Abstract

We present an experimental study on pressure-dependent terahertz generation from two-color femtosecond laser filamentation in various gases. Contrary to short-focusing geometry, we find that long filamentation yields higher terahertz energy at lower gas pressures in most gases. This counter-intuitive phenomenon occurs due to multiple peculiar properties associated with filamentation. In practice, filamentation in low-pressure argon provides a maximum laser-to-terahertz conversion efficiency of 0.1%, about 10 times higher than in atmospheric air. In addition, our pressure-dependent study reveals an anticorrelation between terahertz output energy and local plasma fluorescence brightness. This determines the absolute phase difference between two-color laser fields for maximal terahertz generation, as well as verifies the microscopic mechanism of terahertz generation in two-color laser mixing.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2019 (1)

D. Jang, M. Kimbrue, Y. J. Yoo, and K. Y. Kim, “Spectral characterization of a microbolometer focal plane array at terahertz frequencies,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 9(2), 150–154 (2019).
[Crossref]

2017 (1)

Y. Yoo, D. Kuk, Z. Zhong, and K. Y. Kim, “Generation and characterization of strong terahertz fields from kHz laser filamentation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 23(4), 8501007 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (1)

D. Kuk, Y. J. Yoo, E. W. Rosenthal, N. Jhajj, H. M. Milchberg, and K. Y. Kim, “Generation of scalable terahertz radiation from cylindrically focused two-color laser pulses in air,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(12), 121106 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (2)

E. A. Nanni, W. R. Huang, K.-H. Hong, K. Ravi, A. Fallahi, G. Moriena, R. J. D. Miller, and F. X. Kärtner, “Terahertz-driven linear electron acceleration,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 8486 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Zahedpour, J. K. Wahlstrand, and H. M. Milchberg, “Measurement of the nonlinear refractive index of air constituents at mid-infrared wavelengths,” Opt. Lett. 40(24), 5794–5797 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (3)

C. Vicario, A. V. Ovchinnikov, S. I. Ashitkov, M. B. Agranat, V. E. Fortov, and C. P. Hauri, “Generation of 0.9-mJ THz pulses in DSTMS pumped by a Cr:Mg2SiO4 laser,” Opt. Lett. 39(23), 6632–6635 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Schubert, M. Hohenleutner, F. Langer, B. Urbanek, C. Lange, U. Huttner, D. Golde, T. Meier, M. Kira, S. W. Koch, and R. Huber, “Sub-cycle control of terahertz high-harmonic generation by dynamical Bloch oscillations,” Nat. Photonics 8(2), 119–123 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. I. Oh, Y. J. Yoo, Y. S. You, and K. Y. Kim, “Generation of strong terahertz fields exceeding 8 MV/cm at 1 kHz and real-time beam profiling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(4), 041103 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (11)

T. Kampfrath, K. Tanaka, and K. A. Nelson, “Resonant and nonresonant control over matter and light by intense terahertz transients,” Nat. Photonics 7(9), 680–690 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. J. Paul, Y. C. Chang, Z. J. Thompson, A. Stickel, J. Wardini, H. Choi, E. D. Minot, B. Hou, J. A. Nees, T. B. Norris, and Y.-S. Lee, “High-field terahertz response of graphene,” New J. Phys. 15(8), 085019 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. S. You, T. I. Oh, A. B. Fallahkhair, and K. Y. Kim, “Alignment-dependent terahertz radiation in two-color photoionization of molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 87(3), 035401 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. I. Oh, Y. S. You, N. Jhajj, E. Rosenthal, H. M. Milchberg, and K. Y. Kim, “Scaling and saturation of high-power terahertz radiation generation in two-color laser filamentation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(20), 201113 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. I. Oh, Y. S. You, N. Jhajj, E. Rosenthal, H. M. Milchberg, and K. Y. Kim, “Intense terahertz generation in two-color laser filamentation: energy scaling with terawatt laser systems,” New J. Phys. 15(7), 075002 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. A. Johnson, J. P. Palastro, T. M. Antonsen, and K. Y. Kim, “THz generation by optical Cherenkov emission from ionizing two-color laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 88(6), 063804 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Minami, T. Kurihara, K. Yamaguchi, M. Nakajima, and T. Suemoto, “High-power THz wave generation in plasma induced by polarization adjusted two-color laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(4), 041105 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Clerici, M. Peccianti, B. E. Schmidt, L. Caspani, M. Shalaby, M. Giguère, A. Lotti, A. Couairon, F. Légaré, T. Ozaki, D. Faccio, and R. Morandotti, “Wavelength scaling of terahertz generation by gas ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(25), 253901 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Blank, M. D. Thomson, and H. G. Roskos, “Spatio-spectral characteristics of ultra-broadband THz emission from two-colour photoexcited gas plasmas and their impact for nonlinear spectroscopy,” New J. Phys. 15(7), 075023 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. S. You, T. I. Oh, and K. Y. Kim, “Mechanism of elliptically polarized terahertz generation in two-color laser filamentation,” Opt. Lett. 38(7), 1034–1036 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Jhajj, Y.-H. Cheng, J. K. Wahlstrand, and H. M. Milchberg, “Optical beam dynamics in a gas repetitively heated by femtosecond filaments,” Opt. Express 21(23), 28980–28986 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (11)

J. A. Fülöp, L. Pálfalvi, S. Klingebiel, G. Almási, F. Krausz, S. Karsch, and J. Hebling, “Generation of sub-mJ terahertz pulses by optical rectification,” Opt. Lett. 37(4), 557–559 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. I. Oh, Y. S. You, and K. Y. Kim, “Two-dimensional plasma current and optimized terahertz generation in two-color photoionization,” Opt. Express 20(18), 19778–19786 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Chin, T.-J. Wang, C. Marceau, J. Wu, J. S. Liu, O. Kosareva, N. Panov, Y. P. Chen, J.-F. Daigle, S. Yuan, A. Azarm, W. W. Liu, T. Seideman, H. P. Zeng, M. Richardson, R. Li, and Z. Z. Xu, “Advances in intense femtosecond laser filamentation in air,” Laser Phys. 22(1), 1–53 (2012).
[Crossref]

E. Matsubara, M. Nagai, and M. Ashida, “Ultrabroadband coherent electric field from far infrared to 200 THz using air plasma induced by 10 fs pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(1), 011105 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. Zhang, Z. Lü, C. Meng, X. Du, Z. Zhou, Z. Zhao, and J. Yuan, “Synchronizing terahertz wave generation with attosecond bursts,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(24), 243002 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Y. Kim, J. H. Glownia, A. J. Taylor, and G. Rodriguez, “High-power broadband terahertz generation via two-color photoionization in gases,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 48(6), 797–805 (2012).
[Crossref]

B. Zaks, R. B. Liu, and M. S. Sherwin, “Experimental observation of electron-hole recollisions,” Nature 483(7391), 580–583 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Turchinovich, J. M. Hvam, and M. C. Hoffmann, “Self-phase modulation of a single-cycle terahertz pulse by nonlinear free-carrier response in a semiconductor,” Phys. Rev. B 85, 201304 (2012).

Y. S. You, T. I. Oh, and K. Y. Kim, “Off-axis phase-matched terahertz emission from two-color laser-induced plasma filaments,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(18), 183902 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Xu, J. Bernhardt, M. Sharifi, W. Liu, and S. L. Chin, “Intensity clamping during laser filamentation by TW level femtosecond laser in air and argon,” Laser Phys. 22(1), 195–202 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Hosseini, O. Kosareva, N. Panov, V. P. Kandidov, A. Azarm, J.-F. Daigle, A. B. Savel’ev, T.-J. Wang, and S. L. Chin, “Femtosecond laser filament in different air pressures simulating vertical propagation up to 10 km,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9(12), 868–874 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

T.-J. Wang, C. Marceau, S. Yuan, Y. Chen, Q. Wang, F. Theberge, M. Chateauneuf, J. Dubois, and S. L. Chin, “External focusing effect on terahertz emission from a two-color femtosecond laser-induced filament in air,” Laser Phys. Lett. 8(1), 57–61 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. Hirori, A. Doi, F. Blanchard, and K. Tanaka, “Single-cycle terahertz pulses with amplitudes exceeding 1 MV/cm generated by optical rectification in LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(9), 091106 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (4)

C. Brée, A. Demircan, and G. Steinmeyer, “Method for computing the nonlinear refractive index via Keldysh theory,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(4), 433–437 (2010).
[Crossref]

D. A. Romanov, R. Compton, A. Filin, and R. J. Levis, “Dynamics of strong-field laser-induced microplasma formation in noble gases,” Phys. Rev. A 81(3), 033403 (2010).
[Crossref]

G. Rodriguez and G. L. Dakovski, “Scaling behavior of ultrafast two-color terahertz generation in plasma gas targets: energy and pressure dependence,” Opt. Express 18(14), 15130–15143 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J.-M. Manceau, M. Massaouti, and S. Tzortzakis, “Coherent control of THz pulses polarization from femtosecond laser filaments in gases,” Opt. Express 18(18), 18894–18899 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (5)

F. Blanchard, G. Sharma, X. Ropagnol, L. Razzari, R. Morandotti, and T. Ozaki, “Improved terahertz two-color plasma sources pumped by high intensity laser beam,” Opt. Express 17(8), 6044–6052 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Liu, A. Houard, M. Durand, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Maker fringes in the terahertz radiation produced by a 2-color laser field in air,” Opt. Express 17(14), 11480–11485 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Y. Kim, “Generation of coherent terahertz radiation in ultrafast laser-gas interactions,” Phys. Plasmas 16(5), 056706 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. Wen and A. M. Lindenberg, “Coherent terahertz polarization control through manipulation of electron trajectories,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(2), 023902 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Dai, N. Karpowicz, and X.-C. Zhang, “Coherent polarization control of terahertz waves generated from two-color laser-induced gas plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(2), 023001 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (5)

K. Y. Kim, A. J. Taylor, J. H. Glownia, and G. Rodriguez, “Coherent control of terahertz supercontinuum generation in ultrafast laser-gas interactions,” Nat. Photonics 2(10), 605–609 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Bernhardt, W. Liu, S. L. Chin, and R. Sauerbrey, “Pressure independence of intensity clamping during filamentation: theory and experiment,” Appl. Phys. B 91(1), 45–48 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. Couairon, H. S. Chakraborty, and M. B. Gaarde, “From single-cycle self-compressed filaments to isolated attosecond pulses in noble gases,” Phys. Rev. A 77(5), 053814 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Bernhardt, P. T. Simard, W. Liu, H. L. Xu, F. Théberge, A. Azarm, J. F. Daigle, and S. L. Chin, “Critical power for self-focussing of a femtosecond laser pulse in helium,” Opt. Commun. 281(8), 2248–2251 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Kasparian and J.-P. Wolf, “Physics and applications of atmospheric nonlinear optics and filamentation,” Opt. Express 16(1), 466–493 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (4)

A. Couairon and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond filamentation in transparent media,” Phys. Rep. 441(2-4), 47–189 (2007).
[Crossref]

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, R. Nuter, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Ultrashort filaments of light in weakly ionized, optically transparent media,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 70(10), 1633–1713 (2007).
[Crossref]

K. Y. Kim, J. H. Glownia, A. J. Taylor, and G. Rodriguez, “Terahertz emission from ultrafast ionizing air in symmetry-broken laser fields,” Opt. Express 15(8), 4577–4584 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K.-L. Yeh, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Hebling, and K. A. Nelson, “Generation of 10 μJ ultrashort terahertz pulses by optical rectification,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(17), 171121 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (3)

A. Couairon, M. Franco, G. Méchain, T. Olivier, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond filamentation in air at low pressures. Part I: Theory and numerical simulations,” Opt. Commun. 259(1), 265–273 (2006).
[Crossref]

G. Méchain, T. Olivier, M. Franco, A. Couairon, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond filamentation in air at low pressures. Part II: Laboratory experiments,” Opt. Commun. 261(2), 322–326 (2006).
[Crossref]

X. Xie, J. Dai, and X.-C. Zhang, “Coherent control of THz wave generation in ambient air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(7), 075005 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

2004 (1)

2001 (1)

A. Becker, N. Aközbek, K. Vijayalakshmi, E. Oral, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, “Intensity clamping and re-focusing of intense femtosecond laser pulses in nitrogen molecular gas,” Appl. Phys. B 73(3), 287–290 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (2)

J. Kasparian, R. Sauerbrey, and S. L. Chin, “The critical laser intensity of self-guided light filaments in air,” Appl. Phys. B 71(6), 877–879 (2000).
[Crossref]

D. J. Cook and R. M. Hochstrasser, “Intense terahertz pulses by four-wave rectification in air,” Opt. Lett. 25(16), 1210–1212 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Agranat, M. B.

Aközbek, N.

A. Becker, N. Aközbek, K. Vijayalakshmi, E. Oral, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, “Intensity clamping and re-focusing of intense femtosecond laser pulses in nitrogen molecular gas,” Appl. Phys. B 73(3), 287–290 (2001).
[Crossref]

Almási, G.

Antonsen, T. M.

L. A. Johnson, J. P. Palastro, T. M. Antonsen, and K. Y. Kim, “THz generation by optical Cherenkov emission from ionizing two-color laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 88(6), 063804 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ashida, M.

E. Matsubara, M. Nagai, and M. Ashida, “Ultrabroadband coherent electric field from far infrared to 200 THz using air plasma induced by 10 fs pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(1), 011105 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ashitkov, S. I.

Azarm, A.

S. Hosseini, O. Kosareva, N. Panov, V. P. Kandidov, A. Azarm, J.-F. Daigle, A. B. Savel’ev, T.-J. Wang, and S. L. Chin, “Femtosecond laser filament in different air pressures simulating vertical propagation up to 10 km,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9(12), 868–874 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Chin, T.-J. Wang, C. Marceau, J. Wu, J. S. Liu, O. Kosareva, N. Panov, Y. P. Chen, J.-F. Daigle, S. Yuan, A. Azarm, W. W. Liu, T. Seideman, H. P. Zeng, M. Richardson, R. Li, and Z. Z. Xu, “Advances in intense femtosecond laser filamentation in air,” Laser Phys. 22(1), 1–53 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Bernhardt, P. T. Simard, W. Liu, H. L. Xu, F. Théberge, A. Azarm, J. F. Daigle, and S. L. Chin, “Critical power for self-focussing of a femtosecond laser pulse in helium,” Opt. Commun. 281(8), 2248–2251 (2008).
[Crossref]

Bartel, T.

Becker, A.

A. Becker, N. Aközbek, K. Vijayalakshmi, E. Oral, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, “Intensity clamping and re-focusing of intense femtosecond laser pulses in nitrogen molecular gas,” Appl. Phys. B 73(3), 287–290 (2001).
[Crossref]

Bergé, L.

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, R. Nuter, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Ultrashort filaments of light in weakly ionized, optically transparent media,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 70(10), 1633–1713 (2007).
[Crossref]

Bernhardt, J.

S. Xu, J. Bernhardt, M. Sharifi, W. Liu, and S. L. Chin, “Intensity clamping during laser filamentation by TW level femtosecond laser in air and argon,” Laser Phys. 22(1), 195–202 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Bernhardt, W. Liu, S. L. Chin, and R. Sauerbrey, “Pressure independence of intensity clamping during filamentation: theory and experiment,” Appl. Phys. B 91(1), 45–48 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Bernhardt, P. T. Simard, W. Liu, H. L. Xu, F. Théberge, A. Azarm, J. F. Daigle, and S. L. Chin, “Critical power for self-focussing of a femtosecond laser pulse in helium,” Opt. Commun. 281(8), 2248–2251 (2008).
[Crossref]

Blanchard, F.

H. Hirori, A. Doi, F. Blanchard, and K. Tanaka, “Single-cycle terahertz pulses with amplitudes exceeding 1 MV/cm generated by optical rectification in LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(9), 091106 (2011).
[Crossref]

F. Blanchard, G. Sharma, X. Ropagnol, L. Razzari, R. Morandotti, and T. Ozaki, “Improved terahertz two-color plasma sources pumped by high intensity laser beam,” Opt. Express 17(8), 6044–6052 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Blank, V.

V. Blank, M. D. Thomson, and H. G. Roskos, “Spatio-spectral characteristics of ultra-broadband THz emission from two-colour photoexcited gas plasmas and their impact for nonlinear spectroscopy,” New J. Phys. 15(7), 075023 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bowden, C. M.

A. Becker, N. Aközbek, K. Vijayalakshmi, E. Oral, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, “Intensity clamping and re-focusing of intense femtosecond laser pulses in nitrogen molecular gas,” Appl. Phys. B 73(3), 287–290 (2001).
[Crossref]

Brée, C.

C. Brée, A. Demircan, and G. Steinmeyer, “Method for computing the nonlinear refractive index via Keldysh theory,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(4), 433–437 (2010).
[Crossref]

Caspani, L.

M. Clerici, M. Peccianti, B. E. Schmidt, L. Caspani, M. Shalaby, M. Giguère, A. Lotti, A. Couairon, F. Légaré, T. Ozaki, D. Faccio, and R. Morandotti, “Wavelength scaling of terahertz generation by gas ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(25), 253901 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chakraborty, H. S.

A. Couairon, H. S. Chakraborty, and M. B. Gaarde, “From single-cycle self-compressed filaments to isolated attosecond pulses in noble gases,” Phys. Rev. A 77(5), 053814 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chang, Y. C.

M. J. Paul, Y. C. Chang, Z. J. Thompson, A. Stickel, J. Wardini, H. Choi, E. D. Minot, B. Hou, J. A. Nees, T. B. Norris, and Y.-S. Lee, “High-field terahertz response of graphene,” New J. Phys. 15(8), 085019 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chateauneuf, M.

T.-J. Wang, C. Marceau, S. Yuan, Y. Chen, Q. Wang, F. Theberge, M. Chateauneuf, J. Dubois, and S. L. Chin, “External focusing effect on terahertz emission from a two-color femtosecond laser-induced filament in air,” Laser Phys. Lett. 8(1), 57–61 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.

T.-J. Wang, C. Marceau, S. Yuan, Y. Chen, Q. Wang, F. Theberge, M. Chateauneuf, J. Dubois, and S. L. Chin, “External focusing effect on terahertz emission from a two-color femtosecond laser-induced filament in air,” Laser Phys. Lett. 8(1), 57–61 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y. P.

S. Chin, T.-J. Wang, C. Marceau, J. Wu, J. S. Liu, O. Kosareva, N. Panov, Y. P. Chen, J.-F. Daigle, S. Yuan, A. Azarm, W. W. Liu, T. Seideman, H. P. Zeng, M. Richardson, R. Li, and Z. Z. Xu, “Advances in intense femtosecond laser filamentation in air,” Laser Phys. 22(1), 1–53 (2012).
[Crossref]

Cheng, Y.-H.

Chin, S.

S. Chin, T.-J. Wang, C. Marceau, J. Wu, J. S. Liu, O. Kosareva, N. Panov, Y. P. Chen, J.-F. Daigle, S. Yuan, A. Azarm, W. W. Liu, T. Seideman, H. P. Zeng, M. Richardson, R. Li, and Z. Z. Xu, “Advances in intense femtosecond laser filamentation in air,” Laser Phys. 22(1), 1–53 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chin, S. L.

S. Xu, J. Bernhardt, M. Sharifi, W. Liu, and S. L. Chin, “Intensity clamping during laser filamentation by TW level femtosecond laser in air and argon,” Laser Phys. 22(1), 195–202 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Hosseini, O. Kosareva, N. Panov, V. P. Kandidov, A. Azarm, J.-F. Daigle, A. B. Savel’ev, T.-J. Wang, and S. L. Chin, “Femtosecond laser filament in different air pressures simulating vertical propagation up to 10 km,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9(12), 868–874 (2012).
[Crossref]

T.-J. Wang, C. Marceau, S. Yuan, Y. Chen, Q. Wang, F. Theberge, M. Chateauneuf, J. Dubois, and S. L. Chin, “External focusing effect on terahertz emission from a two-color femtosecond laser-induced filament in air,” Laser Phys. Lett. 8(1), 57–61 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Bernhardt, W. Liu, S. L. Chin, and R. Sauerbrey, “Pressure independence of intensity clamping during filamentation: theory and experiment,” Appl. Phys. B 91(1), 45–48 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Bernhardt, P. T. Simard, W. Liu, H. L. Xu, F. Théberge, A. Azarm, J. F. Daigle, and S. L. Chin, “Critical power for self-focussing of a femtosecond laser pulse in helium,” Opt. Commun. 281(8), 2248–2251 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. Becker, N. Aközbek, K. Vijayalakshmi, E. Oral, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, “Intensity clamping and re-focusing of intense femtosecond laser pulses in nitrogen molecular gas,” Appl. Phys. B 73(3), 287–290 (2001).
[Crossref]

J. Kasparian, R. Sauerbrey, and S. L. Chin, “The critical laser intensity of self-guided light filaments in air,” Appl. Phys. B 71(6), 877–879 (2000).
[Crossref]

Choi, H.

M. J. Paul, Y. C. Chang, Z. J. Thompson, A. Stickel, J. Wardini, H. Choi, E. D. Minot, B. Hou, J. A. Nees, T. B. Norris, and Y.-S. Lee, “High-field terahertz response of graphene,” New J. Phys. 15(8), 085019 (2013).
[Crossref]

Clerici, M.

M. Clerici, M. Peccianti, B. E. Schmidt, L. Caspani, M. Shalaby, M. Giguère, A. Lotti, A. Couairon, F. Légaré, T. Ozaki, D. Faccio, and R. Morandotti, “Wavelength scaling of terahertz generation by gas ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(25), 253901 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Compton, R.

D. A. Romanov, R. Compton, A. Filin, and R. J. Levis, “Dynamics of strong-field laser-induced microplasma formation in noble gases,” Phys. Rev. A 81(3), 033403 (2010).
[Crossref]

Cook, D. J.

Couairon, A.

M. Clerici, M. Peccianti, B. E. Schmidt, L. Caspani, M. Shalaby, M. Giguère, A. Lotti, A. Couairon, F. Légaré, T. Ozaki, D. Faccio, and R. Morandotti, “Wavelength scaling of terahertz generation by gas ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(25), 253901 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Couairon, H. S. Chakraborty, and M. B. Gaarde, “From single-cycle self-compressed filaments to isolated attosecond pulses in noble gases,” Phys. Rev. A 77(5), 053814 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. Couairon and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond filamentation in transparent media,” Phys. Rep. 441(2-4), 47–189 (2007).
[Crossref]

A. Couairon, M. Franco, G. Méchain, T. Olivier, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond filamentation in air at low pressures. Part I: Theory and numerical simulations,” Opt. Commun. 259(1), 265–273 (2006).
[Crossref]

G. Méchain, T. Olivier, M. Franco, A. Couairon, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond filamentation in air at low pressures. Part II: Laboratory experiments,” Opt. Commun. 261(2), 322–326 (2006).
[Crossref]

Dai, J.

J. Dai, N. Karpowicz, and X.-C. Zhang, “Coherent polarization control of terahertz waves generated from two-color laser-induced gas plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(2), 023001 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Xie, J. Dai, and X.-C. Zhang, “Coherent control of THz wave generation in ambient air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(7), 075005 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Daigle, J. F.

J. Bernhardt, P. T. Simard, W. Liu, H. L. Xu, F. Théberge, A. Azarm, J. F. Daigle, and S. L. Chin, “Critical power for self-focussing of a femtosecond laser pulse in helium,” Opt. Commun. 281(8), 2248–2251 (2008).
[Crossref]

Daigle, J.-F.

S. Hosseini, O. Kosareva, N. Panov, V. P. Kandidov, A. Azarm, J.-F. Daigle, A. B. Savel’ev, T.-J. Wang, and S. L. Chin, “Femtosecond laser filament in different air pressures simulating vertical propagation up to 10 km,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9(12), 868–874 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Chin, T.-J. Wang, C. Marceau, J. Wu, J. S. Liu, O. Kosareva, N. Panov, Y. P. Chen, J.-F. Daigle, S. Yuan, A. Azarm, W. W. Liu, T. Seideman, H. P. Zeng, M. Richardson, R. Li, and Z. Z. Xu, “Advances in intense femtosecond laser filamentation in air,” Laser Phys. 22(1), 1–53 (2012).
[Crossref]

Dakovski, G. L.

Demircan, A.

C. Brée, A. Demircan, and G. Steinmeyer, “Method for computing the nonlinear refractive index via Keldysh theory,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(4), 433–437 (2010).
[Crossref]

Doi, A.

H. Hirori, A. Doi, F. Blanchard, and K. Tanaka, “Single-cycle terahertz pulses with amplitudes exceeding 1 MV/cm generated by optical rectification in LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(9), 091106 (2011).
[Crossref]

Du, X.

D. Zhang, Z. Lü, C. Meng, X. Du, Z. Zhou, Z. Zhao, and J. Yuan, “Synchronizing terahertz wave generation with attosecond bursts,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(24), 243002 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dubois, J.

T.-J. Wang, C. Marceau, S. Yuan, Y. Chen, Q. Wang, F. Theberge, M. Chateauneuf, J. Dubois, and S. L. Chin, “External focusing effect on terahertz emission from a two-color femtosecond laser-induced filament in air,” Laser Phys. Lett. 8(1), 57–61 (2011).
[Crossref]

Durand, M.

Eden, S.

Elsaesser, T.

Faccio, D.

M. Clerici, M. Peccianti, B. E. Schmidt, L. Caspani, M. Shalaby, M. Giguère, A. Lotti, A. Couairon, F. Légaré, T. Ozaki, D. Faccio, and R. Morandotti, “Wavelength scaling of terahertz generation by gas ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(25), 253901 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fallahi, A.

E. A. Nanni, W. R. Huang, K.-H. Hong, K. Ravi, A. Fallahi, G. Moriena, R. J. D. Miller, and F. X. Kärtner, “Terahertz-driven linear electron acceleration,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 8486 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fallahkhair, A. B.

Y. S. You, T. I. Oh, A. B. Fallahkhair, and K. Y. Kim, “Alignment-dependent terahertz radiation in two-color photoionization of molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 87(3), 035401 (2013).
[Crossref]

Filin, A.

D. A. Romanov, R. Compton, A. Filin, and R. J. Levis, “Dynamics of strong-field laser-induced microplasma formation in noble gases,” Phys. Rev. A 81(3), 033403 (2010).
[Crossref]

Fortov, V. E.

Franco, M.

G. Méchain, T. Olivier, M. Franco, A. Couairon, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond filamentation in air at low pressures. Part II: Laboratory experiments,” Opt. Commun. 261(2), 322–326 (2006).
[Crossref]

A. Couairon, M. Franco, G. Méchain, T. Olivier, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond filamentation in air at low pressures. Part I: Theory and numerical simulations,” Opt. Commun. 259(1), 265–273 (2006).
[Crossref]

Fülöp, J. A.

Gaal, P.

Gaarde, M. B.

A. Couairon, H. S. Chakraborty, and M. B. Gaarde, “From single-cycle self-compressed filaments to isolated attosecond pulses in noble gases,” Phys. Rev. A 77(5), 053814 (2008).
[Crossref]

Giguère, M.

M. Clerici, M. Peccianti, B. E. Schmidt, L. Caspani, M. Shalaby, M. Giguère, A. Lotti, A. Couairon, F. Légaré, T. Ozaki, D. Faccio, and R. Morandotti, “Wavelength scaling of terahertz generation by gas ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(25), 253901 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Glownia, J. H.

K. Y. Kim, J. H. Glownia, A. J. Taylor, and G. Rodriguez, “High-power broadband terahertz generation via two-color photoionization in gases,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 48(6), 797–805 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. Y. Kim, A. J. Taylor, J. H. Glownia, and G. Rodriguez, “Coherent control of terahertz supercontinuum generation in ultrafast laser-gas interactions,” Nat. Photonics 2(10), 605–609 (2008).
[Crossref]

K. Y. Kim, J. H. Glownia, A. J. Taylor, and G. Rodriguez, “Terahertz emission from ultrafast ionizing air in symmetry-broken laser fields,” Opt. Express 15(8), 4577–4584 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Golde, D.

O. Schubert, M. Hohenleutner, F. Langer, B. Urbanek, C. Lange, U. Huttner, D. Golde, T. Meier, M. Kira, S. W. Koch, and R. Huber, “Sub-cycle control of terahertz high-harmonic generation by dynamical Bloch oscillations,” Nat. Photonics 8(2), 119–123 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hauri, C. P.

Hebling, J.

J. A. Fülöp, L. Pálfalvi, S. Klingebiel, G. Almási, F. Krausz, S. Karsch, and J. Hebling, “Generation of sub-mJ terahertz pulses by optical rectification,” Opt. Lett. 37(4), 557–559 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K.-L. Yeh, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Hebling, and K. A. Nelson, “Generation of 10 μJ ultrashort terahertz pulses by optical rectification,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(17), 171121 (2007).
[Crossref]

Hirori, H.

H. Hirori, A. Doi, F. Blanchard, and K. Tanaka, “Single-cycle terahertz pulses with amplitudes exceeding 1 MV/cm generated by optical rectification in LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(9), 091106 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hochstrasser, R. M.

Hoffmann, M. C.

D. Turchinovich, J. M. Hvam, and M. C. Hoffmann, “Self-phase modulation of a single-cycle terahertz pulse by nonlinear free-carrier response in a semiconductor,” Phys. Rev. B 85, 201304 (2012).

K.-L. Yeh, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Hebling, and K. A. Nelson, “Generation of 10 μJ ultrashort terahertz pulses by optical rectification,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(17), 171121 (2007).
[Crossref]

Hohenleutner, M.

O. Schubert, M. Hohenleutner, F. Langer, B. Urbanek, C. Lange, U. Huttner, D. Golde, T. Meier, M. Kira, S. W. Koch, and R. Huber, “Sub-cycle control of terahertz high-harmonic generation by dynamical Bloch oscillations,” Nat. Photonics 8(2), 119–123 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hong, K.-H.

E. A. Nanni, W. R. Huang, K.-H. Hong, K. Ravi, A. Fallahi, G. Moriena, R. J. D. Miller, and F. X. Kärtner, “Terahertz-driven linear electron acceleration,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 8486 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hosseini, S.

S. Hosseini, O. Kosareva, N. Panov, V. P. Kandidov, A. Azarm, J.-F. Daigle, A. B. Savel’ev, T.-J. Wang, and S. L. Chin, “Femtosecond laser filament in different air pressures simulating vertical propagation up to 10 km,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9(12), 868–874 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hou, B.

M. J. Paul, Y. C. Chang, Z. J. Thompson, A. Stickel, J. Wardini, H. Choi, E. D. Minot, B. Hou, J. A. Nees, T. B. Norris, and Y.-S. Lee, “High-field terahertz response of graphene,” New J. Phys. 15(8), 085019 (2013).
[Crossref]

Houard, A.

Huang, W. R.

E. A. Nanni, W. R. Huang, K.-H. Hong, K. Ravi, A. Fallahi, G. Moriena, R. J. D. Miller, and F. X. Kärtner, “Terahertz-driven linear electron acceleration,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 8486 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huber, R.

O. Schubert, M. Hohenleutner, F. Langer, B. Urbanek, C. Lange, U. Huttner, D. Golde, T. Meier, M. Kira, S. W. Koch, and R. Huber, “Sub-cycle control of terahertz high-harmonic generation by dynamical Bloch oscillations,” Nat. Photonics 8(2), 119–123 (2014).
[Crossref]

Huttner, U.

O. Schubert, M. Hohenleutner, F. Langer, B. Urbanek, C. Lange, U. Huttner, D. Golde, T. Meier, M. Kira, S. W. Koch, and R. Huber, “Sub-cycle control of terahertz high-harmonic generation by dynamical Bloch oscillations,” Nat. Photonics 8(2), 119–123 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hvam, J. M.

D. Turchinovich, J. M. Hvam, and M. C. Hoffmann, “Self-phase modulation of a single-cycle terahertz pulse by nonlinear free-carrier response in a semiconductor,” Phys. Rev. B 85, 201304 (2012).

Jang, D.

D. Jang, M. Kimbrue, Y. J. Yoo, and K. Y. Kim, “Spectral characterization of a microbolometer focal plane array at terahertz frequencies,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 9(2), 150–154 (2019).
[Crossref]

Jhajj, N.

D. Kuk, Y. J. Yoo, E. W. Rosenthal, N. Jhajj, H. M. Milchberg, and K. Y. Kim, “Generation of scalable terahertz radiation from cylindrically focused two-color laser pulses in air,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(12), 121106 (2016).
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T. I. Oh, Y. S. You, N. Jhajj, E. Rosenthal, H. M. Milchberg, and K. Y. Kim, “Scaling and saturation of high-power terahertz radiation generation in two-color laser filamentation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(20), 201113 (2013).
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T. I. Oh, Y. S. You, N. Jhajj, E. Rosenthal, H. M. Milchberg, and K. Y. Kim, “Intense terahertz generation in two-color laser filamentation: energy scaling with terawatt laser systems,” New J. Phys. 15(7), 075002 (2013).
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N. Jhajj, Y.-H. Cheng, J. K. Wahlstrand, and H. M. Milchberg, “Optical beam dynamics in a gas repetitively heated by femtosecond filaments,” Opt. Express 21(23), 28980–28986 (2013).
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L. A. Johnson, J. P. Palastro, T. M. Antonsen, and K. Y. Kim, “THz generation by optical Cherenkov emission from ionizing two-color laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 88(6), 063804 (2013).
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T. Kampfrath, K. Tanaka, and K. A. Nelson, “Resonant and nonresonant control over matter and light by intense terahertz transients,” Nat. Photonics 7(9), 680–690 (2013).
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S. Hosseini, O. Kosareva, N. Panov, V. P. Kandidov, A. Azarm, J.-F. Daigle, A. B. Savel’ev, T.-J. Wang, and S. L. Chin, “Femtosecond laser filament in different air pressures simulating vertical propagation up to 10 km,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9(12), 868–874 (2012).
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[Crossref]

T. I. Oh, Y. S. You, N. Jhajj, E. Rosenthal, H. M. Milchberg, and K. Y. Kim, “Scaling and saturation of high-power terahertz radiation generation in two-color laser filamentation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(20), 201113 (2013).
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Y. S. You, T. I. Oh, A. B. Fallahkhair, and K. Y. Kim, “Alignment-dependent terahertz radiation in two-color photoionization of molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 87(3), 035401 (2013).
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Y. S. You, T. I. Oh, and K. Y. Kim, “Mechanism of elliptically polarized terahertz generation in two-color laser filamentation,” Opt. Lett. 38(7), 1034–1036 (2013).
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T. I. Oh, Y. S. You, and K. Y. Kim, “Two-dimensional plasma current and optimized terahertz generation in two-color photoionization,” Opt. Express 20(18), 19778–19786 (2012).
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Y. S. You, T. I. Oh, and K. Y. Kim, “Off-axis phase-matched terahertz emission from two-color laser-induced plasma filaments,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(18), 183902 (2012).
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D. Kuk, Y. J. Yoo, E. W. Rosenthal, N. Jhajj, H. M. Milchberg, and K. Y. Kim, “Generation of scalable terahertz radiation from cylindrically focused two-color laser pulses in air,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(12), 121106 (2016).
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D. Kuk, Y. J. Yoo, E. W. Rosenthal, N. Jhajj, H. M. Milchberg, and K. Y. Kim, “Generation of scalable terahertz radiation from cylindrically focused two-color laser pulses in air,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(12), 121106 (2016).
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T. I. Oh, Y. S. You, N. Jhajj, E. Rosenthal, H. M. Milchberg, and K. Y. Kim, “Scaling and saturation of high-power terahertz radiation generation in two-color laser filamentation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(20), 201113 (2013).
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N. Jhajj, Y.-H. Cheng, J. K. Wahlstrand, and H. M. Milchberg, “Optical beam dynamics in a gas repetitively heated by femtosecond filaments,” Opt. Express 21(23), 28980–28986 (2013).
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E. Matsubara, M. Nagai, and M. Ashida, “Ultrabroadband coherent electric field from far infrared to 200 THz using air plasma induced by 10 fs pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(1), 011105 (2012).
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Y. Minami, T. Kurihara, K. Yamaguchi, M. Nakajima, and T. Suemoto, “High-power THz wave generation in plasma induced by polarization adjusted two-color laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(4), 041105 (2013).
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E. A. Nanni, W. R. Huang, K.-H. Hong, K. Ravi, A. Fallahi, G. Moriena, R. J. D. Miller, and F. X. Kärtner, “Terahertz-driven linear electron acceleration,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 8486 (2015).
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M. J. Paul, Y. C. Chang, Z. J. Thompson, A. Stickel, J. Wardini, H. Choi, E. D. Minot, B. Hou, J. A. Nees, T. B. Norris, and Y.-S. Lee, “High-field terahertz response of graphene,” New J. Phys. 15(8), 085019 (2013).
[Crossref]

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T. Kampfrath, K. Tanaka, and K. A. Nelson, “Resonant and nonresonant control over matter and light by intense terahertz transients,” Nat. Photonics 7(9), 680–690 (2013).
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M. J. Paul, Y. C. Chang, Z. J. Thompson, A. Stickel, J. Wardini, H. Choi, E. D. Minot, B. Hou, J. A. Nees, T. B. Norris, and Y.-S. Lee, “High-field terahertz response of graphene,” New J. Phys. 15(8), 085019 (2013).
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L. Bergé, S. Skupin, R. Nuter, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Ultrashort filaments of light in weakly ionized, optically transparent media,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 70(10), 1633–1713 (2007).
[Crossref]

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T. I. Oh, Y. J. Yoo, Y. S. You, and K. Y. Kim, “Generation of strong terahertz fields exceeding 8 MV/cm at 1 kHz and real-time beam profiling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(4), 041103 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. S. You, T. I. Oh, A. B. Fallahkhair, and K. Y. Kim, “Alignment-dependent terahertz radiation in two-color photoionization of molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 87(3), 035401 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. I. Oh, Y. S. You, N. Jhajj, E. Rosenthal, H. M. Milchberg, and K. Y. Kim, “Intense terahertz generation in two-color laser filamentation: energy scaling with terawatt laser systems,” New J. Phys. 15(7), 075002 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. I. Oh, Y. S. You, N. Jhajj, E. Rosenthal, H. M. Milchberg, and K. Y. Kim, “Scaling and saturation of high-power terahertz radiation generation in two-color laser filamentation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(20), 201113 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. S. You, T. I. Oh, and K. Y. Kim, “Mechanism of elliptically polarized terahertz generation in two-color laser filamentation,” Opt. Lett. 38(7), 1034–1036 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. I. Oh, Y. S. You, and K. Y. Kim, “Two-dimensional plasma current and optimized terahertz generation in two-color photoionization,” Opt. Express 20(18), 19778–19786 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. S. You, T. I. Oh, and K. Y. Kim, “Off-axis phase-matched terahertz emission from two-color laser-induced plasma filaments,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(18), 183902 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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G. Méchain, T. Olivier, M. Franco, A. Couairon, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond filamentation in air at low pressures. Part II: Laboratory experiments,” Opt. Commun. 261(2), 322–326 (2006).
[Crossref]

A. Couairon, M. Franco, G. Méchain, T. Olivier, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond filamentation in air at low pressures. Part I: Theory and numerical simulations,” Opt. Commun. 259(1), 265–273 (2006).
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[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Panov, N.

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S. Chin, T.-J. Wang, C. Marceau, J. Wu, J. S. Liu, O. Kosareva, N. Panov, Y. P. Chen, J.-F. Daigle, S. Yuan, A. Azarm, W. W. Liu, T. Seideman, H. P. Zeng, M. Richardson, R. Li, and Z. Z. Xu, “Advances in intense femtosecond laser filamentation in air,” Laser Phys. 22(1), 1–53 (2012).
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Paul, M. J.

M. J. Paul, Y. C. Chang, Z. J. Thompson, A. Stickel, J. Wardini, H. Choi, E. D. Minot, B. Hou, J. A. Nees, T. B. Norris, and Y.-S. Lee, “High-field terahertz response of graphene,” New J. Phys. 15(8), 085019 (2013).
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M. Clerici, M. Peccianti, B. E. Schmidt, L. Caspani, M. Shalaby, M. Giguère, A. Lotti, A. Couairon, F. Légaré, T. Ozaki, D. Faccio, and R. Morandotti, “Wavelength scaling of terahertz generation by gas ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(25), 253901 (2013).
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Y. Liu, A. Houard, M. Durand, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Maker fringes in the terahertz radiation produced by a 2-color laser field in air,” Opt. Express 17(14), 11480–11485 (2009).
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A. Couairon, M. Franco, G. Méchain, T. Olivier, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond filamentation in air at low pressures. Part I: Theory and numerical simulations,” Opt. Commun. 259(1), 265–273 (2006).
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Ravi, K.

E. A. Nanni, W. R. Huang, K.-H. Hong, K. Ravi, A. Fallahi, G. Moriena, R. J. D. Miller, and F. X. Kärtner, “Terahertz-driven linear electron acceleration,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 8486 (2015).
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Razzari, L.

Reimann, K.

Richardson, M.

S. Chin, T.-J. Wang, C. Marceau, J. Wu, J. S. Liu, O. Kosareva, N. Panov, Y. P. Chen, J.-F. Daigle, S. Yuan, A. Azarm, W. W. Liu, T. Seideman, H. P. Zeng, M. Richardson, R. Li, and Z. Z. Xu, “Advances in intense femtosecond laser filamentation in air,” Laser Phys. 22(1), 1–53 (2012).
[Crossref]

Rodriguez, G.

K. Y. Kim, J. H. Glownia, A. J. Taylor, and G. Rodriguez, “High-power broadband terahertz generation via two-color photoionization in gases,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 48(6), 797–805 (2012).
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G. Rodriguez and G. L. Dakovski, “Scaling behavior of ultrafast two-color terahertz generation in plasma gas targets: energy and pressure dependence,” Opt. Express 18(14), 15130–15143 (2010).
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K. Y. Kim, A. J. Taylor, J. H. Glownia, and G. Rodriguez, “Coherent control of terahertz supercontinuum generation in ultrafast laser-gas interactions,” Nat. Photonics 2(10), 605–609 (2008).
[Crossref]

K. Y. Kim, J. H. Glownia, A. J. Taylor, and G. Rodriguez, “Terahertz emission from ultrafast ionizing air in symmetry-broken laser fields,” Opt. Express 15(8), 4577–4584 (2007).
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Romanov, D. A.

D. A. Romanov, R. Compton, A. Filin, and R. J. Levis, “Dynamics of strong-field laser-induced microplasma formation in noble gases,” Phys. Rev. A 81(3), 033403 (2010).
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Ropagnol, X.

Rosenthal, E.

T. I. Oh, Y. S. You, N. Jhajj, E. Rosenthal, H. M. Milchberg, and K. Y. Kim, “Intense terahertz generation in two-color laser filamentation: energy scaling with terawatt laser systems,” New J. Phys. 15(7), 075002 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. I. Oh, Y. S. You, N. Jhajj, E. Rosenthal, H. M. Milchberg, and K. Y. Kim, “Scaling and saturation of high-power terahertz radiation generation in two-color laser filamentation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(20), 201113 (2013).
[Crossref]

Rosenthal, E. W.

D. Kuk, Y. J. Yoo, E. W. Rosenthal, N. Jhajj, H. M. Milchberg, and K. Y. Kim, “Generation of scalable terahertz radiation from cylindrically focused two-color laser pulses in air,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(12), 121106 (2016).
[Crossref]

Roskos, H. G.

V. Blank, M. D. Thomson, and H. G. Roskos, “Spatio-spectral characteristics of ultra-broadband THz emission from two-colour photoexcited gas plasmas and their impact for nonlinear spectroscopy,” New J. Phys. 15(7), 075023 (2013).
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M. Kress, T. Löffler, S. Eden, M. Thomson, and H. G. Roskos, “Terahertz-pulse generation by photoionization of air with laser pulses composed of both fundamental and second-harmonic waves,” Opt. Lett. 29(10), 1120–1122 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sauerbrey, R.

J. Bernhardt, W. Liu, S. L. Chin, and R. Sauerbrey, “Pressure independence of intensity clamping during filamentation: theory and experiment,” Appl. Phys. B 91(1), 45–48 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Kasparian, R. Sauerbrey, and S. L. Chin, “The critical laser intensity of self-guided light filaments in air,” Appl. Phys. B 71(6), 877–879 (2000).
[Crossref]

Savel’ev, A. B.

S. Hosseini, O. Kosareva, N. Panov, V. P. Kandidov, A. Azarm, J.-F. Daigle, A. B. Savel’ev, T.-J. Wang, and S. L. Chin, “Femtosecond laser filament in different air pressures simulating vertical propagation up to 10 km,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9(12), 868–874 (2012).
[Crossref]

Schmidt, B. E.

M. Clerici, M. Peccianti, B. E. Schmidt, L. Caspani, M. Shalaby, M. Giguère, A. Lotti, A. Couairon, F. Légaré, T. Ozaki, D. Faccio, and R. Morandotti, “Wavelength scaling of terahertz generation by gas ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(25), 253901 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schubert, O.

O. Schubert, M. Hohenleutner, F. Langer, B. Urbanek, C. Lange, U. Huttner, D. Golde, T. Meier, M. Kira, S. W. Koch, and R. Huber, “Sub-cycle control of terahertz high-harmonic generation by dynamical Bloch oscillations,” Nat. Photonics 8(2), 119–123 (2014).
[Crossref]

Seideman, T.

S. Chin, T.-J. Wang, C. Marceau, J. Wu, J. S. Liu, O. Kosareva, N. Panov, Y. P. Chen, J.-F. Daigle, S. Yuan, A. Azarm, W. W. Liu, T. Seideman, H. P. Zeng, M. Richardson, R. Li, and Z. Z. Xu, “Advances in intense femtosecond laser filamentation in air,” Laser Phys. 22(1), 1–53 (2012).
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Shalaby, M.

M. Clerici, M. Peccianti, B. E. Schmidt, L. Caspani, M. Shalaby, M. Giguère, A. Lotti, A. Couairon, F. Légaré, T. Ozaki, D. Faccio, and R. Morandotti, “Wavelength scaling of terahertz generation by gas ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(25), 253901 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sharifi, M.

S. Xu, J. Bernhardt, M. Sharifi, W. Liu, and S. L. Chin, “Intensity clamping during laser filamentation by TW level femtosecond laser in air and argon,” Laser Phys. 22(1), 195–202 (2012).
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Sharma, G.

Sherwin, M. S.

B. Zaks, R. B. Liu, and M. S. Sherwin, “Experimental observation of electron-hole recollisions,” Nature 483(7391), 580–583 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Simard, P. T.

J. Bernhardt, P. T. Simard, W. Liu, H. L. Xu, F. Théberge, A. Azarm, J. F. Daigle, and S. L. Chin, “Critical power for self-focussing of a femtosecond laser pulse in helium,” Opt. Commun. 281(8), 2248–2251 (2008).
[Crossref]

Skupin, S.

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, R. Nuter, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Ultrashort filaments of light in weakly ionized, optically transparent media,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 70(10), 1633–1713 (2007).
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C. Brée, A. Demircan, and G. Steinmeyer, “Method for computing the nonlinear refractive index via Keldysh theory,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(4), 433–437 (2010).
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Stickel, A.

M. J. Paul, Y. C. Chang, Z. J. Thompson, A. Stickel, J. Wardini, H. Choi, E. D. Minot, B. Hou, J. A. Nees, T. B. Norris, and Y.-S. Lee, “High-field terahertz response of graphene,” New J. Phys. 15(8), 085019 (2013).
[Crossref]

Suemoto, T.

Y. Minami, T. Kurihara, K. Yamaguchi, M. Nakajima, and T. Suemoto, “High-power THz wave generation in plasma induced by polarization adjusted two-color laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(4), 041105 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tanaka, K.

T. Kampfrath, K. Tanaka, and K. A. Nelson, “Resonant and nonresonant control over matter and light by intense terahertz transients,” Nat. Photonics 7(9), 680–690 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Hirori, A. Doi, F. Blanchard, and K. Tanaka, “Single-cycle terahertz pulses with amplitudes exceeding 1 MV/cm generated by optical rectification in LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(9), 091106 (2011).
[Crossref]

Taylor, A. J.

K. Y. Kim, J. H. Glownia, A. J. Taylor, and G. Rodriguez, “High-power broadband terahertz generation via two-color photoionization in gases,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 48(6), 797–805 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. Y. Kim, A. J. Taylor, J. H. Glownia, and G. Rodriguez, “Coherent control of terahertz supercontinuum generation in ultrafast laser-gas interactions,” Nat. Photonics 2(10), 605–609 (2008).
[Crossref]

K. Y. Kim, J. H. Glownia, A. J. Taylor, and G. Rodriguez, “Terahertz emission from ultrafast ionizing air in symmetry-broken laser fields,” Opt. Express 15(8), 4577–4584 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Theberge, F.

T.-J. Wang, C. Marceau, S. Yuan, Y. Chen, Q. Wang, F. Theberge, M. Chateauneuf, J. Dubois, and S. L. Chin, “External focusing effect on terahertz emission from a two-color femtosecond laser-induced filament in air,” Laser Phys. Lett. 8(1), 57–61 (2011).
[Crossref]

Théberge, F.

J. Bernhardt, P. T. Simard, W. Liu, H. L. Xu, F. Théberge, A. Azarm, J. F. Daigle, and S. L. Chin, “Critical power for self-focussing of a femtosecond laser pulse in helium,” Opt. Commun. 281(8), 2248–2251 (2008).
[Crossref]

Thompson, Z. J.

M. J. Paul, Y. C. Chang, Z. J. Thompson, A. Stickel, J. Wardini, H. Choi, E. D. Minot, B. Hou, J. A. Nees, T. B. Norris, and Y.-S. Lee, “High-field terahertz response of graphene,” New J. Phys. 15(8), 085019 (2013).
[Crossref]

Thomson, M.

Thomson, M. D.

V. Blank, M. D. Thomson, and H. G. Roskos, “Spatio-spectral characteristics of ultra-broadband THz emission from two-colour photoexcited gas plasmas and their impact for nonlinear spectroscopy,” New J. Phys. 15(7), 075023 (2013).
[Crossref]

Turchinovich, D.

D. Turchinovich, J. M. Hvam, and M. C. Hoffmann, “Self-phase modulation of a single-cycle terahertz pulse by nonlinear free-carrier response in a semiconductor,” Phys. Rev. B 85, 201304 (2012).

Tzortzakis, S.

Urbanek, B.

O. Schubert, M. Hohenleutner, F. Langer, B. Urbanek, C. Lange, U. Huttner, D. Golde, T. Meier, M. Kira, S. W. Koch, and R. Huber, “Sub-cycle control of terahertz high-harmonic generation by dynamical Bloch oscillations,” Nat. Photonics 8(2), 119–123 (2014).
[Crossref]

Vicario, C.

Vijayalakshmi, K.

A. Becker, N. Aközbek, K. Vijayalakshmi, E. Oral, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, “Intensity clamping and re-focusing of intense femtosecond laser pulses in nitrogen molecular gas,” Appl. Phys. B 73(3), 287–290 (2001).
[Crossref]

Wahlstrand, J. K.

Wang, Q.

T.-J. Wang, C. Marceau, S. Yuan, Y. Chen, Q. Wang, F. Theberge, M. Chateauneuf, J. Dubois, and S. L. Chin, “External focusing effect on terahertz emission from a two-color femtosecond laser-induced filament in air,” Laser Phys. Lett. 8(1), 57–61 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wang, T.-J.

S. Hosseini, O. Kosareva, N. Panov, V. P. Kandidov, A. Azarm, J.-F. Daigle, A. B. Savel’ev, T.-J. Wang, and S. L. Chin, “Femtosecond laser filament in different air pressures simulating vertical propagation up to 10 km,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9(12), 868–874 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Chin, T.-J. Wang, C. Marceau, J. Wu, J. S. Liu, O. Kosareva, N. Panov, Y. P. Chen, J.-F. Daigle, S. Yuan, A. Azarm, W. W. Liu, T. Seideman, H. P. Zeng, M. Richardson, R. Li, and Z. Z. Xu, “Advances in intense femtosecond laser filamentation in air,” Laser Phys. 22(1), 1–53 (2012).
[Crossref]

T.-J. Wang, C. Marceau, S. Yuan, Y. Chen, Q. Wang, F. Theberge, M. Chateauneuf, J. Dubois, and S. L. Chin, “External focusing effect on terahertz emission from a two-color femtosecond laser-induced filament in air,” Laser Phys. Lett. 8(1), 57–61 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wardini, J.

M. J. Paul, Y. C. Chang, Z. J. Thompson, A. Stickel, J. Wardini, H. Choi, E. D. Minot, B. Hou, J. A. Nees, T. B. Norris, and Y.-S. Lee, “High-field terahertz response of graphene,” New J. Phys. 15(8), 085019 (2013).
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Woerner, M.

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J. Kasparian and J.-P. Wolf, “Physics and applications of atmospheric nonlinear optics and filamentation,” Opt. Express 16(1), 466–493 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, R. Nuter, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Ultrashort filaments of light in weakly ionized, optically transparent media,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 70(10), 1633–1713 (2007).
[Crossref]

Wu, J.

S. Chin, T.-J. Wang, C. Marceau, J. Wu, J. S. Liu, O. Kosareva, N. Panov, Y. P. Chen, J.-F. Daigle, S. Yuan, A. Azarm, W. W. Liu, T. Seideman, H. P. Zeng, M. Richardson, R. Li, and Z. Z. Xu, “Advances in intense femtosecond laser filamentation in air,” Laser Phys. 22(1), 1–53 (2012).
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Xie, X.

X. Xie, J. Dai, and X.-C. Zhang, “Coherent control of THz wave generation in ambient air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(7), 075005 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, H. L.

J. Bernhardt, P. T. Simard, W. Liu, H. L. Xu, F. Théberge, A. Azarm, J. F. Daigle, and S. L. Chin, “Critical power for self-focussing of a femtosecond laser pulse in helium,” Opt. Commun. 281(8), 2248–2251 (2008).
[Crossref]

Xu, S.

S. Xu, J. Bernhardt, M. Sharifi, W. Liu, and S. L. Chin, “Intensity clamping during laser filamentation by TW level femtosecond laser in air and argon,” Laser Phys. 22(1), 195–202 (2012).
[Crossref]

Xu, Z. Z.

S. Chin, T.-J. Wang, C. Marceau, J. Wu, J. S. Liu, O. Kosareva, N. Panov, Y. P. Chen, J.-F. Daigle, S. Yuan, A. Azarm, W. W. Liu, T. Seideman, H. P. Zeng, M. Richardson, R. Li, and Z. Z. Xu, “Advances in intense femtosecond laser filamentation in air,” Laser Phys. 22(1), 1–53 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yamaguchi, K.

Y. Minami, T. Kurihara, K. Yamaguchi, M. Nakajima, and T. Suemoto, “High-power THz wave generation in plasma induced by polarization adjusted two-color laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(4), 041105 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yeh, K.-L.

K.-L. Yeh, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Hebling, and K. A. Nelson, “Generation of 10 μJ ultrashort terahertz pulses by optical rectification,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(17), 171121 (2007).
[Crossref]

Yoo, Y.

Y. Yoo, D. Kuk, Z. Zhong, and K. Y. Kim, “Generation and characterization of strong terahertz fields from kHz laser filamentation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 23(4), 8501007 (2017).
[Crossref]

Yoo, Y. J.

D. Jang, M. Kimbrue, Y. J. Yoo, and K. Y. Kim, “Spectral characterization of a microbolometer focal plane array at terahertz frequencies,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 9(2), 150–154 (2019).
[Crossref]

D. Kuk, Y. J. Yoo, E. W. Rosenthal, N. Jhajj, H. M. Milchberg, and K. Y. Kim, “Generation of scalable terahertz radiation from cylindrically focused two-color laser pulses in air,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(12), 121106 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. I. Oh, Y. J. Yoo, Y. S. You, and K. Y. Kim, “Generation of strong terahertz fields exceeding 8 MV/cm at 1 kHz and real-time beam profiling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(4), 041103 (2014).
[Crossref]

You, Y. S.

T. I. Oh, Y. J. Yoo, Y. S. You, and K. Y. Kim, “Generation of strong terahertz fields exceeding 8 MV/cm at 1 kHz and real-time beam profiling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(4), 041103 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. S. You, T. I. Oh, A. B. Fallahkhair, and K. Y. Kim, “Alignment-dependent terahertz radiation in two-color photoionization of molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 87(3), 035401 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. I. Oh, Y. S. You, N. Jhajj, E. Rosenthal, H. M. Milchberg, and K. Y. Kim, “Scaling and saturation of high-power terahertz radiation generation in two-color laser filamentation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(20), 201113 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. I. Oh, Y. S. You, N. Jhajj, E. Rosenthal, H. M. Milchberg, and K. Y. Kim, “Intense terahertz generation in two-color laser filamentation: energy scaling with terawatt laser systems,” New J. Phys. 15(7), 075002 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. S. You, T. I. Oh, and K. Y. Kim, “Mechanism of elliptically polarized terahertz generation in two-color laser filamentation,” Opt. Lett. 38(7), 1034–1036 (2013).
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T. I. Oh, Y. S. You, and K. Y. Kim, “Two-dimensional plasma current and optimized terahertz generation in two-color photoionization,” Opt. Express 20(18), 19778–19786 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. S. You, T. I. Oh, and K. Y. Kim, “Off-axis phase-matched terahertz emission from two-color laser-induced plasma filaments,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(18), 183902 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yuan, J.

D. Zhang, Z. Lü, C. Meng, X. Du, Z. Zhou, Z. Zhao, and J. Yuan, “Synchronizing terahertz wave generation with attosecond bursts,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(24), 243002 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yuan, S.

S. Chin, T.-J. Wang, C. Marceau, J. Wu, J. S. Liu, O. Kosareva, N. Panov, Y. P. Chen, J.-F. Daigle, S. Yuan, A. Azarm, W. W. Liu, T. Seideman, H. P. Zeng, M. Richardson, R. Li, and Z. Z. Xu, “Advances in intense femtosecond laser filamentation in air,” Laser Phys. 22(1), 1–53 (2012).
[Crossref]

T.-J. Wang, C. Marceau, S. Yuan, Y. Chen, Q. Wang, F. Theberge, M. Chateauneuf, J. Dubois, and S. L. Chin, “External focusing effect on terahertz emission from a two-color femtosecond laser-induced filament in air,” Laser Phys. Lett. 8(1), 57–61 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zahedpour, S.

Zaks, B.

B. Zaks, R. B. Liu, and M. S. Sherwin, “Experimental observation of electron-hole recollisions,” Nature 483(7391), 580–583 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zeng, H. P.

S. Chin, T.-J. Wang, C. Marceau, J. Wu, J. S. Liu, O. Kosareva, N. Panov, Y. P. Chen, J.-F. Daigle, S. Yuan, A. Azarm, W. W. Liu, T. Seideman, H. P. Zeng, M. Richardson, R. Li, and Z. Z. Xu, “Advances in intense femtosecond laser filamentation in air,” Laser Phys. 22(1), 1–53 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhang, D.

D. Zhang, Z. Lü, C. Meng, X. Du, Z. Zhou, Z. Zhao, and J. Yuan, “Synchronizing terahertz wave generation with attosecond bursts,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(24), 243002 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.-C.

J. Dai, N. Karpowicz, and X.-C. Zhang, “Coherent polarization control of terahertz waves generated from two-color laser-induced gas plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(2), 023001 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Xie, J. Dai, and X.-C. Zhang, “Coherent control of THz wave generation in ambient air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(7), 075005 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, Z.

D. Zhang, Z. Lü, C. Meng, X. Du, Z. Zhou, Z. Zhao, and J. Yuan, “Synchronizing terahertz wave generation with attosecond bursts,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(24), 243002 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhong, Z.

Y. Yoo, D. Kuk, Z. Zhong, and K. Y. Kim, “Generation and characterization of strong terahertz fields from kHz laser filamentation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 23(4), 8501007 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhou, Z.

D. Zhang, Z. Lü, C. Meng, X. Du, Z. Zhou, Z. Zhao, and J. Yuan, “Synchronizing terahertz wave generation with attosecond bursts,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(24), 243002 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. B (3)

J. Kasparian, R. Sauerbrey, and S. L. Chin, “The critical laser intensity of self-guided light filaments in air,” Appl. Phys. B 71(6), 877–879 (2000).
[Crossref]

A. Becker, N. Aközbek, K. Vijayalakshmi, E. Oral, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, “Intensity clamping and re-focusing of intense femtosecond laser pulses in nitrogen molecular gas,” Appl. Phys. B 73(3), 287–290 (2001).
[Crossref]

J. Bernhardt, W. Liu, S. L. Chin, and R. Sauerbrey, “Pressure independence of intensity clamping during filamentation: theory and experiment,” Appl. Phys. B 91(1), 45–48 (2008).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (7)

K.-L. Yeh, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Hebling, and K. A. Nelson, “Generation of 10 μJ ultrashort terahertz pulses by optical rectification,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(17), 171121 (2007).
[Crossref]

H. Hirori, A. Doi, F. Blanchard, and K. Tanaka, “Single-cycle terahertz pulses with amplitudes exceeding 1 MV/cm generated by optical rectification in LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(9), 091106 (2011).
[Crossref]

E. Matsubara, M. Nagai, and M. Ashida, “Ultrabroadband coherent electric field from far infrared to 200 THz using air plasma induced by 10 fs pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(1), 011105 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. I. Oh, Y. S. You, N. Jhajj, E. Rosenthal, H. M. Milchberg, and K. Y. Kim, “Scaling and saturation of high-power terahertz radiation generation in two-color laser filamentation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(20), 201113 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Minami, T. Kurihara, K. Yamaguchi, M. Nakajima, and T. Suemoto, “High-power THz wave generation in plasma induced by polarization adjusted two-color laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(4), 041105 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. I. Oh, Y. J. Yoo, Y. S. You, and K. Y. Kim, “Generation of strong terahertz fields exceeding 8 MV/cm at 1 kHz and real-time beam profiling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(4), 041103 (2014).
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D. Kuk, Y. J. Yoo, E. W. Rosenthal, N. Jhajj, H. M. Milchberg, and K. Y. Kim, “Generation of scalable terahertz radiation from cylindrically focused two-color laser pulses in air,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(12), 121106 (2016).
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IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

K. Y. Kim, J. H. Glownia, A. J. Taylor, and G. Rodriguez, “High-power broadband terahertz generation via two-color photoionization in gases,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 48(6), 797–805 (2012).
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C. Brée, A. Demircan, and G. Steinmeyer, “Method for computing the nonlinear refractive index via Keldysh theory,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(4), 433–437 (2010).
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IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

Y. Yoo, D. Kuk, Z. Zhong, and K. Y. Kim, “Generation and characterization of strong terahertz fields from kHz laser filamentation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 23(4), 8501007 (2017).
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IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. (1)

D. Jang, M. Kimbrue, Y. J. Yoo, and K. Y. Kim, “Spectral characterization of a microbolometer focal plane array at terahertz frequencies,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 9(2), 150–154 (2019).
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Laser Phys. (2)

S. Chin, T.-J. Wang, C. Marceau, J. Wu, J. S. Liu, O. Kosareva, N. Panov, Y. P. Chen, J.-F. Daigle, S. Yuan, A. Azarm, W. W. Liu, T. Seideman, H. P. Zeng, M. Richardson, R. Li, and Z. Z. Xu, “Advances in intense femtosecond laser filamentation in air,” Laser Phys. 22(1), 1–53 (2012).
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S. Xu, J. Bernhardt, M. Sharifi, W. Liu, and S. L. Chin, “Intensity clamping during laser filamentation by TW level femtosecond laser in air and argon,” Laser Phys. 22(1), 195–202 (2012).
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Laser Phys. Lett. (2)

S. Hosseini, O. Kosareva, N. Panov, V. P. Kandidov, A. Azarm, J.-F. Daigle, A. B. Savel’ev, T.-J. Wang, and S. L. Chin, “Femtosecond laser filament in different air pressures simulating vertical propagation up to 10 km,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9(12), 868–874 (2012).
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T.-J. Wang, C. Marceau, S. Yuan, Y. Chen, Q. Wang, F. Theberge, M. Chateauneuf, J. Dubois, and S. L. Chin, “External focusing effect on terahertz emission from a two-color femtosecond laser-induced filament in air,” Laser Phys. Lett. 8(1), 57–61 (2011).
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Nat. Commun. (1)

E. A. Nanni, W. R. Huang, K.-H. Hong, K. Ravi, A. Fallahi, G. Moriena, R. J. D. Miller, and F. X. Kärtner, “Terahertz-driven linear electron acceleration,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 8486 (2015).
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Nat. Photonics (3)

T. Kampfrath, K. Tanaka, and K. A. Nelson, “Resonant and nonresonant control over matter and light by intense terahertz transients,” Nat. Photonics 7(9), 680–690 (2013).
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K. Y. Kim, A. J. Taylor, J. H. Glownia, and G. Rodriguez, “Coherent control of terahertz supercontinuum generation in ultrafast laser-gas interactions,” Nat. Photonics 2(10), 605–609 (2008).
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O. Schubert, M. Hohenleutner, F. Langer, B. Urbanek, C. Lange, U. Huttner, D. Golde, T. Meier, M. Kira, S. W. Koch, and R. Huber, “Sub-cycle control of terahertz high-harmonic generation by dynamical Bloch oscillations,” Nat. Photonics 8(2), 119–123 (2014).
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Nature (1)

B. Zaks, R. B. Liu, and M. S. Sherwin, “Experimental observation of electron-hole recollisions,” Nature 483(7391), 580–583 (2012).
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New J. Phys. (3)

M. J. Paul, Y. C. Chang, Z. J. Thompson, A. Stickel, J. Wardini, H. Choi, E. D. Minot, B. Hou, J. A. Nees, T. B. Norris, and Y.-S. Lee, “High-field terahertz response of graphene,” New J. Phys. 15(8), 085019 (2013).
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V. Blank, M. D. Thomson, and H. G. Roskos, “Spatio-spectral characteristics of ultra-broadband THz emission from two-colour photoexcited gas plasmas and their impact for nonlinear spectroscopy,” New J. Phys. 15(7), 075023 (2013).
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T. I. Oh, Y. S. You, N. Jhajj, E. Rosenthal, H. M. Milchberg, and K. Y. Kim, “Intense terahertz generation in two-color laser filamentation: energy scaling with terawatt laser systems,” New J. Phys. 15(7), 075002 (2013).
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Opt. Commun. (3)

J. Bernhardt, P. T. Simard, W. Liu, H. L. Xu, F. Théberge, A. Azarm, J. F. Daigle, and S. L. Chin, “Critical power for self-focussing of a femtosecond laser pulse in helium,” Opt. Commun. 281(8), 2248–2251 (2008).
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A. Couairon, M. Franco, G. Méchain, T. Olivier, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond filamentation in air at low pressures. Part I: Theory and numerical simulations,” Opt. Commun. 259(1), 265–273 (2006).
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G. Méchain, T. Olivier, M. Franco, A. Couairon, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond filamentation in air at low pressures. Part II: Laboratory experiments,” Opt. Commun. 261(2), 322–326 (2006).
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Opt. Express (8)

J. Kasparian and J.-P. Wolf, “Physics and applications of atmospheric nonlinear optics and filamentation,” Opt. Express 16(1), 466–493 (2008).
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N. Jhajj, Y.-H. Cheng, J. K. Wahlstrand, and H. M. Milchberg, “Optical beam dynamics in a gas repetitively heated by femtosecond filaments,” Opt. Express 21(23), 28980–28986 (2013).
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K. Y. Kim, J. H. Glownia, A. J. Taylor, and G. Rodriguez, “Terahertz emission from ultrafast ionizing air in symmetry-broken laser fields,” Opt. Express 15(8), 4577–4584 (2007).
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T. I. Oh, Y. S. You, and K. Y. Kim, “Two-dimensional plasma current and optimized terahertz generation in two-color photoionization,” Opt. Express 20(18), 19778–19786 (2012).
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F. Blanchard, G. Sharma, X. Ropagnol, L. Razzari, R. Morandotti, and T. Ozaki, “Improved terahertz two-color plasma sources pumped by high intensity laser beam,” Opt. Express 17(8), 6044–6052 (2009).
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Y. Liu, A. Houard, M. Durand, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Maker fringes in the terahertz radiation produced by a 2-color laser field in air,” Opt. Express 17(14), 11480–11485 (2009).
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G. Rodriguez and G. L. Dakovski, “Scaling behavior of ultrafast two-color terahertz generation in plasma gas targets: energy and pressure dependence,” Opt. Express 18(14), 15130–15143 (2010).
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J.-M. Manceau, M. Massaouti, and S. Tzortzakis, “Coherent control of THz pulses polarization from femtosecond laser filaments in gases,” Opt. Express 18(18), 18894–18899 (2010).
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Opt. Lett. (7)

Phys. Plasmas (1)

K. Y. Kim, “Generation of coherent terahertz radiation in ultrafast laser-gas interactions,” Phys. Plasmas 16(5), 056706 (2009).
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Phys. Rep. (1)

A. Couairon and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond filamentation in transparent media,” Phys. Rep. 441(2-4), 47–189 (2007).
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Phys. Rev. A (4)

A. Couairon, H. S. Chakraborty, and M. B. Gaarde, “From single-cycle self-compressed filaments to isolated attosecond pulses in noble gases,” Phys. Rev. A 77(5), 053814 (2008).
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D. A. Romanov, R. Compton, A. Filin, and R. J. Levis, “Dynamics of strong-field laser-induced microplasma formation in noble gases,” Phys. Rev. A 81(3), 033403 (2010).
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Y. S. You, T. I. Oh, A. B. Fallahkhair, and K. Y. Kim, “Alignment-dependent terahertz radiation in two-color photoionization of molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 87(3), 035401 (2013).
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L. A. Johnson, J. P. Palastro, T. M. Antonsen, and K. Y. Kim, “THz generation by optical Cherenkov emission from ionizing two-color laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 88(6), 063804 (2013).
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Phys. Rev. B (1)

D. Turchinovich, J. M. Hvam, and M. C. Hoffmann, “Self-phase modulation of a single-cycle terahertz pulse by nonlinear free-carrier response in a semiconductor,” Phys. Rev. B 85, 201304 (2012).

Phys. Rev. Lett. (6)

X. Xie, J. Dai, and X.-C. Zhang, “Coherent control of THz wave generation in ambient air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(7), 075005 (2006).
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H. Wen and A. M. Lindenberg, “Coherent terahertz polarization control through manipulation of electron trajectories,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(2), 023902 (2009).
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J. Dai, N. Karpowicz, and X.-C. Zhang, “Coherent polarization control of terahertz waves generated from two-color laser-induced gas plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(2), 023001 (2009).
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M. Clerici, M. Peccianti, B. E. Schmidt, L. Caspani, M. Shalaby, M. Giguère, A. Lotti, A. Couairon, F. Légaré, T. Ozaki, D. Faccio, and R. Morandotti, “Wavelength scaling of terahertz generation by gas ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(25), 253901 (2013).
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Y. S. You, T. I. Oh, and K. Y. Kim, “Off-axis phase-matched terahertz emission from two-color laser-induced plasma filaments,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(18), 183902 (2012).
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L. Bergé, S. Skupin, R. Nuter, J. Kasparian, and J.-P. Wolf, “Ultrashort filaments of light in weakly ionized, optically transparent media,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 70(10), 1633–1713 (2007).
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Other (1)

Y. Yoo, D. Jang, M. Kimbrue, and K. Y. Kim, “Broadband THz spectral characterization with THz bandpass filters,” (2018). https://doi.org/10.1364/FIO.2018.JW3A.52.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Experimental setup for THz generation from two-color laser filamentation inside a long gas tube. The emitted THz radiation is refocused by an off-axis parabolic mirror onto a pyroelectric detector for energy measurement and an uncooled microbolometer focal plane array for imaging. Synchronized probe pulses at variable delays are used to measure THz waveforms via electro-optic sampling with a thin GaP crystal. The inset shows a long plasma filament in argon captured by optical side imaging.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) THz output energy as a function of argon pressure inside the gas tube at input laser energy of 8 mJ. (b) THz output signal as a function of laser input energy for argon (squares) and atmospheric room air (triangles) both at 0.08 atm. The inset shows a refocused THz beam profile captured by the microbolometer FPA.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) THz waveform measured by electro-optic sampling with a 100-µm thick GaP. (b) THz spectrum obtained from (a) via Fourier transformation (blue solid blue) and independently characterized by pyro-electric detection using various THz bandpass filters (red solid line with dots).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Relative THz output energy as a function of gas pressure when ionized by 8 mJ laser pulses with the gas tube filled with helium, neon, nitrogen, room air, oxygen, carbon dioxide, krypton, or xenon.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Measured plasma fluorescence variation along the laser propagation direction z at varying Ar pressure when ionized by single-color (800 nm), 7 mJ laser pulses at 1 kHz. (b) Fluorescence integrated from 4.3 cm to 17.8 cm and plotted as a function of Ar pressure.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) Measured normalized plasma fluorescence along the laser propagation direction (z) at various argon pressures. (b) Pressure dependent fluorescence brightness integrated along z (blue solid line) plotted with measured THz output energy (red dotted line). The relative phase between the two is plotted in (ii). (c) Simulated normalized electron density as functions of both z and pressure. (d) Comparison between simulated electron density (blue solid line) and THz energy (red dotted line).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Measured and predicted pressure periods (Posc) in THz generation for various gases when irradiated by 800 nm, 8 mJ, 40 fs laser pulses with the BBO-to-focus length of d = 0.55 ma

Equations (4)

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l d = λ 2( n 2ω n ω ) ,
A f =π r 2 1 p ,
N # = N e ( π r 2 l )p 1 p , 
E L ( t )= E ω ( t )cos( ωt )+ E 2ω ( t )cos( 2ωt+θ ),

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