Abstract

In this paper, we experimentally investigate the onset dynamics of harmonic mode-locking (HML) in a short-cavity all-polarization-maintaining fiber laser using time-stretch spectroscopy. We observe a transient multi-pulse state evolving into a stable HML state. Moreover, a bunch of metastable short-lived mode-locking states are recorded before the laser entered the HML state. In these transient states, sudden changes including the formation and destruction of single broadband pulses are observed.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  27. G. Xu, A. Gelash, A. Chabchoub, V. Zakharov, and B. Kibler, “Breather Wave Molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 122(8), 084101 (2019).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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2019 (2)

G. Xu, A. Gelash, A. Chabchoub, V. Zakharov, and B. Kibler, “Breather Wave Molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 122(8), 084101 (2019).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Liu and M. Peng, “Revealing the Buildup Dynamics of Harmonic Mode-Locking States in Ultrafast Lasers,” Laser Photonics Rev. 2019(9), 1800333 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (5)

Y. Yu, Z. C. Luo, J. Kang, and K. K. Y. Wong, “Mutually ignited soliton explosions in a fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 43(17), 4132–4135 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Sulimany, O. Lib, G. Masri, A. Klein, M. Fridman, P. Grelu, O. Gat, and H. Steinberg, “Bidirectional Soliton Rain Dynamics Induced by Casimir-Like Interactions in a Graphene Mode-Locked Fiber Laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 121(13), 133902 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Peng and H. Zeng, “Build-Up of Dissipative Optical Soliton Molecules via Diverse Soliton Interactions,” Laser Photonics Rev. 12(8), 1800009 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Yan, L. Zhang, Q. Hao, X. Shen, X. Qian, H. Chen, X. Ren, and H. Zeng, “Surface-enhanced dual-comb coherent Raman spectroscopy with Nanoporous Gold Films,” Laser Photonics Rev. 12(7), 1800096 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Peng, M. Sorokina, S. Sugavanam, N. Tarasov, D. V. Churkin, S. K. Turitsyn, and H. Zeng, “Real-time observation of dissipative soliton formation in nonlinear polarization rotation mode-locked fibre lasers,” Commun. Phys. 1(1), 20 (2018).
[Crossref]

2016 (2)

G. Herink, B. Jalali, C. Ropers, and D. R. Solli, “Resolving the Build-up of Femtosecond Mode-locking with Single-shot Spectroscopy at 90 MHz Frame Rate,” Nat. Photonics 10(5), 321–326 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Liu, A. P. Luo, Y. R. Yan, S. Hu, Y. C. Liu, H. Cui, Z. C. Luo, and W. C. Xu, “Successive soliton explosions in an ultrafast fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 41(6), 1181–1184 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (2)

2014 (1)

2013 (2)

2012 (2)

2011 (2)

X. Liu, “Interaction and motion of solitons in passively-mode-locked fiber lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 84(5), 053828 (2011).
[Crossref]

X. Liu, “Soliton formation and evolution in passively-mode-locked lasers with ultralong anomalous-dispersion fibers,” Phys. Rev. A 84(2), 023835 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

W. W. Hsiang, H. C. Chang, and Y. Lai, “Laser Dynamics of a 10 GHz 0.55 ps Asynchronously Harmonic Modelocked Er-Doped Fiber Soliton Laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(3), 299n–299u (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

2007 (2)

2005 (1)

D. Tang, L. Zhao, B. Zhao, and A. Liu, “Mechanism of multisoliton formation and soliton energy quantization in passively mode-locked fiber lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 72(4), 043816 (2005).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

R. Paschotta and U. Keller, “Passive mode locking with slow saturable absorbers,” Appl. Phys. B 73(7), 653–662 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

1998 (1)

J. N. Kutz, B. C. Collings, K. Bergman, and W. H. Knox, “Stabilized pulse spacing in soliton lasers due to gain depletion and recovery,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34(9), 1749–1757 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (2)

Ch. Wang, W. Zhang, K. F. Lee, and K. M. Yoo, “Pulse splitting in a self-mode-locking Ti:sapphire laser,” Opt. Commun. 137(1-3), 89–92 (1997).
[Crossref]

A. B. Grudinin and S. Gray, “Passive harmonic mode locking in soliton fiber lasers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14(1), 144 (1997).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

A. B. Grudinin, D. J. Richardson, and D. N. Payne, “Energy quantization in figure eight fibre laser,” Electron. Lett. 28(1), 1391–1393 (1992).
[Crossref]

Bai, D.

Bale, B. G.

Bergman, K.

J. N. Kutz, B. C. Collings, K. Bergman, and W. H. Knox, “Stabilized pulse spacing in soliton lasers due to gain depletion and recovery,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34(9), 1749–1757 (1998).
[Crossref]

Broderick, N. G. R.

Carruthers, T. F.

Chabchoub, A.

G. Xu, A. Gelash, A. Chabchoub, V. Zakharov, and B. Kibler, “Breather Wave Molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 122(8), 084101 (2019).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chang, H. C.

W. W. Hsiang, H. C. Chang, and Y. Lai, “Laser Dynamics of a 10 GHz 0.55 ps Asynchronously Harmonic Modelocked Er-Doped Fiber Soliton Laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(3), 299n–299u (2010).
[Crossref]

Chen, H.

M. Yan, L. Zhang, Q. Hao, X. Shen, X. Qian, H. Chen, X. Ren, and H. Zeng, “Surface-enhanced dual-comb coherent Raman spectroscopy with Nanoporous Gold Films,” Laser Photonics Rev. 12(7), 1800096 (2018).
[Crossref]

Cheng, T. H.

Churkin, D. V.

J. Peng, M. Sorokina, S. Sugavanam, N. Tarasov, D. V. Churkin, S. K. Turitsyn, and H. Zeng, “Real-time observation of dissipative soliton formation in nonlinear polarization rotation mode-locked fibre lasers,” Commun. Phys. 1(1), 20 (2018).
[Crossref]

Collings, B. C.

J. N. Kutz, B. C. Collings, K. Bergman, and W. H. Knox, “Stabilized pulse spacing in soliton lasers due to gain depletion and recovery,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34(9), 1749–1757 (1998).
[Crossref]

Cui, H.

Du, J.

Duling, I. N.

Erkintalo, M.

Fermann, M. E.

M. E. Fermann and I. Hartl, “Ultrafast fibre lasers,” Nat. Photonics 7(11), 868–874 (2013).
[Crossref]

Fridman, M.

K. Sulimany, O. Lib, G. Masri, A. Klein, M. Fridman, P. Grelu, O. Gat, and H. Steinberg, “Bidirectional Soliton Rain Dynamics Induced by Casimir-Like Interactions in a Graphene Mode-Locked Fiber Laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 121(13), 133902 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gat, O.

K. Sulimany, O. Lib, G. Masri, A. Klein, M. Fridman, P. Grelu, O. Gat, and H. Steinberg, “Bidirectional Soliton Rain Dynamics Induced by Casimir-Like Interactions in a Graphene Mode-Locked Fiber Laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 121(13), 133902 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gelash, A.

G. Xu, A. Gelash, A. Chabchoub, V. Zakharov, and B. Kibler, “Breather Wave Molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 122(8), 084101 (2019).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gray, S.

Grelu, P.

K. Sulimany, O. Lib, G. Masri, A. Klein, M. Fridman, P. Grelu, O. Gat, and H. Steinberg, “Bidirectional Soliton Rain Dynamics Induced by Casimir-Like Interactions in a Graphene Mode-Locked Fiber Laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 121(13), 133902 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Lecaplain and P. Grelu, “Multi-gigahertz repetition-rate-selectable passive harmonic mode locking of a fiber laser,” Opt. Express 21(9), 10897–10902 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grudinin, A. B.

A. B. Grudinin and S. Gray, “Passive harmonic mode locking in soliton fiber lasers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14(1), 144 (1997).
[Crossref]

A. B. Grudinin, D. J. Richardson, and D. N. Payne, “Energy quantization in figure eight fibre laser,” Electron. Lett. 28(1), 1391–1393 (1992).
[Crossref]

Hao, Q.

M. Yan, L. Zhang, Q. Hao, X. Shen, X. Qian, H. Chen, X. Ren, and H. Zeng, “Surface-enhanced dual-comb coherent Raman spectroscopy with Nanoporous Gold Films,” Laser Photonics Rev. 12(7), 1800096 (2018).
[Crossref]

Hao, Y.

Hartl, I.

M. E. Fermann and I. Hartl, “Ultrafast fibre lasers,” Nat. Photonics 7(11), 868–874 (2013).
[Crossref]

Herink, G.

G. Herink, B. Jalali, C. Ropers, and D. R. Solli, “Resolving the Build-up of Femtosecond Mode-locking with Single-shot Spectroscopy at 90 MHz Frame Rate,” Nat. Photonics 10(5), 321–326 (2016).
[Crossref]

Horowitz, M.

Hsiang, W. W.

W. W. Hsiang, H. C. Chang, and Y. Lai, “Laser Dynamics of a 10 GHz 0.55 ps Asynchronously Harmonic Modelocked Er-Doped Fiber Soliton Laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(3), 299n–299u (2010).
[Crossref]

Hu, S.

Jalali, B.

G. Herink, B. Jalali, C. Ropers, and D. R. Solli, “Resolving the Build-up of Femtosecond Mode-locking with Single-shot Spectroscopy at 90 MHz Frame Rate,” Nat. Photonics 10(5), 321–326 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. R. Solli, C. Ropers, P. Koonath, and B. Jalali, “Optical rogue waves,” Nature 450(7172), 1054–1057 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kang, J.

Keller, U.

R. Paschotta and U. Keller, “Passive mode locking with slow saturable absorbers,” Appl. Phys. B 73(7), 653–662 (2001).
[Crossref]

Kibler, B.

G. Xu, A. Gelash, A. Chabchoub, V. Zakharov, and B. Kibler, “Breather Wave Molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 122(8), 084101 (2019).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kieu, K.

Klein, A.

K. Sulimany, O. Lib, G. Masri, A. Klein, M. Fridman, P. Grelu, O. Gat, and H. Steinberg, “Bidirectional Soliton Rain Dynamics Induced by Casimir-Like Interactions in a Graphene Mode-Locked Fiber Laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 121(13), 133902 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Knox, W. H.

J. N. Kutz, B. C. Collings, K. Bergman, and W. H. Knox, “Stabilized pulse spacing in soliton lasers due to gain depletion and recovery,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34(9), 1749–1757 (1998).
[Crossref]

Koonath, P.

D. R. Solli, C. Ropers, P. Koonath, and B. Jalali, “Optical rogue waves,” Nature 450(7172), 1054–1057 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kutz, J. N.

B. G. Bale, K. Kieu, J. N. Kutz, and F. Wise, “Transition dynamics for multi-pulsing in mode-locked lasers,” Opt. Express 17(25), 23137–23146 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. N. Kutz, B. C. Collings, K. Bergman, and W. H. Knox, “Stabilized pulse spacing in soliton lasers due to gain depletion and recovery,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34(9), 1749–1757 (1998).
[Crossref]

Lai, Y.

W. W. Hsiang, H. C. Chang, and Y. Lai, “Laser Dynamics of a 10 GHz 0.55 ps Asynchronously Harmonic Modelocked Er-Doped Fiber Soliton Laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(3), 299n–299u (2010).
[Crossref]

Lecaplain, C.

Lee, K. F.

Ch. Wang, W. Zhang, K. F. Lee, and K. M. Yoo, “Pulse splitting in a self-mode-locking Ti:sapphire laser,” Opt. Commun. 137(1-3), 89–92 (1997).
[Crossref]

Li, H.

Li, W.

Li, X.

Lib, O.

K. Sulimany, O. Lib, G. Masri, A. Klein, M. Fridman, P. Grelu, O. Gat, and H. Steinberg, “Bidirectional Soliton Rain Dynamics Induced by Casimir-Like Interactions in a Graphene Mode-Locked Fiber Laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 121(13), 133902 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, A.

D. Tang, L. Zhao, B. Zhao, and A. Liu, “Mechanism of multisoliton formation and soliton energy quantization in passively mode-locked fiber lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 72(4), 043816 (2005).
[Crossref]

Liu, M.

Liu, X.

X. Liu and M. Peng, “Revealing the Buildup Dynamics of Harmonic Mode-Locking States in Ultrafast Lasers,” Laser Photonics Rev. 2019(9), 1800333 (2019).
[Crossref]

X. Liu, “Interaction and motion of solitons in passively-mode-locked fiber lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 84(5), 053828 (2011).
[Crossref]

X. Liu, “Soliton formation and evolution in passively-mode-locked lasers with ultralong anomalous-dispersion fibers,” Phys. Rev. A 84(2), 023835 (2011).
[Crossref]

Liu, Y. C.

Liu, Z.

Lu, C.

Luo, A. P.

Luo, Z. C.

Majeed, A.

Masri, G.

K. Sulimany, O. Lib, G. Masri, A. Klein, M. Fridman, P. Grelu, O. Gat, and H. Steinberg, “Bidirectional Soliton Rain Dynamics Induced by Casimir-Like Interactions in a Graphene Mode-Locked Fiber Laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 121(13), 133902 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Meng, Y.

Menyuk, C. R.

Paschotta, R.

R. Paschotta and U. Keller, “Passive mode locking with slow saturable absorbers,” Appl. Phys. B 73(7), 653–662 (2001).
[Crossref]

Payne, D. N.

A. B. Grudinin, D. J. Richardson, and D. N. Payne, “Energy quantization in figure eight fibre laser,” Electron. Lett. 28(1), 1391–1393 (1992).
[Crossref]

Peng, J.

J. Peng, M. Sorokina, S. Sugavanam, N. Tarasov, D. V. Churkin, S. K. Turitsyn, and H. Zeng, “Real-time observation of dissipative soliton formation in nonlinear polarization rotation mode-locked fibre lasers,” Commun. Phys. 1(1), 20 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Peng and H. Zeng, “Build-Up of Dissipative Optical Soliton Molecules via Diverse Soliton Interactions,” Laser Photonics Rev. 12(8), 1800009 (2018).
[Crossref]

Peng, M.

X. Liu and M. Peng, “Revealing the Buildup Dynamics of Harmonic Mode-Locking States in Ultrafast Lasers,” Laser Photonics Rev. 2019(9), 1800333 (2019).
[Crossref]

Qian, X.

M. Yan, L. Zhang, Q. Hao, X. Shen, X. Qian, H. Chen, X. Ren, and H. Zeng, “Surface-enhanced dual-comb coherent Raman spectroscopy with Nanoporous Gold Films,” Laser Photonics Rev. 12(7), 1800096 (2018).
[Crossref]

Ren, X.

M. Yan, L. Zhang, Q. Hao, X. Shen, X. Qian, H. Chen, X. Ren, and H. Zeng, “Surface-enhanced dual-comb coherent Raman spectroscopy with Nanoporous Gold Films,” Laser Photonics Rev. 12(7), 1800096 (2018).
[Crossref]

Richardson, D. J.

A. B. Grudinin, D. J. Richardson, and D. N. Payne, “Energy quantization in figure eight fibre laser,” Electron. Lett. 28(1), 1391–1393 (1992).
[Crossref]

Ropers, C.

G. Herink, B. Jalali, C. Ropers, and D. R. Solli, “Resolving the Build-up of Femtosecond Mode-locking with Single-shot Spectroscopy at 90 MHz Frame Rate,” Nat. Photonics 10(5), 321–326 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. R. Solli, C. Ropers, P. Koonath, and B. Jalali, “Optical rogue waves,” Nature 450(7172), 1054–1057 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ru, Q.

Runge, A. F. J.

Shen, X.

M. Yan, L. Zhang, Q. Hao, X. Shen, X. Qian, H. Chen, X. Ren, and H. Zeng, “Surface-enhanced dual-comb coherent Raman spectroscopy with Nanoporous Gold Films,” Laser Photonics Rev. 12(7), 1800096 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Yan, W. Li, K. Yang, D. Bai, J. Zhao, X. Shen, Q. Ru, and H. Zeng, “Harmonic mode locking with reduced carrier-envelope phase noise in ytterbium-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 37(15), 3021–3023 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Solli, D. R.

G. Herink, B. Jalali, C. Ropers, and D. R. Solli, “Resolving the Build-up of Femtosecond Mode-locking with Single-shot Spectroscopy at 90 MHz Frame Rate,” Nat. Photonics 10(5), 321–326 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. R. Solli, C. Ropers, P. Koonath, and B. Jalali, “Optical rogue waves,” Nature 450(7172), 1054–1057 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sorokina, M.

J. Peng, M. Sorokina, S. Sugavanam, N. Tarasov, D. V. Churkin, S. K. Turitsyn, and H. Zeng, “Real-time observation of dissipative soliton formation in nonlinear polarization rotation mode-locked fibre lasers,” Commun. Phys. 1(1), 20 (2018).
[Crossref]

Steinberg, H.

K. Sulimany, O. Lib, G. Masri, A. Klein, M. Fridman, P. Grelu, O. Gat, and H. Steinberg, “Bidirectional Soliton Rain Dynamics Induced by Casimir-Like Interactions in a Graphene Mode-Locked Fiber Laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 121(13), 133902 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sugavanam, S.

J. Peng, M. Sorokina, S. Sugavanam, N. Tarasov, D. V. Churkin, S. K. Turitsyn, and H. Zeng, “Real-time observation of dissipative soliton formation in nonlinear polarization rotation mode-locked fibre lasers,” Commun. Phys. 1(1), 20 (2018).
[Crossref]

Sulimany, K.

K. Sulimany, O. Lib, G. Masri, A. Klein, M. Fridman, P. Grelu, O. Gat, and H. Steinberg, “Bidirectional Soliton Rain Dynamics Induced by Casimir-Like Interactions in a Graphene Mode-Locked Fiber Laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 121(13), 133902 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tam, H. Y.

Tang, D.

D. Tang, L. Zhao, B. Zhao, and A. Liu, “Mechanism of multisoliton formation and soliton energy quantization in passively mode-locked fiber lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 72(4), 043816 (2005).
[Crossref]

Tang, D. Y.

Tarasov, N.

J. Peng, M. Sorokina, S. Sugavanam, N. Tarasov, D. V. Churkin, S. K. Turitsyn, and H. Zeng, “Real-time observation of dissipative soliton formation in nonlinear polarization rotation mode-locked fibre lasers,” Commun. Phys. 1(1), 20 (2018).
[Crossref]

Turitsyn, S. K.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Experimental setup. AOM, acoustic-optic modulator; WDM/OI, wavelength division multiplexer integrated with an optical isolator; LD, laser diode; SMF, single mode fiber; PD, photo-detector; SESAM, semiconductor saturable absorber mirror; OSA, optical spectrum analyzer; OC, output coupler. (b) The output spectrum of the harmonically mode-locked fiber laser and (c) the corresponding RF inter-mode beat notes.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Recorded laser output signals using direct photo-diode detection (bandwidth of 1 GHz). The giant Q-switching bursts and the steady HML states are identified.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) A transient regime recorded in the self-starting process of HML and (b) zoom-in of a single burst in this regime (marked with the red dash box in (a)). (c) TS-DFT results displayed in a two-dimensional view corresponding to the part in the red box of (b).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Selected views of temporal evolution of the HML solitons. The entire measurement lasts ~10 ms (~1 million round trips). (a) 2000 round trips in the buildup process of a HML state. For the rest, each contains 40000 round trips, starting at a different round-trip number: (b) 130000, (c) 180000, and (d) 380000. (e) A separate measurement for the stabilized HML solitons.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Real-time spectral characterization of HML soliton dynamics. (a)-(e) Selected plots of the HML soliton spectral evolution. (f) Spectral comparison of the four evenly distributed HML solitons.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Temporal separation of two solitons (red) and its first-order derivative with respect to round trips (blue).

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