Abstract

A novel snapshot hyperspectral imager is introduced for ocean color (OC) applications and its capabilities are demonstrated. The instrument provides hyperspectral radiance images with a wide field-of-view (FOV) and short exposure time, which is valuable for the direct characterization of the wind-roughened surface in various illumination conditions and wind speeds. Uncertainties in the total(Lt), sky (Ls) and derived water-leaving (Lw)radiances at viewing angles of 20–60° are determined as a function of wind speed together with associated correlation coefficients and variances of the sea surface reflectance coefficient ρ. Estimated Lw uncertainties can partially explain the inaccuracy of satellite retrievals in the blue bands in the coastal waters. It is shown that in above-water measurements in no-glint conditions with viewing and azimuth angles of 40° and 90°, respectively, for both Lt(λ) and Ls(λ) the impact of FOV is minimal at least up to measured W = 5.7 m/s for full-angle FOV of 4° and larger. Implications of uncertainties for the derivation of water leaving radiance in above-water ship-borne and AERONET-OC measurements are discussed.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2018 (5)

A. Ibrahim, B. Franz, Z. Ahmad, R. Healy, K. Knobelspiesse, B.-C. Gao, C. Proctor, and P.-W. Zhai, “Atmospheric correction for hyperspectral ocean color retrieval with application to the Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean (HICO),” Remote Sens. Environ. 204, 60–75 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Carrizo, A. Golovin, A. El-Habashi, R. Foster, D. Gray, J. Bowles, and A. Gilerson, “Ocean surface characterization using snapshot hyperspectral polarimetric imager,” Proc. SPIE 10631, 1063107 (2018).

A. Gilerson, C. Carrizo, R. Foster, and T. Harmel, “Variability of the reflectance coefficient of skylight from the ocean surface and its implications to Ocean Color,” Opt. Express 26(8), 9615–9633 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Ottaviani, R. Foster, A. Gilerson, A. Ibrahim, C. Carrizo, A. El-Habashi, B. Cairns, J. Chowdhary, C. Hostetler, J. Hair, S. Burton, Y. Hu, M. Twardowski, N. Stockley, D. Gray, W. Slade, and I. Cetinic, “Airborne and shipborne polarimetric measurements over open ocean and coastal waters: intercomparisons and implications for spaceborne observations,” Remote Sens. Environ. 206, 375–390 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Zhang, C. Hu, J. Cannizzaro, D. English, B. B. Barnes, P. Carlson, and L. Yarbro, “Comparison of two atmospheric correction approaches applied to MODIS measurements over North American waters,” Remote Sens. Environ. 216, 442–455 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (3)

2016 (1)

2015 (3)

H. Aasen, A. Burkart, A. Bolten, and G. Bareth, “Generating 3D hyperspectral information with lightweight UAV snapshot cameras for vegetation monitoring: From camera calibration to quality assurance,” J. Photog. Remote Sens. 108, 245–259 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. C. Brady, A. A. Gilerson, G. W. Kattawar, J. M. Sullivan, M. S. Twardowski, H. M. Dierssen, M. Gao, K. Travis, R. I. Etheredge, A. Tonizzo, A. Ibrahim, C. Carrizo, Y. Gu, B. J. Russell, K. Mislinski, S. Zhao, and M. E. Cummings, “Open-ocean fish reveal an omnidirectional solution to camouflage in polarized environments,” Science 350(6263), 965–969 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. D. Mobley, “Polarized reflectance and transmittance properties of windblown sea surfaces,” Appl. Opt. 54(15), 4828–4849 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (1)

M. Gergely and G. Zibordi, “Assessment of AERONET-OC Lwn uncertainties,” Metrologia 51(1), 40–47 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

2012 (2)

2011 (2)

R. L. Lucke, M. Corson, N. R. McGlothlin, S. D. Butcher, D. L. Wood, D. R. Korwan, R. R. Li, W. A. Snyder, C. O. Davis, and D. T. Chen, “Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean: instrument description and first images,” Appl. Opt. 50(11), 1501–1516 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. A. Gitelson, B.-C. Gao, R.-R. Li, S. Berdnikov, and V. Saprygin, “Estimation of chlorophyll-a concentration in productive turbid waters using a Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean – the Azov Sea case study,” Environ. Res. Lett. 6(2), 024023 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (4)

Z. Ahmad, B. A. Franz, C. R. McClain, E. J. Kwiatkowska, J. Werdell, E. P. Shettle, and B. N. Holben, “New aerosol models for the retrieval of aerosol optical thickness and normalized water-leaving radiances from the SeaWiFS and MODIS sensors over coastal regions and open oceans,” Appl. Opt. 49(29), 5545–5560 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Kokhanovsky, V. P. Budak, C. Cornet, M. Duan, C. Emde, I. L. Katsev, D. A. Klyukov, S. V. Korkin, L. C-Labonnote, B. Mayer, Q. Min, T. Nakajima, Y. Ota, A. S. Prikhach, V. V. Rozanov, T. Yokota, and E. P. Zege, “Benchmark results in vector atmospheric radiative transfer,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 111(12–13), 1931–1946 (2010).
[Crossref]

Z. Lee, Y.-H. Ahn, C. Mobley, and R. Arnone, “Removal of surface-reflected light for the measurement of remote-sensing reflectance from an above-surface platform,” Opt. Express 18(25), 26313–26324 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P.-W. Zhai, Y. Hu, J. Chowdhary, C. R. Trepte, P. L. Lucker, and D. B. Josset, “A vector radiative transfer model for coupled atmosphere and ocean systems with a rough interface,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 111(7–8), 1025–1040 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

G. Zibordi, F. Mélin, J. F. Berthon, B. Holben, I. Slutsker, D. Giles, D. D’Alimonte, D. Vandemark, H. Feng, G. Schuster, B. E. Fabbri, S. Kaitala, and J. Seppälä, “AERONET-OC: a network for the validation of ocean color primary products,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 26(8), 1634–1651 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

C. J. Zappa, M. L. Banner, H. Schultz, A. Corrada-Emmanuel, L. B. Wolff, and J. Yalcin, “Retrieval of short ocean wave slope using polarimetric imaging,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 19(5), 055503 (2008).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

2005 (1)

2003 (1)

H. M. Dierssen, R. C. Zimmerman, R. A. Leathers, T. V. Downes, and C. O. Davis, “Ocean color remote sensing of seagrass and bathymetry in the Bahamas Banks by high resolution airborne imagery,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 48(1part2), 444–455 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (2)

2001 (3)

2000 (1)

E. J. Hochberg and M. J. Atkinson, “Spectral discrimination of coral reef benthic communities,” Coral Reefs 19(2), 164–171 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (2)

1998 (1)

J. C. Sandidge and R. J. Holyer, “Coastal bathymetry from hyperspectral observations of water radiance,” Remote Sens. Environ. 65(3), 341–352 (1998).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

1994 (1)

1992 (1)

1976 (1)

R. S. Farinato and R. L. Rowell, “New values of the light scattering depolarization and anisotropy of water,” J. Chem. Phys. 65(2), 593–595 (1976).
[Crossref]

1954 (1)

Aasen, H.

H. Aasen, A. Burkart, A. Bolten, and G. Bareth, “Generating 3D hyperspectral information with lightweight UAV snapshot cameras for vegetation monitoring: From camera calibration to quality assurance,” J. Photog. Remote Sens. 108, 245–259 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ahmad, Z.

A. Ibrahim, B. Franz, Z. Ahmad, R. Healy, K. Knobelspiesse, B.-C. Gao, C. Proctor, and P.-W. Zhai, “Atmospheric correction for hyperspectral ocean color retrieval with application to the Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean (HICO),” Remote Sens. Environ. 204, 60–75 (2018).
[Crossref]

Z. Ahmad, B. A. Franz, C. R. McClain, E. J. Kwiatkowska, J. Werdell, E. P. Shettle, and B. N. Holben, “New aerosol models for the retrieval of aerosol optical thickness and normalized water-leaving radiances from the SeaWiFS and MODIS sensors over coastal regions and open oceans,” Appl. Opt. 49(29), 5545–5560 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. D. Mobley, J. Werdell, B. Franz, Z. Ahmad, and S. Bailey, Atmospheric Correction for Satellite Ocean Color Radiometry (Goddard Space Flight Space Center, 2016).

Ahmed, S.

A. Gilerson, E. Herrera, Y. Klein, R. Foster, B. Gross, R. Arnone, and S. Ahmed, “Characterization of aerosol parameters over ocean from the Ocean Color satellite sensors and AERONET-OC data,” Proc. SPIE 10422, 104220H (2017).

T. Harmel, A. Gilerson, A. Tonizzo, J. Chowdhary, A. Weidemann, R. Arnone, and S. Ahmed, “Polarization impacts on the water-leaving radiance retrieval from above-water radiometric measurements,” Appl. Opt. 51(35), 8324–8340 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ahmed, S. A.

Ahn, Y.-H.

Arnone, R.

Atkinson, M. J.

E. J. Hochberg and M. J. Atkinson, “Spectral discrimination of coral reef benthic communities,” Coral Reefs 19(2), 164–171 (2000).
[Crossref]

Bailey, S.

C. D. Mobley, J. Werdell, B. Franz, Z. Ahmad, and S. Bailey, Atmospheric Correction for Satellite Ocean Color Radiometry (Goddard Space Flight Space Center, 2016).

Banner, M. L.

C. J. Zappa, M. L. Banner, H. Schultz, A. Corrada-Emmanuel, L. B. Wolff, and J. Yalcin, “Retrieval of short ocean wave slope using polarimetric imaging,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 19(5), 055503 (2008).
[Crossref]

Bareth, G.

H. Aasen, A. Burkart, A. Bolten, and G. Bareth, “Generating 3D hyperspectral information with lightweight UAV snapshot cameras for vegetation monitoring: From camera calibration to quality assurance,” J. Photog. Remote Sens. 108, 245–259 (2015).
[Crossref]

Barnard, A. H.

Barnes, B. B.

M. Zhang, C. Hu, J. Cannizzaro, D. English, B. B. Barnes, P. Carlson, and L. Yarbro, “Comparison of two atmospheric correction approaches applied to MODIS measurements over North American waters,” Remote Sens. Environ. 216, 442–455 (2018).
[Crossref]

Berdnikov, S.

A. A. Gitelson, B.-C. Gao, R.-R. Li, S. Berdnikov, and V. Saprygin, “Estimation of chlorophyll-a concentration in productive turbid waters using a Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean – the Azov Sea case study,” Environ. Res. Lett. 6(2), 024023 (2011).
[Crossref]

Berthon, J. F.

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Chowdhary, J.

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Foster, R.

C. Carrizo, A. Golovin, A. El-Habashi, R. Foster, D. Gray, J. Bowles, and A. Gilerson, “Ocean surface characterization using snapshot hyperspectral polarimetric imager,” Proc. SPIE 10631, 1063107 (2018).

A. Gilerson, C. Carrizo, R. Foster, and T. Harmel, “Variability of the reflectance coefficient of skylight from the ocean surface and its implications to Ocean Color,” Opt. Express 26(8), 9615–9633 (2018).
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M. Ottaviani, R. Foster, A. Gilerson, A. Ibrahim, C. Carrizo, A. El-Habashi, B. Cairns, J. Chowdhary, C. Hostetler, J. Hair, S. Burton, Y. Hu, M. Twardowski, N. Stockley, D. Gray, W. Slade, and I. Cetinic, “Airborne and shipborne polarimetric measurements over open ocean and coastal waters: intercomparisons and implications for spaceborne observations,” Remote Sens. Environ. 206, 375–390 (2018).
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A. Gilerson, E. Herrera, Y. Klein, R. Foster, B. Gross, R. Arnone, and S. Ahmed, “Characterization of aerosol parameters over ocean from the Ocean Color satellite sensors and AERONET-OC data,” Proc. SPIE 10422, 104220H (2017).

R. Foster and A. Gilerson, “Polarized transfer functions of the ocean surface for above-surface determination of the vector submarine light field,” Appl. Opt. 55(33), 9476–9494 (2016).
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P. C. Brady, A. A. Gilerson, G. W. Kattawar, J. M. Sullivan, M. S. Twardowski, H. M. Dierssen, M. Gao, K. Travis, R. I. Etheredge, A. Tonizzo, A. Ibrahim, C. Carrizo, Y. Gu, B. J. Russell, K. Mislinski, S. Zhao, and M. E. Cummings, “Open-ocean fish reveal an omnidirectional solution to camouflage in polarized environments,” Science 350(6263), 965–969 (2015).
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M. Ottaviani, R. Foster, A. Gilerson, A. Ibrahim, C. Carrizo, A. El-Habashi, B. Cairns, J. Chowdhary, C. Hostetler, J. Hair, S. Burton, Y. Hu, M. Twardowski, N. Stockley, D. Gray, W. Slade, and I. Cetinic, “Airborne and shipborne polarimetric measurements over open ocean and coastal waters: intercomparisons and implications for spaceborne observations,” Remote Sens. Environ. 206, 375–390 (2018).
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C. Carrizo, A. Golovin, A. El-Habashi, R. Foster, D. Gray, J. Bowles, and A. Gilerson, “Ocean surface characterization using snapshot hyperspectral polarimetric imager,” Proc. SPIE 10631, 1063107 (2018).

A. Gilerson, C. Carrizo, R. Foster, and T. Harmel, “Variability of the reflectance coefficient of skylight from the ocean surface and its implications to Ocean Color,” Opt. Express 26(8), 9615–9633 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Gilerson, E. Herrera, Y. Klein, R. Foster, B. Gross, R. Arnone, and S. Ahmed, “Characterization of aerosol parameters over ocean from the Ocean Color satellite sensors and AERONET-OC data,” Proc. SPIE 10422, 104220H (2017).

R. Foster and A. Gilerson, “Polarized transfer functions of the ocean surface for above-surface determination of the vector submarine light field,” Appl. Opt. 55(33), 9476–9494 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Harmel, A. Gilerson, A. Tonizzo, J. Chowdhary, A. Weidemann, R. Arnone, and S. Ahmed, “Polarization impacts on the water-leaving radiance retrieval from above-water radiometric measurements,” Appl. Opt. 51(35), 8324–8340 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gilerson, A. A.

P. C. Brady, A. A. Gilerson, G. W. Kattawar, J. M. Sullivan, M. S. Twardowski, H. M. Dierssen, M. Gao, K. Travis, R. I. Etheredge, A. Tonizzo, A. Ibrahim, C. Carrizo, Y. Gu, B. J. Russell, K. Mislinski, S. Zhao, and M. E. Cummings, “Open-ocean fish reveal an omnidirectional solution to camouflage in polarized environments,” Science 350(6263), 965–969 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. A. Gilerson, J. Stepinski, A. I. Ibrahim, Y. You, J. M. Sullivan, M. S. Twardowski, H. M. Dierssen, B. Russell, M. E. Cummings, P. Brady, S. A. Ahmed, and G. W. Kattawar, “Benthic effects on the polarization of light in shallow waters,” Appl. Opt. 52(36), 8685–8705 (2013).
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G. Zibordi, F. Mélin, J. F. Berthon, B. Holben, I. Slutsker, D. Giles, D. D’Alimonte, D. Vandemark, H. Feng, G. Schuster, B. E. Fabbri, S. Kaitala, and J. Seppälä, “AERONET-OC: a network for the validation of ocean color primary products,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 26(8), 1634–1651 (2009).
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C. Carrizo, A. Golovin, A. El-Habashi, R. Foster, D. Gray, J. Bowles, and A. Gilerson, “Ocean surface characterization using snapshot hyperspectral polarimetric imager,” Proc. SPIE 10631, 1063107 (2018).

Gordon, H. R.

Gray, D.

C. Carrizo, A. Golovin, A. El-Habashi, R. Foster, D. Gray, J. Bowles, and A. Gilerson, “Ocean surface characterization using snapshot hyperspectral polarimetric imager,” Proc. SPIE 10631, 1063107 (2018).

M. Ottaviani, R. Foster, A. Gilerson, A. Ibrahim, C. Carrizo, A. El-Habashi, B. Cairns, J. Chowdhary, C. Hostetler, J. Hair, S. Burton, Y. Hu, M. Twardowski, N. Stockley, D. Gray, W. Slade, and I. Cetinic, “Airborne and shipborne polarimetric measurements over open ocean and coastal waters: intercomparisons and implications for spaceborne observations,” Remote Sens. Environ. 206, 375–390 (2018).
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Gross, B.

A. Gilerson, E. Herrera, Y. Klein, R. Foster, B. Gross, R. Arnone, and S. Ahmed, “Characterization of aerosol parameters over ocean from the Ocean Color satellite sensors and AERONET-OC data,” Proc. SPIE 10422, 104220H (2017).

Gu, Y.

P. C. Brady, A. A. Gilerson, G. W. Kattawar, J. M. Sullivan, M. S. Twardowski, H. M. Dierssen, M. Gao, K. Travis, R. I. Etheredge, A. Tonizzo, A. Ibrahim, C. Carrizo, Y. Gu, B. J. Russell, K. Mislinski, S. Zhao, and M. E. Cummings, “Open-ocean fish reveal an omnidirectional solution to camouflage in polarized environments,” Science 350(6263), 965–969 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hair, J.

M. Ottaviani, R. Foster, A. Gilerson, A. Ibrahim, C. Carrizo, A. El-Habashi, B. Cairns, J. Chowdhary, C. Hostetler, J. Hair, S. Burton, Y. Hu, M. Twardowski, N. Stockley, D. Gray, W. Slade, and I. Cetinic, “Airborne and shipborne polarimetric measurements over open ocean and coastal waters: intercomparisons and implications for spaceborne observations,” Remote Sens. Environ. 206, 375–390 (2018).
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He, S.

Healy, R.

A. Ibrahim, B. Franz, Z. Ahmad, R. Healy, K. Knobelspiesse, B.-C. Gao, C. Proctor, and P.-W. Zhai, “Atmospheric correction for hyperspectral ocean color retrieval with application to the Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean (HICO),” Remote Sens. Environ. 204, 60–75 (2018).
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P.-W. Zhai, Y. Hu, J. Chowdhary, C. R. Trepte, P. L. Lucker, and D. B. Josset, “A vector radiative transfer model for coupled atmosphere and ocean systems with a rough interface,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 111(7–8), 1025–1040 (2010).
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A. Kokhanovsky, V. P. Budak, C. Cornet, M. Duan, C. Emde, I. L. Katsev, D. A. Klyukov, S. V. Korkin, L. C-Labonnote, B. Mayer, Q. Min, T. Nakajima, Y. Ota, A. S. Prikhach, V. V. Rozanov, T. Yokota, and E. P. Zege, “Benchmark results in vector atmospheric radiative transfer,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 111(12–13), 1931–1946 (2010).
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A. Kokhanovsky, V. P. Budak, C. Cornet, M. Duan, C. Emde, I. L. Katsev, D. A. Klyukov, S. V. Korkin, L. C-Labonnote, B. Mayer, Q. Min, T. Nakajima, Y. Ota, A. S. Prikhach, V. V. Rozanov, T. Yokota, and E. P. Zege, “Benchmark results in vector atmospheric radiative transfer,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 111(12–13), 1931–1946 (2010).
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P. C. Brady, A. A. Gilerson, G. W. Kattawar, J. M. Sullivan, M. S. Twardowski, H. M. Dierssen, M. Gao, K. Travis, R. I. Etheredge, A. Tonizzo, A. Ibrahim, C. Carrizo, Y. Gu, B. J. Russell, K. Mislinski, S. Zhao, and M. E. Cummings, “Open-ocean fish reveal an omnidirectional solution to camouflage in polarized environments,” Science 350(6263), 965–969 (2015).
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J. C. Sandidge and R. J. Holyer, “Coastal bathymetry from hyperspectral observations of water radiance,” Remote Sens. Environ. 65(3), 341–352 (1998).
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A. A. Gitelson, B.-C. Gao, R.-R. Li, S. Berdnikov, and V. Saprygin, “Estimation of chlorophyll-a concentration in productive turbid waters using a Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean – the Azov Sea case study,” Environ. Res. Lett. 6(2), 024023 (2011).
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G. Zibordi, F. Mélin, J. F. Berthon, B. Holben, I. Slutsker, D. Giles, D. D’Alimonte, D. Vandemark, H. Feng, G. Schuster, B. E. Fabbri, S. Kaitala, and J. Seppälä, “AERONET-OC: a network for the validation of ocean color primary products,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 26(8), 1634–1651 (2009).
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M. Ottaviani, R. Foster, A. Gilerson, A. Ibrahim, C. Carrizo, A. El-Habashi, B. Cairns, J. Chowdhary, C. Hostetler, J. Hair, S. Burton, Y. Hu, M. Twardowski, N. Stockley, D. Gray, W. Slade, and I. Cetinic, “Airborne and shipborne polarimetric measurements over open ocean and coastal waters: intercomparisons and implications for spaceborne observations,” Remote Sens. Environ. 206, 375–390 (2018).
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G. Zibordi, F. Mélin, J. F. Berthon, B. Holben, I. Slutsker, D. Giles, D. D’Alimonte, D. Vandemark, H. Feng, G. Schuster, B. E. Fabbri, S. Kaitala, and J. Seppälä, “AERONET-OC: a network for the validation of ocean color primary products,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 26(8), 1634–1651 (2009).
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P.-W. Zhai, Y. Hu, J. Chowdhary, C. R. Trepte, P. L. Lucker, and D. B. Josset, “A vector radiative transfer model for coupled atmosphere and ocean systems with a rough interface,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 111(7–8), 1025–1040 (2010).
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M. Ottaviani, R. Foster, A. Gilerson, A. Ibrahim, C. Carrizo, A. El-Habashi, B. Cairns, J. Chowdhary, C. Hostetler, J. Hair, S. Burton, Y. Hu, M. Twardowski, N. Stockley, D. Gray, W. Slade, and I. Cetinic, “Airborne and shipborne polarimetric measurements over open ocean and coastal waters: intercomparisons and implications for spaceborne observations,” Remote Sens. Environ. 206, 375–390 (2018).
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G. Zibordi, F. Mélin, J. F. Berthon, B. Holben, I. Slutsker, D. Giles, D. D’Alimonte, D. Vandemark, H. Feng, G. Schuster, B. E. Fabbri, S. Kaitala, and J. Seppälä, “AERONET-OC: a network for the validation of ocean color primary products,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 26(8), 1634–1651 (2009).
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Yalcin, J.

C. J. Zappa, M. L. Banner, H. Schultz, A. Corrada-Emmanuel, L. B. Wolff, and J. Yalcin, “Retrieval of short ocean wave slope using polarimetric imaging,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 19(5), 055503 (2008).
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M. Zhang, C. Hu, J. Cannizzaro, D. English, B. B. Barnes, P. Carlson, and L. Yarbro, “Comparison of two atmospheric correction approaches applied to MODIS measurements over North American waters,” Remote Sens. Environ. 216, 442–455 (2018).
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A. Kokhanovsky, V. P. Budak, C. Cornet, M. Duan, C. Emde, I. L. Katsev, D. A. Klyukov, S. V. Korkin, L. C-Labonnote, B. Mayer, Q. Min, T. Nakajima, Y. Ota, A. S. Prikhach, V. V. Rozanov, T. Yokota, and E. P. Zege, “Benchmark results in vector atmospheric radiative transfer,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 111(12–13), 1931–1946 (2010).
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C. J. Zappa, M. L. Banner, H. Schultz, A. Corrada-Emmanuel, L. B. Wolff, and J. Yalcin, “Retrieval of short ocean wave slope using polarimetric imaging,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 19(5), 055503 (2008).
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A. Kokhanovsky, V. P. Budak, C. Cornet, M. Duan, C. Emde, I. L. Katsev, D. A. Klyukov, S. V. Korkin, L. C-Labonnote, B. Mayer, Q. Min, T. Nakajima, Y. Ota, A. S. Prikhach, V. V. Rozanov, T. Yokota, and E. P. Zege, “Benchmark results in vector atmospheric radiative transfer,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 111(12–13), 1931–1946 (2010).
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Zhai, P. W.

Zhai, P.-W.

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Snapshot hyperspectral imager Cubert UHD285: (a) general view, (b) on the tripod at the ocean platform.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Integration of the spectra by the imager: (a) spectral bandwidths, (b) comparison with GER spectrum.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Calibration matrices for the imager at 530 and 750 nm.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Standard deviation σ ρ and a coefficient of variation σ ρ / ρ as a function of viewing angle for 2, 5, and 8 m/s wind speeds.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Water IOPs and remote sensing reflectance spectra from the studied sites: (a) particulate + CDOM absorption ‘apg’ and attenuation ‘cpg’, (b) remote sensing reflectance from GER. Data are shown for the Brooklyn Pier, 5/03/17, LISCO platform, 08/24/17, FRF Pier on 10/11/17 and 10/15/17.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) Pixel-to-pixel variability of L t , L s (left to right) for three different wavelengths: 450, 550 and 650 nm (top to bottom) and L w calculated using Eq. (2), (b) corresponding panchromatic images of water surface and (c) sky.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Comparison of measurements and simulations for mean: (a) L t , (b) L s and (c) derived L w at the FRF, 10/11/17. The insets denote the ROIs used throughout the rest of this work.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Mean radiances L t and L s , standard deviations σ t and σ s for the water and sky data and corresponding ratios σ t / L t and σ s / L s for FRF station with wind speed W = 5.6 m/s.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Spectra of the main components from Eq. (7) for FRF station at different viewing angles in ( m W / c m 2 / μ m / s r ) 2 . Bottom right figure is the L s 2 σ ρ 2 = 2 L s σ t ρ term. The value of σ w is determined in the assumption of constant ρ for all pixels in the same VA.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 The coefficient of variation for water-leaving radiance ( σ w / L w ) as a function of wind speed and viewing angle: 470nm, 550nm, 650nm and 850nm (left to right). σ w is determined in the assumption of constant ρ for all pixels in the same VA.
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 (a) Normalized sky radiance spectrum,(b) Rrs and (c) their ratio for the open ocean and coastal waters.
Fig. 12
Fig. 12 (a) L t and (b) L s measured at 40° and 140° viewing angles as a function of FOV. The pink boxes in the image indicate saturated pixels which were excluded from the processing.
Fig. 13
Fig. 13 Variability of L t _ F O V / L t _ m e a n and L s _ F O V / L s _ m e a n ratio for different θ F O V , W = 4.5 m/s (Duck 14:37): (a) for water radiance, (b) for sky radiance.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Correlation coefficients r t ρ and r t s for three stations

Equations (14)

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R r s ( θ v , φ v , λ ) = L w ( θ v , φ v , λ ) / E d ( λ ) ,
L t ( θ v , φ v , λ ) = L w ( θ v , φ v , λ ) + ρ ( θ v , φ v , λ , W , A O T , ) L s ( π θ v , φ v , λ ) ,
σ i s o 2 = 0.003 + 0.00512 W ± 0.004.
L s ± σ s , L t ± σ t , L w ± σ w , ρ ± σ ρ ,
σ t 2 = [ L t L w L t L s L t ρ ] [ σ w 2 σ w s σ w ρ σ w s σ s 2 σ s ρ σ w ρ σ s ρ σ ρ 2 ] [ L t L w L t L s L t ρ ] ,
σ t 2 = σ w 0 2 + ρ 2 σ s 2 + L s 2 σ ρ 2 + 2 ρ L s σ s ρ + 2 ρ σ w s + 2 L s σ w ρ .
σ w 2 = σ t 2 + ρ 2 σ s 2 + L s 2 σ ρ 2 + 2 ρ L s σ s ρ 2 ρ σ t s 2 L s σ t ρ .
σ w 2 σ t 2 + ρ 2 σ s 2 2 ρ σ t s ,
L s 2 σ ρ 2 2 L s σ t ρ or σ ρ 2 r t ρ σ t / L s ,
f ( x | σ i s o 2 ) = ( 2 π σ i s o 2 ) 1 / 2 exp ( x 2 2 σ i s o 2 ) ,
σ ρ 2 ( θ v , σ i s o 2 ) = f ( x ) ρ F 2 d x ( f ( x ) ρ F d x ) 2 .
σ t 2 = σ w 0 2 + L s 2 σ ρ 2 + 2 L s σ w ρ .
σ w L w L s L w = L s E d ( L w E d ) 1 = L s E d R r s .
L t , s ( λ , Ω F O V ) = 1 Ω F O V Ω F O V L i ( λ ) d Ω F O V ' ,

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