Abstract

We present a low-loss weakly guiding ring-core fiber for orbital angular momentum (OAM) mode group multiplexing (MGM) transmission. This special fiber design supports 50 radially fundamental modes divided into 13 mode groups with only 0.7% relative refractive index difference between the fiber ring core and cladding. Except the first two groups with 10−5 mode spacing, the other mode groups are separated with each other with effective refractive index difference (Δneff) larger than 10−4, indicating relatively low-level inter-group crosstalk. One can directly use different OAM mode groups for MGM communications without multiple-input multiple-output digital signal processing (MIMO-DSP) technique. Besides, one can employ different OAM modes among the same mode group to carry different data information assisted by small-scale MIMO technique. The target fiber exhibits small and flat dispersion within (14.3, 39.7) ps/nm/km which is comparable to that in the standard single-mode fiber (SMF), and extremely large mode area within (787.9, 841.2) µm2 over the whole C + L band. MIMO equalization complexities for modified small-scale MIMO-DSP assisted intra-group modes multiplexing combined with MIMO-free inter-group modes multiplexing method in both time and frequency domain are much simpler compared to traditional 50×50 MIMO equalization.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

Full Article  |  PDF Article

Corrections

19 December 2019: Typographical corrections were made to Refs. 4 and 23.


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References

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2019 (1)

J. Wang, “Twisted optical communications using orbital angular momentum,” Sci. China Phys. Mech. Astron. 62(3), 34201 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (8)

A. Wang, L. Zhu, L. Wang, J. Ai, S. Chen, and J. Wang, “Directly using 8.8-km conventional multi-mode fiber for 6-mode orbital angular momentum multiplexing transmission,” Opt. Express 26(8), 10038–10047 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Liu, S. Li, L. Zhu, A. Wang, S. Chen, C. Klitis, C. Du, Q. Mo, M. Sorel, and S. Yu, “Direct fiber vector eigenmode multiplexing transmission seeded by integrated optical vortex emitters,” Light: Sci. Appl. 7(3), 17148 (2018).
[Crossref]

K. Ingerslev, P. Gregg, M. Galili, F. Da Ros, H. Hu, F. Bao, M. A. U. Castaneda, P. Kristensen, A. Rubano, and L. Marrucci, “12 mode, WDM, MIMO-free orbital angular momentum transmission,” Opt. Express 26(16), 20225–20232 (2018).
[Crossref]

G. Zhu, Z. Hu, X. Wu, C. Du, W. Luo, Y. Chen, X. Cai, J. Liu, J. Zhu, and S. Yu, “Scalable mode division multiplexed transmission over a 10-km ring-core fiber using high-order orbital angular momentum modes,” Opt. Express 26(2), 594–604 (2018).
[Crossref]

L. Zhu, G. Zhu, A. Wang, L. Wang, J. Ai, S. Chen, C. Du, J. Liu, S. Yu, and J. Wang, “18 km low-crosstalk OAM + WDM transmission with 224 individual channels enabled by a ring-core fiber with large high-order mode group separation,” Opt. Lett. 43(8), 1890–1893 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Zhang, G. Zhu, J. Liu, X. Wu, J. Zhu, C. Du, W. Luo, Y. Chen, and S. Yu, “Orbital-angular-momentum mode-group multiplexed transmission over a graded-index ring-core fiber based on receive diversity and maximal ratio combining,” Opt. Express 26(4), 4243–4257 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Wang, “Metasurfaces enabling structured light manipulation: advances and perspectives,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 16(5), 050006 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Liu, S. Li, Y. Ding, S. Chen, C. Du, Q. Mo, T. Morioka, K. Yvind, L. K. Oxenløwe, S. Yu, X. Cai, and J. Wang, “Orbital angular momentum modes emission from a silicon photonic integrated device for km-scale data-carrying fiber transmission,” Opt. Express 26(12), 15471–15479 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (6)

2016 (5)

2015 (5)

H. Huang, G. Milione, M. P. J. Lavery, G. Xie, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, T. A. Nguyen, D. A. Nolan, M.-J. Li, M. Tur, R. R. Alfano, and A. E. Willner, “Mode division multiplexing using an orbital angular momentum mode sorter and MIMO-DSP over a graded-index few-mode optical fiber,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 14931 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Ryf, N. K. Fontaine, H. Chen, B. Guan, B. Huang, M. Esmaeelpour, A. H. Gnauck, S. Randel, S. J. B. Yoo, A. M. J. Koonen, R. Shubochkin, Y. Sun, and R. Lingle, “Mode-multiplexed transmission over conventional graded-index multimode fibers,” Opt. Express 23(1), 235–246 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Wang, L. Zhu, J. Liu, C. Du, Q. Mo, and J. Wang, “Demonstration of hybrid orbital angular momentum multiplexing and time-division multiplexing passive optical network,” Opt. Express 23(23), 29457–29466 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Gregg, P. Kristensen, and S. Ramachandran, “Conservation of orbital angular momentum in air-core optical fibers,” Optica 2(3), 267–270 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Li and J. Wang, “A compact trench-assisted multi-orbital-angular-momentum multi-ring fiber for ultrahigh-density space-division multiplexing (19 rings × 22 modes),” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 3853 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (4)

G. Li, N. Bai, N. Zhao, and C. Xia, “Space-division multiplexing: the next frontier in optical communication,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 6(4), 413–487 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Brunet, P. Vaity, Y. Messaddeq, S. LaRochelle, and L. A. Rusch, “Design, fabrication and validation of an OAM fiber supporting 36 states,” Opt. Express 22(21), 26117–26127 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. Ung, P. Vaity, L. Wang, Y. Messaddeq, L. A. Rusch, and S. LaRochelle, “Few-mode fiber with inverse-parabolic graded-index profile for transmission of OAM-carrying modes,” Opt. Express 22(15), 18044–18055 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. G. H. van Uden, R. Amezcua Correa, E. A. Lopez, F. M. Huijskens, C. Xia, G. Li, A. Schülzgen, H. de Waardt, A. M. J. Koonen, and C. M. Okonkwo, “Ultra-high-density spatial division multiplexing with a few-mode multicore fibre,” Nat. Photonics 8(11), 865–870 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

D. J. Richardson, J. M. Fini, and L. E. Nelson, “Space-division multiplexing in optical fibres,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 354–362 (2013).
[Crossref]

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Li and J. Wang, “Multi-orbital-angular-momentum multi-ring fiber for high-density space-division multiplexing,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(5), 7101007 (2013).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

2010 (1)

M. Kuschnerov, M. Chouayakh, K. Piyawanno, B. Spinnler, E. De Man, P. Kainzmaier, M. S. Alfiad, A. Napoli, and B. Lankl, “Data-aided versus blind single-carrier coherent receivers,” IEEE Photonics J. 2(3), 387–403 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

Agrawal, G. P.

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic, 2001).

Ahmed, N.

H. Huang, G. Milione, M. P. J. Lavery, G. Xie, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, T. A. Nguyen, D. A. Nolan, M.-J. Li, M. Tur, R. R. Alfano, and A. E. Willner, “Mode division multiplexing using an orbital angular momentum mode sorter and MIMO-DSP over a graded-index few-mode optical fiber,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 14931 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ai, J.

Alam, S.

Alfano, R. R.

H. Huang, G. Milione, M. P. J. Lavery, G. Xie, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, T. A. Nguyen, D. A. Nolan, M.-J. Li, M. Tur, R. R. Alfano, and A. E. Willner, “Mode division multiplexing using an orbital angular momentum mode sorter and MIMO-DSP over a graded-index few-mode optical fiber,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 14931 (2015).
[Crossref]

Alfiad, M. S.

M. Kuschnerov, M. Chouayakh, K. Piyawanno, B. Spinnler, E. De Man, P. Kainzmaier, M. S. Alfiad, A. Napoli, and B. Lankl, “Data-aided versus blind single-carrier coherent receivers,” IEEE Photonics J. 2(3), 387–403 (2010).
[Crossref]

Amezcua Correa, R.

R. G. H. van Uden, R. Amezcua Correa, E. A. Lopez, F. M. Huijskens, C. Xia, G. Li, A. Schülzgen, H. de Waardt, A. M. J. Koonen, and C. M. Okonkwo, “Ultra-high-density spatial division multiplexing with a few-mode multicore fibre,” Nat. Photonics 8(11), 865–870 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bai, N.

G. Li, N. Bai, N. Zhao, and C. Xia, “Space-division multiplexing: the next frontier in optical communication,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 6(4), 413–487 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bao, F.

Bolle, C. A.

Bozinovic, N.

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref]

Brunet, C.

Cai, X.

Cao, Y.

H. Huang, G. Milione, M. P. J. Lavery, G. Xie, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, T. A. Nguyen, D. A. Nolan, M.-J. Li, M. Tur, R. R. Alfano, and A. E. Willner, “Mode division multiplexing using an orbital angular momentum mode sorter and MIMO-DSP over a graded-index few-mode optical fiber,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 14931 (2015).
[Crossref]

Castaneda, M. A. U.

Chen, H.

Chen, S.

J. Liu, S. Li, Y. Ding, S. Chen, C. Du, Q. Mo, T. Morioka, K. Yvind, L. K. Oxenløwe, S. Yu, X. Cai, and J. Wang, “Orbital angular momentum modes emission from a silicon photonic integrated device for km-scale data-carrying fiber transmission,” Opt. Express 26(12), 15471–15479 (2018).
[Crossref]

L. Zhu, G. Zhu, A. Wang, L. Wang, J. Ai, S. Chen, C. Du, J. Liu, S. Yu, and J. Wang, “18 km low-crosstalk OAM + WDM transmission with 224 individual channels enabled by a ring-core fiber with large high-order mode group separation,” Opt. Lett. 43(8), 1890–1893 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. Wang, L. Zhu, L. Wang, J. Ai, S. Chen, and J. Wang, “Directly using 8.8-km conventional multi-mode fiber for 6-mode orbital angular momentum multiplexing transmission,” Opt. Express 26(8), 10038–10047 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Liu, S. Li, L. Zhu, A. Wang, S. Chen, C. Klitis, C. Du, Q. Mo, M. Sorel, and S. Yu, “Direct fiber vector eigenmode multiplexing transmission seeded by integrated optical vortex emitters,” Light: Sci. Appl. 7(3), 17148 (2018).
[Crossref]

L. Zhu, A. Wang, S. Chen, J. Liu, Q. Mo, C. Du, and J. Wang, “Orbital angular momentum mode groups multiplexing transmission over 2.6-km conventional multi-mode fiber,” Opt. Express 25(21), 25637–25645 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Chen and J. Wang, “Characterization of red/green/blue orbital angular momentum modes in conventional G. 652 fiber,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 53(4), 1–14 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Chen and J. Wang, “Theoretical analyses on orbital angular momentum modes in conventional graded-index multimode fibre,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 3990 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Jung, Q. Kang, H. Zhou, R. Zhang, S. Chen, H. Wang, Y. Yang, X. Jin, F. P. Payne, S. Alam, and D. J. Richardson, “Low-loss 25.3 km few-mode ring-core fiber for mode-division multiplexed transmission,” J. Lightwave Technol. 35(8), 1363–1368 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Liu, L. Zhu, A. Wang, S. Li, S. Chen, C. Du, Q. Mo, and J. Wang, “All-fiber pre-and post-data exchange in km-scale fiber-based twisted lights multiplexing,” Opt. Lett. 41(16), 3896–3899 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Wang, L. Zhu, S. Chen, C. Du, Q. Mo, and J. Wang, “Characterization of LDPC-coded orbital angular momentum modes transmission and multiplexing over a 50-km fiber,” Opt. Express 24(11), 11716–11726 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Chen, J. Liu, Y. Zhao, L. Zhu, A. Wang, S. Li, J. Du, C. Du, Q. Mo, and J. Wang, “Full-duplex bidirectional data transmission link using twisted lights multiplexing over 1.1-km orbital angular momentum fiber,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 38181 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.

Chouayakh, M.

M. Kuschnerov, M. Chouayakh, K. Piyawanno, B. Spinnler, E. De Man, P. Kainzmaier, M. S. Alfiad, A. Napoli, and B. Lankl, “Data-aided versus blind single-carrier coherent receivers,” IEEE Photonics J. 2(3), 387–403 (2010).
[Crossref]

Da Ros, F.

De Man, E.

M. Kuschnerov, M. Chouayakh, K. Piyawanno, B. Spinnler, E. De Man, P. Kainzmaier, M. S. Alfiad, A. Napoli, and B. Lankl, “Data-aided versus blind single-carrier coherent receivers,” IEEE Photonics J. 2(3), 387–403 (2010).
[Crossref]

de Waardt, H.

R. G. H. van Uden, R. Amezcua Correa, E. A. Lopez, F. M. Huijskens, C. Xia, G. Li, A. Schülzgen, H. de Waardt, A. M. J. Koonen, and C. M. Okonkwo, “Ultra-high-density spatial division multiplexing with a few-mode multicore fibre,” Nat. Photonics 8(11), 865–870 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ding, Y.

Du, C.

J. Liu, S. Li, Y. Ding, S. Chen, C. Du, Q. Mo, T. Morioka, K. Yvind, L. K. Oxenløwe, S. Yu, X. Cai, and J. Wang, “Orbital angular momentum modes emission from a silicon photonic integrated device for km-scale data-carrying fiber transmission,” Opt. Express 26(12), 15471–15479 (2018).
[Crossref]

G. Zhu, Z. Hu, X. Wu, C. Du, W. Luo, Y. Chen, X. Cai, J. Liu, J. Zhu, and S. Yu, “Scalable mode division multiplexed transmission over a 10-km ring-core fiber using high-order orbital angular momentum modes,” Opt. Express 26(2), 594–604 (2018).
[Crossref]

L. Zhu, G. Zhu, A. Wang, L. Wang, J. Ai, S. Chen, C. Du, J. Liu, S. Yu, and J. Wang, “18 km low-crosstalk OAM + WDM transmission with 224 individual channels enabled by a ring-core fiber with large high-order mode group separation,” Opt. Lett. 43(8), 1890–1893 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Zhang, G. Zhu, J. Liu, X. Wu, J. Zhu, C. Du, W. Luo, Y. Chen, and S. Yu, “Orbital-angular-momentum mode-group multiplexed transmission over a graded-index ring-core fiber based on receive diversity and maximal ratio combining,” Opt. Express 26(4), 4243–4257 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Liu, S. Li, L. Zhu, A. Wang, S. Chen, C. Klitis, C. Du, Q. Mo, M. Sorel, and S. Yu, “Direct fiber vector eigenmode multiplexing transmission seeded by integrated optical vortex emitters,” Light: Sci. Appl. 7(3), 17148 (2018).
[Crossref]

L. Zhu, A. Wang, S. Chen, J. Liu, Q. Mo, C. Du, and J. Wang, “Orbital angular momentum mode groups multiplexing transmission over 2.6-km conventional multi-mode fiber,” Opt. Express 25(21), 25637–25645 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Wang, L. Zhu, S. Chen, C. Du, Q. Mo, and J. Wang, “Characterization of LDPC-coded orbital angular momentum modes transmission and multiplexing over a 50-km fiber,” Opt. Express 24(11), 11716–11726 (2016).
[Crossref]

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A. Wang, L. Zhu, S. Chen, C. Du, Q. Mo, and J. Wang, “Characterization of LDPC-coded orbital angular momentum modes transmission and multiplexing over a 50-km fiber,” Opt. Express 24(11), 11716–11726 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Wang, “Advances in communications using optical vortices,” Photonics Res. 4(5), B14–B28 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Chen, J. Liu, Y. Zhao, L. Zhu, A. Wang, S. Li, J. Du, C. Du, Q. Mo, and J. Wang, “Full-duplex bidirectional data transmission link using twisted lights multiplexing over 1.1-km orbital angular momentum fiber,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 38181 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Li and J. Wang, “A compact trench-assisted multi-orbital-angular-momentum multi-ring fiber for ultrahigh-density space-division multiplexing (19 rings × 22 modes),” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 3853 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Wang, L. Zhu, J. Liu, C. Du, Q. Mo, and J. Wang, “Demonstration of hybrid orbital angular momentum multiplexing and time-division multiplexing passive optical network,” Opt. Express 23(23), 29457–29466 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Li and J. Wang, “Multi-orbital-angular-momentum multi-ring fiber for high-density space-division multiplexing,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(5), 7101007 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wang, L.

Willner, A. E.

H. Huang, G. Milione, M. P. J. Lavery, G. Xie, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, T. A. Nguyen, D. A. Nolan, M.-J. Li, M. Tur, R. R. Alfano, and A. E. Willner, “Mode division multiplexing using an orbital angular momentum mode sorter and MIMO-DSP over a graded-index few-mode optical fiber,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 14931 (2015).
[Crossref]

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref]

Winzer, P. J.

Wu, X.

Xia, C.

G. Li, N. Bai, N. Zhao, and C. Xia, “Space-division multiplexing: the next frontier in optical communication,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 6(4), 413–487 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. G. H. van Uden, R. Amezcua Correa, E. A. Lopez, F. M. Huijskens, C. Xia, G. Li, A. Schülzgen, H. de Waardt, A. M. J. Koonen, and C. M. Okonkwo, “Ultra-high-density spatial division multiplexing with a few-mode multicore fibre,” Nat. Photonics 8(11), 865–870 (2014).
[Crossref]

Xie, D.

Xie, G.

H. Huang, G. Milione, M. P. J. Lavery, G. Xie, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, T. A. Nguyen, D. A. Nolan, M.-J. Li, M. Tur, R. R. Alfano, and A. E. Willner, “Mode division multiplexing using an orbital angular momentum mode sorter and MIMO-DSP over a graded-index few-mode optical fiber,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 14931 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yan, M. F.

Yang, C.

Yang, Y.

Yoo, S. J. B.

Yu, S.

J. Liu, S. Li, Y. Ding, S. Chen, C. Du, Q. Mo, T. Morioka, K. Yvind, L. K. Oxenløwe, S. Yu, X. Cai, and J. Wang, “Orbital angular momentum modes emission from a silicon photonic integrated device for km-scale data-carrying fiber transmission,” Opt. Express 26(12), 15471–15479 (2018).
[Crossref]

G. Zhu, Z. Hu, X. Wu, C. Du, W. Luo, Y. Chen, X. Cai, J. Liu, J. Zhu, and S. Yu, “Scalable mode division multiplexed transmission over a 10-km ring-core fiber using high-order orbital angular momentum modes,” Opt. Express 26(2), 594–604 (2018).
[Crossref]

L. Zhu, G. Zhu, A. Wang, L. Wang, J. Ai, S. Chen, C. Du, J. Liu, S. Yu, and J. Wang, “18 km low-crosstalk OAM + WDM transmission with 224 individual channels enabled by a ring-core fiber with large high-order mode group separation,” Opt. Lett. 43(8), 1890–1893 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Liu, S. Li, L. Zhu, A. Wang, S. Chen, C. Klitis, C. Du, Q. Mo, M. Sorel, and S. Yu, “Direct fiber vector eigenmode multiplexing transmission seeded by integrated optical vortex emitters,” Light: Sci. Appl. 7(3), 17148 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Zhang, G. Zhu, J. Liu, X. Wu, J. Zhu, C. Du, W. Luo, Y. Chen, and S. Yu, “Orbital-angular-momentum mode-group multiplexed transmission over a graded-index ring-core fiber based on receive diversity and maximal ratio combining,” Opt. Express 26(4), 4243–4257 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Liu, S. Li, J. Du, C. Klitis, C. Du, Q. Mo, M. Sorel, S. Yu, X. Cai, and J. Wang, “Performance evaluation of analog signal transmission in an integrated optical vortex emitter to 3.6-km few-mode fiber system,” Opt. Lett. 41(9), 1969–1972 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yue, Y.

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yvind, K.

Zhang, J.

Zhang, R.

Zhao, N.

G. Li, N. Bai, N. Zhao, and C. Xia, “Space-division multiplexing: the next frontier in optical communication,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 6(4), 413–487 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhao, Y.

S. Chen, J. Liu, Y. Zhao, L. Zhu, A. Wang, S. Li, J. Du, C. Du, Q. Mo, and J. Wang, “Full-duplex bidirectional data transmission link using twisted lights multiplexing over 1.1-km orbital angular momentum fiber,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 38181 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhou, H.

Zhu, G.

Zhu, J.

Zhu, L.

L. Zhu, G. Zhu, A. Wang, L. Wang, J. Ai, S. Chen, C. Du, J. Liu, S. Yu, and J. Wang, “18 km low-crosstalk OAM + WDM transmission with 224 individual channels enabled by a ring-core fiber with large high-order mode group separation,” Opt. Lett. 43(8), 1890–1893 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. Wang, L. Zhu, L. Wang, J. Ai, S. Chen, and J. Wang, “Directly using 8.8-km conventional multi-mode fiber for 6-mode orbital angular momentum multiplexing transmission,” Opt. Express 26(8), 10038–10047 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Liu, S. Li, L. Zhu, A. Wang, S. Chen, C. Klitis, C. Du, Q. Mo, M. Sorel, and S. Yu, “Direct fiber vector eigenmode multiplexing transmission seeded by integrated optical vortex emitters,” Light: Sci. Appl. 7(3), 17148 (2018).
[Crossref]

L. Zhu, C. Yang, D. Xie, and J. Wang, “Demonstration of km-scale orbital angular momentum multiplexing transmission using 4-level pulse-amplitude modulation signals,” Opt. Lett. 42(4), 763–766 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. Zhu, A. Wang, S. Chen, J. Liu, Q. Mo, C. Du, and J. Wang, “Orbital angular momentum mode groups multiplexing transmission over 2.6-km conventional multi-mode fiber,” Opt. Express 25(21), 25637–25645 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Wang, L. Zhu, S. Chen, C. Du, Q. Mo, and J. Wang, “Characterization of LDPC-coded orbital angular momentum modes transmission and multiplexing over a 50-km fiber,” Opt. Express 24(11), 11716–11726 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Chen, J. Liu, Y. Zhao, L. Zhu, A. Wang, S. Li, J. Du, C. Du, Q. Mo, and J. Wang, “Full-duplex bidirectional data transmission link using twisted lights multiplexing over 1.1-km orbital angular momentum fiber,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 38181 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Liu, L. Zhu, A. Wang, S. Li, S. Chen, C. Du, Q. Mo, and J. Wang, “All-fiber pre-and post-data exchange in km-scale fiber-based twisted lights multiplexing,” Opt. Lett. 41(16), 3896–3899 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Wang, L. Zhu, J. Liu, C. Du, Q. Mo, and J. Wang, “Demonstration of hybrid orbital angular momentum multiplexing and time-division multiplexing passive optical network,” Opt. Express 23(23), 29457–29466 (2015).
[Crossref]

Adv. Opt. Photonics (1)

G. Li, N. Bai, N. Zhao, and C. Xia, “Space-division multiplexing: the next frontier in optical communication,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 6(4), 413–487 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chin. Opt. Lett. (2)

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

S. Chen and J. Wang, “Characterization of red/green/blue orbital angular momentum modes in conventional G. 652 fiber,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 53(4), 1–14 (2017).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics J. (2)

M. Kuschnerov, M. Chouayakh, K. Piyawanno, B. Spinnler, E. De Man, P. Kainzmaier, M. S. Alfiad, A. Napoli, and B. Lankl, “Data-aided versus blind single-carrier coherent receivers,” IEEE Photonics J. 2(3), 387–403 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Li and J. Wang, “Multi-orbital-angular-momentum multi-ring fiber for high-density space-division multiplexing,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(5), 7101007 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Light: Sci. Appl. (1)

J. Liu, S. Li, L. Zhu, A. Wang, S. Chen, C. Klitis, C. Du, Q. Mo, M. Sorel, and S. Yu, “Direct fiber vector eigenmode multiplexing transmission seeded by integrated optical vortex emitters,” Light: Sci. Appl. 7(3), 17148 (2018).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (2)

D. J. Richardson, J. M. Fini, and L. E. Nelson, “Space-division multiplexing in optical fibres,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 354–362 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. G. H. van Uden, R. Amezcua Correa, E. A. Lopez, F. M. Huijskens, C. Xia, G. Li, A. Schülzgen, H. de Waardt, A. M. J. Koonen, and C. M. Okonkwo, “Ultra-high-density spatial division multiplexing with a few-mode multicore fibre,” Nat. Photonics 8(11), 865–870 (2014).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (13)

S. Randel, R. Ryf, A. Sierra, P. J. Winzer, A. H. Gnauck, C. A. Bolle, R. J. Essiambre, D. W. Peckham, A. McCurdy, and R. Lingle, “6×56-Gb/s mode-division multiplexed transmission over 33-km few-mode fiber enabled by 6×6 MIMO equalization,” Opt. Express 19(17), 16697–16707 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Wang, L. Zhu, J. Liu, C. Du, Q. Mo, and J. Wang, “Demonstration of hybrid orbital angular momentum multiplexing and time-division multiplexing passive optical network,” Opt. Express 23(23), 29457–29466 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Wang, L. Zhu, S. Chen, C. Du, Q. Mo, and J. Wang, “Characterization of LDPC-coded orbital angular momentum modes transmission and multiplexing over a 50-km fiber,” Opt. Express 24(11), 11716–11726 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Zhu, A. Wang, S. Chen, J. Liu, Q. Mo, C. Du, and J. Wang, “Orbital angular momentum mode groups multiplexing transmission over 2.6-km conventional multi-mode fiber,” Opt. Express 25(21), 25637–25645 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Wang, L. Zhu, L. Wang, J. Ai, S. Chen, and J. Wang, “Directly using 8.8-km conventional multi-mode fiber for 6-mode orbital angular momentum multiplexing transmission,” Opt. Express 26(8), 10038–10047 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Liu, S. Li, Y. Ding, S. Chen, C. Du, Q. Mo, T. Morioka, K. Yvind, L. K. Oxenløwe, S. Yu, X. Cai, and J. Wang, “Orbital angular momentum modes emission from a silicon photonic integrated device for km-scale data-carrying fiber transmission,” Opt. Express 26(12), 15471–15479 (2018).
[Crossref]

R. Ryf, N. K. Fontaine, H. Chen, B. Guan, B. Huang, M. Esmaeelpour, A. H. Gnauck, S. Randel, S. J. B. Yoo, A. M. J. Koonen, R. Shubochkin, Y. Sun, and R. Lingle, “Mode-multiplexed transmission over conventional graded-index multimode fibers,” Opt. Express 23(1), 235–246 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Brunet, P. Vaity, Y. Messaddeq, S. LaRochelle, and L. A. Rusch, “Design, fabrication and validation of an OAM fiber supporting 36 states,” Opt. Express 22(21), 26117–26127 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. Ung, P. Vaity, L. Wang, Y. Messaddeq, L. A. Rusch, and S. LaRochelle, “Few-mode fiber with inverse-parabolic graded-index profile for transmission of OAM-carrying modes,” Opt. Express 22(15), 18044–18055 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. Zhu, Z. Hu, X. Wu, C. Du, W. Luo, Y. Chen, X. Cai, J. Liu, J. Zhu, and S. Yu, “Scalable mode division multiplexed transmission over a 10-km ring-core fiber using high-order orbital angular momentum modes,” Opt. Express 26(2), 594–604 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. S. Faruk and K. Kikuchi, “Adaptive frequency-domain equalization in digital coherent optical receivers,” Opt. Express 19(13), 12789–12798 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Zhang, G. Zhu, J. Liu, X. Wu, J. Zhu, C. Du, W. Luo, Y. Chen, and S. Yu, “Orbital-angular-momentum mode-group multiplexed transmission over a graded-index ring-core fiber based on receive diversity and maximal ratio combining,” Opt. Express 26(4), 4243–4257 (2018).
[Crossref]

K. Ingerslev, P. Gregg, M. Galili, F. Da Ros, H. Hu, F. Bao, M. A. U. Castaneda, P. Kristensen, A. Rubano, and L. Marrucci, “12 mode, WDM, MIMO-free orbital angular momentum transmission,” Opt. Express 26(16), 20225–20232 (2018).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (5)

Optica (1)

Photonics Res. (1)

J. Wang, “Advances in communications using optical vortices,” Photonics Res. 4(5), B14–B28 (2016).
[Crossref]

Sci. China Phys. Mech. Astron. (1)

J. Wang, “Twisted optical communications using orbital angular momentum,” Sci. China Phys. Mech. Astron. 62(3), 34201 (2019).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (4)

S. Li and J. Wang, “A compact trench-assisted multi-orbital-angular-momentum multi-ring fiber for ultrahigh-density space-division multiplexing (19 rings × 22 modes),” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 3853 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Huang, G. Milione, M. P. J. Lavery, G. Xie, Y. Ren, Y. Cao, N. Ahmed, T. A. Nguyen, D. A. Nolan, M.-J. Li, M. Tur, R. R. Alfano, and A. E. Willner, “Mode division multiplexing using an orbital angular momentum mode sorter and MIMO-DSP over a graded-index few-mode optical fiber,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 14931 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Chen, J. Liu, Y. Zhao, L. Zhu, A. Wang, S. Li, J. Du, C. Du, Q. Mo, and J. Wang, “Full-duplex bidirectional data transmission link using twisted lights multiplexing over 1.1-km orbital angular momentum fiber,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 38181 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Chen and J. Wang, “Theoretical analyses on orbital angular momentum modes in conventional graded-index multimode fibre,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 3990 (2017).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref]

Other (3)

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic, 2001).

A. W. Snyder and J. D. Love, Optical Waveguide Theory (Chapman & Hall, 1983).

C. Tsao, Optical Fibre Waveguide Analysis. (Oxford University Press, Walton Street, 1992), Part 3.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) Concept of OAM based small-scale MIMO-DSP assisted intra-group modes multiplexing combined with MIMO-free inter-group modes multiplexing. (b) Refractive index profile of the specially designed weakly guiding ring-core fiber. Mux: multiplexing; Demux: demultiplexing.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Supported mode number in the weakly guiding ring-core fiber as functions of α and V0.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Spatial phase distributions of the x-component electric field of the supported 50 OAM modes in the designed weakly guiding ring-core fiber.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (a) Refractive index profile and E-field intensity and (b) the corresponding gradients of the refractive index and E-field amplitude of the TE01 mode at 1550 nm. (c) Refractive index profile and E-field intensity and (d) the corresponding gradients of the refractive index and E-field amplitude of the HE13,1 mode at 1550 nm.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. (a) Mode number, min(Δneff) between different mode groups (except the first group), (b) neff, (c) DGD, (d) Dλ, (e) Aeff and (f) γ for each mode versus wavelength.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Vector mode and OAM mode groups in the designed weakly guiding ring-core fiber at 1550 nm

Equations (24)

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J ( K p v + r v / r v u 2 u 2 ) ( 1 / 1 α u 2 α u 2 ) ( K q v + s v / s v u 2 u 2 ) = 0
J [ K p v + r v / r v ( β 2 2 u 2 ) ( β 2 2 u 2 ) ] [ K q v + s v / s v ( β 2 2 u 2 ) ( β 2 2 u 2 ) ] / [ K q v + s v / s v ( β 2 2 u 2 ) ( β 2 2 u 2 ) ] ( α β 1 2 u 2 ) ( α β 1 2 u 2 ) = 0
p v 2 4 x 1 x 2 / 4 x 1 x 2 π β 1 β 2 π β 1 β 2 α u 2 2 + ( x 1 2 x 1 2 / x 1 2 x 1 2 p v 2 p v 2 ) [ ( J p v q v / q v α β 1 2 u 2 α β 1 2 u 2 ) ( K p v + r v / r v β 2 2 u 2 β 2 2 u 2 ) ( 2 / 2 π α β 1 β 2 u 2 2 π α β 1 β 2 u 2 2 ) 2 ] [ ( J p v q v / q v α u 2 α u 2 ) ( K p v + r v / r v u 2 u 2 ) ( 2 / 2 π α u 2 2 π α u 2 2 ) 2 ] = x 1 2 ( J p v q v / q v α β 1 2 u 2 α β 1 2 u 2 ) ( J p v q v / q v α u 2 α u 2 ) + x 2 2 ( K p v + r v / r v β 2 2 u 2 β 2 2 u 2 ) ( K p v r v / r v u 2 u 2 )
p v = J v ( u 2 ) Y v ( α u 2 ) J v ( α u 2 ) Y v ( u 2 )
q v = J v ( u 2 ) Y v ( α u 2 ) J v ( α u 2 ) Y v ( u 2 )
r v = J v ( u 2 ) Y v ( α u 2 ) J v ( α u 2 ) Y v ( u 2 )
s v = J v ( u 2 ) Y v ( α u 2 ) J v ( α u 2 ) Y v ( u 2 )
J = I v ( w 1 ) w 1 I v ( w 1 )
K = K v ( w 3 ) w 3 K v ( w 3 )
x 1 = β 1 α 2 w 1 2 u 2 2 V 0 v V 1 2 V 0 2 ( 1 β 2 2 ) u 2 2
x 2 = β 2 w 3 2 u 2 2 v V 0 V 0 2 ( 1 β 2 2 ) u 2 2
u 2 = k 0 a 2 n 2 2 n e 2
w 1 = k 0 a 1 n e 2 n 1 2 = α 1 β 1 2 1 β 2 2 V 0 2 u 2 2
w 3 = k 0 a 2 n e 2 n 3 2 = V 0 2 u 2 2
V 1 = k 0 a 1 n 2 2 n 1 2 = α 1 β 1 2 1 β 2 2 V 0
b e = n e 2 n 3 2 n 2 2 n 3 2 = 1 u 2 2 V 0 2 = f ( V 0 , α , β 1 , β 2 )
y ( n ) = W ( n ) x ( n ) = H ( n ) 1 x ( n )
N T a p = R s Δ τ L B
C T D E = D s ( R s + 1 ) Δ τ L B
C S U M _ T D E = D s 2 ( R s + 1 ) Δ τ L B
C F D E = ( 4 + 2 D s ) l o g 2 ( R s Δ τ L B ) + 4 D s
C S U M _ F D E = D s [ ( 4 + 2 D s ) l o g 2 ( R s Δ τ L B ) + 4 D s ]
H 1 = ( A 11 A 12 0 0 0 0 A 21 A 22 0 0 0 0 0 0 B 11 B 12 B 13 B 14 0 0 B 21 B 22 B 23 B 24 0 0 B 31 B 32 B 33 B 34 0 0 B 41 B 42 B 43 B 44 )
H 2 = ( A 11 A 12 C 11 C 12 C 13 C 14 A 21 A 22 C 21 C 22 C 23 C 24 D 11 D 12 B 11 B 12 B 13 B 14 D 21 D 22 B 21 B 22 B 23 B 24 D 31 D 32 B 31 B 32 B 33 B 34 D 41 D 42 B 41 B 42 B 43 B 44 )

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