Abstract

Satellite retrievals of particulate backscattering (bbp) are widely used in studies of ocean ecology and biogeochemistry, but have been historically difficult to validate due to the paucity of available ship-based comparative field measurements. Here we present a comparison of satellite and in situ bbp using observations from autonomous floats (n = 2,486 total matchups across three satellites), which provide bbp at 700 nm. With these data, we quantify how well the three inversion products currently distributed by NASA ocean color retrieve bbp. We find that the median ratio of satellite derived bbp to float bbp ranges from 0.77 to 1.60 and Spearman’s rank correlations vary from r = 0.06 to r = 0.79, depending on which algorithm and sensor is used. Model skill degrades with increased spatial variability in remote sensing reflectance, which suggests that more rigorous matchup criteria and factors contributing to sensor noisiness may be useful to address in future work, and/or that we have built in biases in the current widely distributed inversion algorithms.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2019 (1)

H. M. Dierssen, “Hyperspectral measurements, parameterizations, and atmospheric correction of whitecaps and foam from visible to shortwave infrared for ocean color remote sensing,” Front. Earth Sci. 7, 14 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (3)

M. Barbieux, J. Uitz, A. Bricaud, E. Organelli, A. Poteau, C. Schmechtig, B. Gentili, G. Obolensky, E. Leymarie, C. Penkerc’h, and F. D’Ortenzio, “Assessing the Variability in the Relationship Between the Particulate Backscattering Coefficient and the Chlorophyll a Concentration From a Global Biogeochemical-Argo Database,” J. Geophys. Res.: Oceans 123(2), 1229–1250 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. Mignot, R. Ferrari, and H Claustre, “Floats with bio-optical sensors reveal what processes trigger the North Atlantic bloom,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 190 (2018).
[Crossref]

H. Loisel, D. Stramski, D. Dessailly, C. Jamet, L. Li, and R. A. Reynolds, “An inverse model for estimating the optical absorption and backscattering coefficients of seawater from remote-sensing reflectance over a broad range of oceanic and coastal marine environments,” J. Geophys. Res.: Oceans 123(3), 2141–2171 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (3)

E. Organelli, H. Claustre, A. Bricaud, M. Barbieux, J. Uitz, F. D’Ortenzio, and G. Dall’Olmo, “Bio-optical anomalies in the world’s oceans: An investigation on the diffuse attenuation coefficients for downward irradiance derived from Biogeochemical Argo float measurements,” J. Geophys. Res.: Oceans 122(5), 3543–3564 (2017).
[Crossref]

N. Haëntjens, E. Boss, and L. D. Talley, “Revisiting Ocean Color algorithms for chlorophyll a and particulate organic carbon in the Southern Ocean using biogeochemical floats,” J. Geophys. Res.: Oceans 122(8), 6583–6593 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Poteau, E. Boss, and H. Claustre, “Particulate concentration and seasonal dynamics in the mesopelagic ocean based on the backscattering coefficient measured with Biogeochemical-Argo floats,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 44(13), 6933–6939 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (1)

2014 (1)

G. Zheng, D. Stramski, and R. A. Reynolds, “Evaluation of the Quasi-Analytical Algorithm for estimating the inherent optical properties of seawater from ocean color: Comparison of Arctic and lower-latitude waters,” Remote Sens. Environ. 155, 194–209 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (4)

T. K. Westberry, E. Boss, and Z. Lee, “Influence of Raman scattering on ocean color inversion models,” Appl. Opt. 52(22), 5552–5561 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z. Lee, C. Hu, S. Shang, K. Du, M. Lewis, R. Arnone, and R. Brewin, “Penetration of UV-visible solar radiation in the global oceans: Insights from ocean color remote sensing,” J. Geophys. Res.: Oceans 118(9), 4241–4255 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. J. Werdell, B. A. Franz, S. W. Bailey, G. C. Feldman, E. Boss, V. E. Brando, M. Dowell, T. Hirata, S. J. Lavender, Z. Lee, and H. Loisel, “Generalized ocean color inversion model for retrieving marine inherent optical properties,” Appl. Opt. 52(10), 2019–2037 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. J. Behrenfeld, Y. Hu, C. A. Hostetler, G. Dall’Olmo, S. D. Rodier, J. W. Hair, and C. R. Trepte, “Space-based lidar measurements of global ocean carbon stocks,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 40(16), 4355–4360 (2013).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

E. Boss and M. Behrenfeld, “In situ evaluation of the initiation of the North Atlantic phytoplankton bloom,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 37(18), 79 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

T. S. Kostadinov, D. A. Siegel, and S. Maritorena, “Retrieval of the particle size distribution from satellite ocean color observations,” J. Geophys. Res.: Oceans 114(C9), C09015 (2009).
[Crossref]

X. Zhang, L. Hu, and M. X. He, “Scattering by pure seawater: effect of salinity,” Opt. Express 17(7), 5698–5710 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

D. Stramski, R. A. Reynolds, M. Babin, S. Kaczmarek, M. R. Lewis, R. Röttgers, and H. Claustre, “Relationships between the surface concentration of particulate organic carbon and optical properties in the eastern South Pacific and eastern Atlantic Oceans,” Biogeosciences 5(1), 171–201 (2008).
[Crossref]

E. Boss, D. Swift, L. Taylor, P. Brickley, R. Zaneveld, S. Riser, and P. G. Strutton, “Observations of pigment and particle distributions in the western North Atlantic from an autonomous float and ocean color satellite,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 53(5part2), 2112–2122 (2008).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

S. W. Bailey and P. J. Werdell, “A multi-sensor approach for the on-orbit validation of ocean color satellite data products,” Remote Sens. Environ. 102(1-2), 12–23 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

M. J. Behrenfeld, E. Boss, D. A. Siegel, and D. M. Shea, “Carbon-based ocean productivity and phytoplankton physiology from space,” Global Biogeochem. Cycles 19(1), 447 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

C. de Boyer Montégut, G. Madec, A. S. Fischer, A. Lazar, and D. Iudicone, “Mixed layer depth over the global ocean: An examination of profile data and a profile-based climatology,” J. Geophys. Res.: Oceans 109(C12), C12003 (2004).
[Crossref]

D. Stramski, E. Boss, D. Bogucki, and K. J. Voss, “The role of seawater constituents in light backscattering in the ocean,” Prog. Oceanogr. 61(1), 27–56 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

C. S. Roesler and E. Boss, “Spectral beam attenuation coefficient retrieved from ocean color inversion,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 30(9), 1468 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (2)

2000 (1)

1999 (2)

H. R. Gordon, “Contribution of Raman scattering to water-leaving radiance: a reexamination,” Appl. Opt. 38(15), 3166–3174 (1999).
[Crossref]

D. Stramski, R. A. Reynolds, M. Kahru, and B. G. Mitchell, “Estimation of particulate organic carbon in the ocean from satellite remote sensing,” Science 285(5425), 239–242 (1999).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

1988 (2)

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, and D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res.: Atmos. 93(D9), 10909–10924 (1988).
[Crossref]

R. H. Stavn and A. D. Weidemann, “Optical modeling of clear ocean light fields: Raman scattering effects,” Appl. Opt. 27(19), 4002–4011 (1988).
[Crossref]

Annie, Wong

Bittig Henry, Wong Annie, and Plant Josh, Coriolis Argo Data Management Team. “BGC-Argo synthetic profile file processing and format on Coriolis GDAC,” https://doi.org/10.13155/55637 . (2018).

Arnone, R.

Z. Lee, C. Hu, S. Shang, K. Du, M. Lewis, R. Arnone, and R. Brewin, “Penetration of UV-visible solar radiation in the global oceans: Insights from ocean color remote sensing,” J. Geophys. Res.: Oceans 118(9), 4241–4255 (2013).
[Crossref]

Arnone, R. A.

Babin, M.

D. Stramski, R. A. Reynolds, M. Babin, S. Kaczmarek, M. R. Lewis, R. Röttgers, and H. Claustre, “Relationships between the surface concentration of particulate organic carbon and optical properties in the eastern South Pacific and eastern Atlantic Oceans,” Biogeosciences 5(1), 171–201 (2008).
[Crossref]

Bailey, S. W.

Baker, K. S.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, and D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res.: Atmos. 93(D9), 10909–10924 (1988).
[Crossref]

Barbieux, M.

M. Barbieux, J. Uitz, A. Bricaud, E. Organelli, A. Poteau, C. Schmechtig, B. Gentili, G. Obolensky, E. Leymarie, C. Penkerc’h, and F. D’Ortenzio, “Assessing the Variability in the Relationship Between the Particulate Backscattering Coefficient and the Chlorophyll a Concentration From a Global Biogeochemical-Argo Database,” J. Geophys. Res.: Oceans 123(2), 1229–1250 (2018).
[Crossref]

E. Organelli, H. Claustre, A. Bricaud, M. Barbieux, J. Uitz, F. D’Ortenzio, and G. Dall’Olmo, “Bio-optical anomalies in the world’s oceans: An investigation on the diffuse attenuation coefficients for downward irradiance derived from Biogeochemical Argo float measurements,” J. Geophys. Res.: Oceans 122(5), 3543–3564 (2017).
[Crossref]

Barnard, A.

A. Barnard Sea-Bird Scientific, Bellevue, Washington, USA. (personal communication, 2017).

Behrenfeld, M.

E. Boss and M. Behrenfeld, “In situ evaluation of the initiation of the North Atlantic phytoplankton bloom,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 37(18), 79 (2010).
[Crossref]

Behrenfeld, M. J.

M. J. Behrenfeld, Y. Hu, C. A. Hostetler, G. Dall’Olmo, S. D. Rodier, J. W. Hair, and C. R. Trepte, “Space-based lidar measurements of global ocean carbon stocks,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 40(16), 4355–4360 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. J. Behrenfeld, E. Boss, D. A. Siegel, and D. M. Shea, “Carbon-based ocean productivity and phytoplankton physiology from space,” Global Biogeochem. Cycles 19(1), 447 (2005).
[Crossref]

Berthon, J.-F.

H. Claustre, J. Bishop, E. Boss, B. Stewart, J.-F. Berthon, C. Coatanoan, K. Johnson, A. Lotiker, O. Ulloa, M.-J. Perry, F. D’Ortenzio, O. Hembise Fanton D’Andon, and J. Uitz, “Bio-optical profiling floats as new observational tools for biogeochemical and ecosystem studies,” In: J. Hall, D.E. Harrison, and D. Stammer, eds. Proceedings of the “OceanObs’09: Sustained Ocean Observations and Information for Society” Conference, Venice, Italy, 21-25 September 2009. 2: | DOI: 10.5270/OceanObs09.cwp.17. (2010).

Bishop, J.

H. Claustre, J. Bishop, E. Boss, B. Stewart, J.-F. Berthon, C. Coatanoan, K. Johnson, A. Lotiker, O. Ulloa, M.-J. Perry, F. D’Ortenzio, O. Hembise Fanton D’Andon, and J. Uitz, “Bio-optical profiling floats as new observational tools for biogeochemical and ecosystem studies,” In: J. Hall, D.E. Harrison, and D. Stammer, eds. Proceedings of the “OceanObs’09: Sustained Ocean Observations and Information for Society” Conference, Venice, Italy, 21-25 September 2009. 2: | DOI: 10.5270/OceanObs09.cwp.17. (2010).

Bogucki, D.

D. Stramski, E. Boss, D. Bogucki, and K. J. Voss, “The role of seawater constituents in light backscattering in the ocean,” Prog. Oceanogr. 61(1), 27–56 (2004).
[Crossref]

Boss, E.

A. Poteau, E. Boss, and H. Claustre, “Particulate concentration and seasonal dynamics in the mesopelagic ocean based on the backscattering coefficient measured with Biogeochemical-Argo floats,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 44(13), 6933–6939 (2017).
[Crossref]

N. Haëntjens, E. Boss, and L. D. Talley, “Revisiting Ocean Color algorithms for chlorophyll a and particulate organic carbon in the Southern Ocean using biogeochemical floats,” J. Geophys. Res.: Oceans 122(8), 6583–6593 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. K. Westberry, E. Boss, and Z. Lee, “Influence of Raman scattering on ocean color inversion models,” Appl. Opt. 52(22), 5552–5561 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. J. Werdell, B. A. Franz, S. W. Bailey, G. C. Feldman, E. Boss, V. E. Brando, M. Dowell, T. Hirata, S. J. Lavender, Z. Lee, and H. Loisel, “Generalized ocean color inversion model for retrieving marine inherent optical properties,” Appl. Opt. 52(10), 2019–2037 (2013).
[Crossref]

E. Boss and M. Behrenfeld, “In situ evaluation of the initiation of the North Atlantic phytoplankton bloom,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 37(18), 79 (2010).
[Crossref]

E. Boss, D. Swift, L. Taylor, P. Brickley, R. Zaneveld, S. Riser, and P. G. Strutton, “Observations of pigment and particle distributions in the western North Atlantic from an autonomous float and ocean color satellite,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 53(5part2), 2112–2122 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. J. Behrenfeld, E. Boss, D. A. Siegel, and D. M. Shea, “Carbon-based ocean productivity and phytoplankton physiology from space,” Global Biogeochem. Cycles 19(1), 447 (2005).
[Crossref]

D. Stramski, E. Boss, D. Bogucki, and K. J. Voss, “The role of seawater constituents in light backscattering in the ocean,” Prog. Oceanogr. 61(1), 27–56 (2004).
[Crossref]

C. S. Roesler and E. Boss, “Spectral beam attenuation coefficient retrieved from ocean color inversion,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 30(9), 1468 (2003).
[Crossref]

H. Claustre, J. Bishop, E. Boss, B. Stewart, J.-F. Berthon, C. Coatanoan, K. Johnson, A. Lotiker, O. Ulloa, M.-J. Perry, F. D’Ortenzio, O. Hembise Fanton D’Andon, and J. Uitz, “Bio-optical profiling floats as new observational tools for biogeochemical and ecosystem studies,” In: J. Hall, D.E. Harrison, and D. Stammer, eds. Proceedings of the “OceanObs’09: Sustained Ocean Observations and Information for Society” Conference, Venice, Italy, 21-25 September 2009. 2: | DOI: 10.5270/OceanObs09.cwp.17. (2010).

Brando, V. E.

Brewin, R.

Z. Lee, C. Hu, S. Shang, K. Du, M. Lewis, R. Arnone, and R. Brewin, “Penetration of UV-visible solar radiation in the global oceans: Insights from ocean color remote sensing,” J. Geophys. Res.: Oceans 118(9), 4241–4255 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bricaud, A.

M. Barbieux, J. Uitz, A. Bricaud, E. Organelli, A. Poteau, C. Schmechtig, B. Gentili, G. Obolensky, E. Leymarie, C. Penkerc’h, and F. D’Ortenzio, “Assessing the Variability in the Relationship Between the Particulate Backscattering Coefficient and the Chlorophyll a Concentration From a Global Biogeochemical-Argo Database,” J. Geophys. Res.: Oceans 123(2), 1229–1250 (2018).
[Crossref]

E. Organelli, H. Claustre, A. Bricaud, M. Barbieux, J. Uitz, F. D’Ortenzio, and G. Dall’Olmo, “Bio-optical anomalies in the world’s oceans: An investigation on the diffuse attenuation coefficients for downward irradiance derived from Biogeochemical Argo float measurements,” J. Geophys. Res.: Oceans 122(5), 3543–3564 (2017).
[Crossref]

Brickley, P.

E. Boss, D. Swift, L. Taylor, P. Brickley, R. Zaneveld, S. Riser, and P. G. Strutton, “Observations of pigment and particle distributions in the western North Atlantic from an autonomous float and ocean color satellite,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 53(5part2), 2112–2122 (2008).
[Crossref]

Brown, J. W.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, and D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res.: Atmos. 93(D9), 10909–10924 (1988).
[Crossref]

Brown, O. B.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, and D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res.: Atmos. 93(D9), 10909–10924 (1988).
[Crossref]

Carder, K. L.

Clark, D. K.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, and D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res.: Atmos. 93(D9), 10909–10924 (1988).
[Crossref]

Claustre, H

A. Mignot, R. Ferrari, and H Claustre, “Floats with bio-optical sensors reveal what processes trigger the North Atlantic bloom,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 190 (2018).
[Crossref]

Claustre, H.

A. Poteau, E. Boss, and H. Claustre, “Particulate concentration and seasonal dynamics in the mesopelagic ocean based on the backscattering coefficient measured with Biogeochemical-Argo floats,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 44(13), 6933–6939 (2017).
[Crossref]

E. Organelli, H. Claustre, A. Bricaud, M. Barbieux, J. Uitz, F. D’Ortenzio, and G. Dall’Olmo, “Bio-optical anomalies in the world’s oceans: An investigation on the diffuse attenuation coefficients for downward irradiance derived from Biogeochemical Argo float measurements,” J. Geophys. Res.: Oceans 122(5), 3543–3564 (2017).
[Crossref]

D. Stramski, R. A. Reynolds, M. Babin, S. Kaczmarek, M. R. Lewis, R. Röttgers, and H. Claustre, “Relationships between the surface concentration of particulate organic carbon and optical properties in the eastern South Pacific and eastern Atlantic Oceans,” Biogeosciences 5(1), 171–201 (2008).
[Crossref]

H. ClaustreFrench National Centre for Scientific Research. Laboratoire d’Océanographie de Villefranche, France. (personal communication, 2017).

H. Claustre, J. Bishop, E. Boss, B. Stewart, J.-F. Berthon, C. Coatanoan, K. Johnson, A. Lotiker, O. Ulloa, M.-J. Perry, F. D’Ortenzio, O. Hembise Fanton D’Andon, and J. Uitz, “Bio-optical profiling floats as new observational tools for biogeochemical and ecosystem studies,” In: J. Hall, D.E. Harrison, and D. Stammer, eds. Proceedings of the “OceanObs’09: Sustained Ocean Observations and Information for Society” Conference, Venice, Italy, 21-25 September 2009. 2: | DOI: 10.5270/OceanObs09.cwp.17. (2010).

Coatanoan, C.

H. Claustre, J. Bishop, E. Boss, B. Stewart, J.-F. Berthon, C. Coatanoan, K. Johnson, A. Lotiker, O. Ulloa, M.-J. Perry, F. D’Ortenzio, O. Hembise Fanton D’Andon, and J. Uitz, “Bio-optical profiling floats as new observational tools for biogeochemical and ecosystem studies,” In: J. Hall, D.E. Harrison, and D. Stammer, eds. Proceedings of the “OceanObs’09: Sustained Ocean Observations and Information for Society” Conference, Venice, Italy, 21-25 September 2009. 2: | DOI: 10.5270/OceanObs09.cwp.17. (2010).

D’Ortenzio, F.

M. Barbieux, J. Uitz, A. Bricaud, E. Organelli, A. Poteau, C. Schmechtig, B. Gentili, G. Obolensky, E. Leymarie, C. Penkerc’h, and F. D’Ortenzio, “Assessing the Variability in the Relationship Between the Particulate Backscattering Coefficient and the Chlorophyll a Concentration From a Global Biogeochemical-Argo Database,” J. Geophys. Res.: Oceans 123(2), 1229–1250 (2018).
[Crossref]

E. Organelli, H. Claustre, A. Bricaud, M. Barbieux, J. Uitz, F. D’Ortenzio, and G. Dall’Olmo, “Bio-optical anomalies in the world’s oceans: An investigation on the diffuse attenuation coefficients for downward irradiance derived from Biogeochemical Argo float measurements,” J. Geophys. Res.: Oceans 122(5), 3543–3564 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Claustre, J. Bishop, E. Boss, B. Stewart, J.-F. Berthon, C. Coatanoan, K. Johnson, A. Lotiker, O. Ulloa, M.-J. Perry, F. D’Ortenzio, O. Hembise Fanton D’Andon, and J. Uitz, “Bio-optical profiling floats as new observational tools for biogeochemical and ecosystem studies,” In: J. Hall, D.E. Harrison, and D. Stammer, eds. Proceedings of the “OceanObs’09: Sustained Ocean Observations and Information for Society” Conference, Venice, Italy, 21-25 September 2009. 2: | DOI: 10.5270/OceanObs09.cwp.17. (2010).

Dall’Olmo, G.

E. Organelli, H. Claustre, A. Bricaud, M. Barbieux, J. Uitz, F. D’Ortenzio, and G. Dall’Olmo, “Bio-optical anomalies in the world’s oceans: An investigation on the diffuse attenuation coefficients for downward irradiance derived from Biogeochemical Argo float measurements,” J. Geophys. Res.: Oceans 122(5), 3543–3564 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. J. Behrenfeld, Y. Hu, C. A. Hostetler, G. Dall’Olmo, S. D. Rodier, J. W. Hair, and C. R. Trepte, “Space-based lidar measurements of global ocean carbon stocks,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 40(16), 4355–4360 (2013).
[Crossref]

de Boyer Montégut, C.

C. de Boyer Montégut, G. Madec, A. S. Fischer, A. Lazar, and D. Iudicone, “Mixed layer depth over the global ocean: An examination of profile data and a profile-based climatology,” J. Geophys. Res.: Oceans 109(C12), C12003 (2004).
[Crossref]

Dessailly, D.

H. Loisel, D. Stramski, D. Dessailly, C. Jamet, L. Li, and R. A. Reynolds, “An inverse model for estimating the optical absorption and backscattering coefficients of seawater from remote-sensing reflectance over a broad range of oceanic and coastal marine environments,” J. Geophys. Res.: Oceans 123(3), 2141–2171 (2018).
[Crossref]

Dierssen, H. M.

H. M. Dierssen, “Hyperspectral measurements, parameterizations, and atmospheric correction of whitecaps and foam from visible to shortwave infrared for ocean color remote sensing,” Front. Earth Sci. 7, 14 (2019).
[Crossref]

Dowell, M.

Du, K.

Z. Lee, C. Hu, S. Shang, K. Du, M. Lewis, R. Arnone, and R. Brewin, “Penetration of UV-visible solar radiation in the global oceans: Insights from ocean color remote sensing,” J. Geophys. Res.: Oceans 118(9), 4241–4255 (2013).
[Crossref]

Evans, R. H.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, and D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res.: Atmos. 93(D9), 10909–10924 (1988).
[Crossref]

Feldman, G. C.

Ferrari, R.

A. Mignot, R. Ferrari, and H Claustre, “Floats with bio-optical sensors reveal what processes trigger the North Atlantic bloom,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 190 (2018).
[Crossref]

Fischer, A. S.

C. de Boyer Montégut, G. Madec, A. S. Fischer, A. Lazar, and D. Iudicone, “Mixed layer depth over the global ocean: An examination of profile data and a profile-based climatology,” J. Geophys. Res.: Oceans 109(C12), C12003 (2004).
[Crossref]

Franz, B. A.

Fry, E. S.

Gentili, B.

M. Barbieux, J. Uitz, A. Bricaud, E. Organelli, A. Poteau, C. Schmechtig, B. Gentili, G. Obolensky, E. Leymarie, C. Penkerc’h, and F. D’Ortenzio, “Assessing the Variability in the Relationship Between the Particulate Backscattering Coefficient and the Chlorophyll a Concentration From a Global Biogeochemical-Argo Database,” J. Geophys. Res.: Oceans 123(2), 1229–1250 (2018).
[Crossref]

Gordon, H. R.

H. R. Gordon, “Contribution of Raman scattering to water-leaving radiance: a reexamination,” Appl. Opt. 38(15), 3166–3174 (1999).
[Crossref]

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, and D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res.: Atmos. 93(D9), 10909–10924 (1988).
[Crossref]

Haëntjens, N.

N. Haëntjens, E. Boss, and L. D. Talley, “Revisiting Ocean Color algorithms for chlorophyll a and particulate organic carbon in the Southern Ocean using biogeochemical floats,” J. Geophys. Res.: Oceans 122(8), 6583–6593 (2017).
[Crossref]

Hair, J. W.

M. J. Behrenfeld, Y. Hu, C. A. Hostetler, G. Dall’Olmo, S. D. Rodier, J. W. Hair, and C. R. Trepte, “Space-based lidar measurements of global ocean carbon stocks,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 40(16), 4355–4360 (2013).
[Crossref]

He, M. X.

Hembise Fanton D’Andon, O.

H. Claustre, J. Bishop, E. Boss, B. Stewart, J.-F. Berthon, C. Coatanoan, K. Johnson, A. Lotiker, O. Ulloa, M.-J. Perry, F. D’Ortenzio, O. Hembise Fanton D’Andon, and J. Uitz, “Bio-optical profiling floats as new observational tools for biogeochemical and ecosystem studies,” In: J. Hall, D.E. Harrison, and D. Stammer, eds. Proceedings of the “OceanObs’09: Sustained Ocean Observations and Information for Society” Conference, Venice, Italy, 21-25 September 2009. 2: | DOI: 10.5270/OceanObs09.cwp.17. (2010).

Henry, Bittig

Bittig Henry, Wong Annie, and Plant Josh, Coriolis Argo Data Management Team. “BGC-Argo synthetic profile file processing and format on Coriolis GDAC,” https://doi.org/10.13155/55637 . (2018).

Hirata, T.

Hostetler, C. A.

M. J. Behrenfeld, Y. Hu, C. A. Hostetler, G. Dall’Olmo, S. D. Rodier, J. W. Hair, and C. R. Trepte, “Space-based lidar measurements of global ocean carbon stocks,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 40(16), 4355–4360 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hu, C.

Z. Lee, C. Hu, S. Shang, K. Du, M. Lewis, R. Arnone, and R. Brewin, “Penetration of UV-visible solar radiation in the global oceans: Insights from ocean color remote sensing,” J. Geophys. Res.: Oceans 118(9), 4241–4255 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hu, L.

Hu, Y.

M. J. Behrenfeld, Y. Hu, C. A. Hostetler, G. Dall’Olmo, S. D. Rodier, J. W. Hair, and C. R. Trepte, “Space-based lidar measurements of global ocean carbon stocks,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 40(16), 4355–4360 (2013).
[Crossref]

Iudicone, D.

C. de Boyer Montégut, G. Madec, A. S. Fischer, A. Lazar, and D. Iudicone, “Mixed layer depth over the global ocean: An examination of profile data and a profile-based climatology,” J. Geophys. Res.: Oceans 109(C12), C12003 (2004).
[Crossref]

Jamet, C.

H. Loisel, D. Stramski, D. Dessailly, C. Jamet, L. Li, and R. A. Reynolds, “An inverse model for estimating the optical absorption and backscattering coefficients of seawater from remote-sensing reflectance over a broad range of oceanic and coastal marine environments,” J. Geophys. Res.: Oceans 123(3), 2141–2171 (2018).
[Crossref]

Johnson, K.

H. Claustre, J. Bishop, E. Boss, B. Stewart, J.-F. Berthon, C. Coatanoan, K. Johnson, A. Lotiker, O. Ulloa, M.-J. Perry, F. D’Ortenzio, O. Hembise Fanton D’Andon, and J. Uitz, “Bio-optical profiling floats as new observational tools for biogeochemical and ecosystem studies,” In: J. Hall, D.E. Harrison, and D. Stammer, eds. Proceedings of the “OceanObs’09: Sustained Ocean Observations and Information for Society” Conference, Venice, Italy, 21-25 September 2009. 2: | DOI: 10.5270/OceanObs09.cwp.17. (2010).

Josh, Plant

Bittig Henry, Wong Annie, and Plant Josh, Coriolis Argo Data Management Team. “BGC-Argo synthetic profile file processing and format on Coriolis GDAC,” https://doi.org/10.13155/55637 . (2018).

Kaczmarek, S.

D. Stramski, R. A. Reynolds, M. Babin, S. Kaczmarek, M. R. Lewis, R. Röttgers, and H. Claustre, “Relationships between the surface concentration of particulate organic carbon and optical properties in the eastern South Pacific and eastern Atlantic Oceans,” Biogeosciences 5(1), 171–201 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kahru, M.

D. Stramski, R. A. Reynolds, M. Kahru, and B. G. Mitchell, “Estimation of particulate organic carbon in the ocean from satellite remote sensing,” Science 285(5425), 239–242 (1999).
[Crossref]

Keeley, Robert

Annie Wong and Robert Keeley, Thierry Carval and the Argo Data Management Team “Argo Quality Control Manual for CTD and Trajectory Data,” http://dx.doi.org/10.13155/33951 . (2019).

Kostadinov, T. S.

T. S. Kostadinov, D. A. Siegel, and S. Maritorena, “Retrieval of the particle size distribution from satellite ocean color observations,” J. Geophys. Res.: Oceans 114(C9), C09015 (2009).
[Crossref]

Lavender, S. J.

Lazar, A.

C. de Boyer Montégut, G. Madec, A. S. Fischer, A. Lazar, and D. Iudicone, “Mixed layer depth over the global ocean: An examination of profile data and a profile-based climatology,” J. Geophys. Res.: Oceans 109(C12), C12003 (2004).
[Crossref]

Lee, Z.

Lewis, M.

Z. Lee, C. Hu, S. Shang, K. Du, M. Lewis, R. Arnone, and R. Brewin, “Penetration of UV-visible solar radiation in the global oceans: Insights from ocean color remote sensing,” J. Geophys. Res.: Oceans 118(9), 4241–4255 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lewis, M. R.

D. Stramski, R. A. Reynolds, M. Babin, S. Kaczmarek, M. R. Lewis, R. Röttgers, and H. Claustre, “Relationships between the surface concentration of particulate organic carbon and optical properties in the eastern South Pacific and eastern Atlantic Oceans,” Biogeosciences 5(1), 171–201 (2008).
[Crossref]

Leymarie, E.

M. Barbieux, J. Uitz, A. Bricaud, E. Organelli, A. Poteau, C. Schmechtig, B. Gentili, G. Obolensky, E. Leymarie, C. Penkerc’h, and F. D’Ortenzio, “Assessing the Variability in the Relationship Between the Particulate Backscattering Coefficient and the Chlorophyll a Concentration From a Global Biogeochemical-Argo Database,” J. Geophys. Res.: Oceans 123(2), 1229–1250 (2018).
[Crossref]

Li, L.

H. Loisel, D. Stramski, D. Dessailly, C. Jamet, L. Li, and R. A. Reynolds, “An inverse model for estimating the optical absorption and backscattering coefficients of seawater from remote-sensing reflectance over a broad range of oceanic and coastal marine environments,” J. Geophys. Res.: Oceans 123(3), 2141–2171 (2018).
[Crossref]

Loisel, H.

Lotiker, A.

H. Claustre, J. Bishop, E. Boss, B. Stewart, J.-F. Berthon, C. Coatanoan, K. Johnson, A. Lotiker, O. Ulloa, M.-J. Perry, F. D’Ortenzio, O. Hembise Fanton D’Andon, and J. Uitz, “Bio-optical profiling floats as new observational tools for biogeochemical and ecosystem studies,” In: J. Hall, D.E. Harrison, and D. Stammer, eds. Proceedings of the “OceanObs’09: Sustained Ocean Observations and Information for Society” Conference, Venice, Italy, 21-25 September 2009. 2: | DOI: 10.5270/OceanObs09.cwp.17. (2010).

Madec, G.

C. de Boyer Montégut, G. Madec, A. S. Fischer, A. Lazar, and D. Iudicone, “Mixed layer depth over the global ocean: An examination of profile data and a profile-based climatology,” J. Geophys. Res.: Oceans 109(C12), C12003 (2004).
[Crossref]

Maritorena, S.

T. S. Kostadinov, D. A. Siegel, and S. Maritorena, “Retrieval of the particle size distribution from satellite ocean color observations,” J. Geophys. Res.: Oceans 114(C9), C09015 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. Maritorena, D. A. Siegel, and A. R. Peterson, “Optimization of a semianalytical ocean color model for global-scale applications,” Appl. Opt. 41(15), 2705–2714 (2002).
[Crossref]

McKinna, L. I.

Mignot, A.

A. Mignot, R. Ferrari, and H Claustre, “Floats with bio-optical sensors reveal what processes trigger the North Atlantic bloom,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 190 (2018).
[Crossref]

Mitchell, B. G.

D. Stramski, R. A. Reynolds, M. Kahru, and B. G. Mitchell, “Estimation of particulate organic carbon in the ocean from satellite remote sensing,” Science 285(5425), 239–242 (1999).
[Crossref]

Obolensky, G.

M. Barbieux, J. Uitz, A. Bricaud, E. Organelli, A. Poteau, C. Schmechtig, B. Gentili, G. Obolensky, E. Leymarie, C. Penkerc’h, and F. D’Ortenzio, “Assessing the Variability in the Relationship Between the Particulate Backscattering Coefficient and the Chlorophyll a Concentration From a Global Biogeochemical-Argo Database,” J. Geophys. Res.: Oceans 123(2), 1229–1250 (2018).
[Crossref]

Organelli, E.

M. Barbieux, J. Uitz, A. Bricaud, E. Organelli, A. Poteau, C. Schmechtig, B. Gentili, G. Obolensky, E. Leymarie, C. Penkerc’h, and F. D’Ortenzio, “Assessing the Variability in the Relationship Between the Particulate Backscattering Coefficient and the Chlorophyll a Concentration From a Global Biogeochemical-Argo Database,” J. Geophys. Res.: Oceans 123(2), 1229–1250 (2018).
[Crossref]

E. Organelli, H. Claustre, A. Bricaud, M. Barbieux, J. Uitz, F. D’Ortenzio, and G. Dall’Olmo, “Bio-optical anomalies in the world’s oceans: An investigation on the diffuse attenuation coefficients for downward irradiance derived from Biogeochemical Argo float measurements,” J. Geophys. Res.: Oceans 122(5), 3543–3564 (2017).
[Crossref]

Penkerc’h, C.

M. Barbieux, J. Uitz, A. Bricaud, E. Organelli, A. Poteau, C. Schmechtig, B. Gentili, G. Obolensky, E. Leymarie, C. Penkerc’h, and F. D’Ortenzio, “Assessing the Variability in the Relationship Between the Particulate Backscattering Coefficient and the Chlorophyll a Concentration From a Global Biogeochemical-Argo Database,” J. Geophys. Res.: Oceans 123(2), 1229–1250 (2018).
[Crossref]

Perry, M.-J.

H. Claustre, J. Bishop, E. Boss, B. Stewart, J.-F. Berthon, C. Coatanoan, K. Johnson, A. Lotiker, O. Ulloa, M.-J. Perry, F. D’Ortenzio, O. Hembise Fanton D’Andon, and J. Uitz, “Bio-optical profiling floats as new observational tools for biogeochemical and ecosystem studies,” In: J. Hall, D.E. Harrison, and D. Stammer, eds. Proceedings of the “OceanObs’09: Sustained Ocean Observations and Information for Society” Conference, Venice, Italy, 21-25 September 2009. 2: | DOI: 10.5270/OceanObs09.cwp.17. (2010).

Peterson, A. R.

Pope, R. M.

Poteau, A.

M. Barbieux, J. Uitz, A. Bricaud, E. Organelli, A. Poteau, C. Schmechtig, B. Gentili, G. Obolensky, E. Leymarie, C. Penkerc’h, and F. D’Ortenzio, “Assessing the Variability in the Relationship Between the Particulate Backscattering Coefficient and the Chlorophyll a Concentration From a Global Biogeochemical-Argo Database,” J. Geophys. Res.: Oceans 123(2), 1229–1250 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. Poteau, E. Boss, and H. Claustre, “Particulate concentration and seasonal dynamics in the mesopelagic ocean based on the backscattering coefficient measured with Biogeochemical-Argo floats,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 44(13), 6933–6939 (2017).
[Crossref]

Proctor, C. W.

Reynolds, R. A.

H. Loisel, D. Stramski, D. Dessailly, C. Jamet, L. Li, and R. A. Reynolds, “An inverse model for estimating the optical absorption and backscattering coefficients of seawater from remote-sensing reflectance over a broad range of oceanic and coastal marine environments,” J. Geophys. Res.: Oceans 123(3), 2141–2171 (2018).
[Crossref]

G. Zheng, D. Stramski, and R. A. Reynolds, “Evaluation of the Quasi-Analytical Algorithm for estimating the inherent optical properties of seawater from ocean color: Comparison of Arctic and lower-latitude waters,” Remote Sens. Environ. 155, 194–209 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Stramski, R. A. Reynolds, M. Babin, S. Kaczmarek, M. R. Lewis, R. Röttgers, and H. Claustre, “Relationships between the surface concentration of particulate organic carbon and optical properties in the eastern South Pacific and eastern Atlantic Oceans,” Biogeosciences 5(1), 171–201 (2008).
[Crossref]

D. Stramski, R. A. Reynolds, M. Kahru, and B. G. Mitchell, “Estimation of particulate organic carbon in the ocean from satellite remote sensing,” Science 285(5425), 239–242 (1999).
[Crossref]

Riser, S.

E. Boss, D. Swift, L. Taylor, P. Brickley, R. Zaneveld, S. Riser, and P. G. Strutton, “Observations of pigment and particle distributions in the western North Atlantic from an autonomous float and ocean color satellite,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 53(5part2), 2112–2122 (2008).
[Crossref]

Rodier, S. D.

M. J. Behrenfeld, Y. Hu, C. A. Hostetler, G. Dall’Olmo, S. D. Rodier, J. W. Hair, and C. R. Trepte, “Space-based lidar measurements of global ocean carbon stocks,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 40(16), 4355–4360 (2013).
[Crossref]

Roesler, C. S.

C. S. Roesler and E. Boss, “Spectral beam attenuation coefficient retrieved from ocean color inversion,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 30(9), 1468 (2003).
[Crossref]

Röttgers, R.

D. Stramski, R. A. Reynolds, M. Babin, S. Kaczmarek, M. R. Lewis, R. Röttgers, and H. Claustre, “Relationships between the surface concentration of particulate organic carbon and optical properties in the eastern South Pacific and eastern Atlantic Oceans,” Biogeosciences 5(1), 171–201 (2008).
[Crossref]

Schmechtig, C.

M. Barbieux, J. Uitz, A. Bricaud, E. Organelli, A. Poteau, C. Schmechtig, B. Gentili, G. Obolensky, E. Leymarie, C. Penkerc’h, and F. D’Ortenzio, “Assessing the Variability in the Relationship Between the Particulate Backscattering Coefficient and the Chlorophyll a Concentration From a Global Biogeochemical-Argo Database,” J. Geophys. Res.: Oceans 123(2), 1229–1250 (2018).
[Crossref]

Shang, S.

Z. Lee, C. Hu, S. Shang, K. Du, M. Lewis, R. Arnone, and R. Brewin, “Penetration of UV-visible solar radiation in the global oceans: Insights from ocean color remote sensing,” J. Geophys. Res.: Oceans 118(9), 4241–4255 (2013).
[Crossref]

Shea, D. M.

M. J. Behrenfeld, E. Boss, D. A. Siegel, and D. M. Shea, “Carbon-based ocean productivity and phytoplankton physiology from space,” Global Biogeochem. Cycles 19(1), 447 (2005).
[Crossref]

Siegel, D. A.

T. S. Kostadinov, D. A. Siegel, and S. Maritorena, “Retrieval of the particle size distribution from satellite ocean color observations,” J. Geophys. Res.: Oceans 114(C9), C09015 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. J. Behrenfeld, E. Boss, D. A. Siegel, and D. M. Shea, “Carbon-based ocean productivity and phytoplankton physiology from space,” Global Biogeochem. Cycles 19(1), 447 (2005).
[Crossref]

S. Maritorena, D. A. Siegel, and A. R. Peterson, “Optimization of a semianalytical ocean color model for global-scale applications,” Appl. Opt. 41(15), 2705–2714 (2002).
[Crossref]

Smith, R. C.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, and D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res.: Atmos. 93(D9), 10909–10924 (1988).
[Crossref]

Stavn, R. H.

Stewart, B.

H. Claustre, J. Bishop, E. Boss, B. Stewart, J.-F. Berthon, C. Coatanoan, K. Johnson, A. Lotiker, O. Ulloa, M.-J. Perry, F. D’Ortenzio, O. Hembise Fanton D’Andon, and J. Uitz, “Bio-optical profiling floats as new observational tools for biogeochemical and ecosystem studies,” In: J. Hall, D.E. Harrison, and D. Stammer, eds. Proceedings of the “OceanObs’09: Sustained Ocean Observations and Information for Society” Conference, Venice, Italy, 21-25 September 2009. 2: | DOI: 10.5270/OceanObs09.cwp.17. (2010).

Stramski, D.

H. Loisel, D. Stramski, D. Dessailly, C. Jamet, L. Li, and R. A. Reynolds, “An inverse model for estimating the optical absorption and backscattering coefficients of seawater from remote-sensing reflectance over a broad range of oceanic and coastal marine environments,” J. Geophys. Res.: Oceans 123(3), 2141–2171 (2018).
[Crossref]

G. Zheng, D. Stramski, and R. A. Reynolds, “Evaluation of the Quasi-Analytical Algorithm for estimating the inherent optical properties of seawater from ocean color: Comparison of Arctic and lower-latitude waters,” Remote Sens. Environ. 155, 194–209 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Stramski, R. A. Reynolds, M. Babin, S. Kaczmarek, M. R. Lewis, R. Röttgers, and H. Claustre, “Relationships between the surface concentration of particulate organic carbon and optical properties in the eastern South Pacific and eastern Atlantic Oceans,” Biogeosciences 5(1), 171–201 (2008).
[Crossref]

D. Stramski, E. Boss, D. Bogucki, and K. J. Voss, “The role of seawater constituents in light backscattering in the ocean,” Prog. Oceanogr. 61(1), 27–56 (2004).
[Crossref]

H. Loisel and D. Stramski, “Estimation of the inherent optical properties of natural waters from the irradiance attenuation coefficient and reflectance in the presence of Raman scattering,” Appl. Opt. 39(18), 3001–3011 (2000).
[Crossref]

D. Stramski, R. A. Reynolds, M. Kahru, and B. G. Mitchell, “Estimation of particulate organic carbon in the ocean from satellite remote sensing,” Science 285(5425), 239–242 (1999).
[Crossref]

Strutton, P. G.

E. Boss, D. Swift, L. Taylor, P. Brickley, R. Zaneveld, S. Riser, and P. G. Strutton, “Observations of pigment and particle distributions in the western North Atlantic from an autonomous float and ocean color satellite,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 53(5part2), 2112–2122 (2008).
[Crossref]

Swift, D.

E. Boss, D. Swift, L. Taylor, P. Brickley, R. Zaneveld, S. Riser, and P. G. Strutton, “Observations of pigment and particle distributions in the western North Atlantic from an autonomous float and ocean color satellite,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 53(5part2), 2112–2122 (2008).
[Crossref]

Talley, L. D.

N. Haëntjens, E. Boss, and L. D. Talley, “Revisiting Ocean Color algorithms for chlorophyll a and particulate organic carbon in the Southern Ocean using biogeochemical floats,” J. Geophys. Res.: Oceans 122(8), 6583–6593 (2017).
[Crossref]

Taylor, L.

E. Boss, D. Swift, L. Taylor, P. Brickley, R. Zaneveld, S. Riser, and P. G. Strutton, “Observations of pigment and particle distributions in the western North Atlantic from an autonomous float and ocean color satellite,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 53(5part2), 2112–2122 (2008).
[Crossref]

Trepte, C. R.

M. J. Behrenfeld, Y. Hu, C. A. Hostetler, G. Dall’Olmo, S. D. Rodier, J. W. Hair, and C. R. Trepte, “Space-based lidar measurements of global ocean carbon stocks,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 40(16), 4355–4360 (2013).
[Crossref]

Uitz, J.

M. Barbieux, J. Uitz, A. Bricaud, E. Organelli, A. Poteau, C. Schmechtig, B. Gentili, G. Obolensky, E. Leymarie, C. Penkerc’h, and F. D’Ortenzio, “Assessing the Variability in the Relationship Between the Particulate Backscattering Coefficient and the Chlorophyll a Concentration From a Global Biogeochemical-Argo Database,” J. Geophys. Res.: Oceans 123(2), 1229–1250 (2018).
[Crossref]

E. Organelli, H. Claustre, A. Bricaud, M. Barbieux, J. Uitz, F. D’Ortenzio, and G. Dall’Olmo, “Bio-optical anomalies in the world’s oceans: An investigation on the diffuse attenuation coefficients for downward irradiance derived from Biogeochemical Argo float measurements,” J. Geophys. Res.: Oceans 122(5), 3543–3564 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Claustre, J. Bishop, E. Boss, B. Stewart, J.-F. Berthon, C. Coatanoan, K. Johnson, A. Lotiker, O. Ulloa, M.-J. Perry, F. D’Ortenzio, O. Hembise Fanton D’Andon, and J. Uitz, “Bio-optical profiling floats as new observational tools for biogeochemical and ecosystem studies,” In: J. Hall, D.E. Harrison, and D. Stammer, eds. Proceedings of the “OceanObs’09: Sustained Ocean Observations and Information for Society” Conference, Venice, Italy, 21-25 September 2009. 2: | DOI: 10.5270/OceanObs09.cwp.17. (2010).

Ulloa, O.

H. Claustre, J. Bishop, E. Boss, B. Stewart, J.-F. Berthon, C. Coatanoan, K. Johnson, A. Lotiker, O. Ulloa, M.-J. Perry, F. D’Ortenzio, O. Hembise Fanton D’Andon, and J. Uitz, “Bio-optical profiling floats as new observational tools for biogeochemical and ecosystem studies,” In: J. Hall, D.E. Harrison, and D. Stammer, eds. Proceedings of the “OceanObs’09: Sustained Ocean Observations and Information for Society” Conference, Venice, Italy, 21-25 September 2009. 2: | DOI: 10.5270/OceanObs09.cwp.17. (2010).

Voss, K. J.

D. Stramski, E. Boss, D. Bogucki, and K. J. Voss, “The role of seawater constituents in light backscattering in the ocean,” Prog. Oceanogr. 61(1), 27–56 (2004).
[Crossref]

Weidemann, A. D.

Werdell, P. J.

Westberry, T. K.

Wong, Annie

Annie Wong and Robert Keeley, Thierry Carval and the Argo Data Management Team “Argo Quality Control Manual for CTD and Trajectory Data,” http://dx.doi.org/10.13155/33951 . (2019).

Zaneveld, R.

E. Boss, D. Swift, L. Taylor, P. Brickley, R. Zaneveld, S. Riser, and P. G. Strutton, “Observations of pigment and particle distributions in the western North Atlantic from an autonomous float and ocean color satellite,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 53(5part2), 2112–2122 (2008).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.

Zheng, G.

G. Zheng, D. Stramski, and R. A. Reynolds, “Evaluation of the Quasi-Analytical Algorithm for estimating the inherent optical properties of seawater from ocean color: Comparison of Arctic and lower-latitude waters,” Remote Sens. Environ. 155, 194–209 (2014).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (8)

R. H. Stavn and A. D. Weidemann, “Optical modeling of clear ocean light fields: Raman scattering effects,” Appl. Opt. 27(19), 4002–4011 (1988).
[Crossref]

H. R. Gordon, “Contribution of Raman scattering to water-leaving radiance: a reexamination,” Appl. Opt. 38(15), 3166–3174 (1999).
[Crossref]

H. Loisel and D. Stramski, “Estimation of the inherent optical properties of natural waters from the irradiance attenuation coefficient and reflectance in the presence of Raman scattering,” Appl. Opt. 39(18), 3001–3011 (2000).
[Crossref]

R. M. Pope and E. S. Fry, “Absorption spectrum (380–700 nm) of pure water. II. Integrating cavity measurements,” Appl. Opt. 36(33), 8710–8723 (1997).
[Crossref]

S. Maritorena, D. A. Siegel, and A. R. Peterson, “Optimization of a semianalytical ocean color model for global-scale applications,” Appl. Opt. 41(15), 2705–2714 (2002).
[Crossref]

Z. Lee, K. L. Carder, and R. A. Arnone, “Deriving inherent optical properties from water color: a multiband quasi-analytical algorithm for optically deep waters,” Appl. Opt. 41(27), 5755–5772 (2002).
[Crossref]

P. J. Werdell, B. A. Franz, S. W. Bailey, G. C. Feldman, E. Boss, V. E. Brando, M. Dowell, T. Hirata, S. J. Lavender, Z. Lee, and H. Loisel, “Generalized ocean color inversion model for retrieving marine inherent optical properties,” Appl. Opt. 52(10), 2019–2037 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. K. Westberry, E. Boss, and Z. Lee, “Influence of Raman scattering on ocean color inversion models,” Appl. Opt. 52(22), 5552–5561 (2013).
[Crossref]

Biogeosciences (1)

D. Stramski, R. A. Reynolds, M. Babin, S. Kaczmarek, M. R. Lewis, R. Röttgers, and H. Claustre, “Relationships between the surface concentration of particulate organic carbon and optical properties in the eastern South Pacific and eastern Atlantic Oceans,” Biogeosciences 5(1), 171–201 (2008).
[Crossref]

Front. Earth Sci. (1)

H. M. Dierssen, “Hyperspectral measurements, parameterizations, and atmospheric correction of whitecaps and foam from visible to shortwave infrared for ocean color remote sensing,” Front. Earth Sci. 7, 14 (2019).
[Crossref]

Geophys. Res. Lett. (4)

M. J. Behrenfeld, Y. Hu, C. A. Hostetler, G. Dall’Olmo, S. D. Rodier, J. W. Hair, and C. R. Trepte, “Space-based lidar measurements of global ocean carbon stocks,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 40(16), 4355–4360 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. S. Roesler and E. Boss, “Spectral beam attenuation coefficient retrieved from ocean color inversion,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 30(9), 1468 (2003).
[Crossref]

A. Poteau, E. Boss, and H. Claustre, “Particulate concentration and seasonal dynamics in the mesopelagic ocean based on the backscattering coefficient measured with Biogeochemical-Argo floats,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 44(13), 6933–6939 (2017).
[Crossref]

E. Boss and M. Behrenfeld, “In situ evaluation of the initiation of the North Atlantic phytoplankton bloom,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 37(18), 79 (2010).
[Crossref]

Global Biogeochem. Cycles (1)

M. J. Behrenfeld, E. Boss, D. A. Siegel, and D. M. Shea, “Carbon-based ocean productivity and phytoplankton physiology from space,” Global Biogeochem. Cycles 19(1), 447 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Geophys. Res.: Atmos. (1)

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, and D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res.: Atmos. 93(D9), 10909–10924 (1988).
[Crossref]

J. Geophys. Res.: Oceans (7)

C. de Boyer Montégut, G. Madec, A. S. Fischer, A. Lazar, and D. Iudicone, “Mixed layer depth over the global ocean: An examination of profile data and a profile-based climatology,” J. Geophys. Res.: Oceans 109(C12), C12003 (2004).
[Crossref]

Z. Lee, C. Hu, S. Shang, K. Du, M. Lewis, R. Arnone, and R. Brewin, “Penetration of UV-visible solar radiation in the global oceans: Insights from ocean color remote sensing,” J. Geophys. Res.: Oceans 118(9), 4241–4255 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. S. Kostadinov, D. A. Siegel, and S. Maritorena, “Retrieval of the particle size distribution from satellite ocean color observations,” J. Geophys. Res.: Oceans 114(C9), C09015 (2009).
[Crossref]

N. Haëntjens, E. Boss, and L. D. Talley, “Revisiting Ocean Color algorithms for chlorophyll a and particulate organic carbon in the Southern Ocean using biogeochemical floats,” J. Geophys. Res.: Oceans 122(8), 6583–6593 (2017).
[Crossref]

E. Organelli, H. Claustre, A. Bricaud, M. Barbieux, J. Uitz, F. D’Ortenzio, and G. Dall’Olmo, “Bio-optical anomalies in the world’s oceans: An investigation on the diffuse attenuation coefficients for downward irradiance derived from Biogeochemical Argo float measurements,” J. Geophys. Res.: Oceans 122(5), 3543–3564 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Barbieux, J. Uitz, A. Bricaud, E. Organelli, A. Poteau, C. Schmechtig, B. Gentili, G. Obolensky, E. Leymarie, C. Penkerc’h, and F. D’Ortenzio, “Assessing the Variability in the Relationship Between the Particulate Backscattering Coefficient and the Chlorophyll a Concentration From a Global Biogeochemical-Argo Database,” J. Geophys. Res.: Oceans 123(2), 1229–1250 (2018).
[Crossref]

H. Loisel, D. Stramski, D. Dessailly, C. Jamet, L. Li, and R. A. Reynolds, “An inverse model for estimating the optical absorption and backscattering coefficients of seawater from remote-sensing reflectance over a broad range of oceanic and coastal marine environments,” J. Geophys. Res.: Oceans 123(3), 2141–2171 (2018).
[Crossref]

Limnol. Oceanogr. (1)

E. Boss, D. Swift, L. Taylor, P. Brickley, R. Zaneveld, S. Riser, and P. G. Strutton, “Observations of pigment and particle distributions in the western North Atlantic from an autonomous float and ocean color satellite,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 53(5part2), 2112–2122 (2008).
[Crossref]

Nat. Commun. (1)

A. Mignot, R. Ferrari, and H Claustre, “Floats with bio-optical sensors reveal what processes trigger the North Atlantic bloom,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 190 (2018).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (2)

Prog. Oceanogr. (1)

D. Stramski, E. Boss, D. Bogucki, and K. J. Voss, “The role of seawater constituents in light backscattering in the ocean,” Prog. Oceanogr. 61(1), 27–56 (2004).
[Crossref]

Remote Sens. Environ. (2)

S. W. Bailey and P. J. Werdell, “A multi-sensor approach for the on-orbit validation of ocean color satellite data products,” Remote Sens. Environ. 102(1-2), 12–23 (2006).
[Crossref]

G. Zheng, D. Stramski, and R. A. Reynolds, “Evaluation of the Quasi-Analytical Algorithm for estimating the inherent optical properties of seawater from ocean color: Comparison of Arctic and lower-latitude waters,” Remote Sens. Environ. 155, 194–209 (2014).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

D. Stramski, R. A. Reynolds, M. Kahru, and B. G. Mitchell, “Estimation of particulate organic carbon in the ocean from satellite remote sensing,” Science 285(5425), 239–242 (1999).
[Crossref]

Other (5)

H. Claustre, J. Bishop, E. Boss, B. Stewart, J.-F. Berthon, C. Coatanoan, K. Johnson, A. Lotiker, O. Ulloa, M.-J. Perry, F. D’Ortenzio, O. Hembise Fanton D’Andon, and J. Uitz, “Bio-optical profiling floats as new observational tools for biogeochemical and ecosystem studies,” In: J. Hall, D.E. Harrison, and D. Stammer, eds. Proceedings of the “OceanObs’09: Sustained Ocean Observations and Information for Society” Conference, Venice, Italy, 21-25 September 2009. 2: | DOI: 10.5270/OceanObs09.cwp.17. (2010).

H. ClaustreFrench National Centre for Scientific Research. Laboratoire d’Océanographie de Villefranche, France. (personal communication, 2017).

Bittig Henry, Wong Annie, and Plant Josh, Coriolis Argo Data Management Team. “BGC-Argo synthetic profile file processing and format on Coriolis GDAC,” https://doi.org/10.13155/55637 . (2018).

A. Barnard Sea-Bird Scientific, Bellevue, Washington, USA. (personal communication, 2017).

Annie Wong and Robert Keeley, Thierry Carval and the Argo Data Management Team “Argo Quality Control Manual for CTD and Trajectory Data,” http://dx.doi.org/10.13155/33951 . (2019).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. a) A map of float observations used in this study, colored by matchups with a particular sensor. Grey represents float observations without coincident satellite matchups. b) Distribution of sampling month for all float observations and for those that coincide with a particular satellite sensor. c) Median (dotted line) and the interquartile range (blue shading) of satellite remote sensing reflectance for the matchup times and locations used in this study.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Comparisons of bbp_float distributions (depending on sensor, top panel), and bbp_sat from the GIOP (2nd panel), GSM (3rd panel) and QAA (4th panel) algorithms across three different sensors (MODIS in yellow, VIIRS in red, OLCI in blue). Grey represents all floats that do not coincide with a satellite observation.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. The absolute value of the difference between bbp_sat and bbp_float is shown against the time (hours) between a satellite overpass and a float observation. The bbp_sat values are shown as an example using the GIOP, but these results are consistent among all algorithms. Satellite data source is indicated by symbol type: filled circle = MODIS, plus sign = VIIRS, and open triangle = OLCI.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. bbp_sat vs bbp_float matchups for the GIOP, QAA, and GSM inversion algorithms using remote sensing reflectance from MODIS, VIIRS, or OLCI. For each algorithm, the left panel shows all data locations and the right panel shows all locations except the Mediterranean and Black Seas. The Mediterranean and Black Seas data are highlighted in blue in the left panel for each satellite. bbp is at 700 nm m−1. The red dashed line is the 1:1 line.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Matchup summary statistics and non-parametric indices for the 3 satellite sensors and remote sensing inversion algorithms used in this study. Bias is calculated as the median ratio of the satellite values to the float observations, and median percent error (MPE) is calculated as the median of 100% x |(bbp_sat/bbp_float −1)|. The 14th and 86th percentiles are reported as estimates of +/- one standard deviation. ‘r’ is Spearman’s rank correlation. Bias, MPE, and r are unitless; bbp (700 nm) and the reported quantiles are m−1.

Equations (12)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

R rs = R rs T 1 + RF
RF ( λ )  = a ( λ ) ( R rs T ( 440 ) R rs T ( 550 ) )  +  β 1 ( λ ) R rs T ( 550 ) β 2 ( λ )
r rs ( λ )  =  R rs ( λ ) 0 .52 + 1 .7 R rs ( λ )
r rs ( λ ) = ι = 1 2 G i [ u ( λ ) ] i
u ( λ ) = b b ( λ ) a ( λ )  +  b b ( λ )
a ( λ ) = a w ( λ )  +  M dg a dg ( λ )  +  M ph a ph ( λ )
b b ( λ )  =  b bw ( λ )  +  M bp b bp ( λ )
a dg ( λ ) = e  -  S dg
b bp ( λ ) = b bp ( λ 0 ) ( λ / λ λ 0 λ 0 ) γ
a ph ( λ ) = Chl a ph ( λ )
a dg ( λ ) = a dg ( λ 0 ) e  -  S dg ( λ λ 0 )
b bp ( λ ) = b bp ( λ 0 ) ( λ / λ λ 0 λ 0 ) γ

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