Abstract

We demonstrate a graphene-based electro-absorption modulator with extremely small modulation volume that can be controlled by low gating voltages 1-3 V and shows light modulation at wavelengths as short as 900 nm. Our choice of hafnium oxide dielectric separator gives the possibility to obtain significant electro-optical effect in a simple optical heterostructure. Having low power consumption, our devices could find a wide range of applications in telecom industry.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. K. Geim and K. S. Novoselov, “The rise of graphene,” Nat. Mater. 6(3), 183–191 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. M. Balog, M. Schieber, M. Michman, and S. Patai, “The chemical vapour deposition and characterization of ZrO2 films from organometallic compounds,” Thin Solid Films 47(2), 109–120 (1977).
    [Crossref]
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  4. F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 611–622 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  5. M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. F. H. L. Koppens, D. E. Chang, and F. J. García de Abajo, “Graphene plasmonics: a platform for strong light-matter interactions,” Nano Lett. 11(8), 3370–3377 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. B. Sensale-Rodriguez, R. Yan, M. M. Kelly, T. Fang, K. Tahy, W. S. Hwang, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. G. Xing, “Broadband graphene terahertz modulators enabled by intraband transitions,” Nat. Commun. 3(780), 780 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. M. Liu, X. Yin, and X. Zhang, “Double-Layer Graphene Optical Modulator,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1482–1485 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. A. N. Grigorenko, M. Polini, and K. S. Novoselov, “Graphene plasmonics,” Nat. Photonics 6(11), 749–758 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  10. Q. Bao and K. P. Loh, “Graphene Photonics, Plasmonics, and Broadband Optoelectronic Devices,” ACS Nano 6(5), 3677–3694 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. C. T. Phare, Y.-H. D. Lee, J. Cardenas, and M. Lipson, “Graphene electro-optic modulator with 30 GHz bandwidth,” Nat. Photonics 9(8), 511–514 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  12. D. Ansell, I. P. Radko, Z. Han, F. J. Rodriguez, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, and A. N. Grigorenko, “Hybrid graphene plasmonic waveguide modulators,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8846 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. B. D. Thackray, P. A. Thomas, G. H. Auton, F. J. Rodriguez, O. P. Marshall, V. G. Kravets, and A. N. Grigorenko, “Super-narrow, extremely high quality collective plasmon resonances at telecom wavelengths and their application in a hybrid graphene-plasmonic modulator,” Nano Lett. 15(5), 3519–3523 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. M. Jablan, H. Buljan, and M. Soljačić, “Plasmonics in graphene at infrared frequencies,” Phys. Rev. B 80(24), 245435 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  15. C.-F. Chen, C.-H. Park, B. W. Boudouris, J. Horng, B. Geng, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. F. Crommie, R. A. Segalman, S. G. Louie, and F. Wang, “Controlling inelastic light scattering quantum pathways in graphene,” Nature 471(7340), 617–620 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. E. O. Polat and C. Kocabas, “Broadband optical modulators based on graphene supercapacitors,” Nano Lett. 13(12), 5851–5857 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. L. A. Falkovsky, “Optical properties of graphene,” in Journal of Physics: Conference Series, (IOP Publishing, 2008), pp. 1–8.
  18. V. G. Kravets, R. Jalil, Y.-J. Kim, D. Ansell, D. E. Aznakayeva, B. Thackray, L. Britnell, B. D. Belle, F. Withers, I. P. Radko, Z. Han, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, and A. N. Grigorenko, “Graphene-protected copper and silver plasmonics,” Sci. Rep. 4, 5517 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (3)

C. T. Phare, Y.-H. D. Lee, J. Cardenas, and M. Lipson, “Graphene electro-optic modulator with 30 GHz bandwidth,” Nat. Photonics 9(8), 511–514 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Ansell, I. P. Radko, Z. Han, F. J. Rodriguez, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, and A. N. Grigorenko, “Hybrid graphene plasmonic waveguide modulators,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8846 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. D. Thackray, P. A. Thomas, G. H. Auton, F. J. Rodriguez, O. P. Marshall, V. G. Kravets, and A. N. Grigorenko, “Super-narrow, extremely high quality collective plasmon resonances at telecom wavelengths and their application in a hybrid graphene-plasmonic modulator,” Nano Lett. 15(5), 3519–3523 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (1)

V. G. Kravets, R. Jalil, Y.-J. Kim, D. Ansell, D. E. Aznakayeva, B. Thackray, L. Britnell, B. D. Belle, F. Withers, I. P. Radko, Z. Han, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, and A. N. Grigorenko, “Graphene-protected copper and silver plasmonics,” Sci. Rep. 4, 5517 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (1)

E. O. Polat and C. Kocabas, “Broadband optical modulators based on graphene supercapacitors,” Nano Lett. 13(12), 5851–5857 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (4)

B. Sensale-Rodriguez, R. Yan, M. M. Kelly, T. Fang, K. Tahy, W. S. Hwang, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. G. Xing, “Broadband graphene terahertz modulators enabled by intraband transitions,” Nat. Commun. 3(780), 780 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Liu, X. Yin, and X. Zhang, “Double-Layer Graphene Optical Modulator,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1482–1485 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. N. Grigorenko, M. Polini, and K. S. Novoselov, “Graphene plasmonics,” Nat. Photonics 6(11), 749–758 (2012).
[Crossref]

Q. Bao and K. P. Loh, “Graphene Photonics, Plasmonics, and Broadband Optoelectronic Devices,” ACS Nano 6(5), 3677–3694 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (3)

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. H. L. Koppens, D. E. Chang, and F. J. García de Abajo, “Graphene plasmonics: a platform for strong light-matter interactions,” Nano Lett. 11(8), 3370–3377 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C.-F. Chen, C.-H. Park, B. W. Boudouris, J. Horng, B. Geng, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. F. Crommie, R. A. Segalman, S. G. Louie, and F. Wang, “Controlling inelastic light scattering quantum pathways in graphene,” Nature 471(7340), 617–620 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 611–622 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

M. Jablan, H. Buljan, and M. Soljačić, “Plasmonics in graphene at infrared frequencies,” Phys. Rev. B 80(24), 245435 (2009).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

A. K. Geim and K. S. Novoselov, “The rise of graphene,” Nat. Mater. 6(3), 183–191 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1977 (1)

M. Balog, M. Schieber, M. Michman, and S. Patai, “The chemical vapour deposition and characterization of ZrO2 films from organometallic compounds,” Thin Solid Films 47(2), 109–120 (1977).
[Crossref]

Ansell, D.

D. Ansell, I. P. Radko, Z. Han, F. J. Rodriguez, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, and A. N. Grigorenko, “Hybrid graphene plasmonic waveguide modulators,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8846 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. G. Kravets, R. Jalil, Y.-J. Kim, D. Ansell, D. E. Aznakayeva, B. Thackray, L. Britnell, B. D. Belle, F. Withers, I. P. Radko, Z. Han, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, and A. N. Grigorenko, “Graphene-protected copper and silver plasmonics,” Sci. Rep. 4, 5517 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Auton, G. H.

B. D. Thackray, P. A. Thomas, G. H. Auton, F. J. Rodriguez, O. P. Marshall, V. G. Kravets, and A. N. Grigorenko, “Super-narrow, extremely high quality collective plasmon resonances at telecom wavelengths and their application in a hybrid graphene-plasmonic modulator,” Nano Lett. 15(5), 3519–3523 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aznakayeva, D. E.

V. G. Kravets, R. Jalil, Y.-J. Kim, D. Ansell, D. E. Aznakayeva, B. Thackray, L. Britnell, B. D. Belle, F. Withers, I. P. Radko, Z. Han, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, and A. N. Grigorenko, “Graphene-protected copper and silver plasmonics,” Sci. Rep. 4, 5517 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Balog, M.

M. Balog, M. Schieber, M. Michman, and S. Patai, “The chemical vapour deposition and characterization of ZrO2 films from organometallic compounds,” Thin Solid Films 47(2), 109–120 (1977).
[Crossref]

Bao, Q.

Q. Bao and K. P. Loh, “Graphene Photonics, Plasmonics, and Broadband Optoelectronic Devices,” ACS Nano 6(5), 3677–3694 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Belle, B. D.

V. G. Kravets, R. Jalil, Y.-J. Kim, D. Ansell, D. E. Aznakayeva, B. Thackray, L. Britnell, B. D. Belle, F. Withers, I. P. Radko, Z. Han, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, and A. N. Grigorenko, “Graphene-protected copper and silver plasmonics,” Sci. Rep. 4, 5517 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bonaccorso, F.

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 611–622 (2010).
[Crossref]

Boudouris, B. W.

C.-F. Chen, C.-H. Park, B. W. Boudouris, J. Horng, B. Geng, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. F. Crommie, R. A. Segalman, S. G. Louie, and F. Wang, “Controlling inelastic light scattering quantum pathways in graphene,” Nature 471(7340), 617–620 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

D. Ansell, I. P. Radko, Z. Han, F. J. Rodriguez, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, and A. N. Grigorenko, “Hybrid graphene plasmonic waveguide modulators,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8846 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. G. Kravets, R. Jalil, Y.-J. Kim, D. Ansell, D. E. Aznakayeva, B. Thackray, L. Britnell, B. D. Belle, F. Withers, I. P. Radko, Z. Han, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, and A. N. Grigorenko, “Graphene-protected copper and silver plasmonics,” Sci. Rep. 4, 5517 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Britnell, L.

V. G. Kravets, R. Jalil, Y.-J. Kim, D. Ansell, D. E. Aznakayeva, B. Thackray, L. Britnell, B. D. Belle, F. Withers, I. P. Radko, Z. Han, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, and A. N. Grigorenko, “Graphene-protected copper and silver plasmonics,” Sci. Rep. 4, 5517 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Buljan, H.

M. Jablan, H. Buljan, and M. Soljačić, “Plasmonics in graphene at infrared frequencies,” Phys. Rev. B 80(24), 245435 (2009).
[Crossref]

Cardenas, J.

C. T. Phare, Y.-H. D. Lee, J. Cardenas, and M. Lipson, “Graphene electro-optic modulator with 30 GHz bandwidth,” Nat. Photonics 9(8), 511–514 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chang, D. E.

F. H. L. Koppens, D. E. Chang, and F. J. García de Abajo, “Graphene plasmonics: a platform for strong light-matter interactions,” Nano Lett. 11(8), 3370–3377 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, C.-F.

C.-F. Chen, C.-H. Park, B. W. Boudouris, J. Horng, B. Geng, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. F. Crommie, R. A. Segalman, S. G. Louie, and F. Wang, “Controlling inelastic light scattering quantum pathways in graphene,” Nature 471(7340), 617–620 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Crommie, M. F.

C.-F. Chen, C.-H. Park, B. W. Boudouris, J. Horng, B. Geng, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. F. Crommie, R. A. Segalman, S. G. Louie, and F. Wang, “Controlling inelastic light scattering quantum pathways in graphene,” Nature 471(7340), 617–620 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fang, T.

B. Sensale-Rodriguez, R. Yan, M. M. Kelly, T. Fang, K. Tahy, W. S. Hwang, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. G. Xing, “Broadband graphene terahertz modulators enabled by intraband transitions,” Nat. Commun. 3(780), 780 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ferrari, A. C.

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 611–622 (2010).
[Crossref]

García de Abajo, F. J.

F. H. L. Koppens, D. E. Chang, and F. J. García de Abajo, “Graphene plasmonics: a platform for strong light-matter interactions,” Nano Lett. 11(8), 3370–3377 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Geim, A. K.

V. G. Kravets, R. Jalil, Y.-J. Kim, D. Ansell, D. E. Aznakayeva, B. Thackray, L. Britnell, B. D. Belle, F. Withers, I. P. Radko, Z. Han, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, and A. N. Grigorenko, “Graphene-protected copper and silver plasmonics,” Sci. Rep. 4, 5517 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. K. Geim and K. S. Novoselov, “The rise of graphene,” Nat. Mater. 6(3), 183–191 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Geng, B.

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C.-F. Chen, C.-H. Park, B. W. Boudouris, J. Horng, B. Geng, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. F. Crommie, R. A. Segalman, S. G. Louie, and F. Wang, “Controlling inelastic light scattering quantum pathways in graphene,” Nature 471(7340), 617–620 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Girit, C.

C.-F. Chen, C.-H. Park, B. W. Boudouris, J. Horng, B. Geng, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. F. Crommie, R. A. Segalman, S. G. Louie, and F. Wang, “Controlling inelastic light scattering quantum pathways in graphene,” Nature 471(7340), 617–620 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grigorenko, A. N.

B. D. Thackray, P. A. Thomas, G. H. Auton, F. J. Rodriguez, O. P. Marshall, V. G. Kravets, and A. N. Grigorenko, “Super-narrow, extremely high quality collective plasmon resonances at telecom wavelengths and their application in a hybrid graphene-plasmonic modulator,” Nano Lett. 15(5), 3519–3523 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Ansell, I. P. Radko, Z. Han, F. J. Rodriguez, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, and A. N. Grigorenko, “Hybrid graphene plasmonic waveguide modulators,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8846 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. G. Kravets, R. Jalil, Y.-J. Kim, D. Ansell, D. E. Aznakayeva, B. Thackray, L. Britnell, B. D. Belle, F. Withers, I. P. Radko, Z. Han, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, and A. N. Grigorenko, “Graphene-protected copper and silver plasmonics,” Sci. Rep. 4, 5517 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. N. Grigorenko, M. Polini, and K. S. Novoselov, “Graphene plasmonics,” Nat. Photonics 6(11), 749–758 (2012).
[Crossref]

Han, Z.

D. Ansell, I. P. Radko, Z. Han, F. J. Rodriguez, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, and A. N. Grigorenko, “Hybrid graphene plasmonic waveguide modulators,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8846 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. G. Kravets, R. Jalil, Y.-J. Kim, D. Ansell, D. E. Aznakayeva, B. Thackray, L. Britnell, B. D. Belle, F. Withers, I. P. Radko, Z. Han, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, and A. N. Grigorenko, “Graphene-protected copper and silver plasmonics,” Sci. Rep. 4, 5517 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hasan, T.

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 611–622 (2010).
[Crossref]

Horng, J.

C.-F. Chen, C.-H. Park, B. W. Boudouris, J. Horng, B. Geng, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. F. Crommie, R. A. Segalman, S. G. Louie, and F. Wang, “Controlling inelastic light scattering quantum pathways in graphene,” Nature 471(7340), 617–620 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hwang, W. S.

B. Sensale-Rodriguez, R. Yan, M. M. Kelly, T. Fang, K. Tahy, W. S. Hwang, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. G. Xing, “Broadband graphene terahertz modulators enabled by intraband transitions,” Nat. Commun. 3(780), 780 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jablan, M.

M. Jablan, H. Buljan, and M. Soljačić, “Plasmonics in graphene at infrared frequencies,” Phys. Rev. B 80(24), 245435 (2009).
[Crossref]

Jalil, R.

V. G. Kravets, R. Jalil, Y.-J. Kim, D. Ansell, D. E. Aznakayeva, B. Thackray, L. Britnell, B. D. Belle, F. Withers, I. P. Radko, Z. Han, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, and A. N. Grigorenko, “Graphene-protected copper and silver plasmonics,” Sci. Rep. 4, 5517 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jena, D.

B. Sensale-Rodriguez, R. Yan, M. M. Kelly, T. Fang, K. Tahy, W. S. Hwang, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. G. Xing, “Broadband graphene terahertz modulators enabled by intraband transitions,” Nat. Commun. 3(780), 780 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ju, L.

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kelly, M. M.

B. Sensale-Rodriguez, R. Yan, M. M. Kelly, T. Fang, K. Tahy, W. S. Hwang, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. G. Xing, “Broadband graphene terahertz modulators enabled by intraband transitions,” Nat. Commun. 3(780), 780 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, Y.-J.

V. G. Kravets, R. Jalil, Y.-J. Kim, D. Ansell, D. E. Aznakayeva, B. Thackray, L. Britnell, B. D. Belle, F. Withers, I. P. Radko, Z. Han, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, and A. N. Grigorenko, “Graphene-protected copper and silver plasmonics,” Sci. Rep. 4, 5517 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kocabas, C.

E. O. Polat and C. Kocabas, “Broadband optical modulators based on graphene supercapacitors,” Nano Lett. 13(12), 5851–5857 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Koppens, F. H. L.

F. H. L. Koppens, D. E. Chang, and F. J. García de Abajo, “Graphene plasmonics: a platform for strong light-matter interactions,” Nano Lett. 11(8), 3370–3377 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kravets, V. G.

B. D. Thackray, P. A. Thomas, G. H. Auton, F. J. Rodriguez, O. P. Marshall, V. G. Kravets, and A. N. Grigorenko, “Super-narrow, extremely high quality collective plasmon resonances at telecom wavelengths and their application in a hybrid graphene-plasmonic modulator,” Nano Lett. 15(5), 3519–3523 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. G. Kravets, R. Jalil, Y.-J. Kim, D. Ansell, D. E. Aznakayeva, B. Thackray, L. Britnell, B. D. Belle, F. Withers, I. P. Radko, Z. Han, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, and A. N. Grigorenko, “Graphene-protected copper and silver plasmonics,” Sci. Rep. 4, 5517 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, Y.-H. D.

C. T. Phare, Y.-H. D. Lee, J. Cardenas, and M. Lipson, “Graphene electro-optic modulator with 30 GHz bandwidth,” Nat. Photonics 9(8), 511–514 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lipson, M.

C. T. Phare, Y.-H. D. Lee, J. Cardenas, and M. Lipson, “Graphene electro-optic modulator with 30 GHz bandwidth,” Nat. Photonics 9(8), 511–514 (2015).
[Crossref]

Liu, L.

B. Sensale-Rodriguez, R. Yan, M. M. Kelly, T. Fang, K. Tahy, W. S. Hwang, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. G. Xing, “Broadband graphene terahertz modulators enabled by intraband transitions,” Nat. Commun. 3(780), 780 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, M.

M. Liu, X. Yin, and X. Zhang, “Double-Layer Graphene Optical Modulator,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1482–1485 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Loh, K. P.

Q. Bao and K. P. Loh, “Graphene Photonics, Plasmonics, and Broadband Optoelectronic Devices,” ACS Nano 6(5), 3677–3694 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Louie, S. G.

C.-F. Chen, C.-H. Park, B. W. Boudouris, J. Horng, B. Geng, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. F. Crommie, R. A. Segalman, S. G. Louie, and F. Wang, “Controlling inelastic light scattering quantum pathways in graphene,” Nature 471(7340), 617–620 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Marshall, O. P.

B. D. Thackray, P. A. Thomas, G. H. Auton, F. J. Rodriguez, O. P. Marshall, V. G. Kravets, and A. N. Grigorenko, “Super-narrow, extremely high quality collective plasmon resonances at telecom wavelengths and their application in a hybrid graphene-plasmonic modulator,” Nano Lett. 15(5), 3519–3523 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Michman, M.

M. Balog, M. Schieber, M. Michman, and S. Patai, “The chemical vapour deposition and characterization of ZrO2 films from organometallic compounds,” Thin Solid Films 47(2), 109–120 (1977).
[Crossref]

Novoselov, K. S.

V. G. Kravets, R. Jalil, Y.-J. Kim, D. Ansell, D. E. Aznakayeva, B. Thackray, L. Britnell, B. D. Belle, F. Withers, I. P. Radko, Z. Han, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, and A. N. Grigorenko, “Graphene-protected copper and silver plasmonics,” Sci. Rep. 4, 5517 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. N. Grigorenko, M. Polini, and K. S. Novoselov, “Graphene plasmonics,” Nat. Photonics 6(11), 749–758 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. K. Geim and K. S. Novoselov, “The rise of graphene,” Nat. Mater. 6(3), 183–191 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, C.-H.

C.-F. Chen, C.-H. Park, B. W. Boudouris, J. Horng, B. Geng, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. F. Crommie, R. A. Segalman, S. G. Louie, and F. Wang, “Controlling inelastic light scattering quantum pathways in graphene,” Nature 471(7340), 617–620 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Patai, S.

M. Balog, M. Schieber, M. Michman, and S. Patai, “The chemical vapour deposition and characterization of ZrO2 films from organometallic compounds,” Thin Solid Films 47(2), 109–120 (1977).
[Crossref]

Phare, C. T.

C. T. Phare, Y.-H. D. Lee, J. Cardenas, and M. Lipson, “Graphene electro-optic modulator with 30 GHz bandwidth,” Nat. Photonics 9(8), 511–514 (2015).
[Crossref]

Polat, E. O.

E. O. Polat and C. Kocabas, “Broadband optical modulators based on graphene supercapacitors,” Nano Lett. 13(12), 5851–5857 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Polini, M.

A. N. Grigorenko, M. Polini, and K. S. Novoselov, “Graphene plasmonics,” Nat. Photonics 6(11), 749–758 (2012).
[Crossref]

Radko, I. P.

D. Ansell, I. P. Radko, Z. Han, F. J. Rodriguez, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, and A. N. Grigorenko, “Hybrid graphene plasmonic waveguide modulators,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8846 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. G. Kravets, R. Jalil, Y.-J. Kim, D. Ansell, D. E. Aznakayeva, B. Thackray, L. Britnell, B. D. Belle, F. Withers, I. P. Radko, Z. Han, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, and A. N. Grigorenko, “Graphene-protected copper and silver plasmonics,” Sci. Rep. 4, 5517 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rodriguez, F. J.

D. Ansell, I. P. Radko, Z. Han, F. J. Rodriguez, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, and A. N. Grigorenko, “Hybrid graphene plasmonic waveguide modulators,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8846 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. D. Thackray, P. A. Thomas, G. H. Auton, F. J. Rodriguez, O. P. Marshall, V. G. Kravets, and A. N. Grigorenko, “Super-narrow, extremely high quality collective plasmon resonances at telecom wavelengths and their application in a hybrid graphene-plasmonic modulator,” Nano Lett. 15(5), 3519–3523 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schieber, M.

M. Balog, M. Schieber, M. Michman, and S. Patai, “The chemical vapour deposition and characterization of ZrO2 films from organometallic compounds,” Thin Solid Films 47(2), 109–120 (1977).
[Crossref]

Segalman, R. A.

C.-F. Chen, C.-H. Park, B. W. Boudouris, J. Horng, B. Geng, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. F. Crommie, R. A. Segalman, S. G. Louie, and F. Wang, “Controlling inelastic light scattering quantum pathways in graphene,” Nature 471(7340), 617–620 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sensale-Rodriguez, B.

B. Sensale-Rodriguez, R. Yan, M. M. Kelly, T. Fang, K. Tahy, W. S. Hwang, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. G. Xing, “Broadband graphene terahertz modulators enabled by intraband transitions,” Nat. Commun. 3(780), 780 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Soljacic, M.

M. Jablan, H. Buljan, and M. Soljačić, “Plasmonics in graphene at infrared frequencies,” Phys. Rev. B 80(24), 245435 (2009).
[Crossref]

Sun, Z.

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 611–622 (2010).
[Crossref]

Tahy, K.

B. Sensale-Rodriguez, R. Yan, M. M. Kelly, T. Fang, K. Tahy, W. S. Hwang, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. G. Xing, “Broadband graphene terahertz modulators enabled by intraband transitions,” Nat. Commun. 3(780), 780 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thackray, B.

V. G. Kravets, R. Jalil, Y.-J. Kim, D. Ansell, D. E. Aznakayeva, B. Thackray, L. Britnell, B. D. Belle, F. Withers, I. P. Radko, Z. Han, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, and A. N. Grigorenko, “Graphene-protected copper and silver plasmonics,” Sci. Rep. 4, 5517 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thackray, B. D.

B. D. Thackray, P. A. Thomas, G. H. Auton, F. J. Rodriguez, O. P. Marshall, V. G. Kravets, and A. N. Grigorenko, “Super-narrow, extremely high quality collective plasmon resonances at telecom wavelengths and their application in a hybrid graphene-plasmonic modulator,” Nano Lett. 15(5), 3519–3523 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thomas, P. A.

B. D. Thackray, P. A. Thomas, G. H. Auton, F. J. Rodriguez, O. P. Marshall, V. G. Kravets, and A. N. Grigorenko, “Super-narrow, extremely high quality collective plasmon resonances at telecom wavelengths and their application in a hybrid graphene-plasmonic modulator,” Nano Lett. 15(5), 3519–3523 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ulin-Avila, E.

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, F.

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C.-F. Chen, C.-H. Park, B. W. Boudouris, J. Horng, B. Geng, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. F. Crommie, R. A. Segalman, S. G. Louie, and F. Wang, “Controlling inelastic light scattering quantum pathways in graphene,” Nature 471(7340), 617–620 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Withers, F.

V. G. Kravets, R. Jalil, Y.-J. Kim, D. Ansell, D. E. Aznakayeva, B. Thackray, L. Britnell, B. D. Belle, F. Withers, I. P. Radko, Z. Han, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, and A. N. Grigorenko, “Graphene-protected copper and silver plasmonics,” Sci. Rep. 4, 5517 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xing, H. G.

B. Sensale-Rodriguez, R. Yan, M. M. Kelly, T. Fang, K. Tahy, W. S. Hwang, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. G. Xing, “Broadband graphene terahertz modulators enabled by intraband transitions,” Nat. Commun. 3(780), 780 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yan, R.

B. Sensale-Rodriguez, R. Yan, M. M. Kelly, T. Fang, K. Tahy, W. S. Hwang, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. G. Xing, “Broadband graphene terahertz modulators enabled by intraband transitions,” Nat. Commun. 3(780), 780 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yin, X.

M. Liu, X. Yin, and X. Zhang, “Double-Layer Graphene Optical Modulator,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1482–1485 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zentgraf, T.

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zettl, A.

C.-F. Chen, C.-H. Park, B. W. Boudouris, J. Horng, B. Geng, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. F. Crommie, R. A. Segalman, S. G. Louie, and F. Wang, “Controlling inelastic light scattering quantum pathways in graphene,” Nature 471(7340), 617–620 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

M. Liu, X. Yin, and X. Zhang, “Double-Layer Graphene Optical Modulator,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1482–1485 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

ACS Nano (1)

Q. Bao and K. P. Loh, “Graphene Photonics, Plasmonics, and Broadband Optoelectronic Devices,” ACS Nano 6(5), 3677–3694 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nano Lett. (4)

B. D. Thackray, P. A. Thomas, G. H. Auton, F. J. Rodriguez, O. P. Marshall, V. G. Kravets, and A. N. Grigorenko, “Super-narrow, extremely high quality collective plasmon resonances at telecom wavelengths and their application in a hybrid graphene-plasmonic modulator,” Nano Lett. 15(5), 3519–3523 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. O. Polat and C. Kocabas, “Broadband optical modulators based on graphene supercapacitors,” Nano Lett. 13(12), 5851–5857 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. H. L. Koppens, D. E. Chang, and F. J. García de Abajo, “Graphene plasmonics: a platform for strong light-matter interactions,” Nano Lett. 11(8), 3370–3377 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Liu, X. Yin, and X. Zhang, “Double-Layer Graphene Optical Modulator,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1482–1485 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Commun. (2)

B. Sensale-Rodriguez, R. Yan, M. M. Kelly, T. Fang, K. Tahy, W. S. Hwang, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. G. Xing, “Broadband graphene terahertz modulators enabled by intraband transitions,” Nat. Commun. 3(780), 780 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Ansell, I. P. Radko, Z. Han, F. J. Rodriguez, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, and A. N. Grigorenko, “Hybrid graphene plasmonic waveguide modulators,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8846 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater. (1)

A. K. Geim and K. S. Novoselov, “The rise of graphene,” Nat. Mater. 6(3), 183–191 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (3)

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 611–622 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. N. Grigorenko, M. Polini, and K. S. Novoselov, “Graphene plasmonics,” Nat. Photonics 6(11), 749–758 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. T. Phare, Y.-H. D. Lee, J. Cardenas, and M. Lipson, “Graphene electro-optic modulator with 30 GHz bandwidth,” Nat. Photonics 9(8), 511–514 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nature (2)

C.-F. Chen, C.-H. Park, B. W. Boudouris, J. Horng, B. Geng, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. F. Crommie, R. A. Segalman, S. G. Louie, and F. Wang, “Controlling inelastic light scattering quantum pathways in graphene,” Nature 471(7340), 617–620 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

M. Jablan, H. Buljan, and M. Soljačić, “Plasmonics in graphene at infrared frequencies,” Phys. Rev. B 80(24), 245435 (2009).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (1)

V. G. Kravets, R. Jalil, Y.-J. Kim, D. Ansell, D. E. Aznakayeva, B. Thackray, L. Britnell, B. D. Belle, F. Withers, I. P. Radko, Z. Han, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, and A. N. Grigorenko, “Graphene-protected copper and silver plasmonics,” Sci. Rep. 4, 5517 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thin Solid Films (1)

M. Balog, M. Schieber, M. Michman, and S. Patai, “The chemical vapour deposition and characterization of ZrO2 films from organometallic compounds,” Thin Solid Films 47(2), 109–120 (1977).
[Crossref]

Other (2)

V. E. Henrich and P. A. Cox, The Surface Science of Metal Oxides (Cambridge University Press, 1996).

L. A. Falkovsky, “Optical properties of graphene,” in Journal of Physics: Conference Series, (IOP Publishing, 2008), pp. 1–8.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Free space graphene-based electro-optical modulator. (a) Schematic of the device. The modulator heterostructure consists of a quartz substrate, reflective copper mirror, sub-wavelength high-k HfO2 dielectric layer and a graphene sheet. (b) Microscope image of a graphene electro-optical modulator designed to operate at λ = 1 µm.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Light modulation by the graphene-based heterostructures. (a) Spectral dependence of the relative reflection with a HfO2 thickness d = 156 nm and gate voltages of −1 V (the blue curve) and −2 V(the red curve). (b) Relative reflection spectra for d = 100 nm, at gating voltages of −1 V (the blue curve), −2 V (the red curve), −3 V(the green curve). (c) and (d) Numerical simulations based on Fresnel theory, corresponding to the spectra presented in (a) and (b) respectively.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Electrical properties of a modulator at different temperatures. (a) Graphene sheet resistance R as a function of gate voltage at temperatures of −80°C, 0°C and 80°C. (b) Leakage currents through HfO2 dielectric during these resistance measurements.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ε F = ν F sign(V) ε| V | 4de ,
σ= e 2 4 [ 1 2 + 1 π arctan( ω2μ 2 k B T ) i 2π ln( (ω+2μ) 2 (ω2μ) 2 +4 k B 2 T 2 )+ i π 8 k B T ω+iγ ln(2cosh μ 2 k B T )],

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