Abstract

Diurnal variations of phytoplankton size distributions, chlorophyll, carbon and nitrogen content, in vivo fluorescence and associated optical absorption and scattering properties were observed in the laboratory to help understand in situ and spatial observations. We grew triplicate semi-continuous cultures of T. pseudonana, D. tertiolecta, P. tricornutum and E. huxleyi under a sinusoidal light regime. We observed diurnal variations in the particulate absorption (ap), scattering (bp), attenuation (cp), and backscattering coefficients (bbp), which correlate with carbon and Chl concentrations. Relative variations from sunrise of bbp are slightly lower than those of cp, suggesting that bbp diurnal increases observed in nature are partly caused by phytoplankton. Non-concurrent changes of carbon and Chl-specific backscattering and scattering coefficients and optical cross-sections however indicates that using backscattering to infer scattering or biomass must be done with care.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2016 (1)

2015 (2)

H. Tan, T. Oishi, A. Tanaka, and R. Doerffer, “Accurate estimation of the backscattering coefficient by light scattering at two backward angles,” Appl. Opt. 54(25), 7718–7733 (2015).
[PubMed]

J. M. Vandenhecke, J. Bastedo, A. M. Cockshutt, D. A. Campbell, and Y. Huot, “Changes in the Rubisco to photosystem ratio dominates photoacclimation across phytoplankton taxa,” Photosynth. Res. 124(3), 275–291 (2015).
[PubMed]

2014 (1)

M. Kheireddine and D. Antoine, “Diel variability of the beam attenuation and backscattering coefficients in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea (BOUSSOLE site),” J. Geophysical Res.: Oceans 119, 5465–5482 (2014).

2013 (2)

J. M. Sullivan, M. S. Twardowski, J. Ronald, V. Zaneveld, and C. C. Moore, “Measuring optical backscattering in water,” Light Scattering Rev. 7, 189–224 (2013).

C. Poulin, F. Bruyant, M.-H. Laprise, A. M. Cockshutt, J. M.-R. Vandenhecke, and Y. Huot, “The impact of light pollution on diel changes in the photophysiology of Microcystis aeruginosa,” J. Plankton Res. 36, 286–291 (2013).

2012 (2)

J. -K. Choi, Y. J. Park, J. H. Ahn, H. -S. Lim, J. Eom, and J. -H. Ryu, “GOCI, the world's first geostationary ocean color observation satellite, for the monitoring of temporal variability in coastal water turbidity,” J. Geophysical Res.: Oceans 117, C9 (2012).

W. Zhou, G. Wang, Z. Sun, W. Cao, Z. Xu, S. Hu, and J. Zhao, “Variations in the optical scattering properties of phytoplankton cultures,” Opt. Express 20(10), 11189–11206 (2012).
[PubMed]

2011 (2)

D. Antoine, D. A. Siegel, T. Kostadinov, S. Maritorena, N. B. Nelson, B. Gentili, V. Vellucci, and N. Guillocheau, “Variability in optical particle backscattering in contrasting bio-optical oceanic regimes,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 56, 955–973 (2011).

H. Loisel, V. Vantrepotte, K. Norkvist, X. Meriaux, M. Kheireddine, J. Ras, M. Pujo-Pay, Y. Combet, K. Leblanc, and G. Dall’Olmo, “Characterization of the bio-optical anomaly and diurnal variability of particulate matter, as seen from scattering and backscattering coefficients, in ultra-oligotrophic eddies of the Mediterranean Sea,” Biogeosciences 8, 3295–3317 (2011).

2010 (3)

2009 (2)

G. Dall’Olmo, T. K. Westberry, M. J. Behrenfeld, E. Boss, and W. H. Slade, “Significant contribution of large particles to optical backscattering in the open ocean,” Biogeosciences 6, 947–967 (2009).

C. R. McClain, “A decade of satellite ocean color observations,” Annu. Rev. Mar. Sci. 1, 19–42 (2009).
[PubMed]

2008 (1)

S. Mas, S. Roy, F. Blouin, B. Mostajir, J. C. Therriault, C. Nozais, and S. Demers, “Diel variations in optical properties of imantonia rotunda (haptophyceae) and thalassiosira pseudonana (bacillariophyceae) exposed to different irradiance levels(1),” J. Phycol. 44(3), 551–563 (2008).
[PubMed]

2007 (3)

M. Ragni and M. R. d’Alcalà, “Circadian variability in the photobiology of Phaeodactylum tricornutum: pigment content,” J. Plankton Res. 29, 141–156 (2007).

Y. Huot, A. Morel, M. S. Twardowski, D. Stramski, and R. A. Reynolds, “Particle optical backscattering along a chlorophyll gradient in the upper layer of the eastern South Pacific Ocean,” Biogeosciences Discuss. 4, 4571–4604 (2007).

H. Claustre, Y. Huot, I. Obernosterer, B. Gentili, D. Tailliez, and M. Lewis, “Gross community production and metabolic balance in the South Pacific Gyre, using a non intrusive bio-optical method,” Biogeosciences Discuss. 4, 3089–3121 (2007).

2006 (1)

M. Chami, E. Marken, J. J. Stamnes, G. Khomenko, and G. Korotaev, “Variability of the relationship between the particulate backscattering coefficient and the volume scattering function measured at fixed angles,” J. Geophysical Res.: Oceans 111, C5 (2006).

2005 (2)

F. Bruyant, M. Babin, B. Genty, O. Prasil, M. J. Behrenfeld, H. Claustre, A. Bricaud, L. Garczarek, J. Holtzendorff, and M. Koblizek, “Diel variations in the photosynthetic parameters of Prochlorococcus strain PCC 9511: Combined effects of light and cell cycle,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 50, 850–863 (2005).

M. J. Behrenfeld, E. Boss, D. A. Siegel, and D. M. Shea, “Carbon-based ocean productivity and phytoplankton physiology from space,” Global Biogeochem. Cycles 19, 1 (2005).

2003 (1)

M. J. Behrenfeld and E. Boss, “The beam attenuation to chlorophyll ratio: an optical index of phytoplankton physiology in the surface ocean?” Deep Sea Res. Part I Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 50, 1537–1549 (2003).

2002 (3)

N. Ohi, Y. Ishiwata, and S. Taguchi, “Diel patterns in light absorption and absorption efficiency factors of isochrysis galbana (prymnesiophyceae) 1,” J. Phycol. 38, 730–737 (2002).

H. Claustre, A. Bricaud, M. Babin, F. Bruyant, L. Guillou, F. Le Gall, D. Marie, and F. Partensky, “Diel variations in Prochlorococcus optical properties,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 47, 1637–1647 (2002).

M. D. DuRand, R. E. Green, H. M. Sosik, and R. J. Olson, “Diel variations in optical properties of Micromonas pusilla (prasinophyceae) 1,” J. Phycol. 38, 1132–1142 (2002).

2001 (5)

S. Jacquet, F. Partensky, D. Marie, R. Casotti, and D. Vaulot, “Cell cycle regulation by light in Prochlorococcus strains,” Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 67(2), 782–790 (2001).
[PubMed]

L. Suzuki and C. H. Johnson, “Algae know the time of day: circadian and photoperiodic programs,” J. Phycol. 37, 933–942 (2001).

E. Boss and W. S. Pegau, “Relationship of light scattering at an angle in the backward direction to the backscattering coefficient,” Appl. Opt. 40(30), 5503–5507 (2001).
[PubMed]

A. Morel and S. Maritorena, “Bio-optical properties of oceanic waters: A reappraisal,” J. Geophysical Res.: Oceans 106, 7163–7180 (2001).

M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. B. Macdonald, W. S. Pegau, A. H. Barnard, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A model for estimating bulk refractive index from the optical backscattering ratio and the implications for understanding particle composition in case I and case II waters,” J. Geophysical Res.: Oceans 106, 14129–14142 (2001).

1999 (4)

H. Claustre, A. Morel, M. Babin, C. Cailliau, D. Marie, J.-C. Marty, D. Tailliez, and D. Vaulot, “Variability in particle attenuation and chlorophyll fluorescence in the tropical Pacific: Scales, patterns, and biogeochemical implications,” J. Geophysical Research: Oceans 104, 3401–3422 (1999).

J. K. Bishop, S. E. Calvert, and M. Y. Soon, “Spatial and temporal variability of POC in the northeast Subarctic Pacific,” Deep Sea Res. Part II Top. Stud. Oceanogr. 46, 2699–2733 (1999).

W. D. Gardner, J. S. Gundersen, M. J. Richardson, and I. D. Walsh, “The role of seasonal and diel changes in mixed-layer depth on carbon and chlorophyll distributions in the Arabian Sea,” Deep Sea Res. Part II Top. Stud. Oceanogr. 46, 1833–1858 (1999).

W. M. Balch, D. T. Drapeau, T. L. Cucci, R. D. Vaillancourt, K. A. Kilpatrick, and J. J. Fritz, “Optical backscattering by calcifying algae: Separating the contribution of particulate inorganic and organic carbon fractions,” J. Geophysical Res.: Oceans 104, 1541–1558 (1999).

1998 (3)

Z. S. Kolber, O. Prasil, and P. G. Falkowski, “Measurements of variable chlorophyll fluorescence using fast repetition rate techniques: defining methodology and experimental protocols,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1367(1-3), 88–106 (1998).
[PubMed]

M. D. DuRand and R. J. Olson, “Diel patterns in optical properties of the chlorophyte Nannochloris sp.: Relating individual-cell to bulk measurements,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 1107–1118 (1998).

H. Loisel and A. Morel, “Light scattering and chlorophyll concentration in case 1 waters: A reexamination,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 847–858 (1998).

1996 (1)

M. D. Durand and R. J. Olson, “Contributions of phytoplankton light scattering and cell concentration changes to diel variations in beam attenuation in the equatorial Pacific from flow cytometric measurements of pico-, ultra-and nanoplankton,” Deep Sea Res. Part II Top. Stud. Oceanogr. 43, 891–906 (1996).

1995 (2)

D. Stramski, A. Shalapyonok, and R. A. Reynolds, “Optical characterization of the oceanic unicellular cyanobacterium Synechococcus grown under a day-night cycle in natural irradiance,” J. Geophysical Res.: Oceans 100, 13295–13307 (1995).

D. Vaulot, D. Marie, R. J. Olson, and S. W. Chisholm, “Growth of prochlorococcus, a photosynthetic prokaryote, in the equatorial pacific ocean,” Science 268(5216), 1480–1482 (1995).
[PubMed]

1994 (2)

O. Ulloa, S. Sathyendranath, and T. Platt, “Effect of the particle-size distribution on the backscattering ratio in seawater,” Appl. Opt. 33(30), 7070–7077 (1994).
[PubMed]

N. A. Welschmeyer, “Fluorometric analysis of chlorophyll a in the presence of chlorophyll b and pheopigments,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 39, 1985–1992 (1994).

1993 (5)

R. R. L. Guillard and P. E. Hargraves, “Stichochrysis immobilis is a diatom, not a chrysophyte,” Phycologia 32, 234–236 (1993).

D. Stramski, G. Rosenberg, and L. Legendre, “Photosynthetic and optical properties of the marine chlorophyte Dunaliella tertiolecta grown under fluctuating light caused by surface-wave focusing,” Mar. Biol. 115, 363–372 (1993).

S. G. Ackleson, J. J. Cullen, J. Brown, and M. Lesser, “Irradiance-induced variability in light scatter from marine phytoplankton in culture,” J. Plankton Res. 15, 737–759 (1993).

W. D. Gardner, I. D. Walsh, and M. J. Richardson, “Biophysical forcing of particle production and distribution during a spring bloom in the North Atlantic,” Deep Sea Res. Part II Top. Stud. Oceanogr. 40, 171–195 (1993).

D. Stramski and R. A. Reynolds, “Diel variations in the optical properties of a marine diatom,” Oceanography (Wash. D.C.) 38, 1347 (1993).

1992 (3)

J. J. Cullen, M. R. Lewis, C. O. Davis, and R. T. Barber, “Photosynthetic characteristics and estimated growth rates indicate grazing is the proximate control of primary production in the equatorial Pacific,” J. Geophysical Res.: Oceans 97, 639–654 (1992).

Y.-H. Ahn, A. Bricaud, and A. Morel, “Light backscattering efficiency and related properties of some phytoplankters,” Deep-Sea Res. A, Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 39, 1835–1855 (1992).

M. Stramska and T. D. Dickey, “Short-term variations of the bio-optical properties of the ocean in response to cloud-induced irradiance fluctuations,” J. Geophysical Res.: Oceans 97, 5713–5721 (1992).

1991 (1)

C. Linschooten, J. D. Bleijswijk, P. R. Emburg, J. P. Vrind, E. S. Kempers, P. Westbroek, and E. W. Vrind-de Jong, “Role of the light-dark cycle and medium composition on the production of coccoliths by emiliania huxleyi (haptophyceae),” J. Phycol. 27, 82–86 (1991).

1990 (2)

T. Oishi, “Significant relationship between the backward scattering coefficient of sea water and the scatterance at 120 degrees,” Appl. Opt. 29(31), 4658–4665 (1990).
[PubMed]

D. Stramski and A. Morel, “Optical properties of photosynthetic picoplankton in different physiological states as affected by growth irradiance,” Deep-Sea Res. A, Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 37, 245–266 (1990).

1989 (2)

D. A. Siegel, T. D. Dickey, L. Washburn, M. K. Hamilton, and B. G. Mitchell, “Optical determination of particulate abundance and production variations in the oligotrophic ocean,” Deep-Sea Res. A, Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 36, 211–222 (1989).

R. R. Bidigare, J. H. Morrow, and D. A. Kiefer, “Derivative analysis of spectral absorption by photosynthetic pigments in the western Sargasso Sea,” J. Mar. Res. 47, 323–341 (1989).

1986 (2)

A. Morel and A. Bricaud, “Inherent optical properties of algal cells including picoplankton: theoretical and experimental results,” Can. Bull. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 214, 521–559 (1986).

A. Bricaud and A. Morel, “Light attenuation and scattering by phytoplanktonic cells: a theoretical modeling,” Appl. Opt. 25(4), 571 (1986).
[PubMed]

1983 (1)

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, and L. Prieur, “Optical efficiency factors of some phytoplankters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 28, 816–832 (1983).

1981 (1)

L. W. Harding, B. W. Meeson, B. B. Prézelin, and B. M. Sweeney, “Diel periodicity of photosynthesis in marine phytoplankton,” Mar. Biol. 61, 95–105 (1981).

1980 (1)

T. G. Owens, P. G. Falkowski, and T. E. Whitledge, “Diel periodicity in cellular chlorophyll content in marine diatoms,” Mar. Biol. 59, 71–77 (1980).

1974 (1)

A. Morel, “Optical properties of pure water and pure sea water,” Opt. Aspects Oceanography 1, 1–24 (1974).

1973 (1)

A. Prakash, L. Skoglund, B. Rystad, and A. Jensen, “Growth and cell-size distribution of marine planktonic algae in batch and dialysis cultures,” J. Fisheries Board Canada 30, 143–155 (1973).

Ackleson, S. G.

S. G. Ackleson, J. J. Cullen, J. Brown, and M. Lesser, “Irradiance-induced variability in light scatter from marine phytoplankton in culture,” J. Plankton Res. 15, 737–759 (1993).

Ahn, J. H.

J. -K. Choi, Y. J. Park, J. H. Ahn, H. -S. Lim, J. Eom, and J. -H. Ryu, “GOCI, the world's first geostationary ocean color observation satellite, for the monitoring of temporal variability in coastal water turbidity,” J. Geophysical Res.: Oceans 117, C9 (2012).

Ahn, Y.-H.

Y.-H. Ahn, A. Bricaud, and A. Morel, “Light backscattering efficiency and related properties of some phytoplankters,” Deep-Sea Res. A, Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 39, 1835–1855 (1992).

Antoine, D.

M. Kheireddine and D. Antoine, “Diel variability of the beam attenuation and backscattering coefficients in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea (BOUSSOLE site),” J. Geophysical Res.: Oceans 119, 5465–5482 (2014).

D. Antoine, D. A. Siegel, T. Kostadinov, S. Maritorena, N. B. Nelson, B. Gentili, V. Vellucci, and N. Guillocheau, “Variability in optical particle backscattering in contrasting bio-optical oceanic regimes,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 56, 955–973 (2011).

Babin, M.

F. Bruyant, M. Babin, B. Genty, O. Prasil, M. J. Behrenfeld, H. Claustre, A. Bricaud, L. Garczarek, J. Holtzendorff, and M. Koblizek, “Diel variations in the photosynthetic parameters of Prochlorococcus strain PCC 9511: Combined effects of light and cell cycle,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 50, 850–863 (2005).

H. Claustre, A. Bricaud, M. Babin, F. Bruyant, L. Guillou, F. Le Gall, D. Marie, and F. Partensky, “Diel variations in Prochlorococcus optical properties,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 47, 1637–1647 (2002).

H. Claustre, A. Morel, M. Babin, C. Cailliau, D. Marie, J.-C. Marty, D. Tailliez, and D. Vaulot, “Variability in particle attenuation and chlorophyll fluorescence in the tropical Pacific: Scales, patterns, and biogeochemical implications,” J. Geophysical Research: Oceans 104, 3401–3422 (1999).

Balch, W. M.

W. M. Balch, D. T. Drapeau, T. L. Cucci, R. D. Vaillancourt, K. A. Kilpatrick, and J. J. Fritz, “Optical backscattering by calcifying algae: Separating the contribution of particulate inorganic and organic carbon fractions,” J. Geophysical Res.: Oceans 104, 1541–1558 (1999).

Barber, R. T.

J. J. Cullen, M. R. Lewis, C. O. Davis, and R. T. Barber, “Photosynthetic characteristics and estimated growth rates indicate grazing is the proximate control of primary production in the equatorial Pacific,” J. Geophysical Res.: Oceans 97, 639–654 (1992).

Barnard, A. H.

M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. B. Macdonald, W. S. Pegau, A. H. Barnard, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A model for estimating bulk refractive index from the optical backscattering ratio and the implications for understanding particle composition in case I and case II waters,” J. Geophysical Res.: Oceans 106, 14129–14142 (2001).

Bastedo, J.

J. M. Vandenhecke, J. Bastedo, A. M. Cockshutt, D. A. Campbell, and Y. Huot, “Changes in the Rubisco to photosystem ratio dominates photoacclimation across phytoplankton taxa,” Photosynth. Res. 124(3), 275–291 (2015).
[PubMed]

Behrenfeld, M. J.

T. K. Westberry, G. Dall’Olmo, E. Boss, M. J. Behrenfeld, and T. Moutin, “Coherence of particulate beam attenuation and backscattering coefficients in diverse open ocean environments,” Opt. Express 18(15), 15419–15425 (2010).
[PubMed]

W. H. Slade, E. Boss, G. DallOlmo, M. R. Langner, J. Loftin, M. J. Behrenfeld, C. Roesler, and T. K. Westberry, “Underway and moored methods for improving accuracy in measurement of spectral particulate absorption and attenuation,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 27, 1733–1746 (2010).

G. Dall’Olmo, T. K. Westberry, M. J. Behrenfeld, E. Boss, and W. H. Slade, “Significant contribution of large particles to optical backscattering in the open ocean,” Biogeosciences 6, 947–967 (2009).

F. Bruyant, M. Babin, B. Genty, O. Prasil, M. J. Behrenfeld, H. Claustre, A. Bricaud, L. Garczarek, J. Holtzendorff, and M. Koblizek, “Diel variations in the photosynthetic parameters of Prochlorococcus strain PCC 9511: Combined effects of light and cell cycle,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 50, 850–863 (2005).

M. J. Behrenfeld, E. Boss, D. A. Siegel, and D. M. Shea, “Carbon-based ocean productivity and phytoplankton physiology from space,” Global Biogeochem. Cycles 19, 1 (2005).

M. J. Behrenfeld and E. Boss, “The beam attenuation to chlorophyll ratio: an optical index of phytoplankton physiology in the surface ocean?” Deep Sea Res. Part I Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 50, 1537–1549 (2003).

Bidigare, R. R.

R. R. Bidigare, J. H. Morrow, and D. A. Kiefer, “Derivative analysis of spectral absorption by photosynthetic pigments in the western Sargasso Sea,” J. Mar. Res. 47, 323–341 (1989).

Bishop, J. K.

J. K. Bishop, S. E. Calvert, and M. Y. Soon, “Spatial and temporal variability of POC in the northeast Subarctic Pacific,” Deep Sea Res. Part II Top. Stud. Oceanogr. 46, 2699–2733 (1999).

Bleijswijk, J. D.

C. Linschooten, J. D. Bleijswijk, P. R. Emburg, J. P. Vrind, E. S. Kempers, P. Westbroek, and E. W. Vrind-de Jong, “Role of the light-dark cycle and medium composition on the production of coccoliths by emiliania huxleyi (haptophyceae),” J. Phycol. 27, 82–86 (1991).

Blouin, F.

S. Mas, S. Roy, F. Blouin, B. Mostajir, J. C. Therriault, C. Nozais, and S. Demers, “Diel variations in optical properties of imantonia rotunda (haptophyceae) and thalassiosira pseudonana (bacillariophyceae) exposed to different irradiance levels(1),” J. Phycol. 44(3), 551–563 (2008).
[PubMed]

Boss, E.

A. L. Whitmire, W. S. Pegau, L. Karp-Boss, E. Boss, and T. J. Cowles, “Spectral backscattering properties of marine phytoplankton cultures,” Opt. Express 18(14), 15073–15093 (2010).
[PubMed]

W. H. Slade, E. Boss, G. DallOlmo, M. R. Langner, J. Loftin, M. J. Behrenfeld, C. Roesler, and T. K. Westberry, “Underway and moored methods for improving accuracy in measurement of spectral particulate absorption and attenuation,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 27, 1733–1746 (2010).

T. K. Westberry, G. Dall’Olmo, E. Boss, M. J. Behrenfeld, and T. Moutin, “Coherence of particulate beam attenuation and backscattering coefficients in diverse open ocean environments,” Opt. Express 18(15), 15419–15425 (2010).
[PubMed]

G. Dall’Olmo, T. K. Westberry, M. J. Behrenfeld, E. Boss, and W. H. Slade, “Significant contribution of large particles to optical backscattering in the open ocean,” Biogeosciences 6, 947–967 (2009).

M. J. Behrenfeld, E. Boss, D. A. Siegel, and D. M. Shea, “Carbon-based ocean productivity and phytoplankton physiology from space,” Global Biogeochem. Cycles 19, 1 (2005).

M. J. Behrenfeld and E. Boss, “The beam attenuation to chlorophyll ratio: an optical index of phytoplankton physiology in the surface ocean?” Deep Sea Res. Part I Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 50, 1537–1549 (2003).

E. Boss and W. S. Pegau, “Relationship of light scattering at an angle in the backward direction to the backscattering coefficient,” Appl. Opt. 40(30), 5503–5507 (2001).
[PubMed]

M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. B. Macdonald, W. S. Pegau, A. H. Barnard, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A model for estimating bulk refractive index from the optical backscattering ratio and the implications for understanding particle composition in case I and case II waters,” J. Geophysical Res.: Oceans 106, 14129–14142 (2001).

Bricaud, A.

F. Bruyant, M. Babin, B. Genty, O. Prasil, M. J. Behrenfeld, H. Claustre, A. Bricaud, L. Garczarek, J. Holtzendorff, and M. Koblizek, “Diel variations in the photosynthetic parameters of Prochlorococcus strain PCC 9511: Combined effects of light and cell cycle,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 50, 850–863 (2005).

H. Claustre, A. Bricaud, M. Babin, F. Bruyant, L. Guillou, F. Le Gall, D. Marie, and F. Partensky, “Diel variations in Prochlorococcus optical properties,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 47, 1637–1647 (2002).

Y.-H. Ahn, A. Bricaud, and A. Morel, “Light backscattering efficiency and related properties of some phytoplankters,” Deep-Sea Res. A, Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 39, 1835–1855 (1992).

A. Bricaud and A. Morel, “Light attenuation and scattering by phytoplanktonic cells: a theoretical modeling,” Appl. Opt. 25(4), 571 (1986).
[PubMed]

A. Morel and A. Bricaud, “Inherent optical properties of algal cells including picoplankton: theoretical and experimental results,” Can. Bull. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 214, 521–559 (1986).

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, and L. Prieur, “Optical efficiency factors of some phytoplankters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 28, 816–832 (1983).

Brown, J.

S. G. Ackleson, J. J. Cullen, J. Brown, and M. Lesser, “Irradiance-induced variability in light scatter from marine phytoplankton in culture,” J. Plankton Res. 15, 737–759 (1993).

Bruyant, F.

C. Poulin, F. Bruyant, M.-H. Laprise, A. M. Cockshutt, J. M.-R. Vandenhecke, and Y. Huot, “The impact of light pollution on diel changes in the photophysiology of Microcystis aeruginosa,” J. Plankton Res. 36, 286–291 (2013).

F. Bruyant, M. Babin, B. Genty, O. Prasil, M. J. Behrenfeld, H. Claustre, A. Bricaud, L. Garczarek, J. Holtzendorff, and M. Koblizek, “Diel variations in the photosynthetic parameters of Prochlorococcus strain PCC 9511: Combined effects of light and cell cycle,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 50, 850–863 (2005).

H. Claustre, A. Bricaud, M. Babin, F. Bruyant, L. Guillou, F. Le Gall, D. Marie, and F. Partensky, “Diel variations in Prochlorococcus optical properties,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 47, 1637–1647 (2002).

Cailliau, C.

H. Claustre, A. Morel, M. Babin, C. Cailliau, D. Marie, J.-C. Marty, D. Tailliez, and D. Vaulot, “Variability in particle attenuation and chlorophyll fluorescence in the tropical Pacific: Scales, patterns, and biogeochemical implications,” J. Geophysical Research: Oceans 104, 3401–3422 (1999).

Calvert, S. E.

J. K. Bishop, S. E. Calvert, and M. Y. Soon, “Spatial and temporal variability of POC in the northeast Subarctic Pacific,” Deep Sea Res. Part II Top. Stud. Oceanogr. 46, 2699–2733 (1999).

Campbell, D. A.

J. M. Vandenhecke, J. Bastedo, A. M. Cockshutt, D. A. Campbell, and Y. Huot, “Changes in the Rubisco to photosystem ratio dominates photoacclimation across phytoplankton taxa,” Photosynth. Res. 124(3), 275–291 (2015).
[PubMed]

Cao, W.

Casotti, R.

S. Jacquet, F. Partensky, D. Marie, R. Casotti, and D. Vaulot, “Cell cycle regulation by light in Prochlorococcus strains,” Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 67(2), 782–790 (2001).
[PubMed]

Chami, M.

T. Harmel, M. Hieronymi, W. Slade, R. Röttgers, F. Roullier, and M. Chami, “Laboratory experiments for inter-comparison of three volume scattering meters to measure angular scattering properties of hydrosols,” Opt. Express 24(2), A234–A256 (2016).
[PubMed]

M. Chami, E. Marken, J. J. Stamnes, G. Khomenko, and G. Korotaev, “Variability of the relationship between the particulate backscattering coefficient and the volume scattering function measured at fixed angles,” J. Geophysical Res.: Oceans 111, C5 (2006).

Chisholm, S. W.

D. Vaulot, D. Marie, R. J. Olson, and S. W. Chisholm, “Growth of prochlorococcus, a photosynthetic prokaryote, in the equatorial pacific ocean,” Science 268(5216), 1480–1482 (1995).
[PubMed]

Choi, J. -K.

J. -K. Choi, Y. J. Park, J. H. Ahn, H. -S. Lim, J. Eom, and J. -H. Ryu, “GOCI, the world's first geostationary ocean color observation satellite, for the monitoring of temporal variability in coastal water turbidity,” J. Geophysical Res.: Oceans 117, C9 (2012).

Claustre, H.

H. Claustre, Y. Huot, I. Obernosterer, B. Gentili, D. Tailliez, and M. Lewis, “Gross community production and metabolic balance in the South Pacific Gyre, using a non intrusive bio-optical method,” Biogeosciences Discuss. 4, 3089–3121 (2007).

F. Bruyant, M. Babin, B. Genty, O. Prasil, M. J. Behrenfeld, H. Claustre, A. Bricaud, L. Garczarek, J. Holtzendorff, and M. Koblizek, “Diel variations in the photosynthetic parameters of Prochlorococcus strain PCC 9511: Combined effects of light and cell cycle,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 50, 850–863 (2005).

H. Claustre, A. Bricaud, M. Babin, F. Bruyant, L. Guillou, F. Le Gall, D. Marie, and F. Partensky, “Diel variations in Prochlorococcus optical properties,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 47, 1637–1647 (2002).

H. Claustre, A. Morel, M. Babin, C. Cailliau, D. Marie, J.-C. Marty, D. Tailliez, and D. Vaulot, “Variability in particle attenuation and chlorophyll fluorescence in the tropical Pacific: Scales, patterns, and biogeochemical implications,” J. Geophysical Research: Oceans 104, 3401–3422 (1999).

Cockshutt, A. M.

J. M. Vandenhecke, J. Bastedo, A. M. Cockshutt, D. A. Campbell, and Y. Huot, “Changes in the Rubisco to photosystem ratio dominates photoacclimation across phytoplankton taxa,” Photosynth. Res. 124(3), 275–291 (2015).
[PubMed]

C. Poulin, F. Bruyant, M.-H. Laprise, A. M. Cockshutt, J. M.-R. Vandenhecke, and Y. Huot, “The impact of light pollution on diel changes in the photophysiology of Microcystis aeruginosa,” J. Plankton Res. 36, 286–291 (2013).

Combet, Y.

H. Loisel, V. Vantrepotte, K. Norkvist, X. Meriaux, M. Kheireddine, J. Ras, M. Pujo-Pay, Y. Combet, K. Leblanc, and G. Dall’Olmo, “Characterization of the bio-optical anomaly and diurnal variability of particulate matter, as seen from scattering and backscattering coefficients, in ultra-oligotrophic eddies of the Mediterranean Sea,” Biogeosciences 8, 3295–3317 (2011).

Cowles, T. J.

Cucci, T. L.

W. M. Balch, D. T. Drapeau, T. L. Cucci, R. D. Vaillancourt, K. A. Kilpatrick, and J. J. Fritz, “Optical backscattering by calcifying algae: Separating the contribution of particulate inorganic and organic carbon fractions,” J. Geophysical Res.: Oceans 104, 1541–1558 (1999).

Cullen, J. J.

S. G. Ackleson, J. J. Cullen, J. Brown, and M. Lesser, “Irradiance-induced variability in light scatter from marine phytoplankton in culture,” J. Plankton Res. 15, 737–759 (1993).

J. J. Cullen, M. R. Lewis, C. O. Davis, and R. T. Barber, “Photosynthetic characteristics and estimated growth rates indicate grazing is the proximate control of primary production in the equatorial Pacific,” J. Geophysical Res.: Oceans 97, 639–654 (1992).

d’Alcalà, M. R.

M. Ragni and M. R. d’Alcalà, “Circadian variability in the photobiology of Phaeodactylum tricornutum: pigment content,” J. Plankton Res. 29, 141–156 (2007).

Dall’Olmo, G.

H. Loisel, V. Vantrepotte, K. Norkvist, X. Meriaux, M. Kheireddine, J. Ras, M. Pujo-Pay, Y. Combet, K. Leblanc, and G. Dall’Olmo, “Characterization of the bio-optical anomaly and diurnal variability of particulate matter, as seen from scattering and backscattering coefficients, in ultra-oligotrophic eddies of the Mediterranean Sea,” Biogeosciences 8, 3295–3317 (2011).

T. K. Westberry, G. Dall’Olmo, E. Boss, M. J. Behrenfeld, and T. Moutin, “Coherence of particulate beam attenuation and backscattering coefficients in diverse open ocean environments,” Opt. Express 18(15), 15419–15425 (2010).
[PubMed]

G. Dall’Olmo, T. K. Westberry, M. J. Behrenfeld, E. Boss, and W. H. Slade, “Significant contribution of large particles to optical backscattering in the open ocean,” Biogeosciences 6, 947–967 (2009).

DallOlmo, G.

W. H. Slade, E. Boss, G. DallOlmo, M. R. Langner, J. Loftin, M. J. Behrenfeld, C. Roesler, and T. K. Westberry, “Underway and moored methods for improving accuracy in measurement of spectral particulate absorption and attenuation,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 27, 1733–1746 (2010).

Davis, C. O.

J. J. Cullen, M. R. Lewis, C. O. Davis, and R. T. Barber, “Photosynthetic characteristics and estimated growth rates indicate grazing is the proximate control of primary production in the equatorial Pacific,” J. Geophysical Res.: Oceans 97, 639–654 (1992).

Demers, S.

S. Mas, S. Roy, F. Blouin, B. Mostajir, J. C. Therriault, C. Nozais, and S. Demers, “Diel variations in optical properties of imantonia rotunda (haptophyceae) and thalassiosira pseudonana (bacillariophyceae) exposed to different irradiance levels(1),” J. Phycol. 44(3), 551–563 (2008).
[PubMed]

Dickey, T. D.

M. Stramska and T. D. Dickey, “Short-term variations of the bio-optical properties of the ocean in response to cloud-induced irradiance fluctuations,” J. Geophysical Res.: Oceans 97, 5713–5721 (1992).

D. A. Siegel, T. D. Dickey, L. Washburn, M. K. Hamilton, and B. G. Mitchell, “Optical determination of particulate abundance and production variations in the oligotrophic ocean,” Deep-Sea Res. A, Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 36, 211–222 (1989).

Doerffer, R.

Drapeau, D. T.

W. M. Balch, D. T. Drapeau, T. L. Cucci, R. D. Vaillancourt, K. A. Kilpatrick, and J. J. Fritz, “Optical backscattering by calcifying algae: Separating the contribution of particulate inorganic and organic carbon fractions,” J. Geophysical Res.: Oceans 104, 1541–1558 (1999).

DuRand, M. D.

M. D. DuRand, R. E. Green, H. M. Sosik, and R. J. Olson, “Diel variations in optical properties of Micromonas pusilla (prasinophyceae) 1,” J. Phycol. 38, 1132–1142 (2002).

M. D. DuRand and R. J. Olson, “Diel patterns in optical properties of the chlorophyte Nannochloris sp.: Relating individual-cell to bulk measurements,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 1107–1118 (1998).

M. D. Durand and R. J. Olson, “Contributions of phytoplankton light scattering and cell concentration changes to diel variations in beam attenuation in the equatorial Pacific from flow cytometric measurements of pico-, ultra-and nanoplankton,” Deep Sea Res. Part II Top. Stud. Oceanogr. 43, 891–906 (1996).

Emburg, P. R.

C. Linschooten, J. D. Bleijswijk, P. R. Emburg, J. P. Vrind, E. S. Kempers, P. Westbroek, and E. W. Vrind-de Jong, “Role of the light-dark cycle and medium composition on the production of coccoliths by emiliania huxleyi (haptophyceae),” J. Phycol. 27, 82–86 (1991).

Eom, J.

J. -K. Choi, Y. J. Park, J. H. Ahn, H. -S. Lim, J. Eom, and J. -H. Ryu, “GOCI, the world's first geostationary ocean color observation satellite, for the monitoring of temporal variability in coastal water turbidity,” J. Geophysical Res.: Oceans 117, C9 (2012).

Falkowski, P. G.

Z. S. Kolber, O. Prasil, and P. G. Falkowski, “Measurements of variable chlorophyll fluorescence using fast repetition rate techniques: defining methodology and experimental protocols,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1367(1-3), 88–106 (1998).
[PubMed]

T. G. Owens, P. G. Falkowski, and T. E. Whitledge, “Diel periodicity in cellular chlorophyll content in marine diatoms,” Mar. Biol. 59, 71–77 (1980).

Fritz, J. J.

W. M. Balch, D. T. Drapeau, T. L. Cucci, R. D. Vaillancourt, K. A. Kilpatrick, and J. J. Fritz, “Optical backscattering by calcifying algae: Separating the contribution of particulate inorganic and organic carbon fractions,” J. Geophysical Res.: Oceans 104, 1541–1558 (1999).

Garczarek, L.

F. Bruyant, M. Babin, B. Genty, O. Prasil, M. J. Behrenfeld, H. Claustre, A. Bricaud, L. Garczarek, J. Holtzendorff, and M. Koblizek, “Diel variations in the photosynthetic parameters of Prochlorococcus strain PCC 9511: Combined effects of light and cell cycle,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 50, 850–863 (2005).

Gardner, W. D.

W. D. Gardner, J. S. Gundersen, M. J. Richardson, and I. D. Walsh, “The role of seasonal and diel changes in mixed-layer depth on carbon and chlorophyll distributions in the Arabian Sea,” Deep Sea Res. Part II Top. Stud. Oceanogr. 46, 1833–1858 (1999).

W. D. Gardner, I. D. Walsh, and M. J. Richardson, “Biophysical forcing of particle production and distribution during a spring bloom in the North Atlantic,” Deep Sea Res. Part II Top. Stud. Oceanogr. 40, 171–195 (1993).

Gentili, B.

D. Antoine, D. A. Siegel, T. Kostadinov, S. Maritorena, N. B. Nelson, B. Gentili, V. Vellucci, and N. Guillocheau, “Variability in optical particle backscattering in contrasting bio-optical oceanic regimes,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 56, 955–973 (2011).

H. Claustre, Y. Huot, I. Obernosterer, B. Gentili, D. Tailliez, and M. Lewis, “Gross community production and metabolic balance in the South Pacific Gyre, using a non intrusive bio-optical method,” Biogeosciences Discuss. 4, 3089–3121 (2007).

Genty, B.

F. Bruyant, M. Babin, B. Genty, O. Prasil, M. J. Behrenfeld, H. Claustre, A. Bricaud, L. Garczarek, J. Holtzendorff, and M. Koblizek, “Diel variations in the photosynthetic parameters of Prochlorococcus strain PCC 9511: Combined effects of light and cell cycle,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 50, 850–863 (2005).

Green, R. E.

M. D. DuRand, R. E. Green, H. M. Sosik, and R. J. Olson, “Diel variations in optical properties of Micromonas pusilla (prasinophyceae) 1,” J. Phycol. 38, 1132–1142 (2002).

Guillard, R. R. L.

R. R. L. Guillard and P. E. Hargraves, “Stichochrysis immobilis is a diatom, not a chrysophyte,” Phycologia 32, 234–236 (1993).

Guillocheau, N.

D. Antoine, D. A. Siegel, T. Kostadinov, S. Maritorena, N. B. Nelson, B. Gentili, V. Vellucci, and N. Guillocheau, “Variability in optical particle backscattering in contrasting bio-optical oceanic regimes,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 56, 955–973 (2011).

Guillou, L.

H. Claustre, A. Bricaud, M. Babin, F. Bruyant, L. Guillou, F. Le Gall, D. Marie, and F. Partensky, “Diel variations in Prochlorococcus optical properties,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 47, 1637–1647 (2002).

Gundersen, J. S.

W. D. Gardner, J. S. Gundersen, M. J. Richardson, and I. D. Walsh, “The role of seasonal and diel changes in mixed-layer depth on carbon and chlorophyll distributions in the Arabian Sea,” Deep Sea Res. Part II Top. Stud. Oceanogr. 46, 1833–1858 (1999).

Hamilton, M. K.

D. A. Siegel, T. D. Dickey, L. Washburn, M. K. Hamilton, and B. G. Mitchell, “Optical determination of particulate abundance and production variations in the oligotrophic ocean,” Deep-Sea Res. A, Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 36, 211–222 (1989).

Harding, L. W.

L. W. Harding, B. W. Meeson, B. B. Prézelin, and B. M. Sweeney, “Diel periodicity of photosynthesis in marine phytoplankton,” Mar. Biol. 61, 95–105 (1981).

Hargraves, P. E.

R. R. L. Guillard and P. E. Hargraves, “Stichochrysis immobilis is a diatom, not a chrysophyte,” Phycologia 32, 234–236 (1993).

Harmel, T.

Hieronymi, M.

Holtzendorff, J.

F. Bruyant, M. Babin, B. Genty, O. Prasil, M. J. Behrenfeld, H. Claustre, A. Bricaud, L. Garczarek, J. Holtzendorff, and M. Koblizek, “Diel variations in the photosynthetic parameters of Prochlorococcus strain PCC 9511: Combined effects of light and cell cycle,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 50, 850–863 (2005).

Hu, S.

Huot, Y.

J. M. Vandenhecke, J. Bastedo, A. M. Cockshutt, D. A. Campbell, and Y. Huot, “Changes in the Rubisco to photosystem ratio dominates photoacclimation across phytoplankton taxa,” Photosynth. Res. 124(3), 275–291 (2015).
[PubMed]

C. Poulin, F. Bruyant, M.-H. Laprise, A. M. Cockshutt, J. M.-R. Vandenhecke, and Y. Huot, “The impact of light pollution on diel changes in the photophysiology of Microcystis aeruginosa,” J. Plankton Res. 36, 286–291 (2013).

H. Claustre, Y. Huot, I. Obernosterer, B. Gentili, D. Tailliez, and M. Lewis, “Gross community production and metabolic balance in the South Pacific Gyre, using a non intrusive bio-optical method,” Biogeosciences Discuss. 4, 3089–3121 (2007).

Y. Huot, A. Morel, M. S. Twardowski, D. Stramski, and R. A. Reynolds, “Particle optical backscattering along a chlorophyll gradient in the upper layer of the eastern South Pacific Ocean,” Biogeosciences Discuss. 4, 4571–4604 (2007).

Ishiwata, Y.

N. Ohi, Y. Ishiwata, and S. Taguchi, “Diel patterns in light absorption and absorption efficiency factors of isochrysis galbana (prymnesiophyceae) 1,” J. Phycol. 38, 730–737 (2002).

Jacquet, S.

S. Jacquet, F. Partensky, D. Marie, R. Casotti, and D. Vaulot, “Cell cycle regulation by light in Prochlorococcus strains,” Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 67(2), 782–790 (2001).
[PubMed]

Jensen, A.

A. Prakash, L. Skoglund, B. Rystad, and A. Jensen, “Growth and cell-size distribution of marine planktonic algae in batch and dialysis cultures,” J. Fisheries Board Canada 30, 143–155 (1973).

Johnson, C. H.

L. Suzuki and C. H. Johnson, “Algae know the time of day: circadian and photoperiodic programs,” J. Phycol. 37, 933–942 (2001).

Karp-Boss, L.

Kempers, E. S.

C. Linschooten, J. D. Bleijswijk, P. R. Emburg, J. P. Vrind, E. S. Kempers, P. Westbroek, and E. W. Vrind-de Jong, “Role of the light-dark cycle and medium composition on the production of coccoliths by emiliania huxleyi (haptophyceae),” J. Phycol. 27, 82–86 (1991).

Kheireddine, M.

M. Kheireddine and D. Antoine, “Diel variability of the beam attenuation and backscattering coefficients in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea (BOUSSOLE site),” J. Geophysical Res.: Oceans 119, 5465–5482 (2014).

H. Loisel, V. Vantrepotte, K. Norkvist, X. Meriaux, M. Kheireddine, J. Ras, M. Pujo-Pay, Y. Combet, K. Leblanc, and G. Dall’Olmo, “Characterization of the bio-optical anomaly and diurnal variability of particulate matter, as seen from scattering and backscattering coefficients, in ultra-oligotrophic eddies of the Mediterranean Sea,” Biogeosciences 8, 3295–3317 (2011).

Khomenko, G.

M. Chami, E. Marken, J. J. Stamnes, G. Khomenko, and G. Korotaev, “Variability of the relationship between the particulate backscattering coefficient and the volume scattering function measured at fixed angles,” J. Geophysical Res.: Oceans 111, C5 (2006).

Kiefer, D. A.

R. R. Bidigare, J. H. Morrow, and D. A. Kiefer, “Derivative analysis of spectral absorption by photosynthetic pigments in the western Sargasso Sea,” J. Mar. Res. 47, 323–341 (1989).

Kilpatrick, K. A.

W. M. Balch, D. T. Drapeau, T. L. Cucci, R. D. Vaillancourt, K. A. Kilpatrick, and J. J. Fritz, “Optical backscattering by calcifying algae: Separating the contribution of particulate inorganic and organic carbon fractions,” J. Geophysical Res.: Oceans 104, 1541–1558 (1999).

Koblizek, M.

F. Bruyant, M. Babin, B. Genty, O. Prasil, M. J. Behrenfeld, H. Claustre, A. Bricaud, L. Garczarek, J. Holtzendorff, and M. Koblizek, “Diel variations in the photosynthetic parameters of Prochlorococcus strain PCC 9511: Combined effects of light and cell cycle,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 50, 850–863 (2005).

Kolber, Z. S.

Z. S. Kolber, O. Prasil, and P. G. Falkowski, “Measurements of variable chlorophyll fluorescence using fast repetition rate techniques: defining methodology and experimental protocols,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1367(1-3), 88–106 (1998).
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Korotaev, G.

M. Chami, E. Marken, J. J. Stamnes, G. Khomenko, and G. Korotaev, “Variability of the relationship between the particulate backscattering coefficient and the volume scattering function measured at fixed angles,” J. Geophysical Res.: Oceans 111, C5 (2006).

Kostadinov, T.

D. Antoine, D. A. Siegel, T. Kostadinov, S. Maritorena, N. B. Nelson, B. Gentili, V. Vellucci, and N. Guillocheau, “Variability in optical particle backscattering in contrasting bio-optical oceanic regimes,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 56, 955–973 (2011).

Langner, M. R.

W. H. Slade, E. Boss, G. DallOlmo, M. R. Langner, J. Loftin, M. J. Behrenfeld, C. Roesler, and T. K. Westberry, “Underway and moored methods for improving accuracy in measurement of spectral particulate absorption and attenuation,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 27, 1733–1746 (2010).

Laprise, M.-H.

C. Poulin, F. Bruyant, M.-H. Laprise, A. M. Cockshutt, J. M.-R. Vandenhecke, and Y. Huot, “The impact of light pollution on diel changes in the photophysiology of Microcystis aeruginosa,” J. Plankton Res. 36, 286–291 (2013).

Le Gall, F.

H. Claustre, A. Bricaud, M. Babin, F. Bruyant, L. Guillou, F. Le Gall, D. Marie, and F. Partensky, “Diel variations in Prochlorococcus optical properties,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 47, 1637–1647 (2002).

Leblanc, K.

H. Loisel, V. Vantrepotte, K. Norkvist, X. Meriaux, M. Kheireddine, J. Ras, M. Pujo-Pay, Y. Combet, K. Leblanc, and G. Dall’Olmo, “Characterization of the bio-optical anomaly and diurnal variability of particulate matter, as seen from scattering and backscattering coefficients, in ultra-oligotrophic eddies of the Mediterranean Sea,” Biogeosciences 8, 3295–3317 (2011).

Legendre, L.

D. Stramski, G. Rosenberg, and L. Legendre, “Photosynthetic and optical properties of the marine chlorophyte Dunaliella tertiolecta grown under fluctuating light caused by surface-wave focusing,” Mar. Biol. 115, 363–372 (1993).

Lesser, M.

S. G. Ackleson, J. J. Cullen, J. Brown, and M. Lesser, “Irradiance-induced variability in light scatter from marine phytoplankton in culture,” J. Plankton Res. 15, 737–759 (1993).

Lewis, M.

H. Claustre, Y. Huot, I. Obernosterer, B. Gentili, D. Tailliez, and M. Lewis, “Gross community production and metabolic balance in the South Pacific Gyre, using a non intrusive bio-optical method,” Biogeosciences Discuss. 4, 3089–3121 (2007).

Lewis, M. R.

J. J. Cullen, M. R. Lewis, C. O. Davis, and R. T. Barber, “Photosynthetic characteristics and estimated growth rates indicate grazing is the proximate control of primary production in the equatorial Pacific,” J. Geophysical Res.: Oceans 97, 639–654 (1992).

Lim, H. -S.

J. -K. Choi, Y. J. Park, J. H. Ahn, H. -S. Lim, J. Eom, and J. -H. Ryu, “GOCI, the world's first geostationary ocean color observation satellite, for the monitoring of temporal variability in coastal water turbidity,” J. Geophysical Res.: Oceans 117, C9 (2012).

Linschooten, C.

C. Linschooten, J. D. Bleijswijk, P. R. Emburg, J. P. Vrind, E. S. Kempers, P. Westbroek, and E. W. Vrind-de Jong, “Role of the light-dark cycle and medium composition on the production of coccoliths by emiliania huxleyi (haptophyceae),” J. Phycol. 27, 82–86 (1991).

Loftin, J.

W. H. Slade, E. Boss, G. DallOlmo, M. R. Langner, J. Loftin, M. J. Behrenfeld, C. Roesler, and T. K. Westberry, “Underway and moored methods for improving accuracy in measurement of spectral particulate absorption and attenuation,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 27, 1733–1746 (2010).

Loisel, H.

H. Loisel, V. Vantrepotte, K. Norkvist, X. Meriaux, M. Kheireddine, J. Ras, M. Pujo-Pay, Y. Combet, K. Leblanc, and G. Dall’Olmo, “Characterization of the bio-optical anomaly and diurnal variability of particulate matter, as seen from scattering and backscattering coefficients, in ultra-oligotrophic eddies of the Mediterranean Sea,” Biogeosciences 8, 3295–3317 (2011).

H. Loisel and A. Morel, “Light scattering and chlorophyll concentration in case 1 waters: A reexamination,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 847–858 (1998).

Macdonald, J. B.

M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. B. Macdonald, W. S. Pegau, A. H. Barnard, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A model for estimating bulk refractive index from the optical backscattering ratio and the implications for understanding particle composition in case I and case II waters,” J. Geophysical Res.: Oceans 106, 14129–14142 (2001).

Marie, D.

H. Claustre, A. Bricaud, M. Babin, F. Bruyant, L. Guillou, F. Le Gall, D. Marie, and F. Partensky, “Diel variations in Prochlorococcus optical properties,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 47, 1637–1647 (2002).

S. Jacquet, F. Partensky, D. Marie, R. Casotti, and D. Vaulot, “Cell cycle regulation by light in Prochlorococcus strains,” Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 67(2), 782–790 (2001).
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H. Claustre, A. Morel, M. Babin, C. Cailliau, D. Marie, J.-C. Marty, D. Tailliez, and D. Vaulot, “Variability in particle attenuation and chlorophyll fluorescence in the tropical Pacific: Scales, patterns, and biogeochemical implications,” J. Geophysical Research: Oceans 104, 3401–3422 (1999).

D. Vaulot, D. Marie, R. J. Olson, and S. W. Chisholm, “Growth of prochlorococcus, a photosynthetic prokaryote, in the equatorial pacific ocean,” Science 268(5216), 1480–1482 (1995).
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Maritorena, S.

D. Antoine, D. A. Siegel, T. Kostadinov, S. Maritorena, N. B. Nelson, B. Gentili, V. Vellucci, and N. Guillocheau, “Variability in optical particle backscattering in contrasting bio-optical oceanic regimes,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 56, 955–973 (2011).

A. Morel and S. Maritorena, “Bio-optical properties of oceanic waters: A reappraisal,” J. Geophysical Res.: Oceans 106, 7163–7180 (2001).

Marken, E.

M. Chami, E. Marken, J. J. Stamnes, G. Khomenko, and G. Korotaev, “Variability of the relationship between the particulate backscattering coefficient and the volume scattering function measured at fixed angles,” J. Geophysical Res.: Oceans 111, C5 (2006).

Marty, J.-C.

H. Claustre, A. Morel, M. Babin, C. Cailliau, D. Marie, J.-C. Marty, D. Tailliez, and D. Vaulot, “Variability in particle attenuation and chlorophyll fluorescence in the tropical Pacific: Scales, patterns, and biogeochemical implications,” J. Geophysical Research: Oceans 104, 3401–3422 (1999).

Mas, S.

S. Mas, S. Roy, F. Blouin, B. Mostajir, J. C. Therriault, C. Nozais, and S. Demers, “Diel variations in optical properties of imantonia rotunda (haptophyceae) and thalassiosira pseudonana (bacillariophyceae) exposed to different irradiance levels(1),” J. Phycol. 44(3), 551–563 (2008).
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McClain, C. R.

C. R. McClain, “A decade of satellite ocean color observations,” Annu. Rev. Mar. Sci. 1, 19–42 (2009).
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Meeson, B. W.

L. W. Harding, B. W. Meeson, B. B. Prézelin, and B. M. Sweeney, “Diel periodicity of photosynthesis in marine phytoplankton,” Mar. Biol. 61, 95–105 (1981).

Meriaux, X.

H. Loisel, V. Vantrepotte, K. Norkvist, X. Meriaux, M. Kheireddine, J. Ras, M. Pujo-Pay, Y. Combet, K. Leblanc, and G. Dall’Olmo, “Characterization of the bio-optical anomaly and diurnal variability of particulate matter, as seen from scattering and backscattering coefficients, in ultra-oligotrophic eddies of the Mediterranean Sea,” Biogeosciences 8, 3295–3317 (2011).

Mitchell, B. G.

D. A. Siegel, T. D. Dickey, L. Washburn, M. K. Hamilton, and B. G. Mitchell, “Optical determination of particulate abundance and production variations in the oligotrophic ocean,” Deep-Sea Res. A, Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 36, 211–222 (1989).

Moore, C. C.

J. M. Sullivan, M. S. Twardowski, J. Ronald, V. Zaneveld, and C. C. Moore, “Measuring optical backscattering in water,” Light Scattering Rev. 7, 189–224 (2013).

Morel, A.

Y. Huot, A. Morel, M. S. Twardowski, D. Stramski, and R. A. Reynolds, “Particle optical backscattering along a chlorophyll gradient in the upper layer of the eastern South Pacific Ocean,” Biogeosciences Discuss. 4, 4571–4604 (2007).

A. Morel and S. Maritorena, “Bio-optical properties of oceanic waters: A reappraisal,” J. Geophysical Res.: Oceans 106, 7163–7180 (2001).

H. Claustre, A. Morel, M. Babin, C. Cailliau, D. Marie, J.-C. Marty, D. Tailliez, and D. Vaulot, “Variability in particle attenuation and chlorophyll fluorescence in the tropical Pacific: Scales, patterns, and biogeochemical implications,” J. Geophysical Research: Oceans 104, 3401–3422 (1999).

H. Loisel and A. Morel, “Light scattering and chlorophyll concentration in case 1 waters: A reexamination,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 847–858 (1998).

Y.-H. Ahn, A. Bricaud, and A. Morel, “Light backscattering efficiency and related properties of some phytoplankters,” Deep-Sea Res. A, Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 39, 1835–1855 (1992).

D. Stramski and A. Morel, “Optical properties of photosynthetic picoplankton in different physiological states as affected by growth irradiance,” Deep-Sea Res. A, Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 37, 245–266 (1990).

A. Bricaud and A. Morel, “Light attenuation and scattering by phytoplanktonic cells: a theoretical modeling,” Appl. Opt. 25(4), 571 (1986).
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A. Morel and A. Bricaud, “Inherent optical properties of algal cells including picoplankton: theoretical and experimental results,” Can. Bull. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 214, 521–559 (1986).

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, and L. Prieur, “Optical efficiency factors of some phytoplankters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 28, 816–832 (1983).

A. Morel, “Optical properties of pure water and pure sea water,” Opt. Aspects Oceanography 1, 1–24 (1974).

Morrow, J. H.

R. R. Bidigare, J. H. Morrow, and D. A. Kiefer, “Derivative analysis of spectral absorption by photosynthetic pigments in the western Sargasso Sea,” J. Mar. Res. 47, 323–341 (1989).

Mostajir, B.

S. Mas, S. Roy, F. Blouin, B. Mostajir, J. C. Therriault, C. Nozais, and S. Demers, “Diel variations in optical properties of imantonia rotunda (haptophyceae) and thalassiosira pseudonana (bacillariophyceae) exposed to different irradiance levels(1),” J. Phycol. 44(3), 551–563 (2008).
[PubMed]

Moutin, T.

Nelson, N. B.

D. Antoine, D. A. Siegel, T. Kostadinov, S. Maritorena, N. B. Nelson, B. Gentili, V. Vellucci, and N. Guillocheau, “Variability in optical particle backscattering in contrasting bio-optical oceanic regimes,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 56, 955–973 (2011).

Norkvist, K.

H. Loisel, V. Vantrepotte, K. Norkvist, X. Meriaux, M. Kheireddine, J. Ras, M. Pujo-Pay, Y. Combet, K. Leblanc, and G. Dall’Olmo, “Characterization of the bio-optical anomaly and diurnal variability of particulate matter, as seen from scattering and backscattering coefficients, in ultra-oligotrophic eddies of the Mediterranean Sea,” Biogeosciences 8, 3295–3317 (2011).

Nozais, C.

S. Mas, S. Roy, F. Blouin, B. Mostajir, J. C. Therriault, C. Nozais, and S. Demers, “Diel variations in optical properties of imantonia rotunda (haptophyceae) and thalassiosira pseudonana (bacillariophyceae) exposed to different irradiance levels(1),” J. Phycol. 44(3), 551–563 (2008).
[PubMed]

Obernosterer, I.

H. Claustre, Y. Huot, I. Obernosterer, B. Gentili, D. Tailliez, and M. Lewis, “Gross community production and metabolic balance in the South Pacific Gyre, using a non intrusive bio-optical method,” Biogeosciences Discuss. 4, 3089–3121 (2007).

Ohi, N.

N. Ohi, Y. Ishiwata, and S. Taguchi, “Diel patterns in light absorption and absorption efficiency factors of isochrysis galbana (prymnesiophyceae) 1,” J. Phycol. 38, 730–737 (2002).

Oishi, T.

Olson, R. J.

M. D. DuRand, R. E. Green, H. M. Sosik, and R. J. Olson, “Diel variations in optical properties of Micromonas pusilla (prasinophyceae) 1,” J. Phycol. 38, 1132–1142 (2002).

M. D. DuRand and R. J. Olson, “Diel patterns in optical properties of the chlorophyte Nannochloris sp.: Relating individual-cell to bulk measurements,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 1107–1118 (1998).

M. D. Durand and R. J. Olson, “Contributions of phytoplankton light scattering and cell concentration changes to diel variations in beam attenuation in the equatorial Pacific from flow cytometric measurements of pico-, ultra-and nanoplankton,” Deep Sea Res. Part II Top. Stud. Oceanogr. 43, 891–906 (1996).

D. Vaulot, D. Marie, R. J. Olson, and S. W. Chisholm, “Growth of prochlorococcus, a photosynthetic prokaryote, in the equatorial pacific ocean,” Science 268(5216), 1480–1482 (1995).
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Owens, T. G.

T. G. Owens, P. G. Falkowski, and T. E. Whitledge, “Diel periodicity in cellular chlorophyll content in marine diatoms,” Mar. Biol. 59, 71–77 (1980).

Park, Y. J.

J. -K. Choi, Y. J. Park, J. H. Ahn, H. -S. Lim, J. Eom, and J. -H. Ryu, “GOCI, the world's first geostationary ocean color observation satellite, for the monitoring of temporal variability in coastal water turbidity,” J. Geophysical Res.: Oceans 117, C9 (2012).

Partensky, F.

H. Claustre, A. Bricaud, M. Babin, F. Bruyant, L. Guillou, F. Le Gall, D. Marie, and F. Partensky, “Diel variations in Prochlorococcus optical properties,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 47, 1637–1647 (2002).

S. Jacquet, F. Partensky, D. Marie, R. Casotti, and D. Vaulot, “Cell cycle regulation by light in Prochlorococcus strains,” Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 67(2), 782–790 (2001).
[PubMed]

Pegau, W. S.

A. L. Whitmire, W. S. Pegau, L. Karp-Boss, E. Boss, and T. J. Cowles, “Spectral backscattering properties of marine phytoplankton cultures,” Opt. Express 18(14), 15073–15093 (2010).
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M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. B. Macdonald, W. S. Pegau, A. H. Barnard, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A model for estimating bulk refractive index from the optical backscattering ratio and the implications for understanding particle composition in case I and case II waters,” J. Geophysical Res.: Oceans 106, 14129–14142 (2001).

E. Boss and W. S. Pegau, “Relationship of light scattering at an angle in the backward direction to the backscattering coefficient,” Appl. Opt. 40(30), 5503–5507 (2001).
[PubMed]

Platt, T.

Poulin, C.

C. Poulin, F. Bruyant, M.-H. Laprise, A. M. Cockshutt, J. M.-R. Vandenhecke, and Y. Huot, “The impact of light pollution on diel changes in the photophysiology of Microcystis aeruginosa,” J. Plankton Res. 36, 286–291 (2013).

Prakash, A.

A. Prakash, L. Skoglund, B. Rystad, and A. Jensen, “Growth and cell-size distribution of marine planktonic algae in batch and dialysis cultures,” J. Fisheries Board Canada 30, 143–155 (1973).

Prasil, O.

F. Bruyant, M. Babin, B. Genty, O. Prasil, M. J. Behrenfeld, H. Claustre, A. Bricaud, L. Garczarek, J. Holtzendorff, and M. Koblizek, “Diel variations in the photosynthetic parameters of Prochlorococcus strain PCC 9511: Combined effects of light and cell cycle,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 50, 850–863 (2005).

Z. S. Kolber, O. Prasil, and P. G. Falkowski, “Measurements of variable chlorophyll fluorescence using fast repetition rate techniques: defining methodology and experimental protocols,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1367(1-3), 88–106 (1998).
[PubMed]

Prézelin, B. B.

L. W. Harding, B. W. Meeson, B. B. Prézelin, and B. M. Sweeney, “Diel periodicity of photosynthesis in marine phytoplankton,” Mar. Biol. 61, 95–105 (1981).

Prieur, L.

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, and L. Prieur, “Optical efficiency factors of some phytoplankters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 28, 816–832 (1983).

Pujo-Pay, M.

H. Loisel, V. Vantrepotte, K. Norkvist, X. Meriaux, M. Kheireddine, J. Ras, M. Pujo-Pay, Y. Combet, K. Leblanc, and G. Dall’Olmo, “Characterization of the bio-optical anomaly and diurnal variability of particulate matter, as seen from scattering and backscattering coefficients, in ultra-oligotrophic eddies of the Mediterranean Sea,” Biogeosciences 8, 3295–3317 (2011).

Ragni, M.

M. Ragni and M. R. d’Alcalà, “Circadian variability in the photobiology of Phaeodactylum tricornutum: pigment content,” J. Plankton Res. 29, 141–156 (2007).

Ras, J.

H. Loisel, V. Vantrepotte, K. Norkvist, X. Meriaux, M. Kheireddine, J. Ras, M. Pujo-Pay, Y. Combet, K. Leblanc, and G. Dall’Olmo, “Characterization of the bio-optical anomaly and diurnal variability of particulate matter, as seen from scattering and backscattering coefficients, in ultra-oligotrophic eddies of the Mediterranean Sea,” Biogeosciences 8, 3295–3317 (2011).

Reynolds, R. A.

Y. Huot, A. Morel, M. S. Twardowski, D. Stramski, and R. A. Reynolds, “Particle optical backscattering along a chlorophyll gradient in the upper layer of the eastern South Pacific Ocean,” Biogeosciences Discuss. 4, 4571–4604 (2007).

D. Stramski, A. Shalapyonok, and R. A. Reynolds, “Optical characterization of the oceanic unicellular cyanobacterium Synechococcus grown under a day-night cycle in natural irradiance,” J. Geophysical Res.: Oceans 100, 13295–13307 (1995).

D. Stramski and R. A. Reynolds, “Diel variations in the optical properties of a marine diatom,” Oceanography (Wash. D.C.) 38, 1347 (1993).

Richardson, M. J.

W. D. Gardner, J. S. Gundersen, M. J. Richardson, and I. D. Walsh, “The role of seasonal and diel changes in mixed-layer depth on carbon and chlorophyll distributions in the Arabian Sea,” Deep Sea Res. Part II Top. Stud. Oceanogr. 46, 1833–1858 (1999).

W. D. Gardner, I. D. Walsh, and M. J. Richardson, “Biophysical forcing of particle production and distribution during a spring bloom in the North Atlantic,” Deep Sea Res. Part II Top. Stud. Oceanogr. 40, 171–195 (1993).

Roesler, C.

W. H. Slade, E. Boss, G. DallOlmo, M. R. Langner, J. Loftin, M. J. Behrenfeld, C. Roesler, and T. K. Westberry, “Underway and moored methods for improving accuracy in measurement of spectral particulate absorption and attenuation,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 27, 1733–1746 (2010).

Ronald, J.

J. M. Sullivan, M. S. Twardowski, J. Ronald, V. Zaneveld, and C. C. Moore, “Measuring optical backscattering in water,” Light Scattering Rev. 7, 189–224 (2013).

Rosenberg, G.

D. Stramski, G. Rosenberg, and L. Legendre, “Photosynthetic and optical properties of the marine chlorophyte Dunaliella tertiolecta grown under fluctuating light caused by surface-wave focusing,” Mar. Biol. 115, 363–372 (1993).

Röttgers, R.

Roullier, F.

Roy, S.

S. Mas, S. Roy, F. Blouin, B. Mostajir, J. C. Therriault, C. Nozais, and S. Demers, “Diel variations in optical properties of imantonia rotunda (haptophyceae) and thalassiosira pseudonana (bacillariophyceae) exposed to different irradiance levels(1),” J. Phycol. 44(3), 551–563 (2008).
[PubMed]

Rystad, B.

A. Prakash, L. Skoglund, B. Rystad, and A. Jensen, “Growth and cell-size distribution of marine planktonic algae in batch and dialysis cultures,” J. Fisheries Board Canada 30, 143–155 (1973).

Ryu, J. -H.

J. -K. Choi, Y. J. Park, J. H. Ahn, H. -S. Lim, J. Eom, and J. -H. Ryu, “GOCI, the world's first geostationary ocean color observation satellite, for the monitoring of temporal variability in coastal water turbidity,” J. Geophysical Res.: Oceans 117, C9 (2012).

Sathyendranath, S.

Shalapyonok, A.

D. Stramski, A. Shalapyonok, and R. A. Reynolds, “Optical characterization of the oceanic unicellular cyanobacterium Synechococcus grown under a day-night cycle in natural irradiance,” J. Geophysical Res.: Oceans 100, 13295–13307 (1995).

Shea, D. M.

M. J. Behrenfeld, E. Boss, D. A. Siegel, and D. M. Shea, “Carbon-based ocean productivity and phytoplankton physiology from space,” Global Biogeochem. Cycles 19, 1 (2005).

Siegel, D. A.

D. Antoine, D. A. Siegel, T. Kostadinov, S. Maritorena, N. B. Nelson, B. Gentili, V. Vellucci, and N. Guillocheau, “Variability in optical particle backscattering in contrasting bio-optical oceanic regimes,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 56, 955–973 (2011).

M. J. Behrenfeld, E. Boss, D. A. Siegel, and D. M. Shea, “Carbon-based ocean productivity and phytoplankton physiology from space,” Global Biogeochem. Cycles 19, 1 (2005).

D. A. Siegel, T. D. Dickey, L. Washburn, M. K. Hamilton, and B. G. Mitchell, “Optical determination of particulate abundance and production variations in the oligotrophic ocean,” Deep-Sea Res. A, Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 36, 211–222 (1989).

Skoglund, L.

A. Prakash, L. Skoglund, B. Rystad, and A. Jensen, “Growth and cell-size distribution of marine planktonic algae in batch and dialysis cultures,” J. Fisheries Board Canada 30, 143–155 (1973).

Slade, W.

Slade, W. H.

W. H. Slade, E. Boss, G. DallOlmo, M. R. Langner, J. Loftin, M. J. Behrenfeld, C. Roesler, and T. K. Westberry, “Underway and moored methods for improving accuracy in measurement of spectral particulate absorption and attenuation,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 27, 1733–1746 (2010).

G. Dall’Olmo, T. K. Westberry, M. J. Behrenfeld, E. Boss, and W. H. Slade, “Significant contribution of large particles to optical backscattering in the open ocean,” Biogeosciences 6, 947–967 (2009).

Soon, M. Y.

J. K. Bishop, S. E. Calvert, and M. Y. Soon, “Spatial and temporal variability of POC in the northeast Subarctic Pacific,” Deep Sea Res. Part II Top. Stud. Oceanogr. 46, 2699–2733 (1999).

Sosik, H. M.

M. D. DuRand, R. E. Green, H. M. Sosik, and R. J. Olson, “Diel variations in optical properties of Micromonas pusilla (prasinophyceae) 1,” J. Phycol. 38, 1132–1142 (2002).

Stamnes, J. J.

M. Chami, E. Marken, J. J. Stamnes, G. Khomenko, and G. Korotaev, “Variability of the relationship between the particulate backscattering coefficient and the volume scattering function measured at fixed angles,” J. Geophysical Res.: Oceans 111, C5 (2006).

Stramska, M.

M. Stramska and T. D. Dickey, “Short-term variations of the bio-optical properties of the ocean in response to cloud-induced irradiance fluctuations,” J. Geophysical Res.: Oceans 97, 5713–5721 (1992).

Stramski, D.

Y. Huot, A. Morel, M. S. Twardowski, D. Stramski, and R. A. Reynolds, “Particle optical backscattering along a chlorophyll gradient in the upper layer of the eastern South Pacific Ocean,” Biogeosciences Discuss. 4, 4571–4604 (2007).

D. Stramski, A. Shalapyonok, and R. A. Reynolds, “Optical characterization of the oceanic unicellular cyanobacterium Synechococcus grown under a day-night cycle in natural irradiance,” J. Geophysical Res.: Oceans 100, 13295–13307 (1995).

D. Stramski and R. A. Reynolds, “Diel variations in the optical properties of a marine diatom,” Oceanography (Wash. D.C.) 38, 1347 (1993).

D. Stramski, G. Rosenberg, and L. Legendre, “Photosynthetic and optical properties of the marine chlorophyte Dunaliella tertiolecta grown under fluctuating light caused by surface-wave focusing,” Mar. Biol. 115, 363–372 (1993).

D. Stramski and A. Morel, “Optical properties of photosynthetic picoplankton in different physiological states as affected by growth irradiance,” Deep-Sea Res. A, Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 37, 245–266 (1990).

Sullivan, J. M.

J. M. Sullivan, M. S. Twardowski, J. Ronald, V. Zaneveld, and C. C. Moore, “Measuring optical backscattering in water,” Light Scattering Rev. 7, 189–224 (2013).

Sun, Z.

Suzuki, L.

L. Suzuki and C. H. Johnson, “Algae know the time of day: circadian and photoperiodic programs,” J. Phycol. 37, 933–942 (2001).

Sweeney, B. M.

L. W. Harding, B. W. Meeson, B. B. Prézelin, and B. M. Sweeney, “Diel periodicity of photosynthesis in marine phytoplankton,” Mar. Biol. 61, 95–105 (1981).

Taguchi, S.

N. Ohi, Y. Ishiwata, and S. Taguchi, “Diel patterns in light absorption and absorption efficiency factors of isochrysis galbana (prymnesiophyceae) 1,” J. Phycol. 38, 730–737 (2002).

Tailliez, D.

H. Claustre, Y. Huot, I. Obernosterer, B. Gentili, D. Tailliez, and M. Lewis, “Gross community production and metabolic balance in the South Pacific Gyre, using a non intrusive bio-optical method,” Biogeosciences Discuss. 4, 3089–3121 (2007).

H. Claustre, A. Morel, M. Babin, C. Cailliau, D. Marie, J.-C. Marty, D. Tailliez, and D. Vaulot, “Variability in particle attenuation and chlorophyll fluorescence in the tropical Pacific: Scales, patterns, and biogeochemical implications,” J. Geophysical Research: Oceans 104, 3401–3422 (1999).

Tan, H.

Tanaka, A.

Therriault, J. C.

S. Mas, S. Roy, F. Blouin, B. Mostajir, J. C. Therriault, C. Nozais, and S. Demers, “Diel variations in optical properties of imantonia rotunda (haptophyceae) and thalassiosira pseudonana (bacillariophyceae) exposed to different irradiance levels(1),” J. Phycol. 44(3), 551–563 (2008).
[PubMed]

Twardowski, M. S.

J. M. Sullivan, M. S. Twardowski, J. Ronald, V. Zaneveld, and C. C. Moore, “Measuring optical backscattering in water,” Light Scattering Rev. 7, 189–224 (2013).

Y. Huot, A. Morel, M. S. Twardowski, D. Stramski, and R. A. Reynolds, “Particle optical backscattering along a chlorophyll gradient in the upper layer of the eastern South Pacific Ocean,” Biogeosciences Discuss. 4, 4571–4604 (2007).

M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. B. Macdonald, W. S. Pegau, A. H. Barnard, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A model for estimating bulk refractive index from the optical backscattering ratio and the implications for understanding particle composition in case I and case II waters,” J. Geophysical Res.: Oceans 106, 14129–14142 (2001).

Ulloa, O.

Vaillancourt, R. D.

W. M. Balch, D. T. Drapeau, T. L. Cucci, R. D. Vaillancourt, K. A. Kilpatrick, and J. J. Fritz, “Optical backscattering by calcifying algae: Separating the contribution of particulate inorganic and organic carbon fractions,” J. Geophysical Res.: Oceans 104, 1541–1558 (1999).

Vandenhecke, J. M.

J. M. Vandenhecke, J. Bastedo, A. M. Cockshutt, D. A. Campbell, and Y. Huot, “Changes in the Rubisco to photosystem ratio dominates photoacclimation across phytoplankton taxa,” Photosynth. Res. 124(3), 275–291 (2015).
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Vandenhecke, J. M.-R.

C. Poulin, F. Bruyant, M.-H. Laprise, A. M. Cockshutt, J. M.-R. Vandenhecke, and Y. Huot, “The impact of light pollution on diel changes in the photophysiology of Microcystis aeruginosa,” J. Plankton Res. 36, 286–291 (2013).

Vantrepotte, V.

H. Loisel, V. Vantrepotte, K. Norkvist, X. Meriaux, M. Kheireddine, J. Ras, M. Pujo-Pay, Y. Combet, K. Leblanc, and G. Dall’Olmo, “Characterization of the bio-optical anomaly and diurnal variability of particulate matter, as seen from scattering and backscattering coefficients, in ultra-oligotrophic eddies of the Mediterranean Sea,” Biogeosciences 8, 3295–3317 (2011).

Vaulot, D.

S. Jacquet, F. Partensky, D. Marie, R. Casotti, and D. Vaulot, “Cell cycle regulation by light in Prochlorococcus strains,” Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 67(2), 782–790 (2001).
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H. Claustre, A. Morel, M. Babin, C. Cailliau, D. Marie, J.-C. Marty, D. Tailliez, and D. Vaulot, “Variability in particle attenuation and chlorophyll fluorescence in the tropical Pacific: Scales, patterns, and biogeochemical implications,” J. Geophysical Research: Oceans 104, 3401–3422 (1999).

D. Vaulot, D. Marie, R. J. Olson, and S. W. Chisholm, “Growth of prochlorococcus, a photosynthetic prokaryote, in the equatorial pacific ocean,” Science 268(5216), 1480–1482 (1995).
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Vellucci, V.

D. Antoine, D. A. Siegel, T. Kostadinov, S. Maritorena, N. B. Nelson, B. Gentili, V. Vellucci, and N. Guillocheau, “Variability in optical particle backscattering in contrasting bio-optical oceanic regimes,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 56, 955–973 (2011).

Vrind, J. P.

C. Linschooten, J. D. Bleijswijk, P. R. Emburg, J. P. Vrind, E. S. Kempers, P. Westbroek, and E. W. Vrind-de Jong, “Role of the light-dark cycle and medium composition on the production of coccoliths by emiliania huxleyi (haptophyceae),” J. Phycol. 27, 82–86 (1991).

Vrind-de Jong, E. W.

C. Linschooten, J. D. Bleijswijk, P. R. Emburg, J. P. Vrind, E. S. Kempers, P. Westbroek, and E. W. Vrind-de Jong, “Role of the light-dark cycle and medium composition on the production of coccoliths by emiliania huxleyi (haptophyceae),” J. Phycol. 27, 82–86 (1991).

Walsh, I. D.

W. D. Gardner, J. S. Gundersen, M. J. Richardson, and I. D. Walsh, “The role of seasonal and diel changes in mixed-layer depth on carbon and chlorophyll distributions in the Arabian Sea,” Deep Sea Res. Part II Top. Stud. Oceanogr. 46, 1833–1858 (1999).

W. D. Gardner, I. D. Walsh, and M. J. Richardson, “Biophysical forcing of particle production and distribution during a spring bloom in the North Atlantic,” Deep Sea Res. Part II Top. Stud. Oceanogr. 40, 171–195 (1993).

Wang, G.

Washburn, L.

D. A. Siegel, T. D. Dickey, L. Washburn, M. K. Hamilton, and B. G. Mitchell, “Optical determination of particulate abundance and production variations in the oligotrophic ocean,” Deep-Sea Res. A, Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 36, 211–222 (1989).

Welschmeyer, N. A.

N. A. Welschmeyer, “Fluorometric analysis of chlorophyll a in the presence of chlorophyll b and pheopigments,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 39, 1985–1992 (1994).

Westberry, T. K.

W. H. Slade, E. Boss, G. DallOlmo, M. R. Langner, J. Loftin, M. J. Behrenfeld, C. Roesler, and T. K. Westberry, “Underway and moored methods for improving accuracy in measurement of spectral particulate absorption and attenuation,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 27, 1733–1746 (2010).

T. K. Westberry, G. Dall’Olmo, E. Boss, M. J. Behrenfeld, and T. Moutin, “Coherence of particulate beam attenuation and backscattering coefficients in diverse open ocean environments,” Opt. Express 18(15), 15419–15425 (2010).
[PubMed]

G. Dall’Olmo, T. K. Westberry, M. J. Behrenfeld, E. Boss, and W. H. Slade, “Significant contribution of large particles to optical backscattering in the open ocean,” Biogeosciences 6, 947–967 (2009).

Westbroek, P.

C. Linschooten, J. D. Bleijswijk, P. R. Emburg, J. P. Vrind, E. S. Kempers, P. Westbroek, and E. W. Vrind-de Jong, “Role of the light-dark cycle and medium composition on the production of coccoliths by emiliania huxleyi (haptophyceae),” J. Phycol. 27, 82–86 (1991).

Whitledge, T. E.

T. G. Owens, P. G. Falkowski, and T. E. Whitledge, “Diel periodicity in cellular chlorophyll content in marine diatoms,” Mar. Biol. 59, 71–77 (1980).

Whitmire, A. L.

Xu, Z.

Zaneveld, J. R. V.

M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. B. Macdonald, W. S. Pegau, A. H. Barnard, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A model for estimating bulk refractive index from the optical backscattering ratio and the implications for understanding particle composition in case I and case II waters,” J. Geophysical Res.: Oceans 106, 14129–14142 (2001).

Zaneveld, V.

J. M. Sullivan, M. S. Twardowski, J. Ronald, V. Zaneveld, and C. C. Moore, “Measuring optical backscattering in water,” Light Scattering Rev. 7, 189–224 (2013).

Zhao, J.

Zhou, W.

Annu. Rev. Mar. Sci. (1)

C. R. McClain, “A decade of satellite ocean color observations,” Annu. Rev. Mar. Sci. 1, 19–42 (2009).
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Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (1)

S. Jacquet, F. Partensky, D. Marie, R. Casotti, and D. Vaulot, “Cell cycle regulation by light in Prochlorococcus strains,” Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 67(2), 782–790 (2001).
[PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (5)

Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1)

Z. S. Kolber, O. Prasil, and P. G. Falkowski, “Measurements of variable chlorophyll fluorescence using fast repetition rate techniques: defining methodology and experimental protocols,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1367(1-3), 88–106 (1998).
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Biogeosciences (2)

G. Dall’Olmo, T. K. Westberry, M. J. Behrenfeld, E. Boss, and W. H. Slade, “Significant contribution of large particles to optical backscattering in the open ocean,” Biogeosciences 6, 947–967 (2009).

H. Loisel, V. Vantrepotte, K. Norkvist, X. Meriaux, M. Kheireddine, J. Ras, M. Pujo-Pay, Y. Combet, K. Leblanc, and G. Dall’Olmo, “Characterization of the bio-optical anomaly and diurnal variability of particulate matter, as seen from scattering and backscattering coefficients, in ultra-oligotrophic eddies of the Mediterranean Sea,” Biogeosciences 8, 3295–3317 (2011).

Biogeosciences Discuss. (2)

Y. Huot, A. Morel, M. S. Twardowski, D. Stramski, and R. A. Reynolds, “Particle optical backscattering along a chlorophyll gradient in the upper layer of the eastern South Pacific Ocean,” Biogeosciences Discuss. 4, 4571–4604 (2007).

H. Claustre, Y. Huot, I. Obernosterer, B. Gentili, D. Tailliez, and M. Lewis, “Gross community production and metabolic balance in the South Pacific Gyre, using a non intrusive bio-optical method,” Biogeosciences Discuss. 4, 3089–3121 (2007).

Can. Bull. Fish. Aquat. Sci. (1)

A. Morel and A. Bricaud, “Inherent optical properties of algal cells including picoplankton: theoretical and experimental results,” Can. Bull. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 214, 521–559 (1986).

Deep Sea Res. Part I Oceanogr. Res. Pap. (1)

M. J. Behrenfeld and E. Boss, “The beam attenuation to chlorophyll ratio: an optical index of phytoplankton physiology in the surface ocean?” Deep Sea Res. Part I Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 50, 1537–1549 (2003).

Deep Sea Res. Part II Top. Stud. Oceanogr. (4)

M. D. Durand and R. J. Olson, “Contributions of phytoplankton light scattering and cell concentration changes to diel variations in beam attenuation in the equatorial Pacific from flow cytometric measurements of pico-, ultra-and nanoplankton,” Deep Sea Res. Part II Top. Stud. Oceanogr. 43, 891–906 (1996).

J. K. Bishop, S. E. Calvert, and M. Y. Soon, “Spatial and temporal variability of POC in the northeast Subarctic Pacific,” Deep Sea Res. Part II Top. Stud. Oceanogr. 46, 2699–2733 (1999).

W. D. Gardner, J. S. Gundersen, M. J. Richardson, and I. D. Walsh, “The role of seasonal and diel changes in mixed-layer depth on carbon and chlorophyll distributions in the Arabian Sea,” Deep Sea Res. Part II Top. Stud. Oceanogr. 46, 1833–1858 (1999).

W. D. Gardner, I. D. Walsh, and M. J. Richardson, “Biophysical forcing of particle production and distribution during a spring bloom in the North Atlantic,” Deep Sea Res. Part II Top. Stud. Oceanogr. 40, 171–195 (1993).

Deep-Sea Res. A, Oceanogr. Res. Pap. (3)

D. A. Siegel, T. D. Dickey, L. Washburn, M. K. Hamilton, and B. G. Mitchell, “Optical determination of particulate abundance and production variations in the oligotrophic ocean,” Deep-Sea Res. A, Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 36, 211–222 (1989).

D. Stramski and A. Morel, “Optical properties of photosynthetic picoplankton in different physiological states as affected by growth irradiance,” Deep-Sea Res. A, Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 37, 245–266 (1990).

Y.-H. Ahn, A. Bricaud, and A. Morel, “Light backscattering efficiency and related properties of some phytoplankters,” Deep-Sea Res. A, Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 39, 1835–1855 (1992).

Global Biogeochem. Cycles (1)

M. J. Behrenfeld, E. Boss, D. A. Siegel, and D. M. Shea, “Carbon-based ocean productivity and phytoplankton physiology from space,” Global Biogeochem. Cycles 19, 1 (2005).

J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. (1)

W. H. Slade, E. Boss, G. DallOlmo, M. R. Langner, J. Loftin, M. J. Behrenfeld, C. Roesler, and T. K. Westberry, “Underway and moored methods for improving accuracy in measurement of spectral particulate absorption and attenuation,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 27, 1733–1746 (2010).

J. Fisheries Board Canada (1)

A. Prakash, L. Skoglund, B. Rystad, and A. Jensen, “Growth and cell-size distribution of marine planktonic algae in batch and dialysis cultures,” J. Fisheries Board Canada 30, 143–155 (1973).

J. Geophysical Res.: Oceans (9)

M. Chami, E. Marken, J. J. Stamnes, G. Khomenko, and G. Korotaev, “Variability of the relationship between the particulate backscattering coefficient and the volume scattering function measured at fixed angles,” J. Geophysical Res.: Oceans 111, C5 (2006).

M. Kheireddine and D. Antoine, “Diel variability of the beam attenuation and backscattering coefficients in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea (BOUSSOLE site),” J. Geophysical Res.: Oceans 119, 5465–5482 (2014).

M. Stramska and T. D. Dickey, “Short-term variations of the bio-optical properties of the ocean in response to cloud-induced irradiance fluctuations,” J. Geophysical Res.: Oceans 97, 5713–5721 (1992).

W. M. Balch, D. T. Drapeau, T. L. Cucci, R. D. Vaillancourt, K. A. Kilpatrick, and J. J. Fritz, “Optical backscattering by calcifying algae: Separating the contribution of particulate inorganic and organic carbon fractions,” J. Geophysical Res.: Oceans 104, 1541–1558 (1999).

J. -K. Choi, Y. J. Park, J. H. Ahn, H. -S. Lim, J. Eom, and J. -H. Ryu, “GOCI, the world's first geostationary ocean color observation satellite, for the monitoring of temporal variability in coastal water turbidity,” J. Geophysical Res.: Oceans 117, C9 (2012).

A. Morel and S. Maritorena, “Bio-optical properties of oceanic waters: A reappraisal,” J. Geophysical Res.: Oceans 106, 7163–7180 (2001).

M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. B. Macdonald, W. S. Pegau, A. H. Barnard, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A model for estimating bulk refractive index from the optical backscattering ratio and the implications for understanding particle composition in case I and case II waters,” J. Geophysical Res.: Oceans 106, 14129–14142 (2001).

J. J. Cullen, M. R. Lewis, C. O. Davis, and R. T. Barber, “Photosynthetic characteristics and estimated growth rates indicate grazing is the proximate control of primary production in the equatorial Pacific,” J. Geophysical Res.: Oceans 97, 639–654 (1992).

D. Stramski, A. Shalapyonok, and R. A. Reynolds, “Optical characterization of the oceanic unicellular cyanobacterium Synechococcus grown under a day-night cycle in natural irradiance,” J. Geophysical Res.: Oceans 100, 13295–13307 (1995).

J. Geophysical Research: Oceans (1)

H. Claustre, A. Morel, M. Babin, C. Cailliau, D. Marie, J.-C. Marty, D. Tailliez, and D. Vaulot, “Variability in particle attenuation and chlorophyll fluorescence in the tropical Pacific: Scales, patterns, and biogeochemical implications,” J. Geophysical Research: Oceans 104, 3401–3422 (1999).

J. Mar. Res. (1)

R. R. Bidigare, J. H. Morrow, and D. A. Kiefer, “Derivative analysis of spectral absorption by photosynthetic pigments in the western Sargasso Sea,” J. Mar. Res. 47, 323–341 (1989).

J. Phycol. (5)

L. Suzuki and C. H. Johnson, “Algae know the time of day: circadian and photoperiodic programs,” J. Phycol. 37, 933–942 (2001).

N. Ohi, Y. Ishiwata, and S. Taguchi, “Diel patterns in light absorption and absorption efficiency factors of isochrysis galbana (prymnesiophyceae) 1,” J. Phycol. 38, 730–737 (2002).

M. D. DuRand, R. E. Green, H. M. Sosik, and R. J. Olson, “Diel variations in optical properties of Micromonas pusilla (prasinophyceae) 1,” J. Phycol. 38, 1132–1142 (2002).

S. Mas, S. Roy, F. Blouin, B. Mostajir, J. C. Therriault, C. Nozais, and S. Demers, “Diel variations in optical properties of imantonia rotunda (haptophyceae) and thalassiosira pseudonana (bacillariophyceae) exposed to different irradiance levels(1),” J. Phycol. 44(3), 551–563 (2008).
[PubMed]

C. Linschooten, J. D. Bleijswijk, P. R. Emburg, J. P. Vrind, E. S. Kempers, P. Westbroek, and E. W. Vrind-de Jong, “Role of the light-dark cycle and medium composition on the production of coccoliths by emiliania huxleyi (haptophyceae),” J. Phycol. 27, 82–86 (1991).

J. Plankton Res. (3)

M. Ragni and M. R. d’Alcalà, “Circadian variability in the photobiology of Phaeodactylum tricornutum: pigment content,” J. Plankton Res. 29, 141–156 (2007).

S. G. Ackleson, J. J. Cullen, J. Brown, and M. Lesser, “Irradiance-induced variability in light scatter from marine phytoplankton in culture,” J. Plankton Res. 15, 737–759 (1993).

C. Poulin, F. Bruyant, M.-H. Laprise, A. M. Cockshutt, J. M.-R. Vandenhecke, and Y. Huot, “The impact of light pollution on diel changes in the photophysiology of Microcystis aeruginosa,” J. Plankton Res. 36, 286–291 (2013).

Light Scattering Rev. (1)

J. M. Sullivan, M. S. Twardowski, J. Ronald, V. Zaneveld, and C. C. Moore, “Measuring optical backscattering in water,” Light Scattering Rev. 7, 189–224 (2013).

Limnol. Oceanogr. (7)

N. A. Welschmeyer, “Fluorometric analysis of chlorophyll a in the presence of chlorophyll b and pheopigments,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 39, 1985–1992 (1994).

D. Antoine, D. A. Siegel, T. Kostadinov, S. Maritorena, N. B. Nelson, B. Gentili, V. Vellucci, and N. Guillocheau, “Variability in optical particle backscattering in contrasting bio-optical oceanic regimes,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 56, 955–973 (2011).

H. Claustre, A. Bricaud, M. Babin, F. Bruyant, L. Guillou, F. Le Gall, D. Marie, and F. Partensky, “Diel variations in Prochlorococcus optical properties,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 47, 1637–1647 (2002).

M. D. DuRand and R. J. Olson, “Diel patterns in optical properties of the chlorophyte Nannochloris sp.: Relating individual-cell to bulk measurements,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 1107–1118 (1998).

F. Bruyant, M. Babin, B. Genty, O. Prasil, M. J. Behrenfeld, H. Claustre, A. Bricaud, L. Garczarek, J. Holtzendorff, and M. Koblizek, “Diel variations in the photosynthetic parameters of Prochlorococcus strain PCC 9511: Combined effects of light and cell cycle,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 50, 850–863 (2005).

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Experimental setup for the optical instruments made up of a 7 L bucket, an ac-s and an ECO BB9 connected by silicone tubing and a peristaltic pump. A recirculation loop with a 0.2 µm capsule filter was used for filtration between sampling time-points.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Diurnal variations of the mean quantum yield of photosynthesis (Fv/Fm) and PAR (gray dashed line, µmol photons m2 s−1) for the four species: T. pseudonana (yellow), D. tertiolecta (green), P. tricornutum (orange) and E. huxleyi (blue). The same color-coding is used throughout the paper. Spline curve fits were added as a visual aid.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Diurnal variations of the mean cell size distributions in the cultures, measured with the Coulter Counter, and for the times indicated. Standard deviations (error bars) were added to the 7:00 and 21:00 curves.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Diurnal variations of the mean and standard deviations (error bars) of a) cell diameter, b) C/Chl (g/g, solid line) and C/N (g/g, dashed line) and c) intracellular C (pg·cell−1, solid line) and Chl (pg·cell−1, dashed line). Spline curve fits were added as a visual aid. Dark bars on x axis represent the dark period of the day. Results from top to bottom are for: T. pseudonana, D. tertiolecta, P. tricornutum and E. huxleyi.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Diurnal variations of a) particulate absorption coefficient (ap, m−1), b) particulate scattering coefficient (bp, m−1) and, c) particulate beam attenuation coefficient (cp, m−1) at different times of the day (see legend). The standard deviations (error bars) are only displayed for 7:00 and 21:00 when available. Results from top to bottom are for: T. pseudonana, D. tertiolecta, P. tricornutum and E. huxleyi.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Diurnal variations of the mean a) particulate absorption coefficient, b) particulate scattering coefficient, c) particulate beam attenuation coefficient for the wavelengths indicated. The standard deviations (error bars) are only displayed for 441 and 732 nm. Results from top to bottom are for: T. pseudonana, D. tertiolecta, P. tricornutum and E. huxleyi. Spline curve fits were added as a visual aid.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Diurnal variations of the mean spectral a) chlorophyll-specific particulate absorption coefficient (apChl, m2 mg−1), b) chlorophyll specific particulate beam attenuation coefficient (cpChl, m2 mg−1), c) carbon specific particulate beam attenuation coefficient (cpC, m2 g−1) for the wavelengths indicated. The standard deviations (error bars) are only displayed for 441 and 732 nm when available. Results from top to bottom are for: T. pseudonana, D. tertiolecta, P. tricornutum and E. huxleyi. Spline curve fits were added as a visual aid.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Relationship between the carbon-specific beam attenuation coefficient (cpC m2 g−1), and effective cell diameter (µm) for nine phytoplankton species, including the four studied in this paper (colored symbols), plus Synechococcus (Stramski et al., 1995) [27], Synechocystis (Stramski and Morel, 1990) [49], Micromonas pusilla [21], (Durand et al., 2002), Nannochloris sp. (Durand and Olson, 1998) [25] and Thalassiosira pseudonana 2 (Stramski and Reynolds, 1993) [19]. For each point the mean and standard deviations (error bars) over the diel cycle is shown with an arrow indicating direction of the change for cpC, except for Synechocystis for which the mean of seven different irradiances is shown. cpC is at 550 nm except for Synechocystis (660 nm).
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Diurnal variations of the mean a) particulate absorption cross-section (σa, m2 cell−1), b) particulate scattering cross-section (σb, m2 cell−1), c) particulate attenuation cross-section (σc, m2 cell−1) for and the wavelengths indicated in the legend. The standard deviations (error bars) are only displayed for 441 and 732 nm when available. Results from top to bottom are for: T. pseudonana, D. tertiolecta, P. tricornutum and E. huxleyi. Spline curve fits were added as a visual aid.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Diurnal variations of a) the mean particulate backscattering coefficient (bbp, m−1) for the wavelengths indicated and b) the mean backscattering ratio for the wavelengths available from the ECO BB9 and their nearest from the ac-s (in the legend). The standard deviations are only displayed for 440 nm and 715 nm. Results from top to bottom are for: T. pseudonana, D. tertiolecta, P. tricornutum and E. huxleyi. Spline curve fits were added as a visual aid.
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 Diurnal variations of a) the mean C specific particulate backscattering coefficient (bbpC, m2 mg−1), b) Chl specific particulate backscattering coefficient (bbpChl, m2 mg−1) and c) particulate backscattering cross-section (σbb, m2 cell−1) for the wavelengths indicated. Standard deviations (error bars) are only displayed for λ = 507 and 878 nm (439 and 878 nm for E. huxleyi). Results from top to bottom are for: T. pseudonana, D. tertiolecta, P. tricornutum and E. huxleyi. Spline curve fits were added as a visual aid.
Fig. 12
Fig. 12 Diurnal variations of the relative variation from sunrise for a) the particulate beam attenuation coefficient (Δcp, %) coefficient b) the particulate scattering coefficient (Δbp, %) and c) particulate backscattering coefficient (Δbbp, %) for the wavelengths indicated. Standard deviations (error bars) are only displayed for 439 and 878 nm (507 and 878 nm for P. tricornutum). Results from top to bottom are for: T. pseudonana, D. tertiolecta, P. tricornutum and E. huxleyi. Spline curve fits were added as a visual aid. For P. tricornutum, Δbbp was extremely noisy for most wavelengths and thus removed from the analysis.

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Description of the species chosen for the experiments. Numerical values are given as mean ± standard deviation.

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Table 2 Correlation coefficients (r2) of cp 716 (m−1) and bbp 715 (m−1) (to avoid the effect of absorption) with cell concentration (n cell, (Cell·m−3)), carbon content (µg·L−1) and (µg·cell−1), cell diameter (µm) and Chl concentration (µg·L−1) and (µg·cell−1). (Correlation coefficients larger than 0.50 in bold.)

Equations (2)

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b bp =2πχ β p ( 124 )
Δ b p (t)=100[ b p (t)/ b p (0)1 ].

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