Abstract

3D displays have been developed to provide users with a realistic 3D experience. Although various studies have endeavored to establish design principles for 3D displays, a generalized optimized model does not exist in the literature thus far. These circumstances have led to the manufacture of independently qualified 3D products, but expanding these applications remains a challenge. In this paper, we suggest a measurement model and an optimization method for optimized 3D display design. The proposed optimization can be applied to rotatable 3D displays and various pixel structures. Our experimental results based on manufactured displays and simulations confirm the proposed theory of optimization model.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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References

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  5. W. Mphepo, Y.-P. Huang, and H.-P. D. Shieh, “Enhancing the brightness of parallax barrier based 3D flat panel mobile displays without compromising power consumption,” J. of Displ. Technology 6(2), 60–64 (2010).
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]

2017 (1)

Y. J. Jeong, H. S. Chang, D. Nam, and C.-C. J. Kuo, “Direct light field rendering without 2D image generation,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 24(11), 686–695 (2017).
[Crossref]

2015 (2)

J. Kim, C.-K. Lee, Y. Jeong, C. Jang, J.-Y. Hong, W. Lee, Y.-C. Shin, J.-H. Yoon, and B. Lee, “Crosstalk-reduced dual-mode mobile 3D display,” Journal of D. Technology 11(1), 97–103 (2015).
[Crossref]

S.-K. Kim, K.-H. Yoon, S. K. Yoon, and H. Ju, “Parallax barrier engineering for image quality improvement in an autostereoscopic 3D display,” Opt. Express 23(10), 13230–13244 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (1)

2013 (1)

D. Fattal, Z. Peng, T. Tran, S. Vo, M. Fiorentino, J. Brug, and R. G. Beausoleil, “A multi-directional backlight for a wide-angle, glasses-free three-dimensional display,” Nature 495(7441), 348–351 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (3)

G. Wetzstein, D. Lanman, M. Hirsch, and R. Raskar, “Tensor displays: compressive light field synthesis using multilayer displays with directional backlighting,” ACM Transactions Graphics 31, 1–11 (2012).
[Crossref]

V. Urruchi Del Pozo, J. Algorri Genaro, J. Sánchez-Pena, M. Geday, X. Arregui, and N. Bennis, “Lenticular arrays based on liquid crystals,” Opto-Electronics Review 20(3), 260–266 (2012).
[Crossref]

V. Saveljev and S.-K. Kim, “Simulation and measurement of moiré patterns at finite distance,” Opt. Express 20(3), 2163–2177 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

2010 (2)

W. Mphepo, Y.-P. Huang, and H.-P. D. Shieh, “Enhancing the brightness of parallax barrier based 3D flat panel mobile displays without compromising power consumption,” J. of Displ. Technology 6(2), 60–64 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. Takaki and N. Nago, “Multi-projection of lenticular displays to construct a 256-view super multi-view display,” Opt. Express 18(9), 8824–8835 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (3)

R. Martinez-Cuenca, G. Saavedra, M. Martinez-Corral, and B. Javidi, “Progress in 3-D multiperspective display by integral imaging,” Proc. of the IEEE 97(6), 1067–1077 (2009).
[Crossref]

R. Fukushima, K. Taira, T. Saishu, Y. Momonoi, M. Kashiwagi, and Y. Hirayama, “Effect of light ray overlap between neighboring parallax images in autostereoscopic 3D displays,” Proc. SPIE 7237, 72370 (2009).
[Crossref]

Y. Kim, G. Park, J.-H. Jung, J. Kim, and B. Lee, “Color moiré pattern simulation and analysis in three-dimensional integral imaging for finding the moiré-reduced tilted angle of a lens array,” Appl. Opt. 48(11), 2178–2187 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

M. Salmimaa and T. Järvenpää, “3-D crosstalk and luminance uniformity from angular luminance profiles of multiview autostereoscopic 3-D displays,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 16(10), 1033–1040 (2008).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

L. Hill and A. Jacobs, “3-D liquid crystal displays and their applications,” Proc. of the IEEE 94(3), 575–590 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (3)

V. V. Saveljev, J.-Y. Son, B. Javidi, S.-K. Kim, and D.-S. Kim, “Moiré minimization condition in three-dimensional image displays,” J. of Displ. Technology 1(2), 347 (2005).
[Crossref]

P. J. Seuntiëns, L. M. Meesters, and W. A. IJsselsteijn, “The negentropy principle of informationitle>Perceptual attributes of crosstalk in 3D images,” Displays 26(4), 177–183 (2005).
[Crossref]

R. B. Johnson and G. A. Jacobsen, “Advances in lenticular lens arrays for visual display,” Proc. SPIE 5874, 587406 (2005).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

J. Konrad, B. Lacotte, and E. Dubois, “Cancellation of image crosstalk in time-sequential displays of stereoscopic video,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 9(5), 897–908 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

C. Van Berkel, “Image preparation for 3D LCD,” Proc. SPIE 3639, 84–91 (1999).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

C. Van Berkel and J. A. Clarke, “Characterization and optimization of 3D-LCD module design,” Proc. SPIE 3012, 179–186 (1997).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

I. Amidror, R. D. Hersch, and V. Ostromoukhov, “Spectral analysis and minimization of moiré patterns in color separation,” J. Electron. Imaging 3(3), 295–317 (1994).
[Crossref]

1953 (1)

L. Brillouin, “The negentropy principle of information,” J. Appl. Phys. 24, 1152–1163 (1953).
[Crossref]

Algorri Genaro, J.

V. Urruchi Del Pozo, J. Algorri Genaro, J. Sánchez-Pena, M. Geday, X. Arregui, and N. Bennis, “Lenticular arrays based on liquid crystals,” Opto-Electronics Review 20(3), 260–266 (2012).
[Crossref]

Amidror, I.

I. Amidror, R. D. Hersch, and V. Ostromoukhov, “Spectral analysis and minimization of moiré patterns in color separation,” J. Electron. Imaging 3(3), 295–317 (1994).
[Crossref]

Arregui, X.

V. Urruchi Del Pozo, J. Algorri Genaro, J. Sánchez-Pena, M. Geday, X. Arregui, and N. Bennis, “Lenticular arrays based on liquid crystals,” Opto-Electronics Review 20(3), 260–266 (2012).
[Crossref]

Asai, T.

K. Shigemura, J. Matsushima, Y. Ibata, K. Masumura, T. Asai, and T. Sato, “a two-way multiview 3D display using liquid crystal lens,” SPIE Newsroom (2016).

Beausoleil, R. G.

D. Fattal, Z. Peng, T. Tran, S. Vo, M. Fiorentino, J. Brug, and R. G. Beausoleil, “A multi-directional backlight for a wide-angle, glasses-free three-dimensional display,” Nature 495(7441), 348–351 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bennis, N.

V. Urruchi Del Pozo, J. Algorri Genaro, J. Sánchez-Pena, M. Geday, X. Arregui, and N. Bennis, “Lenticular arrays based on liquid crystals,” Opto-Electronics Review 20(3), 260–266 (2012).
[Crossref]

Brillouin, L.

L. Brillouin, “The negentropy principle of information,” J. Appl. Phys. 24, 1152–1163 (1953).
[Crossref]

Brug, J.

D. Fattal, Z. Peng, T. Tran, S. Vo, M. Fiorentino, J. Brug, and R. G. Beausoleil, “A multi-directional backlight for a wide-angle, glasses-free three-dimensional display,” Nature 495(7441), 348–351 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chang, C.-T.

C.-T. Chang, W.-L. Chen, C.-H. Shih, and W.-M. Huang, “Landscape/portrait dual mode lens type 3D display using a 2d lens array,” in SID Symposium Digest vol. 43, pp. 308–311 (2012).

Chang, H. S.

Y. J. Jeong, H. S. Chang, D. Nam, and C.-C. J. Kuo, “Direct light field rendering without 2D image generation,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 24(11), 686–695 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chang, Y.-C.

Chen, W.-L.

C.-T. Chang, W.-L. Chen, C.-H. Shih, and W.-M. Huang, “Landscape/portrait dual mode lens type 3D display using a 2d lens array,” in SID Symposium Digest vol. 43, pp. 308–311 (2012).

Choi, K.

K. Choi, Y. J. Jeong, B. Kang, J.-H. Lee, Y. Choi, and D. Nam, “Design and implementation of landscape/portrait mode convertible light-field 3D display,” in SID Symposium Digest vol. 47, pp. 986–989 (2016).

Choi, K. H.

H. J. Lee, H. Nam, J. D. Lee, H. W. Jang, M. S. Song, B. S. Kim, J. S. Gu, C. Y. Park, and K. H. Choi, “A high resolution autostereoscopic display employing a time division parallax barrier,” in SID Symposium Digest vol. 37, pp. 81–84 (2006).

Choi, Y.

K. Choi, Y. J. Jeong, B. Kang, J.-H. Lee, Y. Choi, and D. Nam, “Design and implementation of landscape/portrait mode convertible light-field 3D display,” in SID Symposium Digest vol. 47, pp. 986–989 (2016).

Clarke, J. A.

C. Van Berkel and J. A. Clarke, “Characterization and optimization of 3D-LCD module design,” Proc. SPIE 3012, 179–186 (1997).
[Crossref]

Cohen, M.

S. Gortler, R. Grzeszczuk, R. Szeliski, and M. Cohen, “The lumigraph,” in SIGGRAPH (1996), pp. 43–54.

Dubois, E.

J. Konrad, B. Lacotte, and E. Dubois, “Cancellation of image crosstalk in time-sequential displays of stereoscopic video,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 9(5), 897–908 (2000).
[Crossref]

Fattal, D.

D. Fattal, Z. Peng, T. Tran, S. Vo, M. Fiorentino, J. Brug, and R. G. Beausoleil, “A multi-directional backlight for a wide-angle, glasses-free three-dimensional display,” Nature 495(7441), 348–351 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fiorentino, M.

D. Fattal, Z. Peng, T. Tran, S. Vo, M. Fiorentino, J. Brug, and R. G. Beausoleil, “A multi-directional backlight for a wide-angle, glasses-free three-dimensional display,” Nature 495(7441), 348–351 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fukushima, R.

R. Fukushima, K. Taira, T. Saishu, Y. Momonoi, M. Kashiwagi, and Y. Hirayama, “Effect of light ray overlap between neighboring parallax images in autostereoscopic 3D displays,” Proc. SPIE 7237, 72370 (2009).
[Crossref]

Geday, M.

V. Urruchi Del Pozo, J. Algorri Genaro, J. Sánchez-Pena, M. Geday, X. Arregui, and N. Bennis, “Lenticular arrays based on liquid crystals,” Opto-Electronics Review 20(3), 260–266 (2012).
[Crossref]

Gortler, S.

S. Gortler, R. Grzeszczuk, R. Szeliski, and M. Cohen, “The lumigraph,” in SIGGRAPH (1996), pp. 43–54.

Grzeszczuk, R.

S. Gortler, R. Grzeszczuk, R. Szeliski, and M. Cohen, “The lumigraph,” in SIGGRAPH (1996), pp. 43–54.

Gu, J. S.

H. J. Lee, H. Nam, J. D. Lee, H. W. Jang, M. S. Song, B. S. Kim, J. S. Gu, C. Y. Park, and K. H. Choi, “A high resolution autostereoscopic display employing a time division parallax barrier,” in SID Symposium Digest vol. 37, pp. 81–84 (2006).

Han, T.-h.

Hanrahan, P.

M. Levoy and P. Hanrahan, “Light field rendering,” in SIGGRAPH (1996), pp. 31–41.

Hersch, R. D.

I. Amidror, R. D. Hersch, and V. Ostromoukhov, “Spectral analysis and minimization of moiré patterns in color separation,” J. Electron. Imaging 3(3), 295–317 (1994).
[Crossref]

Hill, L.

L. Hill and A. Jacobs, “3-D liquid crystal displays and their applications,” Proc. of the IEEE 94(3), 575–590 (2006).
[Crossref]

Hirayama, Y.

R. Fukushima, K. Taira, T. Saishu, Y. Momonoi, M. Kashiwagi, and Y. Hirayama, “Effect of light ray overlap between neighboring parallax images in autostereoscopic 3D displays,” Proc. SPIE 7237, 72370 (2009).
[Crossref]

Hirsch, M.

G. Wetzstein, D. Lanman, M. Hirsch, and R. Raskar, “Tensor displays: compressive light field synthesis using multilayer displays with directional backlighting,” ACM Transactions Graphics 31, 1–11 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hong, J.-Y.

J. Kim, C.-K. Lee, Y. Jeong, C. Jang, J.-Y. Hong, W. Lee, Y.-C. Shin, J.-H. Yoon, and B. Lee, “Crosstalk-reduced dual-mode mobile 3D display,” Journal of D. Technology 11(1), 97–103 (2015).
[Crossref]

Huang, W.-M.

C.-T. Chang, W.-L. Chen, C.-H. Shih, and W.-M. Huang, “Landscape/portrait dual mode lens type 3D display using a 2d lens array,” in SID Symposium Digest vol. 43, pp. 308–311 (2012).

Huang, Y.-P.

Y.-C. Chang, T.-H. Jen, C.-H. Ting, and Y.-P. Huang, “High-resistance liquid-crystal lens array for rotatable 2D/3D autostereoscopic display,” Opt. Express 22(3), 2714–2724 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Mphepo, Y.-P. Huang, and H.-P. D. Shieh, “Enhancing the brightness of parallax barrier based 3D flat panel mobile displays without compromising power consumption,” J. of Displ. Technology 6(2), 60–64 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ibata, Y.

K. Shigemura, J. Matsushima, Y. Ibata, K. Masumura, T. Asai, and T. Sato, “a two-way multiview 3D display using liquid crystal lens,” SPIE Newsroom (2016).

IJsselsteijn, W. A.

P. J. Seuntiëns, L. M. Meesters, and W. A. IJsselsteijn, “The negentropy principle of informationitle>Perceptual attributes of crosstalk in 3D images,” Displays 26(4), 177–183 (2005).
[Crossref]

Jacobs, A.

L. Hill and A. Jacobs, “3-D liquid crystal displays and their applications,” Proc. of the IEEE 94(3), 575–590 (2006).
[Crossref]

Jacobsen, G. A.

R. B. Johnson and G. A. Jacobsen, “Advances in lenticular lens arrays for visual display,” Proc. SPIE 5874, 587406 (2005).
[Crossref]

Jang, C.

J. Kim, C.-K. Lee, Y. Jeong, C. Jang, J.-Y. Hong, W. Lee, Y.-C. Shin, J.-H. Yoon, and B. Lee, “Crosstalk-reduced dual-mode mobile 3D display,” Journal of D. Technology 11(1), 97–103 (2015).
[Crossref]

Jang, H. W.

H. J. Lee, H. Nam, J. D. Lee, H. W. Jang, M. S. Song, B. S. Kim, J. S. Gu, C. Y. Park, and K. H. Choi, “A high resolution autostereoscopic display employing a time division parallax barrier,” in SID Symposium Digest vol. 37, pp. 81–84 (2006).

Järvenpää, T.

M. Salmimaa and T. Järvenpää, “3-D crosstalk and luminance uniformity from angular luminance profiles of multiview autostereoscopic 3-D displays,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 16(10), 1033–1040 (2008).
[Crossref]

Javidi, B.

R. Martinez-Cuenca, G. Saavedra, M. Martinez-Corral, and B. Javidi, “Progress in 3-D multiperspective display by integral imaging,” Proc. of the IEEE 97(6), 1067–1077 (2009).
[Crossref]

V. V. Saveljev, J.-Y. Son, B. Javidi, S.-K. Kim, and D.-S. Kim, “Moiré minimization condition in three-dimensional image displays,” J. of Displ. Technology 1(2), 347 (2005).
[Crossref]

Jen, T.-H.

Jeong, Y.

J. Kim, C.-K. Lee, Y. Jeong, C. Jang, J.-Y. Hong, W. Lee, Y.-C. Shin, J.-H. Yoon, and B. Lee, “Crosstalk-reduced dual-mode mobile 3D display,” Journal of D. Technology 11(1), 97–103 (2015).
[Crossref]

Jeong, Y. J.

Y. J. Jeong, H. S. Chang, D. Nam, and C.-C. J. Kuo, “Direct light field rendering without 2D image generation,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 24(11), 686–695 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. Choi, Y. J. Jeong, B. Kang, J.-H. Lee, Y. Choi, and D. Nam, “Design and implementation of landscape/portrait mode convertible light-field 3D display,” in SID Symposium Digest vol. 47, pp. 986–989 (2016).

Johnson, R. B.

R. B. Johnson and G. A. Jacobsen, “Advances in lenticular lens arrays for visual display,” Proc. SPIE 5874, 587406 (2005).
[Crossref]

Ju, H.

Jung, J.-H.

Kang, B.

K. Choi, Y. J. Jeong, B. Kang, J.-H. Lee, Y. Choi, and D. Nam, “Design and implementation of landscape/portrait mode convertible light-field 3D display,” in SID Symposium Digest vol. 47, pp. 986–989 (2016).

Kashiwagi, M.

R. Fukushima, K. Taira, T. Saishu, Y. Momonoi, M. Kashiwagi, and Y. Hirayama, “Effect of light ray overlap between neighboring parallax images in autostereoscopic 3D displays,” Proc. SPIE 7237, 72370 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kim, B. S.

H. J. Lee, H. Nam, J. D. Lee, H. W. Jang, M. S. Song, B. S. Kim, J. S. Gu, C. Y. Park, and K. H. Choi, “A high resolution autostereoscopic display employing a time division parallax barrier,” in SID Symposium Digest vol. 37, pp. 81–84 (2006).

Kim, D.-S.

V. V. Saveljev, J.-Y. Son, B. Javidi, S.-K. Kim, and D.-S. Kim, “Moiré minimization condition in three-dimensional image displays,” J. of Displ. Technology 1(2), 347 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kim, J.

J. Kim, C.-K. Lee, Y. Jeong, C. Jang, J.-Y. Hong, W. Lee, Y.-C. Shin, J.-H. Yoon, and B. Lee, “Crosstalk-reduced dual-mode mobile 3D display,” Journal of D. Technology 11(1), 97–103 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Kim, G. Park, J.-H. Jung, J. Kim, and B. Lee, “Color moiré pattern simulation and analysis in three-dimensional integral imaging for finding the moiré-reduced tilted angle of a lens array,” Appl. Opt. 48(11), 2178–2187 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, S.-K.

Kim, Y.

Konrad, J.

J. Konrad, B. Lacotte, and E. Dubois, “Cancellation of image crosstalk in time-sequential displays of stereoscopic video,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 9(5), 897–908 (2000).
[Crossref]

Kuo, C.-C. J.

Y. J. Jeong, H. S. Chang, D. Nam, and C.-C. J. Kuo, “Direct light field rendering without 2D image generation,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 24(11), 686–695 (2017).
[Crossref]

Lacotte, B.

J. Konrad, B. Lacotte, and E. Dubois, “Cancellation of image crosstalk in time-sequential displays of stereoscopic video,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 9(5), 897–908 (2000).
[Crossref]

Lanman, D.

G. Wetzstein, D. Lanman, M. Hirsch, and R. Raskar, “Tensor displays: compressive light field synthesis using multilayer displays with directional backlighting,” ACM Transactions Graphics 31, 1–11 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lee, B.

J. Kim, C.-K. Lee, Y. Jeong, C. Jang, J.-Y. Hong, W. Lee, Y.-C. Shin, J.-H. Yoon, and B. Lee, “Crosstalk-reduced dual-mode mobile 3D display,” Journal of D. Technology 11(1), 97–103 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Kim, G. Park, J.-H. Jung, J. Kim, and B. Lee, “Color moiré pattern simulation and analysis in three-dimensional integral imaging for finding the moiré-reduced tilted angle of a lens array,” Appl. Opt. 48(11), 2178–2187 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, C.

Lee, C.-K.

J. Kim, C.-K. Lee, Y. Jeong, C. Jang, J.-Y. Hong, W. Lee, Y.-C. Shin, J.-H. Yoon, and B. Lee, “Crosstalk-reduced dual-mode mobile 3D display,” Journal of D. Technology 11(1), 97–103 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lee, H. J.

H. J. Lee, H. Nam, J. D. Lee, H. W. Jang, M. S. Song, B. S. Kim, J. S. Gu, C. Y. Park, and K. H. Choi, “A high resolution autostereoscopic display employing a time division parallax barrier,” in SID Symposium Digest vol. 37, pp. 81–84 (2006).

Lee, J.

Lee, J. D.

H. J. Lee, H. Nam, J. D. Lee, H. W. Jang, M. S. Song, B. S. Kim, J. S. Gu, C. Y. Park, and K. H. Choi, “A high resolution autostereoscopic display employing a time division parallax barrier,” in SID Symposium Digest vol. 37, pp. 81–84 (2006).

Lee, J.-H.

K. Choi, Y. J. Jeong, B. Kang, J.-H. Lee, Y. Choi, and D. Nam, “Design and implementation of landscape/portrait mode convertible light-field 3D display,” in SID Symposium Digest vol. 47, pp. 986–989 (2016).

Lee, W.

J. Kim, C.-K. Lee, Y. Jeong, C. Jang, J.-Y. Hong, W. Lee, Y.-C. Shin, J.-H. Yoon, and B. Lee, “Crosstalk-reduced dual-mode mobile 3D display,” Journal of D. Technology 11(1), 97–103 (2015).
[Crossref]

Levoy, M.

M. Levoy and P. Hanrahan, “Light field rendering,” in SIGGRAPH (1996), pp. 31–41.

Li, D.-H.

Li, X.-F.

Martinez-Corral, M.

R. Martinez-Cuenca, G. Saavedra, M. Martinez-Corral, and B. Javidi, “Progress in 3-D multiperspective display by integral imaging,” Proc. of the IEEE 97(6), 1067–1077 (2009).
[Crossref]

Martinez-Cuenca, R.

R. Martinez-Cuenca, G. Saavedra, M. Martinez-Corral, and B. Javidi, “Progress in 3-D multiperspective display by integral imaging,” Proc. of the IEEE 97(6), 1067–1077 (2009).
[Crossref]

Masumura, K.

K. Shigemura, J. Matsushima, Y. Ibata, K. Masumura, T. Asai, and T. Sato, “a two-way multiview 3D display using liquid crystal lens,” SPIE Newsroom (2016).

Matsushima, J.

K. Shigemura, J. Matsushima, Y. Ibata, K. Masumura, T. Asai, and T. Sato, “a two-way multiview 3D display using liquid crystal lens,” SPIE Newsroom (2016).

Meesters, L. M.

P. J. Seuntiëns, L. M. Meesters, and W. A. IJsselsteijn, “The negentropy principle of informationitle>Perceptual attributes of crosstalk in 3D images,” Displays 26(4), 177–183 (2005).
[Crossref]

Momonoi, Y.

R. Fukushima, K. Taira, T. Saishu, Y. Momonoi, M. Kashiwagi, and Y. Hirayama, “Effect of light ray overlap between neighboring parallax images in autostereoscopic 3D displays,” Proc. SPIE 7237, 72370 (2009).
[Crossref]

Mphepo, W.

W. Mphepo, Y.-P. Huang, and H.-P. D. Shieh, “Enhancing the brightness of parallax barrier based 3D flat panel mobile displays without compromising power consumption,” J. of Displ. Technology 6(2), 60–64 (2010).
[Crossref]

Nago, N.

Nam, D.

Y. J. Jeong, H. S. Chang, D. Nam, and C.-C. J. Kuo, “Direct light field rendering without 2D image generation,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 24(11), 686–695 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. Choi, Y. J. Jeong, B. Kang, J.-H. Lee, Y. Choi, and D. Nam, “Design and implementation of landscape/portrait mode convertible light-field 3D display,” in SID Symposium Digest vol. 47, pp. 986–989 (2016).

Nam, H.

H. J. Lee, H. Nam, J. D. Lee, H. W. Jang, M. S. Song, B. S. Kim, J. S. Gu, C. Y. Park, and K. H. Choi, “A high resolution autostereoscopic display employing a time division parallax barrier,” in SID Symposium Digest vol. 37, pp. 81–84 (2006).

Oku, K.

K. Oku, Y. Tomizuka, and Y. Tanaka, “Analysis and reduction of moiré in two-layered 3D display,” in SID Symposium Digest vol. 38, pp. 437–440 (2007).

Ostromoukhov, V.

I. Amidror, R. D. Hersch, and V. Ostromoukhov, “Spectral analysis and minimization of moiré patterns in color separation,” J. Electron. Imaging 3(3), 295–317 (1994).
[Crossref]

Park, C. Y.

H. J. Lee, H. Nam, J. D. Lee, H. W. Jang, M. S. Song, B. S. Kim, J. S. Gu, C. Y. Park, and K. H. Choi, “A high resolution autostereoscopic display employing a time division parallax barrier,” in SID Symposium Digest vol. 37, pp. 81–84 (2006).

Park, G.

Park, J. G.

Peng, Z.

D. Fattal, Z. Peng, T. Tran, S. Vo, M. Fiorentino, J. Brug, and R. G. Beausoleil, “A multi-directional backlight for a wide-angle, glasses-free three-dimensional display,” Nature 495(7441), 348–351 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Raskar, R.

G. Wetzstein, D. Lanman, M. Hirsch, and R. Raskar, “Tensor displays: compressive light field synthesis using multilayer displays with directional backlighting,” ACM Transactions Graphics 31, 1–11 (2012).
[Crossref]

Saavedra, G.

R. Martinez-Cuenca, G. Saavedra, M. Martinez-Corral, and B. Javidi, “Progress in 3-D multiperspective display by integral imaging,” Proc. of the IEEE 97(6), 1067–1077 (2009).
[Crossref]

Saishu, T.

R. Fukushima, K. Taira, T. Saishu, Y. Momonoi, M. Kashiwagi, and Y. Hirayama, “Effect of light ray overlap between neighboring parallax images in autostereoscopic 3D displays,” Proc. SPIE 7237, 72370 (2009).
[Crossref]

Salmimaa, M.

M. Salmimaa and T. Järvenpää, “3-D crosstalk and luminance uniformity from angular luminance profiles of multiview autostereoscopic 3-D displays,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 16(10), 1033–1040 (2008).
[Crossref]

Sánchez-Pena, J.

V. Urruchi Del Pozo, J. Algorri Genaro, J. Sánchez-Pena, M. Geday, X. Arregui, and N. Bennis, “Lenticular arrays based on liquid crystals,” Opto-Electronics Review 20(3), 260–266 (2012).
[Crossref]

Sato, T.

K. Shigemura, J. Matsushima, Y. Ibata, K. Masumura, T. Asai, and T. Sato, “a two-way multiview 3D display using liquid crystal lens,” SPIE Newsroom (2016).

Saveljev, V.

Saveljev, V. V.

V. V. Saveljev, J.-Y. Son, B. Javidi, S.-K. Kim, and D.-S. Kim, “Moiré minimization condition in three-dimensional image displays,” J. of Displ. Technology 1(2), 347 (2005).
[Crossref]

Seo, G.

Seuntiëns, P. J.

P. J. Seuntiëns, L. M. Meesters, and W. A. IJsselsteijn, “The negentropy principle of informationitle>Perceptual attributes of crosstalk in 3D images,” Displays 26(4), 177–183 (2005).
[Crossref]

Shieh, H.-P. D.

W. Mphepo, Y.-P. Huang, and H.-P. D. Shieh, “Enhancing the brightness of parallax barrier based 3D flat panel mobile displays without compromising power consumption,” J. of Displ. Technology 6(2), 60–64 (2010).
[Crossref]

Shigemura, K.

K. Shigemura, J. Matsushima, Y. Ibata, K. Masumura, T. Asai, and T. Sato, “a two-way multiview 3D display using liquid crystal lens,” SPIE Newsroom (2016).

Shih, C.-H.

C.-T. Chang, W.-L. Chen, C.-H. Shih, and W.-M. Huang, “Landscape/portrait dual mode lens type 3D display using a 2d lens array,” in SID Symposium Digest vol. 43, pp. 308–311 (2012).

Shin, Y.-C.

J. Kim, C.-K. Lee, Y. Jeong, C. Jang, J.-Y. Hong, W. Lee, Y.-C. Shin, J.-H. Yoon, and B. Lee, “Crosstalk-reduced dual-mode mobile 3D display,” Journal of D. Technology 11(1), 97–103 (2015).
[Crossref]

Son, J.-Y.

V. V. Saveljev, J.-Y. Son, B. Javidi, S.-K. Kim, and D.-S. Kim, “Moiré minimization condition in three-dimensional image displays,” J. of Displ. Technology 1(2), 347 (2005).
[Crossref]

Song, M. S.

H. J. Lee, H. Nam, J. D. Lee, H. W. Jang, M. S. Song, B. S. Kim, J. S. Gu, C. Y. Park, and K. H. Choi, “A high resolution autostereoscopic display employing a time division parallax barrier,” in SID Symposium Digest vol. 37, pp. 81–84 (2006).

Szeliski, R.

S. Gortler, R. Grzeszczuk, R. Szeliski, and M. Cohen, “The lumigraph,” in SIGGRAPH (1996), pp. 43–54.

Taira, K.

R. Fukushima, K. Taira, T. Saishu, Y. Momonoi, M. Kashiwagi, and Y. Hirayama, “Effect of light ray overlap between neighboring parallax images in autostereoscopic 3D displays,” Proc. SPIE 7237, 72370 (2009).
[Crossref]

Takaki, Y.

Tanaka, Y.

K. Oku, Y. Tomizuka, and Y. Tanaka, “Analysis and reduction of moiré in two-layered 3D display,” in SID Symposium Digest vol. 38, pp. 437–440 (2007).

Ting, C.-H.

Tomizuka, Y.

K. Oku, Y. Tomizuka, and Y. Tanaka, “Analysis and reduction of moiré in two-layered 3D display,” in SID Symposium Digest vol. 38, pp. 437–440 (2007).

Tran, T.

D. Fattal, Z. Peng, T. Tran, S. Vo, M. Fiorentino, J. Brug, and R. G. Beausoleil, “A multi-directional backlight for a wide-angle, glasses-free three-dimensional display,” Nature 495(7441), 348–351 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Urruchi Del Pozo, V.

V. Urruchi Del Pozo, J. Algorri Genaro, J. Sánchez-Pena, M. Geday, X. Arregui, and N. Bennis, “Lenticular arrays based on liquid crystals,” Opto-Electronics Review 20(3), 260–266 (2012).
[Crossref]

Van Berkel, C.

C. Van Berkel, “Image preparation for 3D LCD,” Proc. SPIE 3639, 84–91 (1999).
[Crossref]

C. Van Berkel and J. A. Clarke, “Characterization and optimization of 3D-LCD module design,” Proc. SPIE 3012, 179–186 (1997).
[Crossref]

Vo, S.

D. Fattal, Z. Peng, T. Tran, S. Vo, M. Fiorentino, J. Brug, and R. G. Beausoleil, “A multi-directional backlight for a wide-angle, glasses-free three-dimensional display,” Nature 495(7441), 348–351 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, A.-H.

Wang, Q.-H.

Wetzstein, G.

G. Wetzstein, D. Lanman, M. Hirsch, and R. Raskar, “Tensor displays: compressive light field synthesis using multilayer displays with directional backlighting,” ACM Transactions Graphics 31, 1–11 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yoon, J.-H.

J. Kim, C.-K. Lee, Y. Jeong, C. Jang, J.-Y. Hong, W. Lee, Y.-C. Shin, J.-H. Yoon, and B. Lee, “Crosstalk-reduced dual-mode mobile 3D display,” Journal of D. Technology 11(1), 97–103 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yoon, K.-H.

Yoon, S. K.

Zhou, L.

ACM Transactions Graphics (1)

G. Wetzstein, D. Lanman, M. Hirsch, and R. Raskar, “Tensor displays: compressive light field synthesis using multilayer displays with directional backlighting,” ACM Transactions Graphics 31, 1–11 (2012).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Displays (1)

P. J. Seuntiëns, L. M. Meesters, and W. A. IJsselsteijn, “The negentropy principle of informationitle>Perceptual attributes of crosstalk in 3D images,” Displays 26(4), 177–183 (2005).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Image Process. (1)

J. Konrad, B. Lacotte, and E. Dubois, “Cancellation of image crosstalk in time-sequential displays of stereoscopic video,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 9(5), 897–908 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

L. Brillouin, “The negentropy principle of information,” J. Appl. Phys. 24, 1152–1163 (1953).
[Crossref]

J. Electron. Imaging (1)

I. Amidror, R. D. Hersch, and V. Ostromoukhov, “Spectral analysis and minimization of moiré patterns in color separation,” J. Electron. Imaging 3(3), 295–317 (1994).
[Crossref]

J. of Displ. Technology (2)

V. V. Saveljev, J.-Y. Son, B. Javidi, S.-K. Kim, and D.-S. Kim, “Moiré minimization condition in three-dimensional image displays,” J. of Displ. Technology 1(2), 347 (2005).
[Crossref]

W. Mphepo, Y.-P. Huang, and H.-P. D. Shieh, “Enhancing the brightness of parallax barrier based 3D flat panel mobile displays without compromising power consumption,” J. of Displ. Technology 6(2), 60–64 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Soc. Inf. Disp. (2)

M. Salmimaa and T. Järvenpää, “3-D crosstalk and luminance uniformity from angular luminance profiles of multiview autostereoscopic 3-D displays,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 16(10), 1033–1040 (2008).
[Crossref]

Y. J. Jeong, H. S. Chang, D. Nam, and C.-C. J. Kuo, “Direct light field rendering without 2D image generation,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 24(11), 686–695 (2017).
[Crossref]

Journal of D. Technology (1)

J. Kim, C.-K. Lee, Y. Jeong, C. Jang, J.-Y. Hong, W. Lee, Y.-C. Shin, J.-H. Yoon, and B. Lee, “Crosstalk-reduced dual-mode mobile 3D display,” Journal of D. Technology 11(1), 97–103 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

D. Fattal, Z. Peng, T. Tran, S. Vo, M. Fiorentino, J. Brug, and R. G. Beausoleil, “A multi-directional backlight for a wide-angle, glasses-free three-dimensional display,” Nature 495(7441), 348–351 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (5)

Opto-Electronics Review (1)

V. Urruchi Del Pozo, J. Algorri Genaro, J. Sánchez-Pena, M. Geday, X. Arregui, and N. Bennis, “Lenticular arrays based on liquid crystals,” Opto-Electronics Review 20(3), 260–266 (2012).
[Crossref]

Proc. of the IEEE (2)

R. Martinez-Cuenca, G. Saavedra, M. Martinez-Corral, and B. Javidi, “Progress in 3-D multiperspective display by integral imaging,” Proc. of the IEEE 97(6), 1067–1077 (2009).
[Crossref]

L. Hill and A. Jacobs, “3-D liquid crystal displays and their applications,” Proc. of the IEEE 94(3), 575–590 (2006).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (4)

R. Fukushima, K. Taira, T. Saishu, Y. Momonoi, M. Kashiwagi, and Y. Hirayama, “Effect of light ray overlap between neighboring parallax images in autostereoscopic 3D displays,” Proc. SPIE 7237, 72370 (2009).
[Crossref]

C. Van Berkel, “Image preparation for 3D LCD,” Proc. SPIE 3639, 84–91 (1999).
[Crossref]

R. B. Johnson and G. A. Jacobsen, “Advances in lenticular lens arrays for visual display,” Proc. SPIE 5874, 587406 (2005).
[Crossref]

C. Van Berkel and J. A. Clarke, “Characterization and optimization of 3D-LCD module design,” Proc. SPIE 3012, 179–186 (1997).
[Crossref]

Other (8)

H. J. Lee, H. Nam, J. D. Lee, H. W. Jang, M. S. Song, B. S. Kim, J. S. Gu, C. Y. Park, and K. H. Choi, “A high resolution autostereoscopic display employing a time division parallax barrier,” in SID Symposium Digest vol. 37, pp. 81–84 (2006).

K. Oku, Y. Tomizuka, and Y. Tanaka, “Analysis and reduction of moiré in two-layered 3D display,” in SID Symposium Digest vol. 38, pp. 437–440 (2007).

K. Shigemura, J. Matsushima, Y. Ibata, K. Masumura, T. Asai, and T. Sato, “a two-way multiview 3D display using liquid crystal lens,” SPIE Newsroom (2016).

C.-T. Chang, W.-L. Chen, C.-H. Shih, and W.-M. Huang, “Landscape/portrait dual mode lens type 3D display using a 2d lens array,” in SID Symposium Digest vol. 43, pp. 308–311 (2012).

K. Choi, Y. J. Jeong, B. Kang, J.-H. Lee, Y. Choi, and D. Nam, “Design and implementation of landscape/portrait mode convertible light-field 3D display,” in SID Symposium Digest vol. 47, pp. 986–989 (2016).

“EyeFly3D – glasses-free 3D,” [Online]. Available: http://www.eyefly3d.com/ .

M. Levoy and P. Hanrahan, “Light field rendering,” in SIGGRAPH (1996), pp. 31–41.

S. Gortler, R. Grzeszczuk, R. Szeliski, and M. Cohen, “The lumigraph,” in SIGGRAPH (1996), pp. 43–54.

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Figures (15)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Various 3D displays that have 3D artifacts caused by the (a) lack of luminance uniformity, (b) lack of color uniformity, and (c) moiré artifacts. Images of 3D displays were captured using a camera.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Light field representation (b) light field representation in 3D displays.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Luminance uniformity: light rays and light field representation of 3D displays. (a), (b), and (c) are representations for a non-uniformly distributed 3D display; (d), (e), and (f) are representations for a uniformly distributed 3D display; (a) and (d) show light rays from one horizontal line when y = 1; (b) and (e) show light rays from one horizontal line when y = 2.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Color uniformity: light rays and light field representation of 3D displays. (a), (b), and (c) are representations for non-uniformly distributed color; (d), (e), and (f) are representations for uniformly distributed color; (a) and (d) show light rays from one horizontal line when y = 1; (b) and (e) show light rays from two horizontal lines when y = 1 and y = 2.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Spectral model for 3D display moiré based on Fourier analysis.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 lα map for design of 3D displays.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 lα map for luminance uniformity, color uniformity and 3D moiré.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 lα map for 3D display design optimization.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Luminance uniformity in the light field representation of (a) design 1, (b) design 2, (c) design 3, and (d) design 4.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Color uniformity in the light field representation of (a) design 1, (b) design 2, (c) design 3, and (d) design 4.
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 3D moiré simulation: superposition of pixels and parallax barrier (top) and frequency response (bottom) for (a) design 1, (b) design 2, (c) design 3, and (d) design 4.
Fig. 12
Fig. 12 Camera captured images from four manufactured rotatable 3D displays.
Fig. 13
Fig. 13 Crosstalk of design 1 for landscape and portrait modes.
Fig. 14
Fig. 14 Simulated results for luminance and color uniformity term.
Fig. 15
Fig. 15 Simulated results for moiré term.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 3D display parameters for design 1, 2, 3, and 4.

Equations (26)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

E = λ 1 E L + λ 2 E C + λ 3 E M ,
L : Ω × Π R ( x , y , s , t ) L ( x , y , s , t ) .
p ( s ) = f d f p ( x ) D f u ,
J = S max S ,
E L = P R log P R + 1 N b P i log P i
P R = N L N b × N b ,
P i = n i N L ,
E C = P C R log P C R P C G log P C G P C B log P C B + + 1 N b ( P i R log P i R + P i G log P i G + P i B log P i B ) ,
P C R = N L R N b × N b , P C G = N L G N b × N b , P C B = N L B N b × N b ,
P i R = n i R n L R , P i G = n i G N L G , P i B = n i B N L B ,
o ( x , y ) = 0.5 cos [ 2 π f L ( x cos θ + y sin θ ) ] + 0.5 ,
O ( f L cos θ , f L sin θ ) = O ( f L cos θ , f L sin θ ) = 1 4 , O [ 0 , 0 ] = 1 2 .
o ( x , y ) = Π o ( τ L ( x cos θ τ L + y sin θ ) ) = { 1 , | x cos θ | τ L 2 0 , | x cos θ | > τ L 2 , L 2 < x L 2
O ( u , v ) = τ L f L sinc ( τ L ( u cos θ + v sin θ ) ) .
p ( x , y ) = Π H ( x τ H ) × Π V ( y τ V ) ,
Π H ( x τ H ) = { 1 , 0 , | x | τ H 2 | x | > τ H 2 , T H 2 < x T H 2 1 , 0 , | x | τ V 2 | x | > τ V 2 , T V 2 < x T V 2 .
P ( u , v ) = τ H T H sinc ( τ H u ) τ V T C sinc ( τ V v ) .
o ( x , y ) p ( x , y ) O ( u , v ) P ( u , v ) = M ( u , v ) .
C M = v 1 v 2 u 1 u 2 λ ( u , v ) M ( u , v ) d u d v ,
L P = L tan θ = L α .
V L = 2 atan L 2 g ,
V P = 2 atan L 2 g α ,
θ 1 < V L < θ 2 , θ 3 < V P < θ 4
E = E L ( l , α ) + λ 1 E C ( l , α ) + λ 2 E M ( l , α , p ¯ ) ,
5 ° < V L < 18 ° , 10 ° < V P < 25 ° .
W H = V l ,

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