Abstract

Series of green laser diodes (LDs) with different (In)GaN barrier layers are investigated. It is found that the optical confinement factor of multi-quantum well (MQW) always increases with increasing indium content of InGaN barrier layer, which results in a decrease of threshold current when indium content of InGaN barrier layer increases from 0 to 5%. However, when a high In content InGaN barrier is used (> 5%), both threshold current and slop efficiency of LDs deteriorate. It may be attributed to the waste of carriers in the potential well at the interface between the last barrier (LB) and the upper waveguide (UWG) layers, which is induced by the piezoelectric polarization effect in high In content InGaN LB layer. Therefore, a new LD structure using a thin thickness of the LB layer to reduce the effect of polarization shows a low threshold current and a high output power even when the In content of barrier layers is as large as 7%.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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Y. Cheng, J. P. Liu, A. Q. Tian, F. Zhang, M. X. Feng, W. W. Hu, S. M. Zhang, M. Ikeda, D. Y. Li, L. Q. Zhang, and H. Yang, “Hole transport in c-plane InGaN-based green laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(9), 092104 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. R. Jiang, J. P. Liu, A. Q. Tian, Y. Cheng, Z. C. Li, L. Q. Zhang, S. M. Zhang, D. Y. Li, M. Ikeda, and H. Yang, “GaN-based green laser diodes,” J. Semicond. 37(11), 111001 (2016).
[Crossref]

B. Ren, Y. Hou, and Y. Liang, “Research progress of III–V laser bonding to Si,” J. Semicond. 37(12), 124001 (2016).
[Crossref]

Q. Sun, W. Yan, M. Z. Feng, Z. C. Li, B. Feng, H. M. Zhao, and H. Yang, “GaN-on-Si blue/white LEDs: epitaxy, chip, and package,” J. Semicond. 37(4), 044006 (2016).
[Crossref]

G. Muziol, H. Turski, M. Siekacz, S. Grzanka, P. Perlin, and C. Skierbiszewski, “Elimination of leakage of optical modes to GaN substrate in nitride laser diodes using a thick InGaN waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Express 9(9), 092103 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Li, D. G. Zhao, D. S. Jiang, P. Chen, Z. S. Liu, J. J. Zhu, M. Shi, D. M. Zhao, and W. Liu, “Suppression of electron leakage in 808 nm laser diodes with asymmetric waveguide layer,” J. Semicond. 37(1), 014007 (2016).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

2012 (1)

D. Sizov, R. Bhat, and C.-E. Zah, Fellow, IEEE, “Gallium indium nitride-based green lasers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(5), 1 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

2010 (3)

T. Lermer, M. Schillgalies, A. Breidenassel, D. Queren, C. Eichler, A. Avramescu, J. Müller, W. Scheibenzuber, U. Schwarz, S. Lutgen, and U. Strauss, “Waveguide design of green InGaN laser diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 207(6), 1328–1331 (2010).
[Crossref]

C. Y. Huang, Y. D. Lin, A. Tyagi, A. Chakraborty, H. Ohta, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Optical waveguide simulations for the optimization of InGaN-based green laser diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(2), 023101 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Lutgen, A. Avramescu, T. Lermer, M. Schillgalies, D. Queren, J. Müller, D. Dini, A. Breidenassel, and U. Strauss, “Progress of blue and green InGaN laser diodes,” Proc. SPIE 7616, 76160G (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

L. Q. Zhang, D. S. Jiang, J. J. Zhu, D. G. Zhao, Z. S. Liu, S. M. Zhang, and H. Yang, “Confinement factor and absorption loss of AlInGaN based laser diodes emitting from ultraviolet to green,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(2), 023104 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Xu, M. F. Schubert, A. N. Noemaun, D. Zhu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, H. J. Chung, S. Yoon, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Reduction in efficiency droop, forward voltage, ideality factor, and wavelength shift in polarization-matched GaInN/GaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(1), 011113 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

K. S. Kim, J. K. Son, S. N. Lee, Y. J. Sung, H. S. Paek, H. K. Kim, M. Y. Kim, K. H. Ha, H. Y. Ryu, O. H. Nam, T. Jang, and Y. J. Park, “Characteristics of long wavelength InGaN quantum well laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(10), 101103 (2008).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, Y. Sugimoto, and H. Kiyoku, “Room-temperature continuous-wave operation of InGaN multi-quantum-well structure laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(26), 4056–4058 (1996).
[Crossref]

Avramescu, A.

S. Lutgen, A. Avramescu, T. Lermer, M. Schillgalies, D. Queren, J. Müller, D. Dini, A. Breidenassel, and U. Strauss, “Progress of blue and green InGaN laser diodes,” Proc. SPIE 7616, 76160G (2010).
[Crossref]

T. Lermer, M. Schillgalies, A. Breidenassel, D. Queren, C. Eichler, A. Avramescu, J. Müller, W. Scheibenzuber, U. Schwarz, S. Lutgen, and U. Strauss, “Waveguide design of green InGaN laser diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 207(6), 1328–1331 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bhat, R.

D. Sizov, R. Bhat, and C.-E. Zah, Fellow, IEEE, “Gallium indium nitride-based green lasers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(5), 1 (2012).
[Crossref]

Breidenassel, A.

T. Lermer, M. Schillgalies, A. Breidenassel, D. Queren, C. Eichler, A. Avramescu, J. Müller, W. Scheibenzuber, U. Schwarz, S. Lutgen, and U. Strauss, “Waveguide design of green InGaN laser diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 207(6), 1328–1331 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Lutgen, A. Avramescu, T. Lermer, M. Schillgalies, D. Queren, J. Müller, D. Dini, A. Breidenassel, and U. Strauss, “Progress of blue and green InGaN laser diodes,” Proc. SPIE 7616, 76160G (2010).
[Crossref]

Chakraborty, A.

C. Y. Huang, Y. D. Lin, A. Tyagi, A. Chakraborty, H. Ohta, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Optical waveguide simulations for the optimization of InGaN-based green laser diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(2), 023101 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chang, J. Y.

Chang, S. H.

Chen, P.

X. Li, D. G. Zhao, D. S. Jiang, P. Chen, Z. S. Liu, J. J. Zhu, M. Shi, D. M. Zhao, and W. Liu, “Suppression of electron leakage in 808 nm laser diodes with asymmetric waveguide layer,” J. Semicond. 37(1), 014007 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. C. Le, D. G. Zhao, D. S. Jiang, P. Chen, Z. S. Liu, J. Yang, X. G. He, X. J. Li, J. P. Liu, J. J. Zhu, S. M. Zhang, and H. Yang, “Suppression of electron leakage by inserting a thin undoped InGaN layer prior to electron blocking layer in InGaN-based blue-violet laser diodes,” Opt. Express 22, 11392 (2014).

Cheng, Y.

L. R. Jiang, J. P. Liu, A. Q. Tian, Y. Cheng, Z. C. Li, L. Q. Zhang, S. M. Zhang, D. Y. Li, M. Ikeda, and H. Yang, “GaN-based green laser diodes,” J. Semicond. 37(11), 111001 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Cheng, J. P. Liu, A. Q. Tian, F. Zhang, M. X. Feng, W. W. Hu, S. M. Zhang, M. Ikeda, D. Y. Li, L. Q. Zhang, and H. Yang, “Hole transport in c-plane InGaN-based green laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(9), 092104 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chung, H. J.

J. Xu, M. F. Schubert, A. N. Noemaun, D. Zhu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, H. J. Chung, S. Yoon, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Reduction in efficiency droop, forward voltage, ideality factor, and wavelength shift in polarization-matched GaInN/GaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(1), 011113 (2009).
[Crossref]

DenBaars, S. P.

C. Y. Huang, Y. D. Lin, A. Tyagi, A. Chakraborty, H. Ohta, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Optical waveguide simulations for the optimization of InGaN-based green laser diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(2), 023101 (2010).
[Crossref]

Dierolf, V.

Dini, D.

S. Lutgen, A. Avramescu, T. Lermer, M. Schillgalies, D. Queren, J. Müller, D. Dini, A. Breidenassel, and U. Strauss, “Progress of blue and green InGaN laser diodes,” Proc. SPIE 7616, 76160G (2010).
[Crossref]

Eichler, C.

T. Lermer, M. Schillgalies, A. Breidenassel, D. Queren, C. Eichler, A. Avramescu, J. Müller, W. Scheibenzuber, U. Schwarz, S. Lutgen, and U. Strauss, “Waveguide design of green InGaN laser diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 207(6), 1328–1331 (2010).
[Crossref]

Feng, B.

Q. Sun, W. Yan, M. Z. Feng, Z. C. Li, B. Feng, H. M. Zhao, and H. Yang, “GaN-on-Si blue/white LEDs: epitaxy, chip, and package,” J. Semicond. 37(4), 044006 (2016).
[Crossref]

Feng, M. X.

Y. Cheng, J. P. Liu, A. Q. Tian, F. Zhang, M. X. Feng, W. W. Hu, S. M. Zhang, M. Ikeda, D. Y. Li, L. Q. Zhang, and H. Yang, “Hole transport in c-plane InGaN-based green laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(9), 092104 (2016).
[Crossref]

Feng, M. Z.

Q. Sun, W. Yan, M. Z. Feng, Z. C. Li, B. Feng, H. M. Zhao, and H. Yang, “GaN-on-Si blue/white LEDs: epitaxy, chip, and package,” J. Semicond. 37(4), 044006 (2016).
[Crossref]

Grzanka, S.

G. Muziol, H. Turski, M. Siekacz, S. Grzanka, P. Perlin, and C. Skierbiszewski, “Elimination of leakage of optical modes to GaN substrate in nitride laser diodes using a thick InGaN waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Express 9(9), 092103 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ha, K. H.

K. S. Kim, J. K. Son, S. N. Lee, Y. J. Sung, H. S. Paek, H. K. Kim, M. Y. Kim, K. H. Ha, H. Y. Ryu, O. H. Nam, T. Jang, and Y. J. Park, “Characteristics of long wavelength InGaN quantum well laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(10), 101103 (2008).
[Crossref]

He, X. G.

Hou, Y.

B. Ren, Y. Hou, and Y. Liang, “Research progress of III–V laser bonding to Si,” J. Semicond. 37(12), 124001 (2016).
[Crossref]

Hu, W. W.

Y. Cheng, J. P. Liu, A. Q. Tian, F. Zhang, M. X. Feng, W. W. Hu, S. M. Zhang, M. Ikeda, D. Y. Li, L. Q. Zhang, and H. Yang, “Hole transport in c-plane InGaN-based green laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(9), 092104 (2016).
[Crossref]

Huang, C. Y.

C. Y. Huang, Y. D. Lin, A. Tyagi, A. Chakraborty, H. Ohta, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Optical waveguide simulations for the optimization of InGaN-based green laser diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(2), 023101 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ikeda, M.

Y. Cheng, J. P. Liu, A. Q. Tian, F. Zhang, M. X. Feng, W. W. Hu, S. M. Zhang, M. Ikeda, D. Y. Li, L. Q. Zhang, and H. Yang, “Hole transport in c-plane InGaN-based green laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(9), 092104 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. R. Jiang, J. P. Liu, A. Q. Tian, Y. Cheng, Z. C. Li, L. Q. Zhang, S. M. Zhang, D. Y. Li, M. Ikeda, and H. Yang, “GaN-based green laser diodes,” J. Semicond. 37(11), 111001 (2016).
[Crossref]

Iwasa, N.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, Y. Sugimoto, and H. Kiyoku, “Room-temperature continuous-wave operation of InGaN multi-quantum-well structure laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(26), 4056–4058 (1996).
[Crossref]

Jang, T.

K. S. Kim, J. K. Son, S. N. Lee, Y. J. Sung, H. S. Paek, H. K. Kim, M. Y. Kim, K. H. Ha, H. Y. Ryu, O. H. Nam, T. Jang, and Y. J. Park, “Characteristics of long wavelength InGaN quantum well laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(10), 101103 (2008).
[Crossref]

Jiang, D. S.

X. Li, D. G. Zhao, D. S. Jiang, P. Chen, Z. S. Liu, J. J. Zhu, M. Shi, D. M. Zhao, and W. Liu, “Suppression of electron leakage in 808 nm laser diodes with asymmetric waveguide layer,” J. Semicond. 37(1), 014007 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. C. Le, D. G. Zhao, D. S. Jiang, P. Chen, Z. S. Liu, J. Yang, X. G. He, X. J. Li, J. P. Liu, J. J. Zhu, S. M. Zhang, and H. Yang, “Suppression of electron leakage by inserting a thin undoped InGaN layer prior to electron blocking layer in InGaN-based blue-violet laser diodes,” Opt. Express 22, 11392 (2014).

L. Q. Zhang, D. S. Jiang, J. J. Zhu, D. G. Zhao, Z. S. Liu, S. M. Zhang, and H. Yang, “Confinement factor and absorption loss of AlInGaN based laser diodes emitting from ultraviolet to green,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(2), 023104 (2009).
[Crossref]

Jiang, L. R.

L. R. Jiang, J. P. Liu, A. Q. Tian, Y. Cheng, Z. C. Li, L. Q. Zhang, S. M. Zhang, D. Y. Li, M. Ikeda, and H. Yang, “GaN-based green laser diodes,” J. Semicond. 37(11), 111001 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kim, H. K.

K. S. Kim, J. K. Son, S. N. Lee, Y. J. Sung, H. S. Paek, H. K. Kim, M. Y. Kim, K. H. Ha, H. Y. Ryu, O. H. Nam, T. Jang, and Y. J. Park, “Characteristics of long wavelength InGaN quantum well laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(10), 101103 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kim, J. K.

J. Xu, M. F. Schubert, A. N. Noemaun, D. Zhu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, H. J. Chung, S. Yoon, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Reduction in efficiency droop, forward voltage, ideality factor, and wavelength shift in polarization-matched GaInN/GaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(1), 011113 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kim, K. S.

K. S. Kim, J. K. Son, S. N. Lee, Y. J. Sung, H. S. Paek, H. K. Kim, M. Y. Kim, K. H. Ha, H. Y. Ryu, O. H. Nam, T. Jang, and Y. J. Park, “Characteristics of long wavelength InGaN quantum well laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(10), 101103 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kim, M. H.

J. Xu, M. F. Schubert, A. N. Noemaun, D. Zhu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, H. J. Chung, S. Yoon, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Reduction in efficiency droop, forward voltage, ideality factor, and wavelength shift in polarization-matched GaInN/GaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(1), 011113 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kim, M. Y.

K. S. Kim, J. K. Son, S. N. Lee, Y. J. Sung, H. S. Paek, H. K. Kim, M. Y. Kim, K. H. Ha, H. Y. Ryu, O. H. Nam, T. Jang, and Y. J. Park, “Characteristics of long wavelength InGaN quantum well laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(10), 101103 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kiyoku, H.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, Y. Sugimoto, and H. Kiyoku, “Room-temperature continuous-wave operation of InGaN multi-quantum-well structure laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(26), 4056–4058 (1996).
[Crossref]

Kuo, Y. K.

Le, L. C.

Lee, S. N.

K. S. Kim, J. K. Son, S. N. Lee, Y. J. Sung, H. S. Paek, H. K. Kim, M. Y. Kim, K. H. Ha, H. Y. Ryu, O. H. Nam, T. Jang, and Y. J. Park, “Characteristics of long wavelength InGaN quantum well laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(10), 101103 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lermer, T.

S. Lutgen, A. Avramescu, T. Lermer, M. Schillgalies, D. Queren, J. Müller, D. Dini, A. Breidenassel, and U. Strauss, “Progress of blue and green InGaN laser diodes,” Proc. SPIE 7616, 76160G (2010).
[Crossref]

T. Lermer, M. Schillgalies, A. Breidenassel, D. Queren, C. Eichler, A. Avramescu, J. Müller, W. Scheibenzuber, U. Schwarz, S. Lutgen, and U. Strauss, “Waveguide design of green InGaN laser diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 207(6), 1328–1331 (2010).
[Crossref]

Li, D. Y.

L. R. Jiang, J. P. Liu, A. Q. Tian, Y. Cheng, Z. C. Li, L. Q. Zhang, S. M. Zhang, D. Y. Li, M. Ikeda, and H. Yang, “GaN-based green laser diodes,” J. Semicond. 37(11), 111001 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Cheng, J. P. Liu, A. Q. Tian, F. Zhang, M. X. Feng, W. W. Hu, S. M. Zhang, M. Ikeda, D. Y. Li, L. Q. Zhang, and H. Yang, “Hole transport in c-plane InGaN-based green laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(9), 092104 (2016).
[Crossref]

Li, X.

X. Li, D. G. Zhao, D. S. Jiang, P. Chen, Z. S. Liu, J. J. Zhu, M. Shi, D. M. Zhao, and W. Liu, “Suppression of electron leakage in 808 nm laser diodes with asymmetric waveguide layer,” J. Semicond. 37(1), 014007 (2016).
[Crossref]

Li, X. J.

Li, Z. C.

Q. Sun, W. Yan, M. Z. Feng, Z. C. Li, B. Feng, H. M. Zhao, and H. Yang, “GaN-on-Si blue/white LEDs: epitaxy, chip, and package,” J. Semicond. 37(4), 044006 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. R. Jiang, J. P. Liu, A. Q. Tian, Y. Cheng, Z. C. Li, L. Q. Zhang, S. M. Zhang, D. Y. Li, M. Ikeda, and H. Yang, “GaN-based green laser diodes,” J. Semicond. 37(11), 111001 (2016).
[Crossref]

Liang, Y.

B. Ren, Y. Hou, and Y. Liang, “Research progress of III–V laser bonding to Si,” J. Semicond. 37(12), 124001 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lin, H. W.

Lin, Y. D.

C. Y. Huang, Y. D. Lin, A. Tyagi, A. Chakraborty, H. Ohta, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Optical waveguide simulations for the optimization of InGaN-based green laser diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(2), 023101 (2010).
[Crossref]

Liou, B. T.

Liu, G.

Liu, J. P.

L. R. Jiang, J. P. Liu, A. Q. Tian, Y. Cheng, Z. C. Li, L. Q. Zhang, S. M. Zhang, D. Y. Li, M. Ikeda, and H. Yang, “GaN-based green laser diodes,” J. Semicond. 37(11), 111001 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Cheng, J. P. Liu, A. Q. Tian, F. Zhang, M. X. Feng, W. W. Hu, S. M. Zhang, M. Ikeda, D. Y. Li, L. Q. Zhang, and H. Yang, “Hole transport in c-plane InGaN-based green laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(9), 092104 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. C. Le, D. G. Zhao, D. S. Jiang, P. Chen, Z. S. Liu, J. Yang, X. G. He, X. J. Li, J. P. Liu, J. J. Zhu, S. M. Zhang, and H. Yang, “Suppression of electron leakage by inserting a thin undoped InGaN layer prior to electron blocking layer in InGaN-based blue-violet laser diodes,” Opt. Express 22, 11392 (2014).

Liu, W.

X. Li, D. G. Zhao, D. S. Jiang, P. Chen, Z. S. Liu, J. J. Zhu, M. Shi, D. M. Zhao, and W. Liu, “Suppression of electron leakage in 808 nm laser diodes with asymmetric waveguide layer,” J. Semicond. 37(1), 014007 (2016).
[Crossref]

Liu, Z. S.

X. Li, D. G. Zhao, D. S. Jiang, P. Chen, Z. S. Liu, J. J. Zhu, M. Shi, D. M. Zhao, and W. Liu, “Suppression of electron leakage in 808 nm laser diodes with asymmetric waveguide layer,” J. Semicond. 37(1), 014007 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. C. Le, D. G. Zhao, D. S. Jiang, P. Chen, Z. S. Liu, J. Yang, X. G. He, X. J. Li, J. P. Liu, J. J. Zhu, S. M. Zhang, and H. Yang, “Suppression of electron leakage by inserting a thin undoped InGaN layer prior to electron blocking layer in InGaN-based blue-violet laser diodes,” Opt. Express 22, 11392 (2014).

L. Q. Zhang, D. S. Jiang, J. J. Zhu, D. G. Zhao, Z. S. Liu, S. M. Zhang, and H. Yang, “Confinement factor and absorption loss of AlInGaN based laser diodes emitting from ultraviolet to green,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(2), 023104 (2009).
[Crossref]

Lutgen, S.

S. Lutgen, A. Avramescu, T. Lermer, M. Schillgalies, D. Queren, J. Müller, D. Dini, A. Breidenassel, and U. Strauss, “Progress of blue and green InGaN laser diodes,” Proc. SPIE 7616, 76160G (2010).
[Crossref]

T. Lermer, M. Schillgalies, A. Breidenassel, D. Queren, C. Eichler, A. Avramescu, J. Müller, W. Scheibenzuber, U. Schwarz, S. Lutgen, and U. Strauss, “Waveguide design of green InGaN laser diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 207(6), 1328–1331 (2010).
[Crossref]

Matsushita, T.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, Y. Sugimoto, and H. Kiyoku, “Room-temperature continuous-wave operation of InGaN multi-quantum-well structure laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(26), 4056–4058 (1996).
[Crossref]

Müller, J.

S. Lutgen, A. Avramescu, T. Lermer, M. Schillgalies, D. Queren, J. Müller, D. Dini, A. Breidenassel, and U. Strauss, “Progress of blue and green InGaN laser diodes,” Proc. SPIE 7616, 76160G (2010).
[Crossref]

T. Lermer, M. Schillgalies, A. Breidenassel, D. Queren, C. Eichler, A. Avramescu, J. Müller, W. Scheibenzuber, U. Schwarz, S. Lutgen, and U. Strauss, “Waveguide design of green InGaN laser diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 207(6), 1328–1331 (2010).
[Crossref]

Muziol, G.

G. Muziol, H. Turski, M. Siekacz, S. Grzanka, P. Perlin, and C. Skierbiszewski, “Elimination of leakage of optical modes to GaN substrate in nitride laser diodes using a thick InGaN waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Express 9(9), 092103 (2016).
[Crossref]

Nagahama, S.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, Y. Sugimoto, and H. Kiyoku, “Room-temperature continuous-wave operation of InGaN multi-quantum-well structure laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(26), 4056–4058 (1996).
[Crossref]

Nakamura, S.

C. Y. Huang, Y. D. Lin, A. Tyagi, A. Chakraborty, H. Ohta, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Optical waveguide simulations for the optimization of InGaN-based green laser diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(2), 023101 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, Y. Sugimoto, and H. Kiyoku, “Room-temperature continuous-wave operation of InGaN multi-quantum-well structure laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(26), 4056–4058 (1996).
[Crossref]

Nam, O. H.

K. S. Kim, J. K. Son, S. N. Lee, Y. J. Sung, H. S. Paek, H. K. Kim, M. Y. Kim, K. H. Ha, H. Y. Ryu, O. H. Nam, T. Jang, and Y. J. Park, “Characteristics of long wavelength InGaN quantum well laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(10), 101103 (2008).
[Crossref]

Noemaun, A. N.

J. Xu, M. F. Schubert, A. N. Noemaun, D. Zhu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, H. J. Chung, S. Yoon, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Reduction in efficiency droop, forward voltage, ideality factor, and wavelength shift in polarization-matched GaInN/GaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(1), 011113 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ohta, H.

C. Y. Huang, Y. D. Lin, A. Tyagi, A. Chakraborty, H. Ohta, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Optical waveguide simulations for the optimization of InGaN-based green laser diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(2), 023101 (2010).
[Crossref]

Paek, H. S.

K. S. Kim, J. K. Son, S. N. Lee, Y. J. Sung, H. S. Paek, H. K. Kim, M. Y. Kim, K. H. Ha, H. Y. Ryu, O. H. Nam, T. Jang, and Y. J. Park, “Characteristics of long wavelength InGaN quantum well laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(10), 101103 (2008).
[Crossref]

Park, Y.

J. Xu, M. F. Schubert, A. N. Noemaun, D. Zhu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, H. J. Chung, S. Yoon, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Reduction in efficiency droop, forward voltage, ideality factor, and wavelength shift in polarization-matched GaInN/GaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(1), 011113 (2009).
[Crossref]

Park, Y. J.

K. S. Kim, J. K. Son, S. N. Lee, Y. J. Sung, H. S. Paek, H. K. Kim, M. Y. Kim, K. H. Ha, H. Y. Ryu, O. H. Nam, T. Jang, and Y. J. Park, “Characteristics of long wavelength InGaN quantum well laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(10), 101103 (2008).
[Crossref]

Perlin, P.

G. Muziol, H. Turski, M. Siekacz, S. Grzanka, P. Perlin, and C. Skierbiszewski, “Elimination of leakage of optical modes to GaN substrate in nitride laser diodes using a thick InGaN waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Express 9(9), 092103 (2016).
[Crossref]

Poplawsky, J. D.

Queren, D.

S. Lutgen, A. Avramescu, T. Lermer, M. Schillgalies, D. Queren, J. Müller, D. Dini, A. Breidenassel, and U. Strauss, “Progress of blue and green InGaN laser diodes,” Proc. SPIE 7616, 76160G (2010).
[Crossref]

T. Lermer, M. Schillgalies, A. Breidenassel, D. Queren, C. Eichler, A. Avramescu, J. Müller, W. Scheibenzuber, U. Schwarz, S. Lutgen, and U. Strauss, “Waveguide design of green InGaN laser diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 207(6), 1328–1331 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ren, B.

B. Ren, Y. Hou, and Y. Liang, “Research progress of III–V laser bonding to Si,” J. Semicond. 37(12), 124001 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ryu, H. Y.

K. S. Kim, J. K. Son, S. N. Lee, Y. J. Sung, H. S. Paek, H. K. Kim, M. Y. Kim, K. H. Ha, H. Y. Ryu, O. H. Nam, T. Jang, and Y. J. Park, “Characteristics of long wavelength InGaN quantum well laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(10), 101103 (2008).
[Crossref]

Scheibenzuber, W.

T. Lermer, M. Schillgalies, A. Breidenassel, D. Queren, C. Eichler, A. Avramescu, J. Müller, W. Scheibenzuber, U. Schwarz, S. Lutgen, and U. Strauss, “Waveguide design of green InGaN laser diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 207(6), 1328–1331 (2010).
[Crossref]

Schillgalies, M.

T. Lermer, M. Schillgalies, A. Breidenassel, D. Queren, C. Eichler, A. Avramescu, J. Müller, W. Scheibenzuber, U. Schwarz, S. Lutgen, and U. Strauss, “Waveguide design of green InGaN laser diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 207(6), 1328–1331 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Lutgen, A. Avramescu, T. Lermer, M. Schillgalies, D. Queren, J. Müller, D. Dini, A. Breidenassel, and U. Strauss, “Progress of blue and green InGaN laser diodes,” Proc. SPIE 7616, 76160G (2010).
[Crossref]

Schubert, E. F.

J. Xu, M. F. Schubert, A. N. Noemaun, D. Zhu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, H. J. Chung, S. Yoon, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Reduction in efficiency droop, forward voltage, ideality factor, and wavelength shift in polarization-matched GaInN/GaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(1), 011113 (2009).
[Crossref]

Schubert, M. F.

J. Xu, M. F. Schubert, A. N. Noemaun, D. Zhu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, H. J. Chung, S. Yoon, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Reduction in efficiency droop, forward voltage, ideality factor, and wavelength shift in polarization-matched GaInN/GaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(1), 011113 (2009).
[Crossref]

Schwarz, U.

T. Lermer, M. Schillgalies, A. Breidenassel, D. Queren, C. Eichler, A. Avramescu, J. Müller, W. Scheibenzuber, U. Schwarz, S. Lutgen, and U. Strauss, “Waveguide design of green InGaN laser diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 207(6), 1328–1331 (2010).
[Crossref]

Senoh, M.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, Y. Sugimoto, and H. Kiyoku, “Room-temperature continuous-wave operation of InGaN multi-quantum-well structure laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(26), 4056–4058 (1996).
[Crossref]

Shi, M.

X. Li, D. G. Zhao, D. S. Jiang, P. Chen, Z. S. Liu, J. J. Zhu, M. Shi, D. M. Zhao, and W. Liu, “Suppression of electron leakage in 808 nm laser diodes with asymmetric waveguide layer,” J. Semicond. 37(1), 014007 (2016).
[Crossref]

Shih, Y. H.

Siekacz, M.

G. Muziol, H. Turski, M. Siekacz, S. Grzanka, P. Perlin, and C. Skierbiszewski, “Elimination of leakage of optical modes to GaN substrate in nitride laser diodes using a thick InGaN waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Express 9(9), 092103 (2016).
[Crossref]

Sizov, D.

D. Sizov, R. Bhat, and C.-E. Zah, Fellow, IEEE, “Gallium indium nitride-based green lasers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(5), 1 (2012).
[Crossref]

Skierbiszewski, C.

G. Muziol, H. Turski, M. Siekacz, S. Grzanka, P. Perlin, and C. Skierbiszewski, “Elimination of leakage of optical modes to GaN substrate in nitride laser diodes using a thick InGaN waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Express 9(9), 092103 (2016).
[Crossref]

Son, J. K.

K. S. Kim, J. K. Son, S. N. Lee, Y. J. Sung, H. S. Paek, H. K. Kim, M. Y. Kim, K. H. Ha, H. Y. Ryu, O. H. Nam, T. Jang, and Y. J. Park, “Characteristics of long wavelength InGaN quantum well laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(10), 101103 (2008).
[Crossref]

Sone, C.

J. Xu, M. F. Schubert, A. N. Noemaun, D. Zhu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, H. J. Chung, S. Yoon, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Reduction in efficiency droop, forward voltage, ideality factor, and wavelength shift in polarization-matched GaInN/GaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(1), 011113 (2009).
[Crossref]

Speck, J. S.

C. Y. Huang, Y. D. Lin, A. Tyagi, A. Chakraborty, H. Ohta, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Optical waveguide simulations for the optimization of InGaN-based green laser diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(2), 023101 (2010).
[Crossref]

Strauss, U.

T. Lermer, M. Schillgalies, A. Breidenassel, D. Queren, C. Eichler, A. Avramescu, J. Müller, W. Scheibenzuber, U. Schwarz, S. Lutgen, and U. Strauss, “Waveguide design of green InGaN laser diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 207(6), 1328–1331 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Lutgen, A. Avramescu, T. Lermer, M. Schillgalies, D. Queren, J. Müller, D. Dini, A. Breidenassel, and U. Strauss, “Progress of blue and green InGaN laser diodes,” Proc. SPIE 7616, 76160G (2010).
[Crossref]

Sugimoto, Y.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, Y. Sugimoto, and H. Kiyoku, “Room-temperature continuous-wave operation of InGaN multi-quantum-well structure laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(26), 4056–4058 (1996).
[Crossref]

Sun, Q.

Q. Sun, W. Yan, M. Z. Feng, Z. C. Li, B. Feng, H. M. Zhao, and H. Yang, “GaN-on-Si blue/white LEDs: epitaxy, chip, and package,” J. Semicond. 37(4), 044006 (2016).
[Crossref]

Sung, Y. J.

K. S. Kim, J. K. Son, S. N. Lee, Y. J. Sung, H. S. Paek, H. K. Kim, M. Y. Kim, K. H. Ha, H. Y. Ryu, O. H. Nam, T. Jang, and Y. J. Park, “Characteristics of long wavelength InGaN quantum well laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(10), 101103 (2008).
[Crossref]

Tansu, N.

Tian, A. Q.

Y. Cheng, J. P. Liu, A. Q. Tian, F. Zhang, M. X. Feng, W. W. Hu, S. M. Zhang, M. Ikeda, D. Y. Li, L. Q. Zhang, and H. Yang, “Hole transport in c-plane InGaN-based green laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(9), 092104 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. R. Jiang, J. P. Liu, A. Q. Tian, Y. Cheng, Z. C. Li, L. Q. Zhang, S. M. Zhang, D. Y. Li, M. Ikeda, and H. Yang, “GaN-based green laser diodes,” J. Semicond. 37(11), 111001 (2016).
[Crossref]

Turski, H.

G. Muziol, H. Turski, M. Siekacz, S. Grzanka, P. Perlin, and C. Skierbiszewski, “Elimination of leakage of optical modes to GaN substrate in nitride laser diodes using a thick InGaN waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Express 9(9), 092103 (2016).
[Crossref]

Tyagi, A.

C. Y. Huang, Y. D. Lin, A. Tyagi, A. Chakraborty, H. Ohta, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Optical waveguide simulations for the optimization of InGaN-based green laser diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(2), 023101 (2010).
[Crossref]

Xu, J.

J. Xu, M. F. Schubert, A. N. Noemaun, D. Zhu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, H. J. Chung, S. Yoon, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Reduction in efficiency droop, forward voltage, ideality factor, and wavelength shift in polarization-matched GaInN/GaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(1), 011113 (2009).
[Crossref]

Yamada, T.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsushita, Y. Sugimoto, and H. Kiyoku, “Room-temperature continuous-wave operation of InGaN multi-quantum-well structure laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(26), 4056–4058 (1996).
[Crossref]

Yan, W.

Q. Sun, W. Yan, M. Z. Feng, Z. C. Li, B. Feng, H. M. Zhao, and H. Yang, “GaN-on-Si blue/white LEDs: epitaxy, chip, and package,” J. Semicond. 37(4), 044006 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yang, H.

Q. Sun, W. Yan, M. Z. Feng, Z. C. Li, B. Feng, H. M. Zhao, and H. Yang, “GaN-on-Si blue/white LEDs: epitaxy, chip, and package,” J. Semicond. 37(4), 044006 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Cheng, J. P. Liu, A. Q. Tian, F. Zhang, M. X. Feng, W. W. Hu, S. M. Zhang, M. Ikeda, D. Y. Li, L. Q. Zhang, and H. Yang, “Hole transport in c-plane InGaN-based green laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(9), 092104 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. R. Jiang, J. P. Liu, A. Q. Tian, Y. Cheng, Z. C. Li, L. Q. Zhang, S. M. Zhang, D. Y. Li, M. Ikeda, and H. Yang, “GaN-based green laser diodes,” J. Semicond. 37(11), 111001 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. C. Le, D. G. Zhao, D. S. Jiang, P. Chen, Z. S. Liu, J. Yang, X. G. He, X. J. Li, J. P. Liu, J. J. Zhu, S. M. Zhang, and H. Yang, “Suppression of electron leakage by inserting a thin undoped InGaN layer prior to electron blocking layer in InGaN-based blue-violet laser diodes,” Opt. Express 22, 11392 (2014).

L. Q. Zhang, D. S. Jiang, J. J. Zhu, D. G. Zhao, Z. S. Liu, S. M. Zhang, and H. Yang, “Confinement factor and absorption loss of AlInGaN based laser diodes emitting from ultraviolet to green,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(2), 023104 (2009).
[Crossref]

Yang, J.

Yoon, S.

J. Xu, M. F. Schubert, A. N. Noemaun, D. Zhu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, H. J. Chung, S. Yoon, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Reduction in efficiency droop, forward voltage, ideality factor, and wavelength shift in polarization-matched GaInN/GaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(1), 011113 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zah, C.-E.

D. Sizov, R. Bhat, and C.-E. Zah, Fellow, IEEE, “Gallium indium nitride-based green lasers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(5), 1 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhang, F.

Y. Cheng, J. P. Liu, A. Q. Tian, F. Zhang, M. X. Feng, W. W. Hu, S. M. Zhang, M. Ikeda, D. Y. Li, L. Q. Zhang, and H. Yang, “Hole transport in c-plane InGaN-based green laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(9), 092104 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhang, J.

Zhang, L. Q.

L. R. Jiang, J. P. Liu, A. Q. Tian, Y. Cheng, Z. C. Li, L. Q. Zhang, S. M. Zhang, D. Y. Li, M. Ikeda, and H. Yang, “GaN-based green laser diodes,” J. Semicond. 37(11), 111001 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Cheng, J. P. Liu, A. Q. Tian, F. Zhang, M. X. Feng, W. W. Hu, S. M. Zhang, M. Ikeda, D. Y. Li, L. Q. Zhang, and H. Yang, “Hole transport in c-plane InGaN-based green laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(9), 092104 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Q. Zhang, D. S. Jiang, J. J. Zhu, D. G. Zhao, Z. S. Liu, S. M. Zhang, and H. Yang, “Confinement factor and absorption loss of AlInGaN based laser diodes emitting from ultraviolet to green,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(2), 023104 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zhang, S. M.

Y. Cheng, J. P. Liu, A. Q. Tian, F. Zhang, M. X. Feng, W. W. Hu, S. M. Zhang, M. Ikeda, D. Y. Li, L. Q. Zhang, and H. Yang, “Hole transport in c-plane InGaN-based green laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(9), 092104 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. R. Jiang, J. P. Liu, A. Q. Tian, Y. Cheng, Z. C. Li, L. Q. Zhang, S. M. Zhang, D. Y. Li, M. Ikeda, and H. Yang, “GaN-based green laser diodes,” J. Semicond. 37(11), 111001 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. C. Le, D. G. Zhao, D. S. Jiang, P. Chen, Z. S. Liu, J. Yang, X. G. He, X. J. Li, J. P. Liu, J. J. Zhu, S. M. Zhang, and H. Yang, “Suppression of electron leakage by inserting a thin undoped InGaN layer prior to electron blocking layer in InGaN-based blue-violet laser diodes,” Opt. Express 22, 11392 (2014).

L. Q. Zhang, D. S. Jiang, J. J. Zhu, D. G. Zhao, Z. S. Liu, S. M. Zhang, and H. Yang, “Confinement factor and absorption loss of AlInGaN based laser diodes emitting from ultraviolet to green,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(2), 023104 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zhao, D. G.

X. Li, D. G. Zhao, D. S. Jiang, P. Chen, Z. S. Liu, J. J. Zhu, M. Shi, D. M. Zhao, and W. Liu, “Suppression of electron leakage in 808 nm laser diodes with asymmetric waveguide layer,” J. Semicond. 37(1), 014007 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. C. Le, D. G. Zhao, D. S. Jiang, P. Chen, Z. S. Liu, J. Yang, X. G. He, X. J. Li, J. P. Liu, J. J. Zhu, S. M. Zhang, and H. Yang, “Suppression of electron leakage by inserting a thin undoped InGaN layer prior to electron blocking layer in InGaN-based blue-violet laser diodes,” Opt. Express 22, 11392 (2014).

L. Q. Zhang, D. S. Jiang, J. J. Zhu, D. G. Zhao, Z. S. Liu, S. M. Zhang, and H. Yang, “Confinement factor and absorption loss of AlInGaN based laser diodes emitting from ultraviolet to green,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(2), 023104 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zhao, D. M.

X. Li, D. G. Zhao, D. S. Jiang, P. Chen, Z. S. Liu, J. J. Zhu, M. Shi, D. M. Zhao, and W. Liu, “Suppression of electron leakage in 808 nm laser diodes with asymmetric waveguide layer,” J. Semicond. 37(1), 014007 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhao, H.

Zhao, H. M.

Q. Sun, W. Yan, M. Z. Feng, Z. C. Li, B. Feng, H. M. Zhao, and H. Yang, “GaN-on-Si blue/white LEDs: epitaxy, chip, and package,” J. Semicond. 37(4), 044006 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhu, D.

J. Xu, M. F. Schubert, A. N. Noemaun, D. Zhu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, H. J. Chung, S. Yoon, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Reduction in efficiency droop, forward voltage, ideality factor, and wavelength shift in polarization-matched GaInN/GaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(1), 011113 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zhu, J. J.

X. Li, D. G. Zhao, D. S. Jiang, P. Chen, Z. S. Liu, J. J. Zhu, M. Shi, D. M. Zhao, and W. Liu, “Suppression of electron leakage in 808 nm laser diodes with asymmetric waveguide layer,” J. Semicond. 37(1), 014007 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. C. Le, D. G. Zhao, D. S. Jiang, P. Chen, Z. S. Liu, J. Yang, X. G. He, X. J. Li, J. P. Liu, J. J. Zhu, S. M. Zhang, and H. Yang, “Suppression of electron leakage by inserting a thin undoped InGaN layer prior to electron blocking layer in InGaN-based blue-violet laser diodes,” Opt. Express 22, 11392 (2014).

L. Q. Zhang, D. S. Jiang, J. J. Zhu, D. G. Zhao, Z. S. Liu, S. M. Zhang, and H. Yang, “Confinement factor and absorption loss of AlInGaN based laser diodes emitting from ultraviolet to green,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(2), 023104 (2009).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Express (1)

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic diagrams of LD structure.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a). Output power and voltage versus current (P-I-V) curves of all studied LDs. Figure 2(b) shows the dependences of threshold current and slop efficiency of LDs on indium content of InGaN barrier layer.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Simulated near optical field distribution for all LDs. The inset shows their optical confinement factor and total optical loss.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Radiative recombination rate at the injection current of 120mA.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Conduction band diagrams under zero bias voltage (a) and under an injection current of 120 mA (b), where the dashed lines in Fig. 5(b) mark the quasi-Fermi levels.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 P-I curves for LD0, LD3, LD7 and LD7-2, the inset is the conduction band diagrams of LD7 and LD7-2 under the injection current of 120 mA.

Equations (2)

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n ( I n x G a 1 x N ) = [ n ( I n N ) n ( G a N ) ] · x + n ( G a N )
n ( A l x G a 1 x N ) = [ n ( A l N ) n ( G a N ) ] · x + n ( G a N )

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