Abstract

The characterization of the temporal waveform of few-cycle laser pulses is an indispensable part in strong-field physics and attosecond science. Recently, a simple waveform-characterization technique called TIPTOE (tunneling ionization with a perturbation for the time-domain observation of an electric field) has been demonstrated for measuring linearly polarized few-cycle pulses. We theoretically and experimentally show that TIPTOE can be extended to resolve more characteristics of an optical waveform: the two-dimensional polarization and the Gouy phase. Based on the plasma fluorescence of a gaseous medium, we achieve all-optical and spatially resolved measurements of the waveform of an infrared pulse. This detection method enables the remote characterization of a waveform without the need to place an apparatus near the focal point of the laser beam. The proposed approach represents a simple and powerful method for conducting waveform diagnostics on few-cycle laser sources.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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    [Crossref]
  25. H. L. Xu, A. Azarm, J. Bernhardt, Y. Kamali, and S. L. Chin, “The mechanism of nitrogen fluorescence inside a femtosecond laser filament in air,” Chem. Phys. 360(1-3), 171–175 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  26. B. R. Arnold, S. D. Roberson, and P. M. Pellegrino, “Excited state dynamics of nitrogen reactive intermediates at the threshold of laser induced filamentation,” Chem. Phys. 405, 9–15 (2012).
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2018 (2)

S. B. Park, K. Kim, W. Cho, S. I. Hwang, I. Ivanov, C. H. Nam, and K. T. Kim, “Direct sampling of a light wave in air,” Optica 5(4), 402–408 (2018).
[Crossref]

T. J. Hammond, A. Korobenko, A. Y. Naumov, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and D. H. Ko, “Near-field imaging for single-shot waveform measurements,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 51(6), 065603 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (4)

P. Carpeggiani, M. Reduzzi, A. Comby, H. Ahmadi, S. Kühn, F. Calegari, M. Nisoli, F. Frassetto, L. Poletto, D. Hoff, J. Ullrich, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, G. G. Paulus, and G. Sansone, “Vectorial optical field reconstruction by attosecond spatial interferometry,” Nat. Photonics 11(6), 383–389 (2017).
[Crossref]

D. Hoff, M. Krüger, L. Maisenbacher, A. M. Sayler, G. G. Paulus, and P. Hommelhof, “Trancing the phase of focused broadband laser pulses,” Nat. Phys. 13(10), 947–951 (2017).
[Crossref]

F. Schlaepfer, A. Ludwig, M. Lucchini, L. Kasmi, M. Volkov, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Gouy phase shift for annular beam profiles in attosecond experiments,” Opt. Express 25(4), 3646–3655 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Ishii, K. Kaneshima, T. Kanai, S. Watanabe, and J. Itatani, “Generation of sub-two-cycle millijoule infrared pulses in an optical parametric chirped-pulse amplifier and their application to soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy with high-flux high harmonics,” J. Opt. 20(1), 014003 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (2)

2015 (1)

O. Kfir, P. Grychtol, E. Turgut, R. Knut, D. Zusin, D. Popmintchev, T. Popmintchev, H. Nembach, J. M. Shaw, A. Fleischer, H. Kapteyn, M. Murnane, and O. Cohen, “Generation of bright phase-matched circularly-polarized extreme ultraviolet high harmonics,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 99–105 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

A. Fleischer, O. Kfir, T. Diskin, P. Sidorenko, and O. Cohen, “Spin angular momentum and tunable polarization in high-harmonic generation,” Nat. Photonics 8(7), 543–549 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. Krausz and M. I. Stockman, “Attosecond metrology: from electron capture to future signal processing,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 205–213 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

K. T. Kim, C. Zhang, A. D. Shiner, B. E. Schmidt, F. Légaré, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Petahertz optical oscilloscope,” Nat. Photonics 7(12), 958–962 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Nomura, H. Shirai, and T. Fuji, “Frequency-resolved optical gating capable of carrier-envelope phase determination,” Nat. Commun. 4(1), 2820 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Schiffrin, T. Paasch-Colberg, N. Karpowicz, V. Apalkov, D. Gerster, S. Mühlbrandt, M. Korbman, J. Reichert, M. Schultze, S. Holzner, J. V. Barth, R. Kienberger, R. Ernstorfer, V. S. Yakovlev, M. I. Stockman, and F. Krausz, “Optical-field-induced current in dielectrics,” Nature 493(7430), 70–74 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

B. R. Arnold, S. D. Roberson, and P. M. Pellegrino, “Excited state dynamics of nitrogen reactive intermediates at the threshold of laser induced filamentation,” Chem. Phys. 405, 9–15 (2012).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

2009 (1)

H. L. Xu, A. Azarm, J. Bernhardt, Y. Kamali, and S. L. Chin, “The mechanism of nitrogen fluorescence inside a femtosecond laser filament in air,” Chem. Phys. 360(1-3), 171–175 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

P. Eckle, M. Smolarski, P. Schlup, J. Biegert, A. Staudte, M. Schöffler, H. G. Muller, R. Dörner, and U. Keller, “Attosecond angular streaking,” Nat. Phys. 4(7), 565–570 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

P. B. Corkum and F. Krausz, “Attosecond science,” Nat. Phys. 3(6), 381–387 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314(5798), 443–446 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

F. Lindner, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, A. Baltuška, E. Goulielmakis, M. Lezius, and F. Krausz, “Gouy phase shift for few-cycle laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(11), 113001 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, R. Kienberger, A. Baltuška, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Direct measurement of light waves,” Science 305(5688), 1267–1269 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

J. Itatani, F. Quéré, G. L. Yudin, M. Yu. Ivanov, F. Krausz, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond streak camera,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(17), 173903 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. M. Tong, Z. X. Zhao, and C. D. Lin, “Theory of molecular tunneling ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 66(3), 033402 (2002).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

P. Balcou, P. Salières, A. L’Huillier, and M. Lewenstein, “Generalized phase-matching conditions for high harmonics: The role of field-gradient forces,” Phys. Rev. A 55(4), 3204–3210 (1997).
[Crossref]

1977 (1)

A. Lofthus and P. H. Krupenie, “The spectrum of molecular nitrogen,” J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 6(1), 113–307 (1977).
[Crossref]

Ahmadi, H.

P. Carpeggiani, M. Reduzzi, A. Comby, H. Ahmadi, S. Kühn, F. Calegari, M. Nisoli, F. Frassetto, L. Poletto, D. Hoff, J. Ullrich, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, G. G. Paulus, and G. Sansone, “Vectorial optical field reconstruction by attosecond spatial interferometry,” Nat. Photonics 11(6), 383–389 (2017).
[Crossref]

Altucci, C.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314(5798), 443–446 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Apalkov, V.

A. Schiffrin, T. Paasch-Colberg, N. Karpowicz, V. Apalkov, D. Gerster, S. Mühlbrandt, M. Korbman, J. Reichert, M. Schultze, S. Holzner, J. V. Barth, R. Kienberger, R. Ernstorfer, V. S. Yakovlev, M. I. Stockman, and F. Krausz, “Optical-field-induced current in dielectrics,” Nature 493(7430), 70–74 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arnold, B. R.

B. R. Arnold, S. D. Roberson, and P. M. Pellegrino, “Excited state dynamics of nitrogen reactive intermediates at the threshold of laser induced filamentation,” Chem. Phys. 405, 9–15 (2012).
[Crossref]

Avaldi, L.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314(5798), 443–446 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Azarm, A.

H. L. Xu, A. Azarm, J. Bernhardt, Y. Kamali, and S. L. Chin, “The mechanism of nitrogen fluorescence inside a femtosecond laser filament in air,” Chem. Phys. 360(1-3), 171–175 (2009).
[Crossref]

Balcou, P.

P. Balcou, P. Salières, A. L’Huillier, and M. Lewenstein, “Generalized phase-matching conditions for high harmonics: The role of field-gradient forces,” Phys. Rev. A 55(4), 3204–3210 (1997).
[Crossref]

Baltuška, A.

F. Lindner, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, A. Baltuška, E. Goulielmakis, M. Lezius, and F. Krausz, “Gouy phase shift for few-cycle laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(11), 113001 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, R. Kienberger, A. Baltuška, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Direct measurement of light waves,” Science 305(5688), 1267–1269 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barth, J. V.

T. P. Colberg, S. Y. Kruchinin, Ö. Sağlam, S. Kapser, S. Cabrini, S. Muehlbrandt, J. Reichert, J. V. Barth, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, V. S. Yakovlev, N. Karpowicz, and A. Schiffrin, “Sub-cycle optical control of current in a semiconductor: from the multiphoton to the tunneling regime,” Optica 3, 1358–1361 (2016).

A. Schiffrin, T. Paasch-Colberg, N. Karpowicz, V. Apalkov, D. Gerster, S. Mühlbrandt, M. Korbman, J. Reichert, M. Schultze, S. Holzner, J. V. Barth, R. Kienberger, R. Ernstorfer, V. S. Yakovlev, M. I. Stockman, and F. Krausz, “Optical-field-induced current in dielectrics,” Nature 493(7430), 70–74 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Benedetti, E.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314(5798), 443–446 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bernhardt, J.

H. L. Xu, A. Azarm, J. Bernhardt, Y. Kamali, and S. L. Chin, “The mechanism of nitrogen fluorescence inside a femtosecond laser filament in air,” Chem. Phys. 360(1-3), 171–175 (2009).
[Crossref]

Biegert, J.

P. Eckle, M. Smolarski, P. Schlup, J. Biegert, A. Staudte, M. Schöffler, H. G. Muller, R. Dörner, and U. Keller, “Attosecond angular streaking,” Nat. Phys. 4(7), 565–570 (2008).
[Crossref]

Cabrini, S.

Calegari, F.

P. Carpeggiani, M. Reduzzi, A. Comby, H. Ahmadi, S. Kühn, F. Calegari, M. Nisoli, F. Frassetto, L. Poletto, D. Hoff, J. Ullrich, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, G. G. Paulus, and G. Sansone, “Vectorial optical field reconstruction by attosecond spatial interferometry,” Nat. Photonics 11(6), 383–389 (2017).
[Crossref]

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314(5798), 443–446 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Carpeggiani, P.

P. Carpeggiani, M. Reduzzi, A. Comby, H. Ahmadi, S. Kühn, F. Calegari, M. Nisoli, F. Frassetto, L. Poletto, D. Hoff, J. Ullrich, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, G. G. Paulus, and G. Sansone, “Vectorial optical field reconstruction by attosecond spatial interferometry,” Nat. Photonics 11(6), 383–389 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chin, S. L.

H. L. Xu, A. Azarm, J. Bernhardt, Y. Kamali, and S. L. Chin, “The mechanism of nitrogen fluorescence inside a femtosecond laser filament in air,” Chem. Phys. 360(1-3), 171–175 (2009).
[Crossref]

Cho, W.

Cohen, O.

O. Kfir, P. Grychtol, E. Turgut, R. Knut, D. Zusin, D. Popmintchev, T. Popmintchev, H. Nembach, J. M. Shaw, A. Fleischer, H. Kapteyn, M. Murnane, and O. Cohen, “Generation of bright phase-matched circularly-polarized extreme ultraviolet high harmonics,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 99–105 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Fleischer, O. Kfir, T. Diskin, P. Sidorenko, and O. Cohen, “Spin angular momentum and tunable polarization in high-harmonic generation,” Nat. Photonics 8(7), 543–549 (2014).
[Crossref]

Colberg, T. P.

Comby, A.

P. Carpeggiani, M. Reduzzi, A. Comby, H. Ahmadi, S. Kühn, F. Calegari, M. Nisoli, F. Frassetto, L. Poletto, D. Hoff, J. Ullrich, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, G. G. Paulus, and G. Sansone, “Vectorial optical field reconstruction by attosecond spatial interferometry,” Nat. Photonics 11(6), 383–389 (2017).
[Crossref]

Corkum, P. B.

T. J. Hammond, A. Korobenko, A. Y. Naumov, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and D. H. Ko, “Near-field imaging for single-shot waveform measurements,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 51(6), 065603 (2018).
[Crossref]

K. T. Kim, C. Zhang, A. D. Shiner, B. E. Schmidt, F. Légaré, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Petahertz optical oscilloscope,” Nat. Photonics 7(12), 958–962 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. B. Corkum and F. Krausz, “Attosecond science,” Nat. Phys. 3(6), 381–387 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Itatani, F. Quéré, G. L. Yudin, M. Yu. Ivanov, F. Krausz, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond streak camera,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(17), 173903 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

De Silvestri, S.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314(5798), 443–446 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Diskin, T.

A. Fleischer, O. Kfir, T. Diskin, P. Sidorenko, and O. Cohen, “Spin angular momentum and tunable polarization in high-harmonic generation,” Nat. Photonics 8(7), 543–549 (2014).
[Crossref]

Dörner, R.

P. Eckle, M. Smolarski, P. Schlup, J. Biegert, A. Staudte, M. Schöffler, H. G. Muller, R. Dörner, and U. Keller, “Attosecond angular streaking,” Nat. Phys. 4(7), 565–570 (2008).
[Crossref]

Drescher, M.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, R. Kienberger, A. Baltuška, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Direct measurement of light waves,” Science 305(5688), 1267–1269 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eckle, P.

P. Eckle, M. Smolarski, P. Schlup, J. Biegert, A. Staudte, M. Schöffler, H. G. Muller, R. Dörner, and U. Keller, “Attosecond angular streaking,” Nat. Phys. 4(7), 565–570 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ernstorfer, R.

T. P. Colberg, S. Y. Kruchinin, Ö. Sağlam, S. Kapser, S. Cabrini, S. Muehlbrandt, J. Reichert, J. V. Barth, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, V. S. Yakovlev, N. Karpowicz, and A. Schiffrin, “Sub-cycle optical control of current in a semiconductor: from the multiphoton to the tunneling regime,” Optica 3, 1358–1361 (2016).

A. Schiffrin, T. Paasch-Colberg, N. Karpowicz, V. Apalkov, D. Gerster, S. Mühlbrandt, M. Korbman, J. Reichert, M. Schultze, S. Holzner, J. V. Barth, R. Kienberger, R. Ernstorfer, V. S. Yakovlev, M. I. Stockman, and F. Krausz, “Optical-field-induced current in dielectrics,” Nature 493(7430), 70–74 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fabris, D.

Flammini, R.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314(5798), 443–446 (2006).
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A. Schiffrin, T. Paasch-Colberg, N. Karpowicz, V. Apalkov, D. Gerster, S. Mühlbrandt, M. Korbman, J. Reichert, M. Schultze, S. Holzner, J. V. Barth, R. Kienberger, R. Ernstorfer, V. S. Yakovlev, M. I. Stockman, and F. Krausz, “Optical-field-induced current in dielectrics,” Nature 493(7430), 70–74 (2013).
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P. Carpeggiani, M. Reduzzi, A. Comby, H. Ahmadi, S. Kühn, F. Calegari, M. Nisoli, F. Frassetto, L. Poletto, D. Hoff, J. Ullrich, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, G. G. Paulus, and G. Sansone, “Vectorial optical field reconstruction by attosecond spatial interferometry,” Nat. Photonics 11(6), 383–389 (2017).
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Paulus, G. G.

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O. Kfir, P. Grychtol, E. Turgut, R. Knut, D. Zusin, D. Popmintchev, T. Popmintchev, H. Nembach, J. M. Shaw, A. Fleischer, H. Kapteyn, M. Murnane, and O. Cohen, “Generation of bright phase-matched circularly-polarized extreme ultraviolet high harmonics,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 99–105 (2015).
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O. Kfir, P. Grychtol, E. Turgut, R. Knut, D. Zusin, D. Popmintchev, T. Popmintchev, H. Nembach, J. M. Shaw, A. Fleischer, H. Kapteyn, M. Murnane, and O. Cohen, “Generation of bright phase-matched circularly-polarized extreme ultraviolet high harmonics,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 99–105 (2015).
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Reichert, J.

T. P. Colberg, S. Y. Kruchinin, Ö. Sağlam, S. Kapser, S. Cabrini, S. Muehlbrandt, J. Reichert, J. V. Barth, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, V. S. Yakovlev, N. Karpowicz, and A. Schiffrin, “Sub-cycle optical control of current in a semiconductor: from the multiphoton to the tunneling regime,” Optica 3, 1358–1361 (2016).

A. Schiffrin, T. Paasch-Colberg, N. Karpowicz, V. Apalkov, D. Gerster, S. Mühlbrandt, M. Korbman, J. Reichert, M. Schultze, S. Holzner, J. V. Barth, R. Kienberger, R. Ernstorfer, V. S. Yakovlev, M. I. Stockman, and F. Krausz, “Optical-field-induced current in dielectrics,” Nature 493(7430), 70–74 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Roberson, S. D.

B. R. Arnold, S. D. Roberson, and P. M. Pellegrino, “Excited state dynamics of nitrogen reactive intermediates at the threshold of laser induced filamentation,” Chem. Phys. 405, 9–15 (2012).
[Crossref]

Roberts, A.

Saglam, Ö.

Salières, P.

P. Balcou, P. Salières, A. L’Huillier, and M. Lewenstein, “Generalized phase-matching conditions for high harmonics: The role of field-gradient forces,” Phys. Rev. A 55(4), 3204–3210 (1997).
[Crossref]

Sandhu, A.

Sansone, G.

P. Carpeggiani, M. Reduzzi, A. Comby, H. Ahmadi, S. Kühn, F. Calegari, M. Nisoli, F. Frassetto, L. Poletto, D. Hoff, J. Ullrich, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, G. G. Paulus, and G. Sansone, “Vectorial optical field reconstruction by attosecond spatial interferometry,” Nat. Photonics 11(6), 383–389 (2017).
[Crossref]

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314(5798), 443–446 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sayler, A. M.

D. Hoff, M. Krüger, L. Maisenbacher, A. M. Sayler, G. G. Paulus, and P. Hommelhof, “Trancing the phase of focused broadband laser pulses,” Nat. Phys. 13(10), 947–951 (2017).
[Crossref]

Schiavi, A.

Schiffrin, A.

T. P. Colberg, S. Y. Kruchinin, Ö. Sağlam, S. Kapser, S. Cabrini, S. Muehlbrandt, J. Reichert, J. V. Barth, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, V. S. Yakovlev, N. Karpowicz, and A. Schiffrin, “Sub-cycle optical control of current in a semiconductor: from the multiphoton to the tunneling regime,” Optica 3, 1358–1361 (2016).

A. Schiffrin, T. Paasch-Colberg, N. Karpowicz, V. Apalkov, D. Gerster, S. Mühlbrandt, M. Korbman, J. Reichert, M. Schultze, S. Holzner, J. V. Barth, R. Kienberger, R. Ernstorfer, V. S. Yakovlev, M. I. Stockman, and F. Krausz, “Optical-field-induced current in dielectrics,” Nature 493(7430), 70–74 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schlaepfer, F.

Schlup, P.

P. Eckle, M. Smolarski, P. Schlup, J. Biegert, A. Staudte, M. Schöffler, H. G. Muller, R. Dörner, and U. Keller, “Attosecond angular streaking,” Nat. Phys. 4(7), 565–570 (2008).
[Crossref]

Schmidt, B. E.

K. T. Kim, C. Zhang, A. D. Shiner, B. E. Schmidt, F. Légaré, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Petahertz optical oscilloscope,” Nat. Photonics 7(12), 958–962 (2013).
[Crossref]

Schöffler, M.

P. Eckle, M. Smolarski, P. Schlup, J. Biegert, A. Staudte, M. Schöffler, H. G. Muller, R. Dörner, and U. Keller, “Attosecond angular streaking,” Nat. Phys. 4(7), 565–570 (2008).
[Crossref]

Schröter, C. D.

P. Carpeggiani, M. Reduzzi, A. Comby, H. Ahmadi, S. Kühn, F. Calegari, M. Nisoli, F. Frassetto, L. Poletto, D. Hoff, J. Ullrich, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, G. G. Paulus, and G. Sansone, “Vectorial optical field reconstruction by attosecond spatial interferometry,” Nat. Photonics 11(6), 383–389 (2017).
[Crossref]

Schultze, M.

A. Schiffrin, T. Paasch-Colberg, N. Karpowicz, V. Apalkov, D. Gerster, S. Mühlbrandt, M. Korbman, J. Reichert, M. Schultze, S. Holzner, J. V. Barth, R. Kienberger, R. Ernstorfer, V. S. Yakovlev, M. I. Stockman, and F. Krausz, “Optical-field-induced current in dielectrics,” Nature 493(7430), 70–74 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Scrinzi, A.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, R. Kienberger, A. Baltuška, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Direct measurement of light waves,” Science 305(5688), 1267–1269 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shaw, J. M.

O. Kfir, P. Grychtol, E. Turgut, R. Knut, D. Zusin, D. Popmintchev, T. Popmintchev, H. Nembach, J. M. Shaw, A. Fleischer, H. Kapteyn, M. Murnane, and O. Cohen, “Generation of bright phase-matched circularly-polarized extreme ultraviolet high harmonics,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 99–105 (2015).
[Crossref]

Shiner, A. D.

K. T. Kim, C. Zhang, A. D. Shiner, B. E. Schmidt, F. Légaré, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Petahertz optical oscilloscope,” Nat. Photonics 7(12), 958–962 (2013).
[Crossref]

Shirai, H.

Y. Nomura, H. Shirai, and T. Fuji, “Frequency-resolved optical gating capable of carrier-envelope phase determination,” Nat. Commun. 4(1), 2820 (2013).
[Crossref]

Shivaram, N.

Sidorenko, P.

A. Fleischer, O. Kfir, T. Diskin, P. Sidorenko, and O. Cohen, “Spin angular momentum and tunable polarization in high-harmonic generation,” Nat. Photonics 8(7), 543–549 (2014).
[Crossref]

Smolarski, M.

P. Eckle, M. Smolarski, P. Schlup, J. Biegert, A. Staudte, M. Schöffler, H. G. Muller, R. Dörner, and U. Keller, “Attosecond angular streaking,” Nat. Phys. 4(7), 565–570 (2008).
[Crossref]

Stagira, S.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314(5798), 443–446 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Staudte, A.

P. Eckle, M. Smolarski, P. Schlup, J. Biegert, A. Staudte, M. Schöffler, H. G. Muller, R. Dörner, and U. Keller, “Attosecond angular streaking,” Nat. Phys. 4(7), 565–570 (2008).
[Crossref]

Stockman, M. I.

F. Krausz and M. I. Stockman, “Attosecond metrology: from electron capture to future signal processing,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 205–213 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Schiffrin, T. Paasch-Colberg, N. Karpowicz, V. Apalkov, D. Gerster, S. Mühlbrandt, M. Korbman, J. Reichert, M. Schultze, S. Holzner, J. V. Barth, R. Kienberger, R. Ernstorfer, V. S. Yakovlev, M. I. Stockman, and F. Krausz, “Optical-field-induced current in dielectrics,” Nature 493(7430), 70–74 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tisch, J. W. G.

Tong, X. M.

X. M. Tong, Z. X. Zhao, and C. D. Lin, “Theory of molecular tunneling ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 66(3), 033402 (2002).
[Crossref]

Turgut, E.

O. Kfir, P. Grychtol, E. Turgut, R. Knut, D. Zusin, D. Popmintchev, T. Popmintchev, H. Nembach, J. M. Shaw, A. Fleischer, H. Kapteyn, M. Murnane, and O. Cohen, “Generation of bright phase-matched circularly-polarized extreme ultraviolet high harmonics,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 99–105 (2015).
[Crossref]

Uiberacker, M.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, R. Kienberger, A. Baltuška, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Direct measurement of light waves,” Science 305(5688), 1267–1269 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ullrich, J.

P. Carpeggiani, M. Reduzzi, A. Comby, H. Ahmadi, S. Kühn, F. Calegari, M. Nisoli, F. Frassetto, L. Poletto, D. Hoff, J. Ullrich, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, G. G. Paulus, and G. Sansone, “Vectorial optical field reconstruction by attosecond spatial interferometry,” Nat. Photonics 11(6), 383–389 (2017).
[Crossref]

Velotta, R.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314(5798), 443–446 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Villeneuve, D. M.

T. J. Hammond, A. Korobenko, A. Y. Naumov, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and D. H. Ko, “Near-field imaging for single-shot waveform measurements,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 51(6), 065603 (2018).
[Crossref]

K. T. Kim, C. Zhang, A. D. Shiner, B. E. Schmidt, F. Légaré, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Petahertz optical oscilloscope,” Nat. Photonics 7(12), 958–962 (2013).
[Crossref]

Villoresi, P.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314(5798), 443–446 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Volkov, M.

Vozzi, C.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314(5798), 443–446 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Walmsley, I. A.

Walther, H.

F. Lindner, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, A. Baltuška, E. Goulielmakis, M. Lezius, and F. Krausz, “Gouy phase shift for few-cycle laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(11), 113001 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Watanabe, S.

N. Ishii, K. Kaneshima, T. Kanai, S. Watanabe, and J. Itatani, “Generation of sub-two-cycle millijoule infrared pulses in an optical parametric chirped-pulse amplifier and their application to soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy with high-flux high harmonics,” J. Opt. 20(1), 014003 (2017).
[Crossref]

Westerwalbesloh, T.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, R. Kienberger, A. Baltuška, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Direct measurement of light waves,” Science 305(5688), 1267–1269 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Witting, T.

Wyatt, A. S.

Xu, H. L.

H. L. Xu, A. Azarm, J. Bernhardt, Y. Kamali, and S. L. Chin, “The mechanism of nitrogen fluorescence inside a femtosecond laser filament in air,” Chem. Phys. 360(1-3), 171–175 (2009).
[Crossref]

Xu, L.

Yakovlev, V.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, R. Kienberger, A. Baltuška, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Direct measurement of light waves,” Science 305(5688), 1267–1269 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yakovlev, V. S.

T. P. Colberg, S. Y. Kruchinin, Ö. Sağlam, S. Kapser, S. Cabrini, S. Muehlbrandt, J. Reichert, J. V. Barth, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, V. S. Yakovlev, N. Karpowicz, and A. Schiffrin, “Sub-cycle optical control of current in a semiconductor: from the multiphoton to the tunneling regime,” Optica 3, 1358–1361 (2016).

A. Schiffrin, T. Paasch-Colberg, N. Karpowicz, V. Apalkov, D. Gerster, S. Mühlbrandt, M. Korbman, J. Reichert, M. Schultze, S. Holzner, J. V. Barth, R. Kienberger, R. Ernstorfer, V. S. Yakovlev, M. I. Stockman, and F. Krausz, “Optical-field-induced current in dielectrics,” Nature 493(7430), 70–74 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yudin, G. L.

J. Itatani, F. Quéré, G. L. Yudin, M. Yu. Ivanov, F. Krausz, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond streak camera,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(17), 173903 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, C.

K. T. Kim, C. Zhang, A. D. Shiner, B. E. Schmidt, F. Légaré, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Petahertz optical oscilloscope,” Nat. Photonics 7(12), 958–962 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhao, Z. X.

X. M. Tong, Z. X. Zhao, and C. D. Lin, “Theory of molecular tunneling ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 66(3), 033402 (2002).
[Crossref]

Zusin, D.

O. Kfir, P. Grychtol, E. Turgut, R. Knut, D. Zusin, D. Popmintchev, T. Popmintchev, H. Nembach, J. M. Shaw, A. Fleischer, H. Kapteyn, M. Murnane, and O. Cohen, “Generation of bright phase-matched circularly-polarized extreme ultraviolet high harmonics,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 99–105 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chem. Phys. (2)

H. L. Xu, A. Azarm, J. Bernhardt, Y. Kamali, and S. L. Chin, “The mechanism of nitrogen fluorescence inside a femtosecond laser filament in air,” Chem. Phys. 360(1-3), 171–175 (2009).
[Crossref]

B. R. Arnold, S. D. Roberson, and P. M. Pellegrino, “Excited state dynamics of nitrogen reactive intermediates at the threshold of laser induced filamentation,” Chem. Phys. 405, 9–15 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. (1)

N. Ishii, K. Kaneshima, T. Kanai, S. Watanabe, and J. Itatani, “Generation of sub-two-cycle millijoule infrared pulses in an optical parametric chirped-pulse amplifier and their application to soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy with high-flux high harmonics,” J. Opt. 20(1), 014003 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. (1)

T. J. Hammond, A. Korobenko, A. Y. Naumov, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and D. H. Ko, “Near-field imaging for single-shot waveform measurements,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 51(6), 065603 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data (1)

A. Lofthus and P. H. Krupenie, “The spectrum of molecular nitrogen,” J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 6(1), 113–307 (1977).
[Crossref]

Nat. Commun. (1)

Y. Nomura, H. Shirai, and T. Fuji, “Frequency-resolved optical gating capable of carrier-envelope phase determination,” Nat. Commun. 4(1), 2820 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (5)

F. Krausz and M. I. Stockman, “Attosecond metrology: from electron capture to future signal processing,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 205–213 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. T. Kim, C. Zhang, A. D. Shiner, B. E. Schmidt, F. Légaré, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Petahertz optical oscilloscope,” Nat. Photonics 7(12), 958–962 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Carpeggiani, M. Reduzzi, A. Comby, H. Ahmadi, S. Kühn, F. Calegari, M. Nisoli, F. Frassetto, L. Poletto, D. Hoff, J. Ullrich, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, G. G. Paulus, and G. Sansone, “Vectorial optical field reconstruction by attosecond spatial interferometry,” Nat. Photonics 11(6), 383–389 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Fleischer, O. Kfir, T. Diskin, P. Sidorenko, and O. Cohen, “Spin angular momentum and tunable polarization in high-harmonic generation,” Nat. Photonics 8(7), 543–549 (2014).
[Crossref]

O. Kfir, P. Grychtol, E. Turgut, R. Knut, D. Zusin, D. Popmintchev, T. Popmintchev, H. Nembach, J. M. Shaw, A. Fleischer, H. Kapteyn, M. Murnane, and O. Cohen, “Generation of bright phase-matched circularly-polarized extreme ultraviolet high harmonics,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 99–105 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nat. Phys. (3)

P. Eckle, M. Smolarski, P. Schlup, J. Biegert, A. Staudte, M. Schöffler, H. G. Muller, R. Dörner, and U. Keller, “Attosecond angular streaking,” Nat. Phys. 4(7), 565–570 (2008).
[Crossref]

D. Hoff, M. Krüger, L. Maisenbacher, A. M. Sayler, G. G. Paulus, and P. Hommelhof, “Trancing the phase of focused broadband laser pulses,” Nat. Phys. 13(10), 947–951 (2017).
[Crossref]

P. B. Corkum and F. Krausz, “Attosecond science,” Nat. Phys. 3(6), 381–387 (2007).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

A. Schiffrin, T. Paasch-Colberg, N. Karpowicz, V. Apalkov, D. Gerster, S. Mühlbrandt, M. Korbman, J. Reichert, M. Schultze, S. Holzner, J. V. Barth, R. Kienberger, R. Ernstorfer, V. S. Yakovlev, M. I. Stockman, and F. Krausz, “Optical-field-induced current in dielectrics,” Nature 493(7430), 70–74 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Optica (3)

Phys. Rev. A (2)

P. Balcou, P. Salières, A. L’Huillier, and M. Lewenstein, “Generalized phase-matching conditions for high harmonics: The role of field-gradient forces,” Phys. Rev. A 55(4), 3204–3210 (1997).
[Crossref]

X. M. Tong, Z. X. Zhao, and C. D. Lin, “Theory of molecular tunneling ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 66(3), 033402 (2002).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

F. Lindner, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, A. Baltuška, E. Goulielmakis, M. Lezius, and F. Krausz, “Gouy phase shift for few-cycle laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(11), 113001 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Itatani, F. Quéré, G. L. Yudin, M. Yu. Ivanov, F. Krausz, and P. B. Corkum, “Attosecond streak camera,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(17), 173903 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Science (2)

E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, R. Kienberger, A. Baltuška, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Direct measurement of light waves,” Science 305(5688), 1267–1269 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, and M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314(5798), 443–446 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (1)

Z. Chang, Fundamentals of Attosecond Optics (CRC, 2011).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Simulation of the two-dimensional waveform measurement. (a) Electric field of the fundamental pulse (black dashed curve) and the ionization probability of a nitrogen molecule irradiated by the fundamental pulse (red curve). (b) Reconstructed two-dimensional signal waveform (blue circles) and the original signal waveform (red curve); the projections of the reconstructed and original waveforms in the vertical and horizontal directions are shown as gray circles and curves, respectively.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Simulation of the retrieval of the relative phase shift between the fundamental and signal fields. (a) Original electric field of the signal pulse (black curve) and the ionization modulations with various fundamental pulse’s CEPs (i.e., different φ F values) (red, green, yellow and blue curves). (b) Phase shift retrieved from the ionization modulation as a function of the fundamental pulse’s CEP φ F (blue circles). The black dashed line serves as a guide for the eye, by connecting (0, 0) and (2, 2).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Experimental setup (CCD, charge-coupled device camera; PMT, photomultiplier; BPF, band-pass filter; FS, fused silica; VND, variable neutral density filter; HWP, half-wave plate; QWP, quarter-wave plate; CM, chirped mirror.) (b) Spectrum of the plasma fluorescence from nitrogen gas (blue curve) and the transmission of the BPF (red curve). (c) Dependence of the plasma fluorescence yield on the laser intensity (red circles) and the ion yield calculated using the molecular ADK model (blue curve).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Measured one-dimensional waveforms. (a) A waveform obtained by a long delay scan and (b) its Fourier transformed spectral intensity (red circles) and phase (black circles). The laser spectrum which is measured using a grating-based spectrometer is shown as a reference (blue curve). (c) CEP-dependent waveforms; the red and blue circles represent the data measured with a CEP difference of π rad. The solid curves are the smoothed data and the dashed curves are their envelopes.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Measured (a) linearly and (b) circularly polarized waveforms. The red circles and curves are the measured data and the grey curves are their projections in the vertical and horizontal directions.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) Spatially resolved plasma fluorescence measured by a CCD camera. (b) Modulated plasma fluorescence signals extracted from different z-positions in (a). The red circles are integrated from −5 to −3 mm and the blue circles are integrated from 3 to 5 mm. The solid curves are the smoothed data and the dashed curves are their envelopes. (c) Gouy phase extracted from the measurement (blue curve), the calculated phase from a measured near-field profile of the fundamental beam (red curve), and the arctangent-like Gouy phase of a Gaussian beam (black dashed curve).
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Waveforms measured based on the PMT (blue circles), CCD (green circles), and ion current (red circles). The solid curves are the smoothed data and the dashed curves are their envelopes.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

P(Δt)= w(| E F (t)+ E S (t+Δt)|)dt dw dE | E=| E F (t)| E F (t) E S (t+Δt) | E F (t)| dt+const. = dw dE | E=| E F (t)| E S proj (t+Δt)dt +const.
P(Δt) n a n E S proj ( Δt+ nπ ω ) +const.
P(z,Δt) n a n E S0 ( z,Δt+ nπ φ F (z) ω ) cos( ω( Δt+ nπ φ F (z) ω )+ φ S ( z ) )+const. =cos(ωΔt+ φ S (z) φ F (z)) n | a n | E S0 ( z,Δt+ nπ φ F (z) ω ) +const.

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