Abstract

We present a silicon thermo-optic 2☓2 four-mode optical switch optimized for optical space switching plus local optical mode switching. Four asymmetric directional couplers are utilized for mode multiplexing and de-multiplexing. Sixteen 2☓2 single-mode optical switches based on balanced thermally tunable Mach-Zehnder interferometers are exploited for switching function. The measured insertion losses are 8.0~12.2 dB and the optical signal-to-noise ratios are larger than 11.2 dB in the wavelength range of 1525~1565 nm. The optical links in “all-bar” and “all-cross” states exhibit less than 2.0 dB and 1.4 dB power penalties respectively below 10−9 bit error rates for 40 Gbps data transmission.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2018 (1)

D. Dai, C. Li, S. Wang, H. Wu, Y. Shi, Z. Wu, S. Gao, T. Dai, H. Yu, and H. K. Tsang, “10‐Channel Mode (de) multiplexer with Dual Polarizations,” Laser Photonics Rev. 12(1), 1700109 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (6)

2016 (3)

2015 (4)

2014 (5)

2013 (2)

2012 (1)

2011 (3)

2009 (1)

D. A. B. Miller, “Device requirements for optical interconnects to silicon chips,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1166–1185 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

R. G. Beausoleil, P. J. Kuekes, G. S. Snider, S. Y. Wang, and R. S. Williams, “Nanoelectronic and nanophotonic interconnect,” Proc. IEEE 96(2), 230–247 (2008).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

1987 (1)

1962 (1)

V. E. Beneš, “Algebraic and topological properties of connecting networks,” Bell Labs Tech. J. 41(4), 1249–1274 (1962).
[Crossref]

Aguinaldo, R.

Asanovic, K.

A. Joshi, C. Batten, Y. J. Kwon, S. Beamer, I. Shamim, K. Asanovic, and V. Stojanovic, “Silicon-photonic clos networks for global on-chip communication,” in Proceedings of the 3rd ACM/IEEE International Symposium on Networkson-Chip (2009), pp. 124–133.
[Crossref]

Assefa, S.

Batten, C.

A. Joshi, C. Batten, Y. J. Kwon, S. Beamer, I. Shamim, K. Asanovic, and V. Stojanovic, “Silicon-photonic clos networks for global on-chip communication,” in Proceedings of the 3rd ACM/IEEE International Symposium on Networkson-Chip (2009), pp. 124–133.
[Crossref]

Beamer, S.

A. Joshi, C. Batten, Y. J. Kwon, S. Beamer, I. Shamim, K. Asanovic, and V. Stojanovic, “Silicon-photonic clos networks for global on-chip communication,” in Proceedings of the 3rd ACM/IEEE International Symposium on Networkson-Chip (2009), pp. 124–133.
[Crossref]

Beausoleil, R. G.

R. G. Beausoleil, P. J. Kuekes, G. S. Snider, S. Y. Wang, and R. S. Williams, “Nanoelectronic and nanophotonic interconnect,” Proc. IEEE 96(2), 230–247 (2008).
[Crossref]

Beneš, V. E.

R. A. Spanke and V. E. Beneš, “N-stage planar optical permutation network,” Appl. Opt. 26(7), 1226–1229 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. E. Beneš, “Algebraic and topological properties of connecting networks,” Bell Labs Tech. J. 41(4), 1249–1274 (1962).
[Crossref]

Bergman, K.

B. Stern, X. Zhu, C. P. Chen, L. D. Tzuang, J. Cardenas, K. Bergman, and M. Lipson, “On-chip mode-division multiplexing switch,” Optica 2(6), 530–535 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. Padmaraju and K. Bergman, “Resolving the thermal challenges for silicon microring resonator devices,” Nanophotonics 3(4–5), 269–281 (2014).

G. Hendry, E. Robinson, V. Gleyzer, J. Chan, L. P. Carloni, N. Bliss, and K. Bergman, “Time-division-multiplexed arbitration in silicon nanophotonic networks-on-chip for high-performance chip multiprocessors,” J. Parallel Distrib. Comput. 71(5), 641–650 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bergmen, K.

L. W. Luo, N. Ophir, C. P. Chen, L. H. Gabrielli, C. B. Poitras, K. Bergmen, and M. Lipson, “WDM-compatible mode-division multiplexing on a silicon chip,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3069 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bliss, N.

G. Hendry, E. Robinson, V. Gleyzer, J. Chan, L. P. Carloni, N. Bliss, and K. Bergman, “Time-division-multiplexed arbitration in silicon nanophotonic networks-on-chip for high-performance chip multiprocessors,” J. Parallel Distrib. Comput. 71(5), 641–650 (2011).
[Crossref]

Cao, Y.

Y. Sun, Y. Cao, Y. Yi, L. Tian, Y. Zheng, J. Zheng, F. Wang, and D. Zhang, “A low-power consumption MZI thermal optical switch with a graphene-assisted heating layer and air trench,” RSC Advances 7(63), 39922–39927 (2017).
[Crossref]

Cardenas, J.

Carloni, L. P.

G. Hendry, E. Robinson, V. Gleyzer, J. Chan, L. P. Carloni, N. Bliss, and K. Bergman, “Time-division-multiplexed arbitration in silicon nanophotonic networks-on-chip for high-performance chip multiprocessors,” J. Parallel Distrib. Comput. 71(5), 641–650 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chan, J.

G. Hendry, E. Robinson, V. Gleyzer, J. Chan, L. P. Carloni, N. Bliss, and K. Bergman, “Time-division-multiplexed arbitration in silicon nanophotonic networks-on-chip for high-performance chip multiprocessors,” J. Parallel Distrib. Comput. 71(5), 641–650 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chen, C. P.

B. Stern, X. Zhu, C. P. Chen, L. D. Tzuang, J. Cardenas, K. Bergman, and M. Lipson, “On-chip mode-division multiplexing switch,” Optica 2(6), 530–535 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. W. Luo, N. Ophir, C. P. Chen, L. H. Gabrielli, C. B. Poitras, K. Bergmen, and M. Lipson, “WDM-compatible mode-division multiplexing on a silicon chip,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3069 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, G.

Chen, H.

Chen, J.

Chen, W.

Chen, X.

Cong, G.

Dadap, J. I.

Dai, D.

D. Dai, C. Li, S. Wang, H. Wu, Y. Shi, Z. Wu, S. Gao, T. Dai, H. Yu, and H. K. Tsang, “10‐Channel Mode (de) multiplexer with Dual Polarizations,” Laser Photonics Rev. 12(1), 1700109 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. Dai, “Silicon Nanophotonic Integrated Devices for On-Chip Multiplexing and Switching,” J. Lightwave Technol. 35(4), 572–587 (2017).
[Crossref]

Dai, T.

D. Dai, C. Li, S. Wang, H. Wu, Y. Shi, Z. Wu, S. Gao, T. Dai, H. Yu, and H. K. Tsang, “10‐Channel Mode (de) multiplexer with Dual Polarizations,” Laser Photonics Rev. 12(1), 1700109 (2018).
[Crossref]

DeRose, C.

Ding, J.

Doany, F. E.

Driscoll, J. B.

Fainman, Y.

Forencich, A.

Fu, X.

Gabrielli, L. H.

L. W. Luo, N. Ophir, C. P. Chen, L. H. Gabrielli, C. B. Poitras, K. Bergmen, and M. Lipson, “WDM-compatible mode-division multiplexing on a silicon chip,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3069 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gan, F.

Gao, S.

D. Dai, C. Li, S. Wang, H. Wu, Y. Shi, Z. Wu, S. Gao, T. Dai, H. Yu, and H. K. Tsang, “10‐Channel Mode (de) multiplexer with Dual Polarizations,” Laser Photonics Rev. 12(1), 1700109 (2018).
[Crossref]

Gleyzer, V.

G. Hendry, E. Robinson, V. Gleyzer, J. Chan, L. P. Carloni, N. Bliss, and K. Bergman, “Time-division-multiplexed arbitration in silicon nanophotonic networks-on-chip for high-performance chip multiprocessors,” J. Parallel Distrib. Comput. 71(5), 641–650 (2011).
[Crossref]

Green, W. M. J.

Greenberg, M.

Grote, R. R.

Gu, H. X.

H. X. Gu, K. H. Mo, J. Xu, and W. Zhang, “A low-power low-cost optical router for optical networks-on-chip in multiprocessor systems-on-chip,” in 2009 IEEE Computer Society Annual Symposium on VlSI (2009), pp. 19–24 .
[Crossref]

Guo, Z.

Han, S.

He, Y.

Hendry, G.

G. Hendry, E. Robinson, V. Gleyzer, J. Chan, L. P. Carloni, N. Bliss, and K. Bergman, “Time-division-multiplexed arbitration in silicon nanophotonic networks-on-chip for high-performance chip multiprocessors,” J. Parallel Distrib. Comput. 71(5), 641–650 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hinton, H. S.

H. S. Hinton, “A nonblocking optical interconnection network using directional couplers,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Global Telecommunications Conference (1984), pp. 885–889.

Huang, H.

Huang, Y. Z.

Ikeda, K.

Inoue, T.

Ishizaka, Y.

Jahnes, C. V.

Ji, R.

Jia, H.

Joshi, A.

A. Joshi, C. Batten, Y. J. Kwon, S. Beamer, I. Shamim, K. Asanovic, and V. Stojanovic, “Silicon-photonic clos networks for global on-chip communication,” in Proceedings of the 3rd ACM/IEEE International Symposium on Networkson-Chip (2009), pp. 124–133.
[Crossref]

Kash, J. A.

Kawaguchi, Y.

Kawashima, H.

Kimura, T.

Koshiba, M.

Koshino, K.

Kuekes, P. J.

R. G. Beausoleil, P. J. Kuekes, G. S. Snider, S. Y. Wang, and R. S. Williams, “Nanoelectronic and nanophotonic interconnect,” Proc. IEEE 96(2), 230–247 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kwon, Y. J.

A. Joshi, C. Batten, Y. J. Kwon, S. Beamer, I. Shamim, K. Asanovic, and V. Stojanovic, “Silicon-photonic clos networks for global on-chip communication,” in Proceedings of the 3rd ACM/IEEE International Symposium on Networkson-Chip (2009), pp. 124–133.
[Crossref]

Lee, B. G.

Lentine, A.

Li, C.

D. Dai, C. Li, S. Wang, H. Wu, Y. Shi, Z. Wu, S. Gao, T. Dai, H. Yu, and H. K. Tsang, “10‐Channel Mode (de) multiplexer with Dual Polarizations,” Laser Photonics Rev. 12(1), 1700109 (2018).
[Crossref]

Li, D.

Li, M.

Li, W.

Li, Y.

Lipson, M.

B. Stern, X. Zhu, C. P. Chen, L. D. Tzuang, J. Cardenas, K. Bergman, and M. Lipson, “On-chip mode-division multiplexing switch,” Optica 2(6), 530–535 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. W. Luo, N. Ophir, C. P. Chen, L. H. Gabrielli, C. B. Poitras, K. Bergmen, and M. Lipson, “WDM-compatible mode-division multiplexing on a silicon chip,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3069 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lu, L.

Lu, M.

Lu, Y.

Luo, L. W.

L. W. Luo, N. Ophir, C. P. Chen, L. H. Gabrielli, C. B. Poitras, K. Bergmen, and M. Lipson, “WDM-compatible mode-division multiplexing on a silicon chip,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3069 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Matsumaro, K.

Matsuura, H.

Miller, D. A. B.

D. A. B. Miller, “Device requirements for optical interconnects to silicon chips,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1166–1185 (2009).
[Crossref]

Mo, K. H.

H. X. Gu, K. H. Mo, J. Xu, and W. Zhang, “A low-power low-cost optical router for optical networks-on-chip in multiprocessor systems-on-chip,” in 2009 IEEE Computer Society Annual Symposium on VlSI (2009), pp. 19–24 .
[Crossref]

Mookherjea, S.

Namiki, S.

Ohtsuka, M.

Ophir, N.

L. W. Luo, N. Ophir, C. P. Chen, L. H. Gabrielli, C. B. Poitras, K. Bergmen, and M. Lipson, “WDM-compatible mode-division multiplexing on a silicon chip,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3069 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Orenstein, M.

Osgood, R. M.

Padmaraju, K.

K. Padmaraju and K. Bergman, “Resolving the thermal challenges for silicon microring resonator devices,” Nanophotonics 3(4–5), 269–281 (2014).

Papen, G.

Poitras, C. B.

L. W. Luo, N. Ophir, C. P. Chen, L. H. Gabrielli, C. B. Poitras, K. Bergmen, and M. Lipson, “WDM-compatible mode-division multiplexing on a silicon chip,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3069 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Poon, A. W.

Porter, G.

Qi, M.

Qiu, C.

Quack, N.

Robinson, E.

G. Hendry, E. Robinson, V. Gleyzer, J. Chan, L. P. Carloni, N. Bliss, and K. Bergman, “Time-division-multiplexed arbitration in silicon nanophotonic networks-on-chip for high-performance chip multiprocessors,” J. Parallel Distrib. Comput. 71(5), 641–650 (2011).
[Crossref]

Saitoh, K.

Schow, C. L.

Seki, M.

Seok, T. J.

Shamim, I.

A. Joshi, C. Batten, Y. J. Kwon, S. Beamer, I. Shamim, K. Asanovic, and V. Stojanovic, “Silicon-photonic clos networks for global on-chip communication,” in Proceedings of the 3rd ACM/IEEE International Symposium on Networkson-Chip (2009), pp. 124–133.
[Crossref]

Sheng, Z.

Shi, Y.

D. Dai, C. Li, S. Wang, H. Wu, Y. Shi, Z. Wu, S. Gao, T. Dai, H. Yu, and H. K. Tsang, “10‐Channel Mode (de) multiplexer with Dual Polarizations,” Laser Photonics Rev. 12(1), 1700109 (2018).
[Crossref]

Snider, G. S.

R. G. Beausoleil, P. J. Kuekes, G. S. Snider, S. Y. Wang, and R. S. Williams, “Nanoelectronic and nanophotonic interconnect,” Proc. IEEE 96(2), 230–247 (2008).
[Crossref]

Souhan, B.

Spanke, R. A.

Stern, B.

Stojanovic, V.

A. Joshi, C. Batten, Y. J. Kwon, S. Beamer, I. Shamim, K. Asanovic, and V. Stojanovic, “Silicon-photonic clos networks for global on-chip communication,” in Proceedings of the 3rd ACM/IEEE International Symposium on Networkson-Chip (2009), pp. 124–133.
[Crossref]

Su, Y.

Suda, S.

Sugaya, T.

Sun, C.

Sun, Y.

Y. Sun, Y. Cao, Y. Yi, L. Tian, Y. Zheng, J. Zheng, F. Wang, and D. Zhang, “A low-power consumption MZI thermal optical switch with a graphene-assisted heating layer and air trench,” RSC Advances 7(63), 39922–39927 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Sun, Y. Xiong, and W. N. Ye, “Experimental demonstration of a two-mode (de)multiplexer based on a taper-etched directional coupler,” Opt. Lett. 41(16), 3743–3746 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Suzuki, K.

Tanizawa, K.

Thylén, L.

Tian, L.

Y. Sun, Y. Cao, Y. Yi, L. Tian, Y. Zheng, J. Zheng, F. Wang, and D. Zhang, “A low-power consumption MZI thermal optical switch with a graphene-assisted heating layer and air trench,” RSC Advances 7(63), 39922–39927 (2017).
[Crossref]

Tian, Y.

Toyama, M.

Trotter, D. C.

Tsang, H. K.

D. Dai, C. Li, S. Wang, H. Wu, Y. Shi, Z. Wu, S. Gao, T. Dai, H. Yu, and H. K. Tsang, “10‐Channel Mode (de) multiplexer with Dual Polarizations,” Laser Photonics Rev. 12(1), 1700109 (2018).
[Crossref]

Tzuang, L. D.

Uematsu, T.

Van Campenhout, J.

Vlasov, Y. A.

Wang, F.

Y. Sun, Y. Cao, Y. Yi, L. Tian, Y. Zheng, J. Zheng, F. Wang, and D. Zhang, “A low-power consumption MZI thermal optical switch with a graphene-assisted heating layer and air trench,” RSC Advances 7(63), 39922–39927 (2017).
[Crossref]

Wang, J.

Wang, P.

Wang, S.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Principle and (b) architecture of the 2☓2 four-mode optical switch; structures of (c) mode multiplexers based on asymmetric directional couplers and (d) thermo-optic 2☓2 SM-OS. (M-MUX, mode multiplexer; M-DEMUX, mode de-multiplexer; M-MUX A, auxiliary mode multiplexer; M-DEMUX A, auxiliary mode de-multiplexer; SM-OS, single-mode optical switch; OSU, optical switching unit; MMI, multimode interference; TiN, titanium nitride).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Micrograph of the fabricated 2☓2 four-mode optical switch.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Experimental setup for characterizing the device (TL, tunable laser; ASE, amplified spontaneous emission; MD, modulator; PC, polarization controller; PPG, pulse pattern generator; AFG, arbitrary function generator; DCP, direct-current power; DUT, device under test; DCA, digital communication analyzer; RTO, real-time oscilloscope; VOA, variable optical attenuator; OSA, optical spectrum analyzer; PM, power meter).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Transmission spectra for the signal and noise of the measured optical links in the shown routing states in Table 1 (IL, insertion loss; OSNR, optical signal-to-noise ratio).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Eye diagrams and BERs for 40 Gbps data transmission of the device in the “all-bar” state at 1545 nm (a), 1565 nm (b) and “all-cross” state at 1545 nm (c), 1565 nm (d).

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Measured optical links and states of 16 OSUs

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Table 2 ILs and OSNRs for the measured optical links in the wavelength range of 1525-1565 nm

Tables Icon

Table 3 Driving voltages and power consumptions of all the 16 OSUs

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