Abstract

The formulations and numerical algorithms of a three-level model for studying the Purcell effect produced by the scattering of an air/AlGaN interface and the surface plasmon (SP) coupling effect induced by a surface Al nanoparticle in a two-polarization emission system to simulate the transverse-electric- (TE-) and transverse-magnetic- (TM-) polarized emissions in an AlxGa1-xN/AlyGa1-yN (y > x) quantum well (QW) are built. In reasonably selected ranges of Al content for an AlGaN QW to emit deep-ultraviolet (UV) light, the enhancement (suppression) of TE- (TM-) polarized emission is mainly caused by the SP-coupling (interface-scattering) effect. Different from a two two-level model, in the three-level model the TE- and TM-polarized emissions compete for electron in the shared upper state, which is used for simulating the conduction band, such that either interface-scattering or SP-coupling effect becomes weaker. In a quite large range of emission wavelength, in which the intrinsic emission is dominated by TM polarization, with the interface-scattering and SP-coupling effects, the TE-polarized emission becomes dominant for enhancing the light extraction efficiency of a deep-UV light-emitting diode.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2017 (5)

T. Takano, T. Mino, J. Sakai, N. Noguchi, K. Tsubaki, and H. Hirayama, “Deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with external quantum efficiency higher than 20% at 275 nm achieved by improving light-extraction efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Express 10(3), 031002 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Y. Su, M. C. Tsai, K. P. Chou, H. C. Chiang, H. H. Lin, M. Y. Su, Y. R. Wu, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Method for enhancing the favored transverse-electric-polarized emission of an AlGaN deep-ultraviolet quantum well,” Opt. Express 25(22), 26365–26377 (2017), doi:.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Y. Su, C. H. Lin, Y. F. Yao, W. H. Liu, M. Y. Su, H. C. Chiang, M. C. Tsai, C. G. Tu, H. T. Chen, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Dependencies of surface plasmon coupling effects on the p-GaN thickness of a thin-p-type light-emitting diode,” Opt. Express 25(18), 21526–21536 (2017).

C. Zhang, N. Tang, L. Shang, L. Fu, W. Wang, F. Xu, X. Wang, W. Ge, and B. Shen, “Local surface plasmon enhanced polarization and internal quantum efficiency of deep ultraviolet emissions from AlGaN-based quantum wells,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 2358 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Okamoto, M. Funato, Y. Kawakami, and K. Tamada, “High-efficiency light emission by means of exciton–surface-plasmon coupling,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. Photochem. Rev. 32, 58–77 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (4)

2015 (5)

2014 (6)

C. H. Lin, C. Y. Su, Y. Kuo, C. H. Chen, Y. F. Yao, P. Y. Shih, H. S. Chen, C. Hsieh, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Further reduction of efficiency droop effect by adding a lower-index dielectric interlayer in a surface plasmon coupled blue light-emitting diode with surface metal nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(10), 101106 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. Huang, N. Gao, C. Wang, X. Chen, J. Li, S. Li, X. Yang, and J. Kang, “Top- and bottom-emission-enhanced electroluminescence of deep-UV light-emitting diodes induced by localised surface plasmons,” Sci. Rep. 4(4038), 4380 (2014).
[PubMed]

M. Martens, F. Mehnke, C. Kuhn, C. Reich, V. Kueller, A. Knauer, C. Netzel, C. Hartmann, J. Wollweber, J. Rass, T. Wernicke, M. Bickermann, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Performance characteristics of UV-C AlGaN-based lasers grown on sapphire and bulk AlN substrates,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(4), 342–345 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Hirayama, N. Maeda, S. Fujikawa, S. Toyoda, and N. Kamata, “Recent progress and future prospects of AlGaN-based high-efficiency deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 53(10), 100209 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Fan, Z. Qin, C. He, X. Wang, B. Shen, and G. Zhang, “Strain effect on the optical polarization properties of c-plane Al0.26Ga0.74N/GaN superlattices,” Opt. Express 22(6), 6322–6328 (2014), doi:.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. F. Kent, S. D. Carnevale, A. T. M. Sarwar, P. J. Phillips, R. F. Klie, and R. C. Myers, “Deep ultraviolet emitting polarization induced nanowire light emitting diodes with AlxGa1-xN active regions,” Nanotechnology 25(45), 455201 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (3)

T. Kinoshita, T. Obata, T. Nagashima, H. Yanagi, B. Moody, S. Mita, S. Inoue, Y. Kumagai, A. Koukitu, and Z. Sitar, “Performance and reliability of deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes fabricated on AlN substrates prepared by hydride vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(9), 092103 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. J. Chen, T. J. Yu, H. M. Lu, G. C. Yuan, B. Shen, and G. Y. Zhang, “Modulating optical polarization properties of Al-rich AlGaN/AlN quantum well by controlling wavefunction overlap,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(18), 181117 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Y. Cho, Y. Zhang, E. Cicek, B. Rahnema, Y. Bai, R. McClintock, and M. Razeghi, “Surface plasmon enhanced light emission from AlGaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes grown on Si (111),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(21), 211110 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (5)

N. Gao, K. Huang, J. Li, S. Li, X. Yang, and J. Kang, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced deep-UV light emitting diodes based on AlGaN multi-quantum wells,” Sci. Rep. 2(1), 816 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. P. Wang and Y. R. Wu, “Study of optical anisotropy in nonpolar and semipolar AlGaN quantum well deep ultraviolet light emission diode,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(3), 033104 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. Lu, T. Yu, G. Yuan, X. Chen, Z. Chen, G. Chen, and G. Zhang, “Enhancement of surface emission in deep ultraviolet AlGaN-based light emitting diodes with staggered quantum wells,” Opt. Lett. 37(17), 3693–3695 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Shatalov, W. Sun, A. Lunev, X. Hu, A. Dobrinsky, Y. Bilenko, J. Yang, M. Shur, R. Gaska, C. Moe, G. Garrett, and M. Wraback, “AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with external quantum efficiency above 10%,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(8), 082101 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. E. Northrup, C. L. Chua, Z. Yang, T. Wunderer, M. Kneissl, N. M. Johnson, and T. Kolbe, “Effect of strain and barrier composition on the polarization of light emission from AlGaN/AlN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(2), 021101 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

M. Kneissl, T. Kolbe, C. Chua, V. Kueller, N. Lobo, J. Stellmach, A. Knauer, H. Rodriguez, S. Einfeldt, Z. Yang, N. M. Johnson, and M. Weyers, “Advances in group III-nitride-based deep UV light-emitting diode technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26(1), 014036 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Zhang, H. P. Zhao, and N. Tansu, “Large optical gain AlGaN-Delta-GaN quantum wells laser active regions in mid- and deep-ultraviolet spectral regimes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(17), 171111 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. Kuo, S. Y. Ting, C. H. Liao, J. J. Huang, C. Y. Chen, C. Hsieh, Y. C. Lu, C. Y. Chen, K. C. Shen, C. F. Lu, D. M. Yeh, J. Y. Wang, W. H. Chuang, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Surface plasmon coupling with radiating dipole for enhancing the emission efficiency of a light-emitting diode,” Opt. Express 19(S4Suppl 4), A914–A929 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

H. Hirayama, Y. Tsukada, T. Maeda, and N. Kamata, “Marked enhancement in the efficiency of deep-ultraviolet AlGaN light-emitting diodes by using a multiquantum-barrier electron blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(3), 031002 (2010).
[Crossref]

T. Kolbe, A. Knauer, C. Chua, Z. Yang, S. Einfeldt, P. Vogt, N. M. Johnson, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Optical polarization characteristics of ultraviolet (In)(Al)GaN multiple quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(17), 171105 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

H. Hirayama, S. Fujikawa, J. Norimatsu, T. Takano, K. Tsubaki, and N. Kamata, “Fabrication of a low threading dislocation density ELO-AlN template for application to deep-UV LEDs,” Phys. Status Solidi. C 6(S2), S356–S359 (2009).
[Crossref]

C. Y. Chen, J. Y. Wang, F. J. Tsai, Y. C. Lu, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Fabrication of sphere-like Au nanoparticles on substrate with laser irradiation and their polarized localized surface plasmon behaviors,” Opt. Express 17(16), 14186–14198 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

K. C. Shen, C. Y. Chen, C. F. Huang, J. Y. Wang, Y. C. Lu, Y. W. Kiang, C. C. Yang, and Y. J. Yang, “Polarization dependent coupling of surface plasmon on a one-dimensional Ag grating with an InGaN/GaN dual-quantum-well structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 013108 (2008).
[Crossref]

K. C. Shen, C. Y. Chen, H. L. Chen, C. F. Huang, Y. W. Kiang, C. C. Yang, and Y. J. Yang, “Enhanced and partially polarized output of a light-emitting diode with Its InGaN/GaN quantum well coupled with surface plasmons on a metal grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(23), 231111 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

D. M. Yeh, C. F. Huang, C. Y. Chen, Y. C. Lu, and C. C. Yang, “Surface plasmon coupling effect in an InGaN/GaN single-quantum-well light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(17), 171103 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. Imura, K. Nakano, G. Narita, N. Fujimoto, N. Okada, K. Balakrishnan, M. Iwaya, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, T. Noro, T. Takagi, and A. Bandoh, “Epitaxial lateral overgrowth of AlN on trench-patterned AlN layers,” J. Cryst. Growth 298, 257–260 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

H. Kawanishi, M. Senuma, and T. Nukui, “Anisotropic polarization characteristics of lasing and spontaneous surface and edge emissions from deep-ultraviolet (λ≈240nm) AlGaN multiple-quantum-well lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(4), 041126 (2006).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

K. B. Nam, J. Li, M. L. Nakarmi, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Unique optical properties of AlGaN alloys and related ultraviolet emitters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(25), 5264–5266 (2004).
[Crossref]

T. Nishida, T. Makimoto, H. Saito, and T. Ban, “AlGaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes grown on bulk AlN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 1002–1003 (2004).
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2003 (1)

I. Vurgaftman and J. R. Meyer, “Band parameters for nitrogen-containing semiconductors,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(6), 3675–3696 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

R. Gaska, C. Chen, J. Yang, E. Kuokstis, A. Khan, G. Tamulaitis, I. Yilmaz, M. S. Shur, J. C. Rojo, and L. J. Schowalter, “Deep-ultraviolet emission of AlGaN/AlN quantum wells on bulk AlN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(24), 4658–4660 (2002).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

1997 (1)

S. L. Chuang and C. S. Chang, “A band-structure model of strained quantum-well wurtzite semiconductors,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 12(3), 252–263 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

S. L. Chuang and C. S. Chang, “k·p method for strained wurtzite semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 54(4), 2491–2504 (1996).
[Crossref]

1986 (1)

J. C. Ryan and N. M. Lawandy, “Density matrix solutions for the susceptibilities of a three-level system with arbitrary relaxation rates and field strengths,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 22(11), 2075–2078 (1986).
[Crossref]

Akasaki, I.

M. Imura, K. Nakano, G. Narita, N. Fujimoto, N. Okada, K. Balakrishnan, M. Iwaya, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, T. Noro, T. Takagi, and A. Bandoh, “Epitaxial lateral overgrowth of AlN on trench-patterned AlN layers,” J. Cryst. Growth 298, 257–260 (2007).
[Crossref]

Amano, H.

M. Imura, K. Nakano, G. Narita, N. Fujimoto, N. Okada, K. Balakrishnan, M. Iwaya, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, T. Noro, T. Takagi, and A. Bandoh, “Epitaxial lateral overgrowth of AlN on trench-patterned AlN layers,” J. Cryst. Growth 298, 257–260 (2007).
[Crossref]

Bai, Y.

C. Y. Cho, Y. Zhang, E. Cicek, B. Rahnema, Y. Bai, R. McClintock, and M. Razeghi, “Surface plasmon enhanced light emission from AlGaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes grown on Si (111),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(21), 211110 (2013).
[Crossref]

Balakrishnan, K.

M. Imura, K. Nakano, G. Narita, N. Fujimoto, N. Okada, K. Balakrishnan, M. Iwaya, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, T. Noro, T. Takagi, and A. Bandoh, “Epitaxial lateral overgrowth of AlN on trench-patterned AlN layers,” J. Cryst. Growth 298, 257–260 (2007).
[Crossref]

Ban, T.

T. Nishida, T. Makimoto, H. Saito, and T. Ban, “AlGaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes grown on bulk AlN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 1002–1003 (2004).
[Crossref]

Bandoh, A.

M. Imura, K. Nakano, G. Narita, N. Fujimoto, N. Okada, K. Balakrishnan, M. Iwaya, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, T. Noro, T. Takagi, and A. Bandoh, “Epitaxial lateral overgrowth of AlN on trench-patterned AlN layers,” J. Cryst. Growth 298, 257–260 (2007).
[Crossref]

Bickermann, M.

M. Martens, F. Mehnke, C. Kuhn, C. Reich, V. Kueller, A. Knauer, C. Netzel, C. Hartmann, J. Wollweber, J. Rass, T. Wernicke, M. Bickermann, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Performance characteristics of UV-C AlGaN-based lasers grown on sapphire and bulk AlN substrates,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(4), 342–345 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bilenko, Y.

M. Shatalov, W. Sun, A. Lunev, X. Hu, A. Dobrinsky, Y. Bilenko, J. Yang, M. Shur, R. Gaska, C. Moe, G. Garrett, and M. Wraback, “AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with external quantum efficiency above 10%,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(8), 082101 (2012).
[Crossref]

Carnevale, S. D.

T. F. Kent, S. D. Carnevale, A. T. M. Sarwar, P. J. Phillips, R. F. Klie, and R. C. Myers, “Deep ultraviolet emitting polarization induced nanowire light emitting diodes with AlxGa1-xN active regions,” Nanotechnology 25(45), 455201 (2014).
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Chang, C. S.

S. L. Chuang and C. S. Chang, “A band-structure model of strained quantum-well wurtzite semiconductors,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 12(3), 252–263 (1997).
[Crossref]

S. L. Chuang and C. S. Chang, “k·p method for strained wurtzite semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 54(4), 2491–2504 (1996).
[Crossref]

Chang, W. Y.

Chen, C.

R. Gaska, C. Chen, J. Yang, E. Kuokstis, A. Khan, G. Tamulaitis, I. Yilmaz, M. S. Shur, J. C. Rojo, and L. J. Schowalter, “Deep-ultraviolet emission of AlGaN/AlN quantum wells on bulk AlN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(24), 4658–4660 (2002).
[Crossref]

Chen, C. H.

C. H. Lin, C. Y. Su, Y. Kuo, C. H. Chen, Y. F. Yao, P. Y. Shih, H. S. Chen, C. Hsieh, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Further reduction of efficiency droop effect by adding a lower-index dielectric interlayer in a surface plasmon coupled blue light-emitting diode with surface metal nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(10), 101106 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, C. Y.

Y. Kuo, S. Y. Ting, C. H. Liao, J. J. Huang, C. Y. Chen, C. Hsieh, Y. C. Lu, C. Y. Chen, K. C. Shen, C. F. Lu, D. M. Yeh, J. Y. Wang, W. H. Chuang, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Surface plasmon coupling with radiating dipole for enhancing the emission efficiency of a light-emitting diode,” Opt. Express 19(S4Suppl 4), A914–A929 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Kuo, S. Y. Ting, C. H. Liao, J. J. Huang, C. Y. Chen, C. Hsieh, Y. C. Lu, C. Y. Chen, K. C. Shen, C. F. Lu, D. M. Yeh, J. Y. Wang, W. H. Chuang, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Surface plasmon coupling with radiating dipole for enhancing the emission efficiency of a light-emitting diode,” Opt. Express 19(S4Suppl 4), A914–A929 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Y. Chen, J. Y. Wang, F. J. Tsai, Y. C. Lu, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Fabrication of sphere-like Au nanoparticles on substrate with laser irradiation and their polarized localized surface plasmon behaviors,” Opt. Express 17(16), 14186–14198 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. C. Shen, C. Y. Chen, C. F. Huang, J. Y. Wang, Y. C. Lu, Y. W. Kiang, C. C. Yang, and Y. J. Yang, “Polarization dependent coupling of surface plasmon on a one-dimensional Ag grating with an InGaN/GaN dual-quantum-well structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 013108 (2008).
[Crossref]

K. C. Shen, C. Y. Chen, H. L. Chen, C. F. Huang, Y. W. Kiang, C. C. Yang, and Y. J. Yang, “Enhanced and partially polarized output of a light-emitting diode with Its InGaN/GaN quantum well coupled with surface plasmons on a metal grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(23), 231111 (2008).
[Crossref]

D. M. Yeh, C. F. Huang, C. Y. Chen, Y. C. Lu, and C. C. Yang, “Surface plasmon coupling effect in an InGaN/GaN single-quantum-well light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(17), 171103 (2007).
[Crossref]

Chen, G.

Chen, H. L.

K. C. Shen, C. Y. Chen, H. L. Chen, C. F. Huang, Y. W. Kiang, C. C. Yang, and Y. J. Yang, “Enhanced and partially polarized output of a light-emitting diode with Its InGaN/GaN quantum well coupled with surface plasmons on a metal grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(23), 231111 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chen, H. S.

C. H. Lin, C. Y. Su, Y. Kuo, C. H. Chen, Y. F. Yao, P. Y. Shih, H. S. Chen, C. Hsieh, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Further reduction of efficiency droop effect by adding a lower-index dielectric interlayer in a surface plasmon coupled blue light-emitting diode with surface metal nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(10), 101106 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, H. T.

Chen, S. H.

C. H. Lin, C. G. Tu, Y. F. Yao, S. H. Chen, C. Y. Su, H. T. Chen, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “High modulation bandwidth of a light-emitting diode with surface plasmon coupling,” IEEE Transact. Electron Dev. 63(10), 3989–3995 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chen, X.

Chen, X. J.

X. J. Chen, T. J. Yu, H. M. Lu, G. C. Yuan, B. Shen, and G. Y. Zhang, “Modulating optical polarization properties of Al-rich AlGaN/AlN quantum well by controlling wavefunction overlap,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(18), 181117 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chen, Z.

Chiang, H. C.

Cho, C. Y.

C. Y. Cho, Y. Zhang, E. Cicek, B. Rahnema, Y. Bai, R. McClintock, and M. Razeghi, “Surface plasmon enhanced light emission from AlGaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes grown on Si (111),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(21), 211110 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chou, K. P.

Chua, C.

M. Kneissl, T. Kolbe, C. Chua, V. Kueller, N. Lobo, J. Stellmach, A. Knauer, H. Rodriguez, S. Einfeldt, Z. Yang, N. M. Johnson, and M. Weyers, “Advances in group III-nitride-based deep UV light-emitting diode technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26(1), 014036 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. Kolbe, A. Knauer, C. Chua, Z. Yang, S. Einfeldt, P. Vogt, N. M. Johnson, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Optical polarization characteristics of ultraviolet (In)(Al)GaN multiple quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(17), 171105 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chua, C. L.

J. E. Northrup, C. L. Chua, Z. Yang, T. Wunderer, M. Kneissl, N. M. Johnson, and T. Kolbe, “Effect of strain and barrier composition on the polarization of light emission from AlGaN/AlN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(2), 021101 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chuang, S. L.

S. L. Chuang and C. S. Chang, “A band-structure model of strained quantum-well wurtzite semiconductors,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 12(3), 252–263 (1997).
[Crossref]

S. L. Chuang and C. S. Chang, “k·p method for strained wurtzite semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 54(4), 2491–2504 (1996).
[Crossref]

Chuang, W. H.

Cicek, E.

C. Y. Cho, Y. Zhang, E. Cicek, B. Rahnema, Y. Bai, R. McClintock, and M. Razeghi, “Surface plasmon enhanced light emission from AlGaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes grown on Si (111),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(21), 211110 (2013).
[Crossref]

Dobrinsky, A.

M. Shatalov, W. Sun, A. Lunev, X. Hu, A. Dobrinsky, Y. Bilenko, J. Yang, M. Shur, R. Gaska, C. Moe, G. Garrett, and M. Wraback, “AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with external quantum efficiency above 10%,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(8), 082101 (2012).
[Crossref]

Einfeldt, S.

C. Reich, M. Guttmann, M. Feneberg, T. Wernicke, F. Mehnke, C. Kuhn, H. Rass, M. Lapeyrade, S. Einfeldt, A. Knauer, V. Kueller, M. Weyers, R. Goldhahn, and M. Kneissl, “Strongly transverse-electric-polarized emission from deep ultraviolet AlGaN quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(14), 142101 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Kneissl, T. Kolbe, C. Chua, V. Kueller, N. Lobo, J. Stellmach, A. Knauer, H. Rodriguez, S. Einfeldt, Z. Yang, N. M. Johnson, and M. Weyers, “Advances in group III-nitride-based deep UV light-emitting diode technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26(1), 014036 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. Kolbe, A. Knauer, C. Chua, Z. Yang, S. Einfeldt, P. Vogt, N. M. Johnson, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Optical polarization characteristics of ultraviolet (In)(Al)GaN multiple quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(17), 171105 (2010).
[Crossref]

Fan, S.

Feneberg, M.

C. Reich, M. Guttmann, M. Feneberg, T. Wernicke, F. Mehnke, C. Kuhn, H. Rass, M. Lapeyrade, S. Einfeldt, A. Knauer, V. Kueller, M. Weyers, R. Goldhahn, and M. Kneissl, “Strongly transverse-electric-polarized emission from deep ultraviolet AlGaN quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(14), 142101 (2015).
[Crossref]

Fu, L.

C. Zhang, N. Tang, L. Shang, L. Fu, W. Wang, F. Xu, X. Wang, W. Ge, and B. Shen, “Local surface plasmon enhanced polarization and internal quantum efficiency of deep ultraviolet emissions from AlGaN-based quantum wells,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 2358 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Wang, H. Lu, L. Fu, C. He, M. Wang, N. Tang, F. Xu, T. Yu, W. Ge, and B. Shen, “Enhancement of optical polarization degree of AlGaN quantum wells by using staggered structure,” Opt. Express 24(16), 18176–18183 (2016), doi:.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fujikawa, S.

H. Hirayama, N. Maeda, S. Fujikawa, S. Toyoda, and N. Kamata, “Recent progress and future prospects of AlGaN-based high-efficiency deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 53(10), 100209 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Hirayama, S. Fujikawa, J. Norimatsu, T. Takano, K. Tsubaki, and N. Kamata, “Fabrication of a low threading dislocation density ELO-AlN template for application to deep-UV LEDs,” Phys. Status Solidi. C 6(S2), S356–S359 (2009).
[Crossref]

Fujimoto, N.

M. Imura, K. Nakano, G. Narita, N. Fujimoto, N. Okada, K. Balakrishnan, M. Iwaya, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, T. Noro, T. Takagi, and A. Bandoh, “Epitaxial lateral overgrowth of AlN on trench-patterned AlN layers,” J. Cryst. Growth 298, 257–260 (2007).
[Crossref]

Funato, M.

K. Okamoto, M. Funato, Y. Kawakami, and K. Tamada, “High-efficiency light emission by means of exciton–surface-plasmon coupling,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. Photochem. Rev. 32, 58–77 (2017).
[Crossref]

Gao, N.

K. Huang, N. Gao, C. Wang, X. Chen, J. Li, S. Li, X. Yang, and J. Kang, “Top- and bottom-emission-enhanced electroluminescence of deep-UV light-emitting diodes induced by localised surface plasmons,” Sci. Rep. 4(4038), 4380 (2014).
[PubMed]

N. Gao, K. Huang, J. Li, S. Li, X. Yang, and J. Kang, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced deep-UV light emitting diodes based on AlGaN multi-quantum wells,” Sci. Rep. 2(1), 816 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Garrett, G.

M. Shatalov, W. Sun, A. Lunev, X. Hu, A. Dobrinsky, Y. Bilenko, J. Yang, M. Shur, R. Gaska, C. Moe, G. Garrett, and M. Wraback, “AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with external quantum efficiency above 10%,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(8), 082101 (2012).
[Crossref]

Gaska, R.

M. Shatalov, W. Sun, A. Lunev, X. Hu, A. Dobrinsky, Y. Bilenko, J. Yang, M. Shur, R. Gaska, C. Moe, G. Garrett, and M. Wraback, “AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with external quantum efficiency above 10%,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(8), 082101 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. Gaska, C. Chen, J. Yang, E. Kuokstis, A. Khan, G. Tamulaitis, I. Yilmaz, M. S. Shur, J. C. Rojo, and L. J. Schowalter, “Deep-ultraviolet emission of AlGaN/AlN quantum wells on bulk AlN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(24), 4658–4660 (2002).
[Crossref]

Ge, W.

C. Zhang, N. Tang, L. Shang, L. Fu, W. Wang, F. Xu, X. Wang, W. Ge, and B. Shen, “Local surface plasmon enhanced polarization and internal quantum efficiency of deep ultraviolet emissions from AlGaN-based quantum wells,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 2358 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Wang, H. Lu, L. Fu, C. He, M. Wang, N. Tang, F. Xu, T. Yu, W. Ge, and B. Shen, “Enhancement of optical polarization degree of AlGaN quantum wells by using staggered structure,” Opt. Express 24(16), 18176–18183 (2016), doi:.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Goldhahn, R.

C. Reich, M. Guttmann, M. Feneberg, T. Wernicke, F. Mehnke, C. Kuhn, H. Rass, M. Lapeyrade, S. Einfeldt, A. Knauer, V. Kueller, M. Weyers, R. Goldhahn, and M. Kneissl, “Strongly transverse-electric-polarized emission from deep ultraviolet AlGaN quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(14), 142101 (2015).
[Crossref]

Guttmann, M.

C. Reich, M. Guttmann, M. Feneberg, T. Wernicke, F. Mehnke, C. Kuhn, H. Rass, M. Lapeyrade, S. Einfeldt, A. Knauer, V. Kueller, M. Weyers, R. Goldhahn, and M. Kneissl, “Strongly transverse-electric-polarized emission from deep ultraviolet AlGaN quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(14), 142101 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hartmann, C.

M. Martens, F. Mehnke, C. Kuhn, C. Reich, V. Kueller, A. Knauer, C. Netzel, C. Hartmann, J. Wollweber, J. Rass, T. Wernicke, M. Bickermann, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Performance characteristics of UV-C AlGaN-based lasers grown on sapphire and bulk AlN substrates,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(4), 342–345 (2014).
[Crossref]

He, C.

Hirayama, H.

T. Takano, T. Mino, J. Sakai, N. Noguchi, K. Tsubaki, and H. Hirayama, “Deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with external quantum efficiency higher than 20% at 275 nm achieved by improving light-extraction efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Express 10(3), 031002 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Hirayama, N. Maeda, S. Fujikawa, S. Toyoda, and N. Kamata, “Recent progress and future prospects of AlGaN-based high-efficiency deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 53(10), 100209 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Hirayama, Y. Tsukada, T. Maeda, and N. Kamata, “Marked enhancement in the efficiency of deep-ultraviolet AlGaN light-emitting diodes by using a multiquantum-barrier electron blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(3), 031002 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Hirayama, S. Fujikawa, J. Norimatsu, T. Takano, K. Tsubaki, and N. Kamata, “Fabrication of a low threading dislocation density ELO-AlN template for application to deep-UV LEDs,” Phys. Status Solidi. C 6(S2), S356–S359 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ho, K. Y.

Hsieh, C.

Hu, X.

M. Shatalov, W. Sun, A. Lunev, X. Hu, A. Dobrinsky, Y. Bilenko, J. Yang, M. Shur, R. Gaska, C. Moe, G. Garrett, and M. Wraback, “AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with external quantum efficiency above 10%,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(8), 082101 (2012).
[Crossref]

Huang, C. A.

Huang, C. F.

K. C. Shen, C. Y. Chen, H. L. Chen, C. F. Huang, Y. W. Kiang, C. C. Yang, and Y. J. Yang, “Enhanced and partially polarized output of a light-emitting diode with Its InGaN/GaN quantum well coupled with surface plasmons on a metal grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(23), 231111 (2008).
[Crossref]

K. C. Shen, C. Y. Chen, C. F. Huang, J. Y. Wang, Y. C. Lu, Y. W. Kiang, C. C. Yang, and Y. J. Yang, “Polarization dependent coupling of surface plasmon on a one-dimensional Ag grating with an InGaN/GaN dual-quantum-well structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 013108 (2008).
[Crossref]

D. M. Yeh, C. F. Huang, C. Y. Chen, Y. C. Lu, and C. C. Yang, “Surface plasmon coupling effect in an InGaN/GaN single-quantum-well light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(17), 171103 (2007).
[Crossref]

Huang, J. J.

Huang, K.

K. Huang, N. Gao, C. Wang, X. Chen, J. Li, S. Li, X. Yang, and J. Kang, “Top- and bottom-emission-enhanced electroluminescence of deep-UV light-emitting diodes induced by localised surface plasmons,” Sci. Rep. 4(4038), 4380 (2014).
[PubMed]

N. Gao, K. Huang, J. Li, S. Li, X. Yang, and J. Kang, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced deep-UV light emitting diodes based on AlGaN multi-quantum wells,” Sci. Rep. 2(1), 816 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Imura, M.

M. Imura, K. Nakano, G. Narita, N. Fujimoto, N. Okada, K. Balakrishnan, M. Iwaya, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, T. Noro, T. Takagi, and A. Bandoh, “Epitaxial lateral overgrowth of AlN on trench-patterned AlN layers,” J. Cryst. Growth 298, 257–260 (2007).
[Crossref]

Inoue, S.

T. Kinoshita, T. Obata, T. Nagashima, H. Yanagi, B. Moody, S. Mita, S. Inoue, Y. Kumagai, A. Koukitu, and Z. Sitar, “Performance and reliability of deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes fabricated on AlN substrates prepared by hydride vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(9), 092103 (2013).
[Crossref]

Iwaya, M.

M. Imura, K. Nakano, G. Narita, N. Fujimoto, N. Okada, K. Balakrishnan, M. Iwaya, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, T. Noro, T. Takagi, and A. Bandoh, “Epitaxial lateral overgrowth of AlN on trench-patterned AlN layers,” J. Cryst. Growth 298, 257–260 (2007).
[Crossref]

Ji, C.

Jiang, H. X.

K. B. Nam, J. Li, M. L. Nakarmi, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Unique optical properties of AlGaN alloys and related ultraviolet emitters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(25), 5264–5266 (2004).
[Crossref]

Johnson, N. M.

J. E. Northrup, C. L. Chua, Z. Yang, T. Wunderer, M. Kneissl, N. M. Johnson, and T. Kolbe, “Effect of strain and barrier composition on the polarization of light emission from AlGaN/AlN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(2), 021101 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Kneissl, T. Kolbe, C. Chua, V. Kueller, N. Lobo, J. Stellmach, A. Knauer, H. Rodriguez, S. Einfeldt, Z. Yang, N. M. Johnson, and M. Weyers, “Advances in group III-nitride-based deep UV light-emitting diode technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26(1), 014036 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. Kolbe, A. Knauer, C. Chua, Z. Yang, S. Einfeldt, P. Vogt, N. M. Johnson, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Optical polarization characteristics of ultraviolet (In)(Al)GaN multiple quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(17), 171105 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kamata, N.

H. Hirayama, N. Maeda, S. Fujikawa, S. Toyoda, and N. Kamata, “Recent progress and future prospects of AlGaN-based high-efficiency deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 53(10), 100209 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Hirayama, Y. Tsukada, T. Maeda, and N. Kamata, “Marked enhancement in the efficiency of deep-ultraviolet AlGaN light-emitting diodes by using a multiquantum-barrier electron blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(3), 031002 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Hirayama, S. Fujikawa, J. Norimatsu, T. Takano, K. Tsubaki, and N. Kamata, “Fabrication of a low threading dislocation density ELO-AlN template for application to deep-UV LEDs,” Phys. Status Solidi. C 6(S2), S356–S359 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kamiyama, S.

M. Imura, K. Nakano, G. Narita, N. Fujimoto, N. Okada, K. Balakrishnan, M. Iwaya, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, T. Noro, T. Takagi, and A. Bandoh, “Epitaxial lateral overgrowth of AlN on trench-patterned AlN layers,” J. Cryst. Growth 298, 257–260 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kang, J.

K. Huang, N. Gao, C. Wang, X. Chen, J. Li, S. Li, X. Yang, and J. Kang, “Top- and bottom-emission-enhanced electroluminescence of deep-UV light-emitting diodes induced by localised surface plasmons,” Sci. Rep. 4(4038), 4380 (2014).
[PubMed]

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C. H. Lin, C. Y. Su, Y. Kuo, C. H. Chen, Y. F. Yao, P. Y. Shih, H. S. Chen, C. Hsieh, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Further reduction of efficiency droop effect by adding a lower-index dielectric interlayer in a surface plasmon coupled blue light-emitting diode with surface metal nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(10), 101106 (2014).
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C. Y. Chen, J. Y. Wang, F. J. Tsai, Y. C. Lu, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Fabrication of sphere-like Au nanoparticles on substrate with laser irradiation and their polarized localized surface plasmon behaviors,” Opt. Express 17(16), 14186–14198 (2009).
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T. F. Kent, S. D. Carnevale, A. T. M. Sarwar, P. J. Phillips, R. F. Klie, and R. C. Myers, “Deep ultraviolet emitting polarization induced nanowire light emitting diodes with AlxGa1-xN active regions,” Nanotechnology 25(45), 455201 (2014).
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C. Reich, M. Guttmann, M. Feneberg, T. Wernicke, F. Mehnke, C. Kuhn, H. Rass, M. Lapeyrade, S. Einfeldt, A. Knauer, V. Kueller, M. Weyers, R. Goldhahn, and M. Kneissl, “Strongly transverse-electric-polarized emission from deep ultraviolet AlGaN quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(14), 142101 (2015).
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T. Kolbe, A. Knauer, C. Chua, Z. Yang, S. Einfeldt, P. Vogt, N. M. Johnson, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Optical polarization characteristics of ultraviolet (In)(Al)GaN multiple quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(17), 171105 (2010).
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Kolbe, T.

J. E. Northrup, C. L. Chua, Z. Yang, T. Wunderer, M. Kneissl, N. M. Johnson, and T. Kolbe, “Effect of strain and barrier composition on the polarization of light emission from AlGaN/AlN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(2), 021101 (2012).
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M. Kneissl, T. Kolbe, C. Chua, V. Kueller, N. Lobo, J. Stellmach, A. Knauer, H. Rodriguez, S. Einfeldt, Z. Yang, N. M. Johnson, and M. Weyers, “Advances in group III-nitride-based deep UV light-emitting diode technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26(1), 014036 (2011).
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T. Kolbe, A. Knauer, C. Chua, Z. Yang, S. Einfeldt, P. Vogt, N. M. Johnson, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Optical polarization characteristics of ultraviolet (In)(Al)GaN multiple quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(17), 171105 (2010).
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T. Kinoshita, T. Obata, T. Nagashima, H. Yanagi, B. Moody, S. Mita, S. Inoue, Y. Kumagai, A. Koukitu, and Z. Sitar, “Performance and reliability of deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes fabricated on AlN substrates prepared by hydride vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(9), 092103 (2013).
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C. Reich, M. Guttmann, M. Feneberg, T. Wernicke, F. Mehnke, C. Kuhn, H. Rass, M. Lapeyrade, S. Einfeldt, A. Knauer, V. Kueller, M. Weyers, R. Goldhahn, and M. Kneissl, “Strongly transverse-electric-polarized emission from deep ultraviolet AlGaN quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(14), 142101 (2015).
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M. Martens, F. Mehnke, C. Kuhn, C. Reich, V. Kueller, A. Knauer, C. Netzel, C. Hartmann, J. Wollweber, J. Rass, T. Wernicke, M. Bickermann, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Performance characteristics of UV-C AlGaN-based lasers grown on sapphire and bulk AlN substrates,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(4), 342–345 (2014).
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M. Kneissl, T. Kolbe, C. Chua, V. Kueller, N. Lobo, J. Stellmach, A. Knauer, H. Rodriguez, S. Einfeldt, Z. Yang, N. M. Johnson, and M. Weyers, “Advances in group III-nitride-based deep UV light-emitting diode technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26(1), 014036 (2011).
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C. Reich, M. Guttmann, M. Feneberg, T. Wernicke, F. Mehnke, C. Kuhn, H. Rass, M. Lapeyrade, S. Einfeldt, A. Knauer, V. Kueller, M. Weyers, R. Goldhahn, and M. Kneissl, “Strongly transverse-electric-polarized emission from deep ultraviolet AlGaN quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(14), 142101 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Martens, F. Mehnke, C. Kuhn, C. Reich, V. Kueller, A. Knauer, C. Netzel, C. Hartmann, J. Wollweber, J. Rass, T. Wernicke, M. Bickermann, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Performance characteristics of UV-C AlGaN-based lasers grown on sapphire and bulk AlN substrates,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(4), 342–345 (2014).
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T. Kinoshita, T. Obata, T. Nagashima, H. Yanagi, B. Moody, S. Mita, S. Inoue, Y. Kumagai, A. Koukitu, and Z. Sitar, “Performance and reliability of deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes fabricated on AlN substrates prepared by hydride vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(9), 092103 (2013).
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Kuokstis, E.

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C. Reich, M. Guttmann, M. Feneberg, T. Wernicke, F. Mehnke, C. Kuhn, H. Rass, M. Lapeyrade, S. Einfeldt, A. Knauer, V. Kueller, M. Weyers, R. Goldhahn, and M. Kneissl, “Strongly transverse-electric-polarized emission from deep ultraviolet AlGaN quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(14), 142101 (2015).
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Li, J.

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N. Gao, K. Huang, J. Li, S. Li, X. Yang, and J. Kang, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced deep-UV light emitting diodes based on AlGaN multi-quantum wells,” Sci. Rep. 2(1), 816 (2012).
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K. Huang, N. Gao, C. Wang, X. Chen, J. Li, S. Li, X. Yang, and J. Kang, “Top- and bottom-emission-enhanced electroluminescence of deep-UV light-emitting diodes induced by localised surface plasmons,” Sci. Rep. 4(4038), 4380 (2014).
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N. Gao, K. Huang, J. Li, S. Li, X. Yang, and J. Kang, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced deep-UV light emitting diodes based on AlGaN multi-quantum wells,” Sci. Rep. 2(1), 816 (2012).
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Lin, C. H.

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C. H. Lin, C. G. Tu, Y. F. Yao, S. H. Chen, C. Y. Su, H. T. Chen, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “High modulation bandwidth of a light-emitting diode with surface plasmon coupling,” IEEE Transact. Electron Dev. 63(10), 3989–3995 (2016).
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C. H. Lin, C. Y. Su, E. Zhu, Y. F. Yao, C. Hsieh, C. G. Tu, H. T. Chen, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Modulation behaviors of surface plasmon coupled light-emitting diode,” Opt. Express 23(6), 8150–8161 (2015), doi:.
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Y. Kuo, W. Y. Chang, C. H. Lin, C. C. Yang, and Y. W. Kiang, “Evaluating the blue-shift behaviors of the surface plasmon coupling of an embedded light emitter with a surface Ag nanoparticle by adding a dielectric interlayer or coating,” Opt. Express 23(24), 30709–30720 (2015), doi:.
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C. H. Lin, C. Y. Su, Y. Kuo, C. H. Chen, Y. F. Yao, P. Y. Shih, H. S. Chen, C. Hsieh, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Further reduction of efficiency droop effect by adding a lower-index dielectric interlayer in a surface plasmon coupled blue light-emitting diode with surface metal nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(10), 101106 (2014).
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Lin, J. Y.

K. B. Nam, J. Li, M. L. Nakarmi, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Unique optical properties of AlGaN alloys and related ultraviolet emitters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(25), 5264–5266 (2004).
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Lobo, N.

M. Kneissl, T. Kolbe, C. Chua, V. Kueller, N. Lobo, J. Stellmach, A. Knauer, H. Rodriguez, S. Einfeldt, Z. Yang, N. M. Johnson, and M. Weyers, “Advances in group III-nitride-based deep UV light-emitting diode technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26(1), 014036 (2011).
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Lu, H.

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C. Y. Chen, J. Y. Wang, F. J. Tsai, Y. C. Lu, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Fabrication of sphere-like Au nanoparticles on substrate with laser irradiation and their polarized localized surface plasmon behaviors,” Opt. Express 17(16), 14186–14198 (2009).
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K. C. Shen, C. Y. Chen, C. F. Huang, J. Y. Wang, Y. C. Lu, Y. W. Kiang, C. C. Yang, and Y. J. Yang, “Polarization dependent coupling of surface plasmon on a one-dimensional Ag grating with an InGaN/GaN dual-quantum-well structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 013108 (2008).
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T. Kinoshita, T. Obata, T. Nagashima, H. Yanagi, B. Moody, S. Mita, S. Inoue, Y. Kumagai, A. Koukitu, and Z. Sitar, “Performance and reliability of deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes fabricated on AlN substrates prepared by hydride vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(9), 092103 (2013).
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M. Shatalov, W. Sun, A. Lunev, X. Hu, A. Dobrinsky, Y. Bilenko, J. Yang, M. Shur, R. Gaska, C. Moe, G. Garrett, and M. Wraback, “AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with external quantum efficiency above 10%,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(8), 082101 (2012).
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T. Kinoshita, T. Obata, T. Nagashima, H. Yanagi, B. Moody, S. Mita, S. Inoue, Y. Kumagai, A. Koukitu, and Z. Sitar, “Performance and reliability of deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes fabricated on AlN substrates prepared by hydride vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(9), 092103 (2013).
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T. F. Kent, S. D. Carnevale, A. T. M. Sarwar, P. J. Phillips, R. F. Klie, and R. C. Myers, “Deep ultraviolet emitting polarization induced nanowire light emitting diodes with AlxGa1-xN active regions,” Nanotechnology 25(45), 455201 (2014).
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T. Kinoshita, T. Obata, T. Nagashima, H. Yanagi, B. Moody, S. Mita, S. Inoue, Y. Kumagai, A. Koukitu, and Z. Sitar, “Performance and reliability of deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes fabricated on AlN substrates prepared by hydride vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(9), 092103 (2013).
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K. B. Nam, J. Li, M. L. Nakarmi, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Unique optical properties of AlGaN alloys and related ultraviolet emitters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(25), 5264–5266 (2004).
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K. B. Nam, J. Li, M. L. Nakarmi, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Unique optical properties of AlGaN alloys and related ultraviolet emitters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(25), 5264–5266 (2004).
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T. F. Kent, S. D. Carnevale, A. T. M. Sarwar, P. J. Phillips, R. F. Klie, and R. C. Myers, “Deep ultraviolet emitting polarization induced nanowire light emitting diodes with AlxGa1-xN active regions,” Nanotechnology 25(45), 455201 (2014).
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M. Shatalov, W. Sun, A. Lunev, X. Hu, A. Dobrinsky, Y. Bilenko, J. Yang, M. Shur, R. Gaska, C. Moe, G. Garrett, and M. Wraback, “AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with external quantum efficiency above 10%,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(8), 082101 (2012).
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K. Okamoto, M. Funato, Y. Kawakami, and K. Tamada, “High-efficiency light emission by means of exciton–surface-plasmon coupling,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. Photochem. Rev. 32, 58–77 (2017).
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C. Zhang, N. Tang, L. Shang, L. Fu, W. Wang, F. Xu, X. Wang, W. Ge, and B. Shen, “Local surface plasmon enhanced polarization and internal quantum efficiency of deep ultraviolet emissions from AlGaN-based quantum wells,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 2358 (2017).
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[Crossref]

M. Martens, F. Mehnke, C. Kuhn, C. Reich, V. Kueller, A. Knauer, C. Netzel, C. Hartmann, J. Wollweber, J. Rass, T. Wernicke, M. Bickermann, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Performance characteristics of UV-C AlGaN-based lasers grown on sapphire and bulk AlN substrates,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(4), 342–345 (2014).
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C. Reich, M. Guttmann, M. Feneberg, T. Wernicke, F. Mehnke, C. Kuhn, H. Rass, M. Lapeyrade, S. Einfeldt, A. Knauer, V. Kueller, M. Weyers, R. Goldhahn, and M. Kneissl, “Strongly transverse-electric-polarized emission from deep ultraviolet AlGaN quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(14), 142101 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Martens, F. Mehnke, C. Kuhn, C. Reich, V. Kueller, A. Knauer, C. Netzel, C. Hartmann, J. Wollweber, J. Rass, T. Wernicke, M. Bickermann, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Performance characteristics of UV-C AlGaN-based lasers grown on sapphire and bulk AlN substrates,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(4), 342–345 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Kneissl, T. Kolbe, C. Chua, V. Kueller, N. Lobo, J. Stellmach, A. Knauer, H. Rodriguez, S. Einfeldt, Z. Yang, N. M. Johnson, and M. Weyers, “Advances in group III-nitride-based deep UV light-emitting diode technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26(1), 014036 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. Kolbe, A. Knauer, C. Chua, Z. Yang, S. Einfeldt, P. Vogt, N. M. Johnson, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Optical polarization characteristics of ultraviolet (In)(Al)GaN multiple quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(17), 171105 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wollweber, J.

M. Martens, F. Mehnke, C. Kuhn, C. Reich, V. Kueller, A. Knauer, C. Netzel, C. Hartmann, J. Wollweber, J. Rass, T. Wernicke, M. Bickermann, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Performance characteristics of UV-C AlGaN-based lasers grown on sapphire and bulk AlN substrates,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(4), 342–345 (2014).
[Crossref]

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M. Shatalov, W. Sun, A. Lunev, X. Hu, A. Dobrinsky, Y. Bilenko, J. Yang, M. Shur, R. Gaska, C. Moe, G. Garrett, and M. Wraback, “AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with external quantum efficiency above 10%,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(8), 082101 (2012).
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Wunderer, T.

J. E. Northrup, C. L. Chua, Z. Yang, T. Wunderer, M. Kneissl, N. M. Johnson, and T. Kolbe, “Effect of strain and barrier composition on the polarization of light emission from AlGaN/AlN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(2), 021101 (2012).
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Xiang, Y.

Xu, F.

C. Zhang, N. Tang, L. Shang, L. Fu, W. Wang, F. Xu, X. Wang, W. Ge, and B. Shen, “Local surface plasmon enhanced polarization and internal quantum efficiency of deep ultraviolet emissions from AlGaN-based quantum wells,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 2358 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Wang, H. Lu, L. Fu, C. He, M. Wang, N. Tang, F. Xu, T. Yu, W. Ge, and B. Shen, “Enhancement of optical polarization degree of AlGaN quantum wells by using staggered structure,” Opt. Express 24(16), 18176–18183 (2016), doi:.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, Y.

Yanagi, H.

T. Kinoshita, T. Obata, T. Nagashima, H. Yanagi, B. Moody, S. Mita, S. Inoue, Y. Kumagai, A. Koukitu, and Z. Sitar, “Performance and reliability of deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes fabricated on AlN substrates prepared by hydride vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(9), 092103 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yang, C. C.

C. Y. Su, M. C. Tsai, K. P. Chou, H. C. Chiang, H. H. Lin, M. Y. Su, Y. R. Wu, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Method for enhancing the favored transverse-electric-polarized emission of an AlGaN deep-ultraviolet quantum well,” Opt. Express 25(22), 26365–26377 (2017), doi:.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Y. Su, C. H. Lin, Y. F. Yao, W. H. Liu, M. Y. Su, H. C. Chiang, M. C. Tsai, C. G. Tu, H. T. Chen, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Dependencies of surface plasmon coupling effects on the p-GaN thickness of a thin-p-type light-emitting diode,” Opt. Express 25(18), 21526–21536 (2017).

C. H. Lin, C. G. Tu, Y. F. Yao, S. H. Chen, C. Y. Su, H. T. Chen, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “High modulation bandwidth of a light-emitting diode with surface plasmon coupling,” IEEE Transact. Electron Dev. 63(10), 3989–3995 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. H. Lin, C. Y. Su, E. Zhu, Y. F. Yao, C. Hsieh, C. G. Tu, H. T. Chen, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Modulation behaviors of surface plasmon coupled light-emitting diode,” Opt. Express 23(6), 8150–8161 (2015), doi:.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Kuo, C. Y. Su, C. Hsieh, W. Y. Chang, C. A. Huang, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Surface plasmon coupling for suppressing p-GaN absorption and TM-polarized emission in a deep-UV light-emitting diode,” Opt. Lett. 40(18), 4229–4232 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Kuo, W. Y. Chang, C. H. Lin, C. C. Yang, and Y. W. Kiang, “Evaluating the blue-shift behaviors of the surface plasmon coupling of an embedded light emitter with a surface Ag nanoparticle by adding a dielectric interlayer or coating,” Opt. Express 23(24), 30709–30720 (2015), doi:.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. H. Lin, C. Y. Su, Y. Kuo, C. H. Chen, Y. F. Yao, P. Y. Shih, H. S. Chen, C. Hsieh, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Further reduction of efficiency droop effect by adding a lower-index dielectric interlayer in a surface plasmon coupled blue light-emitting diode with surface metal nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(10), 101106 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Kuo, S. Y. Ting, C. H. Liao, J. J. Huang, C. Y. Chen, C. Hsieh, Y. C. Lu, C. Y. Chen, K. C. Shen, C. F. Lu, D. M. Yeh, J. Y. Wang, W. H. Chuang, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Surface plasmon coupling with radiating dipole for enhancing the emission efficiency of a light-emitting diode,” Opt. Express 19(S4Suppl 4), A914–A929 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Y. Chen, J. Y. Wang, F. J. Tsai, Y. C. Lu, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Fabrication of sphere-like Au nanoparticles on substrate with laser irradiation and their polarized localized surface plasmon behaviors,” Opt. Express 17(16), 14186–14198 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. C. Shen, C. Y. Chen, C. F. Huang, J. Y. Wang, Y. C. Lu, Y. W. Kiang, C. C. Yang, and Y. J. Yang, “Polarization dependent coupling of surface plasmon on a one-dimensional Ag grating with an InGaN/GaN dual-quantum-well structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 013108 (2008).
[Crossref]

K. C. Shen, C. Y. Chen, H. L. Chen, C. F. Huang, Y. W. Kiang, C. C. Yang, and Y. J. Yang, “Enhanced and partially polarized output of a light-emitting diode with Its InGaN/GaN quantum well coupled with surface plasmons on a metal grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(23), 231111 (2008).
[Crossref]

D. M. Yeh, C. F. Huang, C. Y. Chen, Y. C. Lu, and C. C. Yang, “Surface plasmon coupling effect in an InGaN/GaN single-quantum-well light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(17), 171103 (2007).
[Crossref]

Yang, J.

M. Shatalov, W. Sun, A. Lunev, X. Hu, A. Dobrinsky, Y. Bilenko, J. Yang, M. Shur, R. Gaska, C. Moe, G. Garrett, and M. Wraback, “AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with external quantum efficiency above 10%,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(8), 082101 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. Gaska, C. Chen, J. Yang, E. Kuokstis, A. Khan, G. Tamulaitis, I. Yilmaz, M. S. Shur, J. C. Rojo, and L. J. Schowalter, “Deep-ultraviolet emission of AlGaN/AlN quantum wells on bulk AlN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(24), 4658–4660 (2002).
[Crossref]

Yang, X.

K. Huang, N. Gao, C. Wang, X. Chen, J. Li, S. Li, X. Yang, and J. Kang, “Top- and bottom-emission-enhanced electroluminescence of deep-UV light-emitting diodes induced by localised surface plasmons,” Sci. Rep. 4(4038), 4380 (2014).
[PubMed]

N. Gao, K. Huang, J. Li, S. Li, X. Yang, and J. Kang, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced deep-UV light emitting diodes based on AlGaN multi-quantum wells,” Sci. Rep. 2(1), 816 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, Y. J.

K. C. Shen, C. Y. Chen, C. F. Huang, J. Y. Wang, Y. C. Lu, Y. W. Kiang, C. C. Yang, and Y. J. Yang, “Polarization dependent coupling of surface plasmon on a one-dimensional Ag grating with an InGaN/GaN dual-quantum-well structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 013108 (2008).
[Crossref]

K. C. Shen, C. Y. Chen, H. L. Chen, C. F. Huang, Y. W. Kiang, C. C. Yang, and Y. J. Yang, “Enhanced and partially polarized output of a light-emitting diode with Its InGaN/GaN quantum well coupled with surface plasmons on a metal grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(23), 231111 (2008).
[Crossref]

Yang, Z.

J. E. Northrup, C. L. Chua, Z. Yang, T. Wunderer, M. Kneissl, N. M. Johnson, and T. Kolbe, “Effect of strain and barrier composition on the polarization of light emission from AlGaN/AlN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(2), 021101 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Kneissl, T. Kolbe, C. Chua, V. Kueller, N. Lobo, J. Stellmach, A. Knauer, H. Rodriguez, S. Einfeldt, Z. Yang, N. M. Johnson, and M. Weyers, “Advances in group III-nitride-based deep UV light-emitting diode technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26(1), 014036 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. Kolbe, A. Knauer, C. Chua, Z. Yang, S. Einfeldt, P. Vogt, N. M. Johnson, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Optical polarization characteristics of ultraviolet (In)(Al)GaN multiple quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(17), 171105 (2010).
[Crossref]

Yao, Y. F.

C. Y. Su, C. H. Lin, Y. F. Yao, W. H. Liu, M. Y. Su, H. C. Chiang, M. C. Tsai, C. G. Tu, H. T. Chen, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Dependencies of surface plasmon coupling effects on the p-GaN thickness of a thin-p-type light-emitting diode,” Opt. Express 25(18), 21526–21536 (2017).

C. H. Lin, C. G. Tu, Y. F. Yao, S. H. Chen, C. Y. Su, H. T. Chen, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “High modulation bandwidth of a light-emitting diode with surface plasmon coupling,” IEEE Transact. Electron Dev. 63(10), 3989–3995 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. H. Lin, C. Y. Su, E. Zhu, Y. F. Yao, C. Hsieh, C. G. Tu, H. T. Chen, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Modulation behaviors of surface plasmon coupled light-emitting diode,” Opt. Express 23(6), 8150–8161 (2015), doi:.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. H. Lin, C. Y. Su, Y. Kuo, C. H. Chen, Y. F. Yao, P. Y. Shih, H. S. Chen, C. Hsieh, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Further reduction of efficiency droop effect by adding a lower-index dielectric interlayer in a surface plasmon coupled blue light-emitting diode with surface metal nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(10), 101106 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yariv, A.

Yeh, D. M.

Yilmaz, I.

R. Gaska, C. Chen, J. Yang, E. Kuokstis, A. Khan, G. Tamulaitis, I. Yilmaz, M. S. Shur, J. C. Rojo, and L. J. Schowalter, “Deep-ultraviolet emission of AlGaN/AlN quantum wells on bulk AlN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(24), 4658–4660 (2002).
[Crossref]

Yu, T.

Yu, T. J.

X. J. Chen, T. J. Yu, H. M. Lu, G. C. Yuan, B. Shen, and G. Y. Zhang, “Modulating optical polarization properties of Al-rich AlGaN/AlN quantum well by controlling wavefunction overlap,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(18), 181117 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yuan, G.

Yuan, G. C.

X. J. Chen, T. J. Yu, H. M. Lu, G. C. Yuan, B. Shen, and G. Y. Zhang, “Modulating optical polarization properties of Al-rich AlGaN/AlN quantum well by controlling wavefunction overlap,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(18), 181117 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhang, C.

C. Zhang, N. Tang, L. Shang, L. Fu, W. Wang, F. Xu, X. Wang, W. Ge, and B. Shen, “Local surface plasmon enhanced polarization and internal quantum efficiency of deep ultraviolet emissions from AlGaN-based quantum wells,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 2358 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, G.

Zhang, G. Y.

X. J. Chen, T. J. Yu, H. M. Lu, G. C. Yuan, B. Shen, and G. Y. Zhang, “Modulating optical polarization properties of Al-rich AlGaN/AlN quantum well by controlling wavefunction overlap,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(18), 181117 (2013).
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Zhang, J.

J. Zhang, H. P. Zhao, and N. Tansu, “Large optical gain AlGaN-Delta-GaN quantum wells laser active regions in mid- and deep-ultraviolet spectral regimes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(17), 171111 (2011).
[Crossref]

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C. Y. Cho, Y. Zhang, E. Cicek, B. Rahnema, Y. Bai, R. McClintock, and M. Razeghi, “Surface plasmon enhanced light emission from AlGaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes grown on Si (111),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(21), 211110 (2013).
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Zhao, H. P.

J. Zhang, H. P. Zhao, and N. Tansu, “Large optical gain AlGaN-Delta-GaN quantum wells laser active regions in mid- and deep-ultraviolet spectral regimes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(17), 171111 (2011).
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H. Hirayama, Y. Tsukada, T. Maeda, and N. Kamata, “Marked enhancement in the efficiency of deep-ultraviolet AlGaN light-emitting diodes by using a multiquantum-barrier electron blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(3), 031002 (2010).
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M. Shatalov, W. Sun, A. Lunev, X. Hu, A. Dobrinsky, Y. Bilenko, J. Yang, M. Shur, R. Gaska, C. Moe, G. Garrett, and M. Wraback, “AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with external quantum efficiency above 10%,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(8), 082101 (2012).
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R. Gaska, C. Chen, J. Yang, E. Kuokstis, A. Khan, G. Tamulaitis, I. Yilmaz, M. S. Shur, J. C. Rojo, and L. J. Schowalter, “Deep-ultraviolet emission of AlGaN/AlN quantum wells on bulk AlN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(24), 4658–4660 (2002).
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[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

K. C. Shen, C. Y. Chen, C. F. Huang, J. Y. Wang, Y. C. Lu, Y. W. Kiang, C. C. Yang, and Y. J. Yang, “Polarization dependent coupling of surface plasmon on a one-dimensional Ag grating with an InGaN/GaN dual-quantum-well structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 013108 (2008).
[Crossref]

K. C. Shen, C. Y. Chen, H. L. Chen, C. F. Huang, Y. W. Kiang, C. C. Yang, and Y. J. Yang, “Enhanced and partially polarized output of a light-emitting diode with Its InGaN/GaN quantum well coupled with surface plasmons on a metal grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(23), 231111 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Zhang, H. P. Zhao, and N. Tansu, “Large optical gain AlGaN-Delta-GaN quantum wells laser active regions in mid- and deep-ultraviolet spectral regimes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(17), 171111 (2011).
[Crossref]

X. J. Chen, T. J. Yu, H. M. Lu, G. C. Yuan, B. Shen, and G. Y. Zhang, “Modulating optical polarization properties of Al-rich AlGaN/AlN quantum well by controlling wavefunction overlap,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(18), 181117 (2013).
[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

C. H. Lin, C. Y. Su, Y. Kuo, C. H. Chen, Y. F. Yao, P. Y. Shih, H. S. Chen, C. Hsieh, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Further reduction of efficiency droop effect by adding a lower-index dielectric interlayer in a surface plasmon coupled blue light-emitting diode with surface metal nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(10), 101106 (2014).
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Opt. Express (10)

C. Y. Chen, J. Y. Wang, F. J. Tsai, Y. C. Lu, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Fabrication of sphere-like Au nanoparticles on substrate with laser irradiation and their polarized localized surface plasmon behaviors,” Opt. Express 17(16), 14186–14198 (2009).
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Y. Kuo, S. Y. Ting, C. H. Liao, J. J. Huang, C. Y. Chen, C. Hsieh, Y. C. Lu, C. Y. Chen, K. C. Shen, C. F. Lu, D. M. Yeh, J. Y. Wang, W. H. Chuang, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Surface plasmon coupling with radiating dipole for enhancing the emission efficiency of a light-emitting diode,” Opt. Express 19(S4Suppl 4), A914–A929 (2011).
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S. Fan, Z. Qin, C. He, X. Wang, B. Shen, and G. Zhang, “Strain effect on the optical polarization properties of c-plane Al0.26Ga0.74N/GaN superlattices,” Opt. Express 22(6), 6322–6328 (2014), doi:.
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C. H. Lin, C. Y. Su, E. Zhu, Y. F. Yao, C. Hsieh, C. G. Tu, H. T. Chen, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Modulation behaviors of surface plasmon coupled light-emitting diode,” Opt. Express 23(6), 8150–8161 (2015), doi:.
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X. Chen, K. Y. Ho, and Y. R. Wu, “Modeling and optimization of p-AlGaN super lattice structure as the p-contact and transparent layer in AlGaN UVLEDs,” Opt. Express 23(25), 32367–32376 (2015).
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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a)-(d): Four structures for computing the TE- and TM-polarized radiated powers, including the intrinsic (IN) case in (a), the reference (RE) case in (b), the SP-coupling (SP) case without a SiO2 interlayer in (c), and the SP-coupling (SP) case with a SiO2 interlayer in (d).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Schematic demonstrations for the energy state structure and the transitions of the TE- and TM-polarized emissions.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Spectra of dipole strength ratio, |p|/|p0,IN|, of the TE and TM dipoles based on the two- (−2) and three-level (−3) models by assuming that the intrinsic TE and TM dipole strengths are the same when the problem geometry in Fig. 1(c) is used, i.e., the SP-coupling case without a SiO2 interlayer. Here, h = 10 nm and a = 24 nm.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Spectra of radiated powers normalized with respect to that of the intrinsic dipole, corresponding to the results in Fig. 3.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Spectra of radiated powers, normalized with respect to that of the intrinsic dipole, of the TE and TM dipoles based on the two- (−2) and three-level (−3) models by assuming that the intrinsic TE and TM dipole strengths are the same when the problem geometry in Fig. 1(c) is used, i.e., the SP-coupling case without a SiO2 interlayer. Here, h = 7.5 nm and a = 18 nm.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Spectra of radiated powers, normalized with respect to that of the intrinsic dipole, of the TE and TM dipoles based on the two- (−2) and three-level (−3) models by assuming that the intrinsic TE and TM dipole strengths are the same when the problem geometry in Fig. 1(d) is used, i.e., the SP-coupling case with a SiO2 interlayer. Here, h = 7.5 nm and a = 18 nm.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Dipole strength ratios of the TE polarization, |p|/|p0,TM/IN|, under various computation conditions (the left ordinate), including the normalization base of the intrinsic TM dipole (pTM/IN), intrinsic TE dipole (pTE/IN), TE dipoles in the reference case based on the two-level model (pTE/RE-2) and the three-level model (pTE/RE-3), and TE dipoles with SP coupling based on the two-level model (pTE/SP-2) and the three-level model (pTE/SP-3). The emission wavelengths of the TE- and TM-polarization (the right ordinate) are also shown.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Results similar to Fig. 7 for the TM dipole strength.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Variations of normalized radiated powers, all normalized with respect to that of the intrinsic TM-polarized emission for the TE polarization, corresponding to the results in Fig. 7.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Variations of normalized radiated powers, all normalized with respect to that of the intrinsic TM-polarized emission for the TM polarization, corresponding to the results in Fig. 8.
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 Normalized radiated powers for both TE and TM polarizations in a smaller vertical range. In each panel, the left vertical dotted line marks the intersection of pTE/IN and pTM/IN curves. The right vertical dotted line indicates the intersection of pTE/SP-3 and pTM/SP-3 curves.
Fig. 12
Fig. 12 Radiated powers of the TE and TM dipoles normalized with respect to individual levels in the reference case based on either two- or three-level model. The curve of TE-2 (TM-2) corresponds to the ratio of pTE/SP-2 (pTM/SP-2) over pTE/RE-2 (pTM/RE-2) in Fig. 9 (10). The curve of TE-3 (TM-3) corresponds to the ratio of pTE/SP-3 (pTM/SP-3) over pTE/RE-3 (pTM/RE-3) in Fig. 9 (10).

Equations (12)

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i d ρ d t = [ H , ρ ] = H ρ ρ H .
ρ 20 = σ 20 e i ω 20 t , ρ 21 = σ 21 e i ω 21 t , ρ 10 = σ 10 e i ( ω 20 ω 21 ) t ,
H i j ' = μ i j 1 2 [ E 20 x y s e i ω 20 t + ( E 20 x y s ) * e i ω 20 t + E 20 z s e i ω 20 t + ( E 20 z s ) * e i ω 20 t + E 21 x y s e i ω 21 t + ( E 21 x y s ) * e i ω 21 t + E 21 z s e i ω 21 t + ( E 21 z s ) * e i ω 21 t ] ,
d ρ 00 d t = ( - i ) ( 1 2 Ω p * σ 20 + 1 2 Ω p σ 20 * ) ρ 00 T 1
d ρ 11 d t = ( - i ) ( 1 2 Ω c * σ 21 + 1 2 Ω c σ 21 * ) ρ 11 T 1 '
d ρ 22 d t = ( - i ) ( 1 2 Ω p σ 20 * + 1 2 Ω p * σ 20 1 2 Ω c σ 21 * + 1 2 Ω c * σ 21 ) + ρ 11 T 1 ' + ρ 00 T 1
d σ 10 d t = ( - i ) [ ( i T 2 ' ) σ 10 1 2 Ω c * σ 20 + 1 2 Ω p σ 21 * ]
d σ 20 d t = ( - i ) [ ( i T 2 ) σ 20 1 2 Ω p ( ρ 00 ρ 22 ) 1 2 Ω c σ 10 ]
d σ 21 d t = ( - i ) [ ( i T 2 ) σ 21 1 2 Ω c ( ρ 11 ρ 22 ) 1 2 Ω p σ 10 * ] .
Ω p = μ 20 E 20 x y s , Ω c = μ 21 E 21 z s .
p ( 20 ) = p 0 ( 20 ) + σ 20 ( p 0 ( 20 ) ) * ,
p ( 21 ) = p 0 ( 21 ) + σ 21 ( p 0 ( 21 ) ) * .

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