue/Green/Amber/Red Light-Emitting Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38(Part 1, No. 7A), 3976–3981 (1999).
[Crossref]

Akahane, Y.

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, “High-Q photonic nanocavity in a two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Nature 425(6961), 944–947 (2003).
[Crossref]

Amaratunga, G.

T.-H. Kim, K.-S. Cho, E. K. Lee, S. J. Lee, J. Chae, J. W. Kim, D. H. Kim, J.-Y. Kwon, G. Amaratunga, S. Y. Lee, B. L. Choi, Y. Kuk, J. M. Kim, and K. Kim, “Full-colour quantum dot displays fabricated by transfer printing,” Nat. Photonics 5(3), 176–182 (2011).
[Crossref]

Asano, T.

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, “High-Q photonic nanocavity in a two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Nature 425(6961), 944–947 (2003).
[Crossref]

Biswas, M.

M. Biswas, V. Chavan, S. Zhao, Z. Mi, and S. Chakrabarti, “Passivation of Surface States of AlGaN Nanowires Using H 3 PO 4 Treatment To Enhance the Performance of UV-LEDs and Photoanodes,” ACS Appl. Nano Mater. 1(4), 1968–1975 (2018).
[Crossref]

Bonafede, S.

C. A. Bower, M. A. Meitl, B. Raymond, E. Radauscher, R. Cok, S. Bonafede, D. Gomez, T. Moore, C. Prevatte, B. Fisher, R. Rotzoll, G. A. Melnik, A. Fecioru, and A. J. Trindade, “Emissive displays with transfer-printed assemblies of 8 µm × 15 µm inorganic light-emitting diodes,” Photonics Res. 5(2), A23 (2017).
[Crossref]

Botton, G. A.

Y.-H. Ra, R. Wang, S. Y. Woo, M. Djavid, S. M. Sadaf, J. Lee, G. A. Botton, and Z. Mi, “Full-color single nanowire pixels for projection displays,” Nano Lett. 16(7), 4608–4615 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bower, C. A.

C. A. Bower, M. A. Meitl, B. Raymond, E. Radauscher, R. Cok, S. Bonafede, D. Gomez, T. Moore, C. Prevatte, B. Fisher, R. Rotzoll, G. A. Melnik, A. Fecioru, and A. J. Trindade, “Emissive displays with transfer-printed assemblies of 8 µm × 15 µm inorganic light-emitting diodes,” Photonics Res. 5(2), A23 (2017).
[Crossref]

Brewer, W. D.

J. Chen and W. D. Brewer, “Ohmic Contacts on p-GaN,” Adv. Electron. Mater. 1(8), 1500113 (2015).
[Crossref]

Brodrick, J.

J. Brodrick, “2018 Solid-State Lighting R&D Opportunities,” (2019).

Cao, X. A.

X. A. Cao, A. P. Zhang, G. T. Dang, F. Ren, S. J. Pearton, J. M. Van Hove, R. A. Hickman, R. J. Shul, and L. Zhang, “Plasma damage in p-GaN,” J. Electron. Mater. 29(3), 256–261 (2000).
[Crossref]

X. A. Cao, S. J. Pearton, G. T. Dang, A. P. Zhang, F. Ren, and J. M. Van Hove, “GaN n- and p-type Schottky diodes: Effect of dry etch damage,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 47(7), 1320–1324 (2000).
[Crossref]

Chae, J.

T.-H. Kim, K.-S. Cho, E. K. Lee, S. J. Lee, J. Chae, J. W. Kim, D. H. Kim, J.-Y. Kwon, G. Amaratunga, S. Y. Lee, B. L. Choi, Y. Kuk, J. M. Kim, and K. Kim, “Full-colour quantum dot displays fabricated by transfer printing,” Nat. Photonics 5(3), 176–182 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chakrabarti, S.

M. Biswas, V. Chavan, S. Zhao, Z. Mi, and S. Chakrabarti, “Passivation of Surface States of AlGaN Nanowires Using H 3 PO 4 Treatment To Enhance the Performance of UV-LEDs and Photoanodes,” ACS Appl. Nano Mater. 1(4), 1968–1975 (2018).
[Crossref]

Chang, C. S.

Y. C. Lin, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, T. Y. Tsai, C. S. Chang, S. C. Shei, C. W. Kuo, and S. C. Chen, “InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes with Ni/Au, Ni/ITO and ITO p-type contacts,” Solid. State. Electron. 47(5), 849–853 (2003).
[Crossref]

Chang, S. J.

Y. C. Lin, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, T. Y. Tsai, C. S. Chang, S. C. Shei, C. W. Kuo, and S. C. Chen, “InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes with Ni/Au, Ni/ITO and ITO p-type contacts,” Solid. State. Electron. 47(5), 849–853 (2003).
[Crossref]

Chavan, V.

M. Biswas, V. Chavan, S. Zhao, Z. Mi, and S. Chakrabarti, “Passivation of Surface States of AlGaN Nanowires Using H 3 PO 4 Treatment To Enhance the Performance of UV-LEDs and Photoanodes,” ACS Appl. Nano Mater. 1(4), 1968–1975 (2018).
[Crossref]

Chen, H.

Chen, H.-Y. Y.

Y.-J. J. Lu, H.-W. W. Lin, H.-Y. Y. Chen, Y.-C. C. Yang, and S. Gwo, “Single InGaN nanodisk light emitting diodes as full-color subwavelength light sources,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(23), 96–99 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chen, J.

J. Chen and W. D. Brewer, “Ohmic Contacts on p-GaN,” Adv. Electron. Mater. 1(8), 1500113 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, J. C.

H. S. El-Ghoroury, M. Yeh, J. C. Chen, X. Li, and C.-L. Chuang, “Growth of monolithic full-color GaN-based LED with intermediate carrier blocking layers,” AIP Adv. 6(7), 075316 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chen, K.-J.

Chen, S. C.

Y. C. Lin, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, T. Y. Tsai, C. S. Chang, S. C. Shei, C. W. Kuo, and S. C. Chen, “InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes with Ni/Au, Ni/ITO and ITO p-type contacts,” Solid. State. Electron. 47(5), 849–853 (2003).
[Crossref]

Chen, T.-M.

Cho, K.-S.

T.-H. Kim, K.-S. Cho, E. K. Lee, S. J. Lee, J. Chae, J. W. Kim, D. H. Kim, J.-Y. Kwon, G. Amaratunga, S. Y. Lee, B. L. Choi, Y. Kuk, J. M. Kim, and K. Kim, “Full-colour quantum dot displays fabricated by transfer printing,” Nat. Photonics 5(3), 176–182 (2011).
[Crossref]

Choi, B. L.

T.-H. Kim, K.-S. Cho, E. K. Lee, S. J. Lee, J. Chae, J. W. Kim, D. H. Kim, J.-Y. Kwon, G. Amaratunga, S. Y. Lee, B. L. Choi, Y. Kuk, J. M. Kim, and K. Kim, “Full-colour quantum dot displays fabricated by transfer printing,” Nat. Photonics 5(3), 176–182 (2011).
[Crossref]

Choi, S. Y.

C. M. Kang, J. Y. Lee, D. J. Kong, J. P. Shim, S. Kim, S. H. Mun, S. Y. Choi, M. Do Park, J. Kim, and D. S. Lee, “Hybrid Full-Color Inorganic Light-Emitting Diodes Integrated on a Single Wafer Using Selective Area Growth and Adhesive Bonding,” ACS Photonics 5(11), 4413–4422 (2018).
[Crossref]

Chong, W.

Chuang, C.-L.

H. S. El-Ghoroury, M. Yeh, J. C. Chen, X. Li, and C.-L. Chuang, “Growth of monolithic full-color GaN-based LED with intermediate carrier blocking layers,” AIP Adv. 6(7), 075316 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chun, H.

S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. McKendry, J. Herrnsdorf, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, H. Haas, I. M. Watson, D. O’Brien, and M. D. Dawson, “A review of gallium nitride LEDs for multi-gigabit-per-second visible light data communications,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 32(2), 023001 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chung, K.

K. Chung, J. Sui, B. Demory, and P.-C. Ku, “Color mixing from monolithically integrated InGaN-based light-emitting diodes by local strain engineering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(4), 041101 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. Chung, J. Sui, B. Demory, C. H. Teng, and P. C. Ku, “Monolithic integration of individually addressable light-emitting diode color pixels,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(11), 111103 (2017).
[Crossref]

Cok, R.

C. A. Bower, M. A. Meitl, B. Raymond, E. Radauscher, R. Cok, S. Bonafede, D. Gomez, T. Moore, C. Prevatte, B. Fisher, R. Rotzoll, G. A. Melnik, A. Fecioru, and A. J. Trindade, “Emissive displays with transfer-printed assemblies of 8 µm × 15 µm inorganic light-emitting diodes,” Photonics Res. 5(2), A23 (2017).
[Crossref]

Connie, A. T.

Dang, G. T.

X. A. Cao, A. P. Zhang, G. T. Dang, F. Ren, S. J. Pearton, J. M. Van Hove, R. A. Hickman, R. J. Shul, and L. Zhang, “Plasma damage in p-GaN,” J. Electron. Mater. 29(3), 256–261 (2000).
[Crossref]

X. A. Cao, S. J. Pearton, G. T. Dang, A. P. Zhang, F. Ren, and J. M. Van Hove, “GaN n- and p-type Schottky diodes: Effect of dry etch damage,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 47(7), 1320–1324 (2000).
[Crossref]

David, A.

J. J. Wierer, A. David, and M. M. Megens, “III-nitride photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with high extraction efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 163–169 (2009).
[Crossref]

Dawson, M. D.

S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. McKendry, J. Herrnsdorf, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, H. Haas, I. M. Watson, D. O’Brien, and M. D. Dawson, “A review of gallium nitride LEDs for multi-gigabit-per-second visible light data communications,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 32(2), 023001 (2017).
[Crossref]

Demory, B.

K. Chung, J. Sui, B. Demory, C. H. Teng, and P. C. Ku, “Monolithic integration of individually addressable light-emitting diode color pixels,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(11), 111103 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. Chung, J. Sui, B. Demory, and P.-C. Ku, “Color mixing from monolithically integrated InGaN-based light-emitting diodes by local strain engineering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(4), 041101 (2017).
[Crossref]

Deng, H.

C.-H. Teng, L. Zhang, H. Deng, and P.-C. Ku, “Strain-induced red-green-blue wavelength tuning in InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(7), 071104 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Zhang, L. K. Lee, C.-H. Teng, T. Hill, P.-C. Ku, and H. Deng, “How much better are InGaN/GaN nanodisks than quantum wells - oscillator strength enhancement and changes in optical properties,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(5), 051116 (2014).
[Crossref]

Djavid, M.

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Raymond, B.

C. A. Bower, M. A. Meitl, B. Raymond, E. Radauscher, R. Cok, S. Bonafede, D. Gomez, T. Moore, C. Prevatte, B. Fisher, R. Rotzoll, G. A. Melnik, A. Fecioru, and A. J. Trindade, “Emissive displays with transfer-printed assemblies of 8 µm × 15 µm inorganic light-emitting diodes,” Photonics Res. 5(2), A23 (2017).
[Crossref]

Ren, F.

X. A. Cao, A. P. Zhang, G. T. Dang, F. Ren, S. J. Pearton, J. M. Van Hove, R. A. Hickman, R. J. Shul, and L. Zhang, “Plasma damage in p-GaN,” J. Electron. Mater. 29(3), 256–261 (2000).
[Crossref]

X. A. Cao, S. J. Pearton, G. T. Dang, A. P. Zhang, F. Ren, and J. M. Van Hove, “GaN n- and p-type Schottky diodes: Effect of dry etch damage,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 47(7), 1320–1324 (2000).
[Crossref]

Roqan, I. S.

H. Sun, M. K. Shakfa, M. M. Muhammed, B. Janjua, K. H. Li, R. Lin, T. K. Ng, I. S. Roqan, B. S. Ooi, and X. Li, “Surface-Passivated AlGaN Nanowires for Enhanced Luminescence of Ultraviolet Light Emitting Diodes,” ACS Photonics 5(3), 964–970 (2018).
[Crossref]

Rotzoll, R.

C. A. Bower, M. A. Meitl, B. Raymond, E. Radauscher, R. Cok, S. Bonafede, D. Gomez, T. Moore, C. Prevatte, B. Fisher, R. Rotzoll, G. A. Melnik, A. Fecioru, and A. J. Trindade, “Emissive displays with transfer-printed assemblies of 8 µm × 15 µm inorganic light-emitting diodes,” Photonics Res. 5(2), A23 (2017).
[Crossref]

Sadaf, S. M.

Y.-H. Ra, R. Wang, S. Y. Woo, M. Djavid, S. M. Sadaf, J. Lee, G. A. Botton, and Z. Mi, “Full-color single nanowire pixels for projection displays,” Nano Lett. 16(7), 4608–4615 (2016).
[Crossref]

Shakfa, M. K.

H. Sun, M. K. Shakfa, M. M. Muhammed, B. Janjua, K. H. Li, R. Lin, T. K. Ng, I. S. Roqan, B. S. Ooi, and X. Li, “Surface-Passivated AlGaN Nanowires for Enhanced Luminescence of Ultraviolet Light Emitting Diodes,” ACS Photonics 5(3), 964–970 (2018).
[Crossref]

Shei, S. C.

Y. C. Lin, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, T. Y. Tsai, C. S. Chang, S. C. Shei, C. W. Kuo, and S. C. Chen, “InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes with Ni/Au, Ni/ITO and ITO p-type contacts,” Solid. State. Electron. 47(5), 849–853 (2003).
[Crossref]

Shih, I.

Shim, J. P.

C. M. Kang, J. Y. Lee, D. J. Kong, J. P. Shim, S. Kim, S. H. Mun, S. Y. Choi, M. Do Park, J. Kim, and D. S. Lee, “Hybrid Full-Color Inorganic Light-Emitting Diodes Integrated on a Single Wafer Using Selective Area Growth and Adhesive Bonding,” ACS Photonics 5(11), 4413–4422 (2018).
[Crossref]

Shul, R. J.

X. A. Cao, A. P. Zhang, G. T. Dang, F. Ren, S. J. Pearton, J. M. Van Hove, R. A. Hickman, R. J. Shul, and L. Zhang, “Plasma damage in p-GaN,” J. Electron. Mater. 29(3), 256–261 (2000).
[Crossref]

Song, B. S.

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, “High-Q photonic nanocavity in a two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Nature 425(6961), 944–947 (2003).
[Crossref]

Su, L.

Y. Kawakami, A. Kaneta, L. Su, Y. Zhu, K. Okamoto, M. Funato, A. Kikuchi, and K. Kishino, “Optical properties of InGaN/GaN nanopillars fabricated by postgrowth chemically assisted ion beam etching,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(2), 023522 (2010).
[Crossref]

Su, Y. K.

Y. C. Lin, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, T. Y. Tsai, C. S. Chang, S. C. Shei, C. W. Kuo, and S. C. Chen, “InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes with Ni/Au, Ni/ITO and ITO p-type contacts,” Solid. State. Electron. 47(5), 849–853 (2003).
[Crossref]

Sui, J.

K. Chung, J. Sui, B. Demory, and P.-C. Ku, “Color mixing from monolithically integrated InGaN-based light-emitting diodes by local strain engineering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(4), 041101 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. Chung, J. Sui, B. Demory, C. H. Teng, and P. C. Ku, “Monolithic integration of individually addressable light-emitting diode color pixels,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(11), 111103 (2017).
[Crossref]

Sun, H.

H. Sun, M. K. Shakfa, M. M. Muhammed, B. Janjua, K. H. Li, R. Lin, T. K. Ng, I. S. Roqan, B. S. Ooi, and X. Li, “Surface-Passivated AlGaN Nanowires for Enhanced Luminescence of Ultraviolet Light Emitting Diodes,” ACS Photonics 5(3), 964–970 (2018).
[Crossref]

Teng, C. H.

K. Chung, J. Sui, B. Demory, C. H. Teng, and P. C. Ku, “Monolithic integration of individually addressable light-emitting diode color pixels,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(11), 111103 (2017).
[Crossref]

Teng, C.-H.

C.-H. Teng, L. Zhang, H. Deng, and P.-C. Ku, “Strain-induced red-green-blue wavelength tuning in InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(7), 071104 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Zhang, L. K. Lee, C.-H. Teng, T. Hill, P.-C. Ku, and H. Deng, “How much better are InGaN/GaN nanodisks than quantum wells - oscillator strength enhancement and changes in optical properties,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(5), 051116 (2014).
[Crossref]

Trindade, A. J.

C. A. Bower, M. A. Meitl, B. Raymond, E. Radauscher, R. Cok, S. Bonafede, D. Gomez, T. Moore, C. Prevatte, B. Fisher, R. Rotzoll, G. A. Melnik, A. Fecioru, and A. J. Trindade, “Emissive displays with transfer-printed assemblies of 8 µm × 15 µm inorganic light-emitting diodes,” Photonics Res. 5(2), A23 (2017).
[Crossref]

Tsai, T. Y.

Y. C. Lin, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, T. Y. Tsai, C. S. Chang, S. C. Shei, C. W. Kuo, and S. C. Chen, “InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes with Ni/Au, Ni/ITO and ITO p-type contacts,” Solid. State. Electron. 47(5), 849–853 (2003).
[Crossref]

Van Hove, J. M.

X. A. Cao, A. P. Zhang, G. T. Dang, F. Ren, S. J. Pearton, J. M. Van Hove, R. A. Hickman, R. J. Shul, and L. Zhang, “Plasma damage in p-GaN,” J. Electron. Mater. 29(3), 256–261 (2000).
[Crossref]

X. A. Cao, S. J. Pearton, G. T. Dang, A. P. Zhang, F. Ren, and J. M. Van Hove, “GaN n- and p-type Schottky diodes: Effect of dry etch damage,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 47(7), 1320–1324 (2000).
[Crossref]

Wang, R.

Y.-H. Ra, R. Wang, S. Y. Woo, M. Djavid, S. M. Sadaf, J. Lee, G. A. Botton, and Z. Mi, “Full-color single nanowire pixels for projection displays,” Nano Lett. 16(7), 4608–4615 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. Wang, H. P. T. Nguyen, A. T. Connie, J. Lee, I. Shih, and Z. Mi, “Color-tunable, phosphor-free InGaN nanowire light-emitting diode arrays monolithically integrated on silicon,” Opt. Express 22(S7), A1768–75 (2014).
[Crossref]

Watson, I. M.

S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. McKendry, J. Herrnsdorf, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, H. Haas, I. M. Watson, D. O’Brien, and M. D. Dawson, “A review of gallium nitride LEDs for multi-gigabit-per-second visible light data communications,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 32(2), 023001 (2017).
[Crossref]

Wierer, J. J.

J. J. Wierer, A. David, and M. M. Megens, “III-nitride photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with high extraction efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 163–169 (2009).
[Crossref]

Woo, S. Y.

Y.-H. Ra, R. Wang, S. Y. Woo, M. Djavid, S. M. Sadaf, J. Lee, G. A. Botton, and Z. Mi, “Full-color single nanowire pixels for projection displays,” Nano Lett. 16(7), 4608–4615 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yamada, M.

T. Mukai, M. Yamada, and S. Nakamura, “Characteristics of InGaN-Based UV/Blue/Green/Amber/Red Light-Emitting Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38(Part 1, No. 7A), 3976–3981 (1999).
[Crossref]

Yang, Y.-C. C.

Y.-J. J. Lu, H.-W. W. Lin, H.-Y. Y. Chen, Y.-C. C. Yang, and S. Gwo, “Single InGaN nanodisk light emitting diodes as full-color subwavelength light sources,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(23), 96–99 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yeh, M.

H. S. El-Ghoroury, M. Yeh, J. C. Chen, X. Li, and C.-L. Chuang, “Growth of monolithic full-color GaN-based LED with intermediate carrier blocking layers,” AIP Adv. 6(7), 075316 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yu, P.

Zhang, A. P.

X. A. Cao, A. P. Zhang, G. T. Dang, F. Ren, S. J. Pearton, J. M. Van Hove, R. A. Hickman, R. J. Shul, and L. Zhang, “Plasma damage in p-GaN,” J. Electron. Mater. 29(3), 256–261 (2000).
[Crossref]

X. A. Cao, S. J. Pearton, G. T. Dang, A. P. Zhang, F. Ren, and J. M. Van Hove, “GaN n- and p-type Schottky diodes: Effect of dry etch damage,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 47(7), 1320–1324 (2000).
[Crossref]

Zhang, L.

C.-H. Teng, L. Zhang, H. Deng, and P.-C. Ku, “Strain-induced red-green-blue wavelength tuning in InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(7), 071104 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Zhang, L. K. Lee, C.-H. Teng, T. Hill, P.-C. Ku, and H. Deng, “How much better are InGaN/GaN nanodisks than quantum wells - oscillator strength enhancement and changes in optical properties,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(5), 051116 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. A. Cao, A. P. Zhang, G. T. Dang, F. Ren, S. J. Pearton, J. M. Van Hove, R. A. Hickman, R. J. Shul, and L. Zhang, “Plasma damage in p-GaN,” J. Electron. Mater. 29(3), 256–261 (2000).
[Crossref]

Zhao, S.

M. Biswas, V. Chavan, S. Zhao, Z. Mi, and S. Chakrabarti, “Passivation of Surface States of AlGaN Nanowires Using H 3 PO 4 Treatment To Enhance the Performance of UV-LEDs and Photoanodes,” ACS Appl. Nano Mater. 1(4), 1968–1975 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zhu, Y.

Y. Kawakami, A. Kaneta, L. Su, Y. Zhu, K. Okamoto, M. Funato, A. Kikuchi, and K. Kishino, “Optical properties of InGaN/GaN nanopillars fabricated by postgrowth chemically assisted ion beam etching,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(2), 023522 (2010).
[Crossref]

ACS Appl. Nano Mater. (1)

M. Biswas, V. Chavan, S. Zhao, Z. Mi, and S. Chakrabarti, “Passivation of Surface States of AlGaN Nanowires Using H 3 PO 4 Treatment To Enhance the Performance of UV-LEDs and Photoanodes,” ACS Appl. Nano Mater. 1(4), 1968–1975 (2018).
[Crossref]

ACS Photonics (2)

H. Sun, M. K. Shakfa, M. M. Muhammed, B. Janjua, K. H. Li, R. Lin, T. K. Ng, I. S. Roqan, B. S. Ooi, and X. Li, “Surface-Passivated AlGaN Nanowires for Enhanced Luminescence of Ultraviolet Light Emitting Diodes,” ACS Photonics 5(3), 964–970 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. M. Kang, J. Y. Lee, D. J. Kong, J. P. Shim, S. Kim, S. H. Mun, S. Y. Choi, M. Do Park, J. Kim, and D. S. Lee, “Hybrid Full-Color Inorganic Light-Emitting Diodes Integrated on a Single Wafer Using Selective Area Growth and Adhesive Bonding,” ACS Photonics 5(11), 4413–4422 (2018).
[Crossref]

Adv. Electron. Mater. (1)

J. Chen and W. D. Brewer, “Ohmic Contacts on p-GaN,” Adv. Electron. Mater. 1(8), 1500113 (2015).
[Crossref]

AIP Adv. (1)

H. S. El-Ghoroury, M. Yeh, J. C. Chen, X. Li, and C.-L. Chuang, “Growth of monolithic full-color GaN-based LED with intermediate carrier blocking layers,” AIP Adv. 6(7), 075316 (2016).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

Y.-J. J. Lu, H.-W. W. Lin, H.-Y. Y. Chen, Y.-C. C. Yang, and S. Gwo, “Single InGaN nanodisk light emitting diodes as full-color subwavelength light sources,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(23), 96–99 (2011).
[Crossref]

C.-H. Teng, L. Zhang, H. Deng, and P.-C. Ku, “Strain-induced red-green-blue wavelength tuning in InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(7), 071104 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. Chung, J. Sui, B. Demory, and P.-C. Ku, “Color mixing from monolithically integrated InGaN-based light-emitting diodes by local strain engineering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(4), 041101 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. Chung, J. Sui, B. Demory, C. H. Teng, and P. C. Ku, “Monolithic integration of individually addressable light-emitting diode color pixels,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(11), 111103 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. Zhang, L. K. Lee, C.-H. Teng, T. Hill, P.-C. Ku, and H. Deng, “How much better are InGaN/GaN nanodisks than quantum wells - oscillator strength enhancement and changes in optical properties,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(5), 051116 (2014).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Electron Devices (1)

X. A. Cao, S. J. Pearton, G. T. Dang, A. P. Zhang, F. Ren, and J. M. Van Hove, “GaN n- and p-type Schottky diodes: Effect of dry etch damage,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 47(7), 1320–1324 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

Y. Kawakami, A. Kaneta, L. Su, Y. Zhu, K. Okamoto, M. Funato, A. Kikuchi, and K. Kishino, “Optical properties of InGaN/GaN nanopillars fabricated by postgrowth chemically assisted ion beam etching,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(2), 023522 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Electron. Mater. (1)

X. A. Cao, A. P. Zhang, G. T. Dang, F. Ren, S. J. Pearton, J. M. Van Hove, R. A. Hickman, R. J. Shul, and L. Zhang, “Plasma damage in p-GaN,” J. Electron. Mater. 29(3), 256–261 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B Microelectron. Nanom. Struct. (1)

J. M. Lee, K. S. Lee, and S. J. Park, “Removal of dry etch damage in p-type GaN by wet etching of sacrificial oxide layer,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B Microelectron. Nanom. Struct. 22(2), 479–482 (2004).
[Crossref]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

T. Mukai, M. Yamada, and S. Nakamura, “Characteristics of InGaN-Based UV/Blue/Green/Amber/Red Light-Emitting Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38(Part 1, No. 7A), 3976–3981 (1999).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (1)

Y.-H. Ra, R. Wang, S. Y. Woo, M. Djavid, S. M. Sadaf, J. Lee, G. A. Botton, and Z. Mi, “Full-color single nanowire pixels for projection displays,” Nano Lett. 16(7), 4608–4615 (2016).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (2)

J. J. Wierer, A. David, and M. M. Megens, “III-nitride photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with high extraction efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 163–169 (2009).
[Crossref]

T.-H. Kim, K.-S. Cho, E. K. Lee, S. J. Lee, J. Chae, J. W. Kim, D. H. Kim, J.-Y. Kwon, G. Amaratunga, S. Y. Lee, B. L. Choi, Y. Kuk, J. M. Kim, and K. Kim, “Full-colour quantum dot displays fabricated by transfer printing,” Nat. Photonics 5(3), 176–182 (2011).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, “High-Q photonic nanocavity in a two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Nature 425(6961), 944–947 (2003).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (2)

Photonics Res. (1)

C. A. Bower, M. A. Meitl, B. Raymond, E. Radauscher, R. Cok, S. Bonafede, D. Gomez, T. Moore, C. Prevatte, B. Fisher, R. Rotzoll, G. A. Melnik, A. Fecioru, and A. J. Trindade, “Emissive displays with transfer-printed assemblies of 8 µm × 15 µm inorganic light-emitting diodes,” Photonics Res. 5(2), A23 (2017).
[Crossref]

Rev. Phys. (1)

H. Haas, “LiFi is a paradigm-shifting 5G technology,” Rev. Phys. 3(October 2017), 26–31 (2018).
[Crossref]

Semicond. Sci. Technol. (1)

S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. McKendry, J. Herrnsdorf, H. Chun, G. Faulkner, H. Haas, I. M. Watson, D. O’Brien, and M. D. Dawson, “A review of gallium nitride LEDs for multi-gigabit-per-second visible light data communications,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 32(2), 023001 (2017).
[Crossref]

Solid. State. Electron. (1)

Y. C. Lin, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, T. Y. Tsai, C. S. Chang, S. C. Shei, C. W. Kuo, and S. C. Chen, “InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes with Ni/Au, Ni/ITO and ITO p-type contacts,” Solid. State. Electron. 47(5), 849–853 (2003).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

J. Brodrick, “2018 Solid-State Lighting R&D Opportunities,” (2019).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) Monolithic integration of red, green, and blue color channels using nanopillars of different diameters. (b)–(d) SEM images of the red (b), green (c), and blue (d) channels. The green and blue channels consist of nanopillars of 200nm and 45nm diameters, respectively.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a), (b) Optical images of the LED sample (a) before and (b) after the top-down fabrication process. (c) Transmittance of the LED sample at the metal contact region measured across the visible spectrum. The inset shows an optical image of the measurement area where the illuminated area by the incident white light is denoted by a 300µm-radius dotted circle.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Electroluminescence characteristics of the red, green, and blue color channels. (a) Light emission images. (b) Normalized EL spectra of the red, green, and blue channels measured without any active cooling or heatsink. (c) Modulation response of the red, green, and blue channels as a function of modulation frequency.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (a) External quantum efficiency (EQE) and (b) Current density-voltage (J-V) curves of the red, green, and blue LED channels. The inset in (b) shows the equivalent circuit model used to fit the J-V curves.

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