Abstract

A new approach for efficiently recovering the wasted light energy in conventional flexible organic light-emitting diodes (FOLEDs) is developed by implementing disordered micro-meander structures (DMMs) via laser speckle holography technology. Compared to conventional flat device architecture, the structured FOLEDs with DMMs result in substantial improvement of the device efficiency and superior angular color stability. The resulting current efficiency (CE) and external quantum efficiency (EQE) are 1.31 and 1.39 times that of a common flat structure, respectively. Moreover, the proposed DMMs micro-structure simultaneously offers the unique characteristics of angular color stability with a wide viewing angle, which is usually considered as the criteria of the high-quality lighting applications. We hope that the demonstrated method could provide an alternative way for the development of high efficiency flexible OLEDs.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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  2. T. H. Han, Y. Lee, M. R. Choi, S. H. Woo, S. H. Bae, B. H. Hong, and T. W. Lee, “Extremely efficient flexible organic light-emitting diodes with modified graphene anode,” Nat. Photonics 6(2), 105–110 (2012).
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. J. Ohtsubo and T. Asakura, “Statistical properties of laser speckle produced in the diffraction field,” Appl. Opt. 16(6), 1742–1753 (1977).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  23. H. Fuji, T. Asakura, and Y. Shindo, “Measurement of surface roughness properties by means of laser speckle techniques,” Opt. Commun. 16(1), 68–72 (1976).
    [Crossref]
  24. S. R. Forrest, D. D. Bradley, and M. E. Thompson, “Measuring the efficiency of organic light-emitting devices,” Adv. Mater. 15(13), 1043–1048 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  25. M. Thomschke, R. Nitsche, M. Furno, and K. Leo, “Optimized efficiency and angular emission characteristics of white top-emitting organic electroluminescent diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(8), 083303 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  26. A. N. Krasnov, “High-contrast organic light-emitting diodes on flexible substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(20), 3853–3855 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  27. J. S. Kim, S. K. Eswaran, O. H. Kwon, S. J. Han, J. H. Lee, and Y. S. Cho, “Enhanced luminescence characteristics of remote yellow silicate phosphors printed on nanoscale surface-roughened glass substrates for white light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(7), 1081–1087 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  28. C. H. Shin, E. Y. Shin, M. H. Kim, J. H. Lee, and Y. Choi, “Nanoparticle scattering layer for improving light extraction efficiency of organic light emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 23(3), A133–A139 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  29. X. L. Zhang, J. Feng, X. C. Han, Y. F. Liu, Q. D. Chen, J. F. Song, and H. B. Sun, “Hybrid Tamm plasmon-polariton/microcavity modes for white top-emitting organic light-emitting devices,” Optica 2(6), 579–584 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  30. Q. D. Ou, L. Zhou, Y. Q. Li, J. D. Chen, C. Li, S. Shen, and J. X. Tang, “Simultaneously enhancing color spatial uniformity and operational stability with deterministic quasi-periodic nanocone arrays for tandem organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(1), 87–94 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  31. P. A. Hobson, S. Wedge, J. A. Wasey, I. Sage, and W. L. Barnes, “Surface plasmon mediated emission from organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 14(19), 1393–1396 (2002).
    [Crossref]

2017 (3)

Z. Zhang, J. Du, D. Zhang, H. Sun, L. Yin, L. Ma, J. Chen, D. Ma, H. M. Cheng, and W. Ren, “Rosin-enabled ultraclean and damage-free transfer of graphene for large-area flexible organic light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Commun. 8, 14560 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Zhou, Y. F. Zhu, Y. Zhou, B. L. Gao, and Q. D. Ou, “Tunable broadband wavefronts shaping via chaotic speckle image holography carrier fringes,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(3), 1600810 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Gim, I. Lee, J. Y. Park, and J. L. Lee, “Spontaneously embedded scattering structures in a flexible substrate for light extraction,” Small 13(23), 1604168 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (2)

J. S. Kim, S. K. Eswaran, O. H. Kwon, S. J. Han, J. H. Lee, and Y. S. Cho, “Enhanced luminescence characteristics of remote yellow silicate phosphors printed on nanoscale surface-roughened glass substrates for white light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(7), 1081–1087 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Khan, S. Lee, T. Jang, Z. Xiong, C. Zhang, J. Tang, L. J. Guo, and W. D. Li, “High-performance flexible transparent electrode with an embedded metal mesh fabricated by cost-effective solution process,” Small 12(22), 3021–3030 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (6)

L. Zhou, X. Dong, Y. Zhou, W. Su, X. Chen, Y. Zhu, and S. Shen, “Multiscale micro-nano nested structures: engineered surface morphology for efficient light escaping in organic light-emitting diodes,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(48), 26989–26998 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. D. Ou, L. Zhou, Y. Q. Li, J. D. Chen, C. Li, S. Shen, and J. X. Tang, “Simultaneously enhancing color spatial uniformity and operational stability with deterministic quasi-periodic nanocone arrays for tandem organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(1), 87–94 (2015).
[Crossref]

I. Lee, J. Y. Park, S. Gim, J. Ham, J. H. Son, and J. L. Lee, “Spontaneously formed nanopatterns on polymer films for flexible organic light-emitting diodes,” Small 11(35), 4480–4484 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. H. Shin, E. Y. Shin, M. H. Kim, J. H. Lee, and Y. Choi, “Nanoparticle scattering layer for improving light extraction efficiency of organic light emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 23(3), A133–A139 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. H. Shin, E. Y. Shin, M. H. Kim, J. H. Lee, and Y. Choi, “Nanoparticle scattering layer for improving light extraction efficiency of organic light emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 23(3), A133–A139 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. L. Zhang, J. Feng, X. C. Han, Y. F. Liu, Q. D. Chen, J. F. Song, and H. B. Sun, “Hybrid Tamm plasmon-polariton/microcavity modes for white top-emitting organic light-emitting devices,” Optica 2(6), 579–584 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (3)

L. Zhou, H. Y. Xiang, S. Shen, Y. Q. Li, J. D. Chen, H. J. Xie, I. A. Goldthorpe, L. S. Chen, S. T. Lee, and J. X. Tang, “High-performance flexible organic light-emitting diodes using embedded silver network transparent electrodes,” ACS Nano 8(12), 12796–12805 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. H. Kim, J. Lee, W. M. Kim, C. Fuchs, S. Hofmann, H. W. Chang, and K. Leo, “We want our photons back: simple nanostructures for white organic light-emitting diode outcoupling,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 24(17), 2553–2559 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Tao, K. Yuan, T. Chen, P. Xu, H. Li, R. Chen, C. Zheng, L. Zhang, and W. Huang, “Thermally activated delayed fluorescence materials towards the breakthrough of organoelectronics,” Adv. Mater. 26(47), 7931–7958 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (2)

Y. G. Bi, J. Feng, Y. F. Li, X. L. Zhang, Y. F. Liu, Y. Jin, and H. B. Sun, “Broadband light extraction from white organic light-emitting devices by employing corrugated metallic electrodes with dual periodicity,” Adv. Mater. 25(48), 6969–6974 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Lee and J. J. Kim, “Enhanced light out-coupling of OLEDs with low haze by inserting randomly dispersed nanopillar arrays formed by lateral phase separation of polymer blends,” Small 9(22), 3858–3863 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (3)

E. Wrzesniewski, S. H. Eom, W. Cao, W. T. Hammond, S. Lee, E. P. Douglas, and J. Xue, “Enhancing light extraction in top-emitting organic light-emitting devices using molded transparent polymer microlens arrays,” Small 8(17), 2647–2651 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Thomschke, S. Reineke, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Highly efficient white top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes comprising laminated microlens films,” Nano Lett. 12(1), 424–428 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. H. Han, Y. Lee, M. R. Choi, S. H. Woo, S. H. Bae, B. H. Hong, and T. W. Lee, “Extremely efficient flexible organic light-emitting diodes with modified graphene anode,” Nat. Photonics 6(2), 105–110 (2012).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

W. H. Koo, S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes enhanced by spontaneously formed buckles,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 222–226 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. H. Jang, M. C. Oh, T. H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “Polymer grating imbedded organic light emitting diodes with improved out-coupling efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(12), 123302 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

M. Thomschke, R. Nitsche, M. Furno, and K. Leo, “Optimized efficiency and angular emission characteristics of white top-emitting organic electroluminescent diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(8), 083303 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

Y. Sun and S. R. Forrest, “Enhanced light out-coupling of organic light-emitting devices using embedded low-index grids,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 483–487 (2008).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

Y. Sun, N. C. Giebink, H. Kanno, B. Ma, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Management of singlet and triplet excitons for efficient white organic light-emitting devices,” Nature 440(7086), 908–912 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Sun and S. R. Forrest, “Organic light emitting devices with enhanced outcoupling via microlenses fabricated by imprint lithography,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(7), 073106 (2006).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

S. R. Forrest, D. D. Bradley, and M. E. Thompson, “Measuring the efficiency of organic light-emitting devices,” Adv. Mater. 15(13), 1043–1048 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (2)

P. A. Hobson, S. Wedge, J. A. Wasey, I. Sage, and W. L. Barnes, “Surface plasmon mediated emission from organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 14(19), 1393–1396 (2002).
[Crossref]

A. N. Krasnov, “High-contrast organic light-emitting diodes on flexible substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(20), 3853–3855 (2002).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

N. C. Greenham, R. H. Friend, and D. D. Bradley, “Angular dependence of the emission from a conjugated polymer light-emitting diode: implications for efficiency calculations,” Adv. Mater. 6(6), 491–494 (1994).
[Crossref]

1977 (1)

1976 (1)

H. Fuji, T. Asakura, and Y. Shindo, “Measurement of surface roughness properties by means of laser speckle techniques,” Opt. Commun. 16(1), 68–72 (1976).
[Crossref]

Araoka, F.

W. H. Koo, S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes enhanced by spontaneously formed buckles,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 222–226 (2010).
[Crossref]

Asakura, T.

J. Ohtsubo and T. Asakura, “Statistical properties of laser speckle produced in the diffraction field,” Appl. Opt. 16(6), 1742–1753 (1977).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Fuji, T. Asakura, and Y. Shindo, “Measurement of surface roughness properties by means of laser speckle techniques,” Opt. Commun. 16(1), 68–72 (1976).
[Crossref]

Bae, S. H.

T. H. Han, Y. Lee, M. R. Choi, S. H. Woo, S. H. Bae, B. H. Hong, and T. W. Lee, “Extremely efficient flexible organic light-emitting diodes with modified graphene anode,” Nat. Photonics 6(2), 105–110 (2012).
[Crossref]

Barnes, W. L.

P. A. Hobson, S. Wedge, J. A. Wasey, I. Sage, and W. L. Barnes, “Surface plasmon mediated emission from organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 14(19), 1393–1396 (2002).
[Crossref]

Bi, Y. G.

Y. G. Bi, J. Feng, Y. F. Li, X. L. Zhang, Y. F. Liu, Y. Jin, and H. B. Sun, “Broadband light extraction from white organic light-emitting devices by employing corrugated metallic electrodes with dual periodicity,” Adv. Mater. 25(48), 6969–6974 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bradley, D. D.

S. R. Forrest, D. D. Bradley, and M. E. Thompson, “Measuring the efficiency of organic light-emitting devices,” Adv. Mater. 15(13), 1043–1048 (2003).
[Crossref]

N. C. Greenham, R. H. Friend, and D. D. Bradley, “Angular dependence of the emission from a conjugated polymer light-emitting diode: implications for efficiency calculations,” Adv. Mater. 6(6), 491–494 (1994).
[Crossref]

Cao, W.

E. Wrzesniewski, S. H. Eom, W. Cao, W. T. Hammond, S. Lee, E. P. Douglas, and J. Xue, “Enhancing light extraction in top-emitting organic light-emitting devices using molded transparent polymer microlens arrays,” Small 8(17), 2647–2651 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chang, H. W.

Y. H. Kim, J. Lee, W. M. Kim, C. Fuchs, S. Hofmann, H. W. Chang, and K. Leo, “We want our photons back: simple nanostructures for white organic light-emitting diode outcoupling,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 24(17), 2553–2559 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, J.

Z. Zhang, J. Du, D. Zhang, H. Sun, L. Yin, L. Ma, J. Chen, D. Ma, H. M. Cheng, and W. Ren, “Rosin-enabled ultraclean and damage-free transfer of graphene for large-area flexible organic light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Commun. 8, 14560 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, J. D.

Q. D. Ou, L. Zhou, Y. Q. Li, J. D. Chen, C. Li, S. Shen, and J. X. Tang, “Simultaneously enhancing color spatial uniformity and operational stability with deterministic quasi-periodic nanocone arrays for tandem organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(1), 87–94 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Zhou, H. Y. Xiang, S. Shen, Y. Q. Li, J. D. Chen, H. J. Xie, I. A. Goldthorpe, L. S. Chen, S. T. Lee, and J. X. Tang, “High-performance flexible organic light-emitting diodes using embedded silver network transparent electrodes,” ACS Nano 8(12), 12796–12805 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, L. S.

L. Zhou, H. Y. Xiang, S. Shen, Y. Q. Li, J. D. Chen, H. J. Xie, I. A. Goldthorpe, L. S. Chen, S. T. Lee, and J. X. Tang, “High-performance flexible organic light-emitting diodes using embedded silver network transparent electrodes,” ACS Nano 8(12), 12796–12805 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Q. D.

Chen, R.

Y. Tao, K. Yuan, T. Chen, P. Xu, H. Li, R. Chen, C. Zheng, L. Zhang, and W. Huang, “Thermally activated delayed fluorescence materials towards the breakthrough of organoelectronics,” Adv. Mater. 26(47), 7931–7958 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, T.

Y. Tao, K. Yuan, T. Chen, P. Xu, H. Li, R. Chen, C. Zheng, L. Zhang, and W. Huang, “Thermally activated delayed fluorescence materials towards the breakthrough of organoelectronics,” Adv. Mater. 26(47), 7931–7958 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, X.

L. Zhou, X. Dong, Y. Zhou, W. Su, X. Chen, Y. Zhu, and S. Shen, “Multiscale micro-nano nested structures: engineered surface morphology for efficient light escaping in organic light-emitting diodes,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(48), 26989–26998 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cheng, H. M.

Z. Zhang, J. Du, D. Zhang, H. Sun, L. Yin, L. Ma, J. Chen, D. Ma, H. M. Cheng, and W. Ren, “Rosin-enabled ultraclean and damage-free transfer of graphene for large-area flexible organic light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Commun. 8, 14560 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cho, Y. S.

J. S. Kim, S. K. Eswaran, O. H. Kwon, S. J. Han, J. H. Lee, and Y. S. Cho, “Enhanced luminescence characteristics of remote yellow silicate phosphors printed on nanoscale surface-roughened glass substrates for white light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(7), 1081–1087 (2016).
[Crossref]

Choi, M. R.

T. H. Han, Y. Lee, M. R. Choi, S. H. Woo, S. H. Bae, B. H. Hong, and T. W. Lee, “Extremely efficient flexible organic light-emitting diodes with modified graphene anode,” Nat. Photonics 6(2), 105–110 (2012).
[Crossref]

Choi, Y.

Dong, X.

L. Zhou, X. Dong, Y. Zhou, W. Su, X. Chen, Y. Zhu, and S. Shen, “Multiscale micro-nano nested structures: engineered surface morphology for efficient light escaping in organic light-emitting diodes,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(48), 26989–26998 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Douglas, E. P.

E. Wrzesniewski, S. H. Eom, W. Cao, W. T. Hammond, S. Lee, E. P. Douglas, and J. Xue, “Enhancing light extraction in top-emitting organic light-emitting devices using molded transparent polymer microlens arrays,” Small 8(17), 2647–2651 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Du, J.

Z. Zhang, J. Du, D. Zhang, H. Sun, L. Yin, L. Ma, J. Chen, D. Ma, H. M. Cheng, and W. Ren, “Rosin-enabled ultraclean and damage-free transfer of graphene for large-area flexible organic light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Commun. 8, 14560 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eom, S. H.

E. Wrzesniewski, S. H. Eom, W. Cao, W. T. Hammond, S. Lee, E. P. Douglas, and J. Xue, “Enhancing light extraction in top-emitting organic light-emitting devices using molded transparent polymer microlens arrays,” Small 8(17), 2647–2651 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eswaran, S. K.

J. S. Kim, S. K. Eswaran, O. H. Kwon, S. J. Han, J. H. Lee, and Y. S. Cho, “Enhanced luminescence characteristics of remote yellow silicate phosphors printed on nanoscale surface-roughened glass substrates for white light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(7), 1081–1087 (2016).
[Crossref]

Feng, J.

X. L. Zhang, J. Feng, X. C. Han, Y. F. Liu, Q. D. Chen, J. F. Song, and H. B. Sun, “Hybrid Tamm plasmon-polariton/microcavity modes for white top-emitting organic light-emitting devices,” Optica 2(6), 579–584 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. G. Bi, J. Feng, Y. F. Li, X. L. Zhang, Y. F. Liu, Y. Jin, and H. B. Sun, “Broadband light extraction from white organic light-emitting devices by employing corrugated metallic electrodes with dual periodicity,” Adv. Mater. 25(48), 6969–6974 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Forrest, S. R.

Y. Sun and S. R. Forrest, “Enhanced light out-coupling of organic light-emitting devices using embedded low-index grids,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 483–487 (2008).
[Crossref]

Y. Sun, N. C. Giebink, H. Kanno, B. Ma, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Management of singlet and triplet excitons for efficient white organic light-emitting devices,” Nature 440(7086), 908–912 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Sun and S. R. Forrest, “Organic light emitting devices with enhanced outcoupling via microlenses fabricated by imprint lithography,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(7), 073106 (2006).
[Crossref]

S. R. Forrest, D. D. Bradley, and M. E. Thompson, “Measuring the efficiency of organic light-emitting devices,” Adv. Mater. 15(13), 1043–1048 (2003).
[Crossref]

Friend, R. H.

N. C. Greenham, R. H. Friend, and D. D. Bradley, “Angular dependence of the emission from a conjugated polymer light-emitting diode: implications for efficiency calculations,” Adv. Mater. 6(6), 491–494 (1994).
[Crossref]

Fuchs, C.

Y. H. Kim, J. Lee, W. M. Kim, C. Fuchs, S. Hofmann, H. W. Chang, and K. Leo, “We want our photons back: simple nanostructures for white organic light-emitting diode outcoupling,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 24(17), 2553–2559 (2014).
[Crossref]

Fuji, H.

H. Fuji, T. Asakura, and Y. Shindo, “Measurement of surface roughness properties by means of laser speckle techniques,” Opt. Commun. 16(1), 68–72 (1976).
[Crossref]

Furno, M.

M. Thomschke, R. Nitsche, M. Furno, and K. Leo, “Optimized efficiency and angular emission characteristics of white top-emitting organic electroluminescent diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(8), 083303 (2009).
[Crossref]

Gao, B. L.

L. Zhou, Y. F. Zhu, Y. Zhou, B. L. Gao, and Q. D. Ou, “Tunable broadband wavefronts shaping via chaotic speckle image holography carrier fringes,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(3), 1600810 (2017).
[Crossref]

Giebink, N. C.

Y. Sun, N. C. Giebink, H. Kanno, B. Ma, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Management of singlet and triplet excitons for efficient white organic light-emitting devices,” Nature 440(7086), 908–912 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gim, S.

S. Gim, I. Lee, J. Y. Park, and J. L. Lee, “Spontaneously embedded scattering structures in a flexible substrate for light extraction,” Small 13(23), 1604168 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Lee, J. Y. Park, S. Gim, J. Ham, J. H. Son, and J. L. Lee, “Spontaneously formed nanopatterns on polymer films for flexible organic light-emitting diodes,” Small 11(35), 4480–4484 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Goldthorpe, I. A.

L. Zhou, H. Y. Xiang, S. Shen, Y. Q. Li, J. D. Chen, H. J. Xie, I. A. Goldthorpe, L. S. Chen, S. T. Lee, and J. X. Tang, “High-performance flexible organic light-emitting diodes using embedded silver network transparent electrodes,” ACS Nano 8(12), 12796–12805 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Greenham, N. C.

N. C. Greenham, R. H. Friend, and D. D. Bradley, “Angular dependence of the emission from a conjugated polymer light-emitting diode: implications for efficiency calculations,” Adv. Mater. 6(6), 491–494 (1994).
[Crossref]

Guo, L. J.

A. Khan, S. Lee, T. Jang, Z. Xiong, C. Zhang, J. Tang, L. J. Guo, and W. D. Li, “High-performance flexible transparent electrode with an embedded metal mesh fabricated by cost-effective solution process,” Small 12(22), 3021–3030 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ham, J.

I. Lee, J. Y. Park, S. Gim, J. Ham, J. H. Son, and J. L. Lee, “Spontaneously formed nanopatterns on polymer films for flexible organic light-emitting diodes,” Small 11(35), 4480–4484 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hammond, W. T.

E. Wrzesniewski, S. H. Eom, W. Cao, W. T. Hammond, S. Lee, E. P. Douglas, and J. Xue, “Enhancing light extraction in top-emitting organic light-emitting devices using molded transparent polymer microlens arrays,” Small 8(17), 2647–2651 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Han, S. J.

J. S. Kim, S. K. Eswaran, O. H. Kwon, S. J. Han, J. H. Lee, and Y. S. Cho, “Enhanced luminescence characteristics of remote yellow silicate phosphors printed on nanoscale surface-roughened glass substrates for white light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(7), 1081–1087 (2016).
[Crossref]

Han, T. H.

T. H. Han, Y. Lee, M. R. Choi, S. H. Woo, S. H. Bae, B. H. Hong, and T. W. Lee, “Extremely efficient flexible organic light-emitting diodes with modified graphene anode,” Nat. Photonics 6(2), 105–110 (2012).
[Crossref]

Han, X. C.

Hobson, P. A.

P. A. Hobson, S. Wedge, J. A. Wasey, I. Sage, and W. L. Barnes, “Surface plasmon mediated emission from organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 14(19), 1393–1396 (2002).
[Crossref]

Hofmann, S.

Y. H. Kim, J. Lee, W. M. Kim, C. Fuchs, S. Hofmann, H. W. Chang, and K. Leo, “We want our photons back: simple nanostructures for white organic light-emitting diode outcoupling,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 24(17), 2553–2559 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hong, B. H.

T. H. Han, Y. Lee, M. R. Choi, S. H. Woo, S. H. Bae, B. H. Hong, and T. W. Lee, “Extremely efficient flexible organic light-emitting diodes with modified graphene anode,” Nat. Photonics 6(2), 105–110 (2012).
[Crossref]

Huang, W.

Y. Tao, K. Yuan, T. Chen, P. Xu, H. Li, R. Chen, C. Zheng, L. Zhang, and W. Huang, “Thermally activated delayed fluorescence materials towards the breakthrough of organoelectronics,” Adv. Mater. 26(47), 7931–7958 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ishikawa, K.

W. H. Koo, S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes enhanced by spontaneously formed buckles,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 222–226 (2010).
[Crossref]

Jang, J. H.

J. H. Jang, M. C. Oh, T. H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “Polymer grating imbedded organic light emitting diodes with improved out-coupling efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(12), 123302 (2010).
[Crossref]

Jang, T.

A. Khan, S. Lee, T. Jang, Z. Xiong, C. Zhang, J. Tang, L. J. Guo, and W. D. Li, “High-performance flexible transparent electrode with an embedded metal mesh fabricated by cost-effective solution process,” Small 12(22), 3021–3030 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jeong, S. M.

W. H. Koo, S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes enhanced by spontaneously formed buckles,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 222–226 (2010).
[Crossref]

Jin, Y.

Y. G. Bi, J. Feng, Y. F. Li, X. L. Zhang, Y. F. Liu, Y. Jin, and H. B. Sun, “Broadband light extraction from white organic light-emitting devices by employing corrugated metallic electrodes with dual periodicity,” Adv. Mater. 25(48), 6969–6974 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kanno, H.

Y. Sun, N. C. Giebink, H. Kanno, B. Ma, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Management of singlet and triplet excitons for efficient white organic light-emitting devices,” Nature 440(7086), 908–912 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Khan, A.

A. Khan, S. Lee, T. Jang, Z. Xiong, C. Zhang, J. Tang, L. J. Guo, and W. D. Li, “High-performance flexible transparent electrode with an embedded metal mesh fabricated by cost-effective solution process,” Small 12(22), 3021–3030 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, J. C.

J. H. Jang, M. C. Oh, T. H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “Polymer grating imbedded organic light emitting diodes with improved out-coupling efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(12), 123302 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kim, J. J.

C. Lee and J. J. Kim, “Enhanced light out-coupling of OLEDs with low haze by inserting randomly dispersed nanopillar arrays formed by lateral phase separation of polymer blends,” Small 9(22), 3858–3863 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, J. S.

J. S. Kim, S. K. Eswaran, O. H. Kwon, S. J. Han, J. H. Lee, and Y. S. Cho, “Enhanced luminescence characteristics of remote yellow silicate phosphors printed on nanoscale surface-roughened glass substrates for white light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(7), 1081–1087 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kim, M. H.

Kim, W. M.

Y. H. Kim, J. Lee, W. M. Kim, C. Fuchs, S. Hofmann, H. W. Chang, and K. Leo, “We want our photons back: simple nanostructures for white organic light-emitting diode outcoupling,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 24(17), 2553–2559 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kim, Y. H.

Y. H. Kim, J. Lee, W. M. Kim, C. Fuchs, S. Hofmann, H. W. Chang, and K. Leo, “We want our photons back: simple nanostructures for white organic light-emitting diode outcoupling,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 24(17), 2553–2559 (2014).
[Crossref]

Koo, W. H.

W. H. Koo, S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes enhanced by spontaneously formed buckles,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 222–226 (2010).
[Crossref]

Krasnov, A. N.

A. N. Krasnov, “High-contrast organic light-emitting diodes on flexible substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(20), 3853–3855 (2002).
[Crossref]

Kwon, O. H.

J. S. Kim, S. K. Eswaran, O. H. Kwon, S. J. Han, J. H. Lee, and Y. S. Cho, “Enhanced luminescence characteristics of remote yellow silicate phosphors printed on nanoscale surface-roughened glass substrates for white light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(7), 1081–1087 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lee, C.

C. Lee and J. J. Kim, “Enhanced light out-coupling of OLEDs with low haze by inserting randomly dispersed nanopillar arrays formed by lateral phase separation of polymer blends,” Small 9(22), 3858–3863 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, I.

S. Gim, I. Lee, J. Y. Park, and J. L. Lee, “Spontaneously embedded scattering structures in a flexible substrate for light extraction,” Small 13(23), 1604168 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Lee, J. Y. Park, S. Gim, J. Ham, J. H. Son, and J. L. Lee, “Spontaneously formed nanopatterns on polymer films for flexible organic light-emitting diodes,” Small 11(35), 4480–4484 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, J.

Y. H. Kim, J. Lee, W. M. Kim, C. Fuchs, S. Hofmann, H. W. Chang, and K. Leo, “We want our photons back: simple nanostructures for white organic light-emitting diode outcoupling,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 24(17), 2553–2559 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lee, J. H.

Lee, J. L.

S. Gim, I. Lee, J. Y. Park, and J. L. Lee, “Spontaneously embedded scattering structures in a flexible substrate for light extraction,” Small 13(23), 1604168 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Lee, J. Y. Park, S. Gim, J. Ham, J. H. Son, and J. L. Lee, “Spontaneously formed nanopatterns on polymer films for flexible organic light-emitting diodes,” Small 11(35), 4480–4484 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, S.

A. Khan, S. Lee, T. Jang, Z. Xiong, C. Zhang, J. Tang, L. J. Guo, and W. D. Li, “High-performance flexible transparent electrode with an embedded metal mesh fabricated by cost-effective solution process,” Small 12(22), 3021–3030 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Wrzesniewski, S. H. Eom, W. Cao, W. T. Hammond, S. Lee, E. P. Douglas, and J. Xue, “Enhancing light extraction in top-emitting organic light-emitting devices using molded transparent polymer microlens arrays,” Small 8(17), 2647–2651 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, S. T.

L. Zhou, H. Y. Xiang, S. Shen, Y. Q. Li, J. D. Chen, H. J. Xie, I. A. Goldthorpe, L. S. Chen, S. T. Lee, and J. X. Tang, “High-performance flexible organic light-emitting diodes using embedded silver network transparent electrodes,” ACS Nano 8(12), 12796–12805 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, T. W.

T. H. Han, Y. Lee, M. R. Choi, S. H. Woo, S. H. Bae, B. H. Hong, and T. W. Lee, “Extremely efficient flexible organic light-emitting diodes with modified graphene anode,” Nat. Photonics 6(2), 105–110 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lee, Y.

T. H. Han, Y. Lee, M. R. Choi, S. H. Woo, S. H. Bae, B. H. Hong, and T. W. Lee, “Extremely efficient flexible organic light-emitting diodes with modified graphene anode,” Nat. Photonics 6(2), 105–110 (2012).
[Crossref]

Leo, K.

Y. H. Kim, J. Lee, W. M. Kim, C. Fuchs, S. Hofmann, H. W. Chang, and K. Leo, “We want our photons back: simple nanostructures for white organic light-emitting diode outcoupling,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 24(17), 2553–2559 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Thomschke, S. Reineke, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Highly efficient white top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes comprising laminated microlens films,” Nano Lett. 12(1), 424–428 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Thomschke, R. Nitsche, M. Furno, and K. Leo, “Optimized efficiency and angular emission characteristics of white top-emitting organic electroluminescent diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(8), 083303 (2009).
[Crossref]

Li, C.

Q. D. Ou, L. Zhou, Y. Q. Li, J. D. Chen, C. Li, S. Shen, and J. X. Tang, “Simultaneously enhancing color spatial uniformity and operational stability with deterministic quasi-periodic nanocone arrays for tandem organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(1), 87–94 (2015).
[Crossref]

Li, H.

Y. Tao, K. Yuan, T. Chen, P. Xu, H. Li, R. Chen, C. Zheng, L. Zhang, and W. Huang, “Thermally activated delayed fluorescence materials towards the breakthrough of organoelectronics,” Adv. Mater. 26(47), 7931–7958 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, W. D.

A. Khan, S. Lee, T. Jang, Z. Xiong, C. Zhang, J. Tang, L. J. Guo, and W. D. Li, “High-performance flexible transparent electrode with an embedded metal mesh fabricated by cost-effective solution process,” Small 12(22), 3021–3030 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, Y. F.

Y. G. Bi, J. Feng, Y. F. Li, X. L. Zhang, Y. F. Liu, Y. Jin, and H. B. Sun, “Broadband light extraction from white organic light-emitting devices by employing corrugated metallic electrodes with dual periodicity,” Adv. Mater. 25(48), 6969–6974 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, Y. Q.

Q. D. Ou, L. Zhou, Y. Q. Li, J. D. Chen, C. Li, S. Shen, and J. X. Tang, “Simultaneously enhancing color spatial uniformity and operational stability with deterministic quasi-periodic nanocone arrays for tandem organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(1), 87–94 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Zhou, H. Y. Xiang, S. Shen, Y. Q. Li, J. D. Chen, H. J. Xie, I. A. Goldthorpe, L. S. Chen, S. T. Lee, and J. X. Tang, “High-performance flexible organic light-emitting diodes using embedded silver network transparent electrodes,” ACS Nano 8(12), 12796–12805 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, Y. F.

X. L. Zhang, J. Feng, X. C. Han, Y. F. Liu, Q. D. Chen, J. F. Song, and H. B. Sun, “Hybrid Tamm plasmon-polariton/microcavity modes for white top-emitting organic light-emitting devices,” Optica 2(6), 579–584 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. G. Bi, J. Feng, Y. F. Li, X. L. Zhang, Y. F. Liu, Y. Jin, and H. B. Sun, “Broadband light extraction from white organic light-emitting devices by employing corrugated metallic electrodes with dual periodicity,” Adv. Mater. 25(48), 6969–6974 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lüssem, B.

M. Thomschke, S. Reineke, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Highly efficient white top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes comprising laminated microlens films,” Nano Lett. 12(1), 424–428 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ma, B.

Y. Sun, N. C. Giebink, H. Kanno, B. Ma, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Management of singlet and triplet excitons for efficient white organic light-emitting devices,” Nature 440(7086), 908–912 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ma, D.

Z. Zhang, J. Du, D. Zhang, H. Sun, L. Yin, L. Ma, J. Chen, D. Ma, H. M. Cheng, and W. Ren, “Rosin-enabled ultraclean and damage-free transfer of graphene for large-area flexible organic light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Commun. 8, 14560 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ma, L.

Z. Zhang, J. Du, D. Zhang, H. Sun, L. Yin, L. Ma, J. Chen, D. Ma, H. M. Cheng, and W. Ren, “Rosin-enabled ultraclean and damage-free transfer of graphene for large-area flexible organic light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Commun. 8, 14560 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nishimura, S.

W. H. Koo, S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes enhanced by spontaneously formed buckles,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 222–226 (2010).
[Crossref]

Nitsche, R.

M. Thomschke, R. Nitsche, M. Furno, and K. Leo, “Optimized efficiency and angular emission characteristics of white top-emitting organic electroluminescent diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(8), 083303 (2009).
[Crossref]

Oh, M. C.

J. H. Jang, M. C. Oh, T. H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “Polymer grating imbedded organic light emitting diodes with improved out-coupling efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(12), 123302 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ohtsubo, J.

Ou, Q. D.

L. Zhou, Y. F. Zhu, Y. Zhou, B. L. Gao, and Q. D. Ou, “Tunable broadband wavefronts shaping via chaotic speckle image holography carrier fringes,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(3), 1600810 (2017).
[Crossref]

Q. D. Ou, L. Zhou, Y. Q. Li, J. D. Chen, C. Li, S. Shen, and J. X. Tang, “Simultaneously enhancing color spatial uniformity and operational stability with deterministic quasi-periodic nanocone arrays for tandem organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(1), 87–94 (2015).
[Crossref]

Park, J. Y.

S. Gim, I. Lee, J. Y. Park, and J. L. Lee, “Spontaneously embedded scattering structures in a flexible substrate for light extraction,” Small 13(23), 1604168 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Lee, J. Y. Park, S. Gim, J. Ham, J. H. Son, and J. L. Lee, “Spontaneously formed nanopatterns on polymer films for flexible organic light-emitting diodes,” Small 11(35), 4480–4484 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Reineke, S.

M. Thomschke, S. Reineke, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Highly efficient white top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes comprising laminated microlens films,” Nano Lett. 12(1), 424–428 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ren, W.

Z. Zhang, J. Du, D. Zhang, H. Sun, L. Yin, L. Ma, J. Chen, D. Ma, H. M. Cheng, and W. Ren, “Rosin-enabled ultraclean and damage-free transfer of graphene for large-area flexible organic light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Commun. 8, 14560 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sage, I.

P. A. Hobson, S. Wedge, J. A. Wasey, I. Sage, and W. L. Barnes, “Surface plasmon mediated emission from organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 14(19), 1393–1396 (2002).
[Crossref]

Shen, S.

L. Zhou, X. Dong, Y. Zhou, W. Su, X. Chen, Y. Zhu, and S. Shen, “Multiscale micro-nano nested structures: engineered surface morphology for efficient light escaping in organic light-emitting diodes,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(48), 26989–26998 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. D. Ou, L. Zhou, Y. Q. Li, J. D. Chen, C. Li, S. Shen, and J. X. Tang, “Simultaneously enhancing color spatial uniformity and operational stability with deterministic quasi-periodic nanocone arrays for tandem organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(1), 87–94 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Zhou, H. Y. Xiang, S. Shen, Y. Q. Li, J. D. Chen, H. J. Xie, I. A. Goldthorpe, L. S. Chen, S. T. Lee, and J. X. Tang, “High-performance flexible organic light-emitting diodes using embedded silver network transparent electrodes,” ACS Nano 8(12), 12796–12805 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shin, C. H.

Shin, E. Y.

Shindo, Y.

H. Fuji, T. Asakura, and Y. Shindo, “Measurement of surface roughness properties by means of laser speckle techniques,” Opt. Commun. 16(1), 68–72 (1976).
[Crossref]

Son, J. H.

I. Lee, J. Y. Park, S. Gim, J. Ham, J. H. Son, and J. L. Lee, “Spontaneously formed nanopatterns on polymer films for flexible organic light-emitting diodes,” Small 11(35), 4480–4484 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Song, J. F.

Su, W.

L. Zhou, X. Dong, Y. Zhou, W. Su, X. Chen, Y. Zhu, and S. Shen, “Multiscale micro-nano nested structures: engineered surface morphology for efficient light escaping in organic light-emitting diodes,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(48), 26989–26998 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sun, H.

Z. Zhang, J. Du, D. Zhang, H. Sun, L. Yin, L. Ma, J. Chen, D. Ma, H. M. Cheng, and W. Ren, “Rosin-enabled ultraclean and damage-free transfer of graphene for large-area flexible organic light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Commun. 8, 14560 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sun, H. B.

X. L. Zhang, J. Feng, X. C. Han, Y. F. Liu, Q. D. Chen, J. F. Song, and H. B. Sun, “Hybrid Tamm plasmon-polariton/microcavity modes for white top-emitting organic light-emitting devices,” Optica 2(6), 579–584 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. G. Bi, J. Feng, Y. F. Li, X. L. Zhang, Y. F. Liu, Y. Jin, and H. B. Sun, “Broadband light extraction from white organic light-emitting devices by employing corrugated metallic electrodes with dual periodicity,” Adv. Mater. 25(48), 6969–6974 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sun, Y.

Y. Sun and S. R. Forrest, “Enhanced light out-coupling of organic light-emitting devices using embedded low-index grids,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 483–487 (2008).
[Crossref]

Y. Sun, N. C. Giebink, H. Kanno, B. Ma, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Management of singlet and triplet excitons for efficient white organic light-emitting devices,” Nature 440(7086), 908–912 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Sun and S. R. Forrest, “Organic light emitting devices with enhanced outcoupling via microlenses fabricated by imprint lithography,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(7), 073106 (2006).
[Crossref]

Takezoe, H.

W. H. Koo, S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes enhanced by spontaneously formed buckles,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 222–226 (2010).
[Crossref]

Tang, J.

A. Khan, S. Lee, T. Jang, Z. Xiong, C. Zhang, J. Tang, L. J. Guo, and W. D. Li, “High-performance flexible transparent electrode with an embedded metal mesh fabricated by cost-effective solution process,” Small 12(22), 3021–3030 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tang, J. X.

Q. D. Ou, L. Zhou, Y. Q. Li, J. D. Chen, C. Li, S. Shen, and J. X. Tang, “Simultaneously enhancing color spatial uniformity and operational stability with deterministic quasi-periodic nanocone arrays for tandem organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(1), 87–94 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Zhou, H. Y. Xiang, S. Shen, Y. Q. Li, J. D. Chen, H. J. Xie, I. A. Goldthorpe, L. S. Chen, S. T. Lee, and J. X. Tang, “High-performance flexible organic light-emitting diodes using embedded silver network transparent electrodes,” ACS Nano 8(12), 12796–12805 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tao, Y.

Y. Tao, K. Yuan, T. Chen, P. Xu, H. Li, R. Chen, C. Zheng, L. Zhang, and W. Huang, “Thermally activated delayed fluorescence materials towards the breakthrough of organoelectronics,” Adv. Mater. 26(47), 7931–7958 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thompson, M. E.

Y. Sun, N. C. Giebink, H. Kanno, B. Ma, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Management of singlet and triplet excitons for efficient white organic light-emitting devices,” Nature 440(7086), 908–912 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. R. Forrest, D. D. Bradley, and M. E. Thompson, “Measuring the efficiency of organic light-emitting devices,” Adv. Mater. 15(13), 1043–1048 (2003).
[Crossref]

Thomschke, M.

M. Thomschke, S. Reineke, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Highly efficient white top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes comprising laminated microlens films,” Nano Lett. 12(1), 424–428 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Thomschke, R. Nitsche, M. Furno, and K. Leo, “Optimized efficiency and angular emission characteristics of white top-emitting organic electroluminescent diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(8), 083303 (2009).
[Crossref]

Toyooka, T.

W. H. Koo, S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes enhanced by spontaneously formed buckles,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 222–226 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wasey, J. A.

P. A. Hobson, S. Wedge, J. A. Wasey, I. Sage, and W. L. Barnes, “Surface plasmon mediated emission from organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 14(19), 1393–1396 (2002).
[Crossref]

Wedge, S.

P. A. Hobson, S. Wedge, J. A. Wasey, I. Sage, and W. L. Barnes, “Surface plasmon mediated emission from organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 14(19), 1393–1396 (2002).
[Crossref]

Woo, S. H.

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E. Wrzesniewski, S. H. Eom, W. Cao, W. T. Hammond, S. Lee, E. P. Douglas, and J. Xue, “Enhancing light extraction in top-emitting organic light-emitting devices using molded transparent polymer microlens arrays,” Small 8(17), 2647–2651 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xiang, H. Y.

L. Zhou, H. Y. Xiang, S. Shen, Y. Q. Li, J. D. Chen, H. J. Xie, I. A. Goldthorpe, L. S. Chen, S. T. Lee, and J. X. Tang, “High-performance flexible organic light-emitting diodes using embedded silver network transparent electrodes,” ACS Nano 8(12), 12796–12805 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xie, H. J.

L. Zhou, H. Y. Xiang, S. Shen, Y. Q. Li, J. D. Chen, H. J. Xie, I. A. Goldthorpe, L. S. Chen, S. T. Lee, and J. X. Tang, “High-performance flexible organic light-emitting diodes using embedded silver network transparent electrodes,” ACS Nano 8(12), 12796–12805 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xiong, Z.

A. Khan, S. Lee, T. Jang, Z. Xiong, C. Zhang, J. Tang, L. J. Guo, and W. D. Li, “High-performance flexible transparent electrode with an embedded metal mesh fabricated by cost-effective solution process,” Small 12(22), 3021–3030 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, P.

Y. Tao, K. Yuan, T. Chen, P. Xu, H. Li, R. Chen, C. Zheng, L. Zhang, and W. Huang, “Thermally activated delayed fluorescence materials towards the breakthrough of organoelectronics,” Adv. Mater. 26(47), 7931–7958 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xue, J.

E. Wrzesniewski, S. H. Eom, W. Cao, W. T. Hammond, S. Lee, E. P. Douglas, and J. Xue, “Enhancing light extraction in top-emitting organic light-emitting devices using molded transparent polymer microlens arrays,” Small 8(17), 2647–2651 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yin, L.

Z. Zhang, J. Du, D. Zhang, H. Sun, L. Yin, L. Ma, J. Chen, D. Ma, H. M. Cheng, and W. Ren, “Rosin-enabled ultraclean and damage-free transfer of graphene for large-area flexible organic light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Commun. 8, 14560 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yoon, T. H.

J. H. Jang, M. C. Oh, T. H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “Polymer grating imbedded organic light emitting diodes with improved out-coupling efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(12), 123302 (2010).
[Crossref]

Yuan, K.

Y. Tao, K. Yuan, T. Chen, P. Xu, H. Li, R. Chen, C. Zheng, L. Zhang, and W. Huang, “Thermally activated delayed fluorescence materials towards the breakthrough of organoelectronics,” Adv. Mater. 26(47), 7931–7958 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, C.

A. Khan, S. Lee, T. Jang, Z. Xiong, C. Zhang, J. Tang, L. J. Guo, and W. D. Li, “High-performance flexible transparent electrode with an embedded metal mesh fabricated by cost-effective solution process,” Small 12(22), 3021–3030 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, D.

Z. Zhang, J. Du, D. Zhang, H. Sun, L. Yin, L. Ma, J. Chen, D. Ma, H. M. Cheng, and W. Ren, “Rosin-enabled ultraclean and damage-free transfer of graphene for large-area flexible organic light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Commun. 8, 14560 (2017).
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Zhang, L.

Y. Tao, K. Yuan, T. Chen, P. Xu, H. Li, R. Chen, C. Zheng, L. Zhang, and W. Huang, “Thermally activated delayed fluorescence materials towards the breakthrough of organoelectronics,” Adv. Mater. 26(47), 7931–7958 (2014).
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X. L. Zhang, J. Feng, X. C. Han, Y. F. Liu, Q. D. Chen, J. F. Song, and H. B. Sun, “Hybrid Tamm plasmon-polariton/microcavity modes for white top-emitting organic light-emitting devices,” Optica 2(6), 579–584 (2015).
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Y. G. Bi, J. Feng, Y. F. Li, X. L. Zhang, Y. F. Liu, Y. Jin, and H. B. Sun, “Broadband light extraction from white organic light-emitting devices by employing corrugated metallic electrodes with dual periodicity,” Adv. Mater. 25(48), 6969–6974 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, Z.

Z. Zhang, J. Du, D. Zhang, H. Sun, L. Yin, L. Ma, J. Chen, D. Ma, H. M. Cheng, and W. Ren, “Rosin-enabled ultraclean and damage-free transfer of graphene for large-area flexible organic light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Commun. 8, 14560 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zheng, C.

Y. Tao, K. Yuan, T. Chen, P. Xu, H. Li, R. Chen, C. Zheng, L. Zhang, and W. Huang, “Thermally activated delayed fluorescence materials towards the breakthrough of organoelectronics,” Adv. Mater. 26(47), 7931–7958 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhou, L.

L. Zhou, Y. F. Zhu, Y. Zhou, B. L. Gao, and Q. D. Ou, “Tunable broadband wavefronts shaping via chaotic speckle image holography carrier fringes,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(3), 1600810 (2017).
[Crossref]

Q. D. Ou, L. Zhou, Y. Q. Li, J. D. Chen, C. Li, S. Shen, and J. X. Tang, “Simultaneously enhancing color spatial uniformity and operational stability with deterministic quasi-periodic nanocone arrays for tandem organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(1), 87–94 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Zhou, X. Dong, Y. Zhou, W. Su, X. Chen, Y. Zhu, and S. Shen, “Multiscale micro-nano nested structures: engineered surface morphology for efficient light escaping in organic light-emitting diodes,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(48), 26989–26998 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Zhou, H. Y. Xiang, S. Shen, Y. Q. Li, J. D. Chen, H. J. Xie, I. A. Goldthorpe, L. S. Chen, S. T. Lee, and J. X. Tang, “High-performance flexible organic light-emitting diodes using embedded silver network transparent electrodes,” ACS Nano 8(12), 12796–12805 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhou, Y.

L. Zhou, Y. F. Zhu, Y. Zhou, B. L. Gao, and Q. D. Ou, “Tunable broadband wavefronts shaping via chaotic speckle image holography carrier fringes,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(3), 1600810 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. Zhou, X. Dong, Y. Zhou, W. Su, X. Chen, Y. Zhu, and S. Shen, “Multiscale micro-nano nested structures: engineered surface morphology for efficient light escaping in organic light-emitting diodes,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(48), 26989–26998 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhu, Y.

L. Zhou, X. Dong, Y. Zhou, W. Su, X. Chen, Y. Zhu, and S. Shen, “Multiscale micro-nano nested structures: engineered surface morphology for efficient light escaping in organic light-emitting diodes,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(48), 26989–26998 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhu, Y. F.

L. Zhou, Y. F. Zhu, Y. Zhou, B. L. Gao, and Q. D. Ou, “Tunable broadband wavefronts shaping via chaotic speckle image holography carrier fringes,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(3), 1600810 (2017).
[Crossref]

ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces (1)

L. Zhou, X. Dong, Y. Zhou, W. Su, X. Chen, Y. Zhu, and S. Shen, “Multiscale micro-nano nested structures: engineered surface morphology for efficient light escaping in organic light-emitting diodes,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(48), 26989–26998 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

ACS Nano (1)

L. Zhou, H. Y. Xiang, S. Shen, Y. Q. Li, J. D. Chen, H. J. Xie, I. A. Goldthorpe, L. S. Chen, S. T. Lee, and J. X. Tang, “High-performance flexible organic light-emitting diodes using embedded silver network transparent electrodes,” ACS Nano 8(12), 12796–12805 (2014).
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Y. G. Bi, J. Feng, Y. F. Li, X. L. Zhang, Y. F. Liu, Y. Jin, and H. B. Sun, “Broadband light extraction from white organic light-emitting devices by employing corrugated metallic electrodes with dual periodicity,” Adv. Mater. 25(48), 6969–6974 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Tao, K. Yuan, T. Chen, P. Xu, H. Li, R. Chen, C. Zheng, L. Zhang, and W. Huang, “Thermally activated delayed fluorescence materials towards the breakthrough of organoelectronics,” Adv. Mater. 26(47), 7931–7958 (2014).
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Q. D. Ou, L. Zhou, Y. Q. Li, J. D. Chen, C. Li, S. Shen, and J. X. Tang, “Simultaneously enhancing color spatial uniformity and operational stability with deterministic quasi-periodic nanocone arrays for tandem organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(1), 87–94 (2015).
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J. S. Kim, S. K. Eswaran, O. H. Kwon, S. J. Han, J. H. Lee, and Y. S. Cho, “Enhanced luminescence characteristics of remote yellow silicate phosphors printed on nanoscale surface-roughened glass substrates for white light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(7), 1081–1087 (2016).
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L. Zhou, Y. F. Zhu, Y. Zhou, B. L. Gao, and Q. D. Ou, “Tunable broadband wavefronts shaping via chaotic speckle image holography carrier fringes,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(3), 1600810 (2017).
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Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

J. H. Jang, M. C. Oh, T. H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “Polymer grating imbedded organic light emitting diodes with improved out-coupling efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(12), 123302 (2010).
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Nat. Commun. (1)

Z. Zhang, J. Du, D. Zhang, H. Sun, L. Yin, L. Ma, J. Chen, D. Ma, H. M. Cheng, and W. Ren, “Rosin-enabled ultraclean and damage-free transfer of graphene for large-area flexible organic light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Commun. 8, 14560 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (3)

T. H. Han, Y. Lee, M. R. Choi, S. H. Woo, S. H. Bae, B. H. Hong, and T. W. Lee, “Extremely efficient flexible organic light-emitting diodes with modified graphene anode,” Nat. Photonics 6(2), 105–110 (2012).
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Y. Sun and S. R. Forrest, “Enhanced light out-coupling of organic light-emitting devices using embedded low-index grids,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 483–487 (2008).
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Opt. Express (2)

Optica (1)

Small (5)

E. Wrzesniewski, S. H. Eom, W. Cao, W. T. Hammond, S. Lee, E. P. Douglas, and J. Xue, “Enhancing light extraction in top-emitting organic light-emitting devices using molded transparent polymer microlens arrays,” Small 8(17), 2647–2651 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Gim, I. Lee, J. Y. Park, and J. L. Lee, “Spontaneously embedded scattering structures in a flexible substrate for light extraction,” Small 13(23), 1604168 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Lee, J. Y. Park, S. Gim, J. Ham, J. H. Son, and J. L. Lee, “Spontaneously formed nanopatterns on polymer films for flexible organic light-emitting diodes,” Small 11(35), 4480–4484 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Lee and J. J. Kim, “Enhanced light out-coupling of OLEDs with low haze by inserting randomly dispersed nanopillar arrays formed by lateral phase separation of polymer blends,” Small 9(22), 3858–3863 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Khan, S. Lee, T. Jang, Z. Xiong, C. Zhang, J. Tang, L. J. Guo, and W. D. Li, “High-performance flexible transparent electrode with an embedded metal mesh fabricated by cost-effective solution process,” Small 12(22), 3021–3030 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 The sketch of the experimental setup for producing disordered micro-meander structures (DMMs) by laser speckle holography.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 The schematic illustration of the fabrication process of flexible OLEDs with DMMs. (a) Recording of the DMMs photoresist template through exposure by laser speckle holographic photolithography. (b) Fabricating the PDMS replica mold from the DMM photoresist template by soft nano-imprinting lithography. (c) Formation of the PDMS mold through demolding process. (d) Dispersing the UV-resin on the PET substrate of the pre-fabricated flexible OLEDs. (e) Imprinting the UV-resin by PDMS mold. (f) Lift-off the PDMS mold to complete the structured devices fabrication.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Morphologies and optical properties characterization. Optical microscopy image of various types of DMMs: (a) DMM10, (b) DMM20, and (c) DMM30. Experimental measurement of (d) Specular transmittance and (e) haze value as a function of wavelength for ITO/PET substrates with and without DMMs. (f) Photographs of the DMMs patterned PET films (scale bar = 1 cm).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Performance characteristics of flexible green-emission OLEDs. (a) Current density-voltage characteristics of the devices. (b) Luminance versus current density curves of FOLEDs. (c) External quantum efficiency (EQE) as a function of current density. (d) Normalized electroluminescence (EL) spectra of devices with and without DMMs, measured from surface normal at J = 40 mA cm−2.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Angular dependence of normalized EL performance for the devices operating at J = 40 mA cm−2. (b) Commission Internationale de I Éclairage 1931 color coordinates versus viewing angles.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) Calculated and measured light extraction enhancement ratio as function of the average diameters of DMMs. (b) Calculated far-field illuminance distributions out of the substrate without and with DMMs.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

A I (Δx,Δy)= I (x,y) 2 { 1+ | μ(Δx,Δy) | 2 }
A I (Δx,Δy)= I 2 (1+sin c 2 aΔX λz 1 sin c 2 aΔy λz 1 ).
δ x = λz 1 a
δ x 1.22 λz 1 D s
δ x 1.22 λV D L .

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