Abstract

An optical-resolution photoacoustic microscope (OR-PAM) with capability of fast axial-scanning was developed by using a tunable acoustic gradient (TAG) lens. The TAG lens was designed to continuously changing the focal plane of OR-PAM by modulating its refractive power with fast-changing ultrasonic standing wave. The performance was shown by imaging a carbon fiber. We achieved a DoF of about 750 μm. The head of a zebrafish was also imaged to further demonstrate the feasibility of our method.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. L. V. Wang and S. Hu, “Photoacoustic tomography: in vivo imaging from organelles to organs,” Science 335(6075), 1458–1462 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. P. Beard, “Biomedical photoacoustic imaging,” Interface Focus 1(4), 602–631 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. J. Yao and L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustic tomography: fundamentals, advances and prospects,” Contrast Media Mol. Imaging 6(5), 332–345 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. L. V. Wang, “Prospects of photoacoustic tomography,” Med. Phys. 35(12), 5758–5767 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. S. Hu and L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustic imaging and characterization of the microvasculature,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(1), 011101 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. X. Wang, Y. Pang, G. Ku, X. Xie, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Noninvasive laser-induced photoacoustic tomography for structural and functional in vivo imaging of the brain,” Nat. Biotechnol. 21(7), 803–806 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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2016 (1)

2015 (2)

J. Yao, L. Wang, J. M. Yang, K. I. Maslov, T. T. W. Wong, L. Li, C. H. Huang, J. Zou, and L. V. Wang, “High-speed label-free functional photoacoustic microscopy of mouse brain in action,” Nat. Methods 12(5), 407–410 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Shi, L. Wang, C. Noordam, and L. V. Wang, “Bessel-beam Grueneisen relaxation photoacoustic microscopy with extended depth of field,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(11), 116002 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (2)

C. Yeh, B. Soetikno, S. Hu, K. I. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, “Microvascular quantification based on contour-scanning photoacoustic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(9), 096011 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Li, H. Qin, S. Yang, and D. Xing, “In vivo fast variable focus photoacoustic microscopy using an electrically tunable lens,” Opt. Express 22(17), 20130–20137 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (2)

Y. Liu, X. Yang, H. Gong, B. Jiang, H. Wang, G. Xu, and Y. Deng, “Assessing the effects of norepinephrine on single cerebral microvessels using optical-resolution photoacoustic microscope,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(7), 076007 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Hajireza, A. Forbrich, and R. J. Zemp, “Multifocus optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy using stimulated Raman scattering and chromatic aberration,” Opt. Lett. 38(15), 2711–2713 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (3)

J. Yao, K. I. Maslov, E. R. Puckett, K. J. Rowland, B. W. Warner, and L. V. Wang, “Double-illumination photoacoustic microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 37(4), 659–661 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. V. Wang and S. Hu, “Photoacoustic tomography: in vivo imaging from organelles to organs,” Science 335(6075), 1458–1462 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Liu, C. Zhang, and L. V. Wang, “Effects of light scattering on optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(12), 126014 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

P. Beard, “Biomedical photoacoustic imaging,” Interface Focus 1(4), 602–631 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yao and L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustic tomography: fundamentals, advances and prospects,” Contrast Media Mol. Imaging 6(5), 332–345 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

S. Hu and L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustic imaging and characterization of the microvasculature,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(1), 011101 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (3)

2006 (1)

H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Functional photoacoustic microscopy for high-resolution and noninvasive in vivo imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol. 24(7), 848–851 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

X. Wang, Y. Pang, G. Ku, X. Xie, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Noninvasive laser-induced photoacoustic tomography for structural and functional in vivo imaging of the brain,” Nat. Biotechnol. 21(7), 803–806 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arnold, C. B.

Beard, P.

P. Beard, “Biomedical photoacoustic imaging,” Interface Focus 1(4), 602–631 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Deng, Y.

Y. Liu, X. Yang, H. Gong, B. Jiang, H. Wang, G. Xu, and Y. Deng, “Assessing the effects of norepinephrine on single cerebral microvessels using optical-resolution photoacoustic microscope,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(7), 076007 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Forbrich, A.

Gong, H.

Y. Liu, X. Yang, H. Gong, B. Jiang, H. Wang, G. Xu, and Y. Deng, “Assessing the effects of norepinephrine on single cerebral microvessels using optical-resolution photoacoustic microscope,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(7), 076007 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hajireza, P.

Hu, S.

C. Yeh, B. Soetikno, S. Hu, K. I. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, “Microvascular quantification based on contour-scanning photoacoustic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(9), 096011 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. V. Wang and S. Hu, “Photoacoustic tomography: in vivo imaging from organelles to organs,” Science 335(6075), 1458–1462 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Hu and L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustic imaging and characterization of the microvasculature,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(1), 011101 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Maslov, H. F. Zhang, S. Hu, and L. V. Wang, “Optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy for in vivo imaging of single capillaries,” Opt. Lett. 33(9), 929–931 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, C. H.

J. Yao, L. Wang, J. M. Yang, K. I. Maslov, T. T. W. Wong, L. Li, C. H. Huang, J. Zou, and L. V. Wang, “High-speed label-free functional photoacoustic microscopy of mouse brain in action,” Nat. Methods 12(5), 407–410 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jiang, B.

B. Jiang, X. Yang, and Q. Luo, “Reflection-mode Bessel-beam photoacoustic microscopy for in vivo imaging of cerebral capillaries,” Opt. Express 24(18), 20167–20176 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Liu, X. Yang, H. Gong, B. Jiang, H. Wang, G. Xu, and Y. Deng, “Assessing the effects of norepinephrine on single cerebral microvessels using optical-resolution photoacoustic microscope,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(7), 076007 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ku, G.

X. Wang, Y. Pang, G. Ku, X. Xie, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Noninvasive laser-induced photoacoustic tomography for structural and functional in vivo imaging of the brain,” Nat. Biotechnol. 21(7), 803–806 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, B.

Li, L.

J. Yao, L. Wang, J. M. Yang, K. I. Maslov, T. T. W. Wong, L. Li, C. H. Huang, J. Zou, and L. V. Wang, “High-speed label-free functional photoacoustic microscopy of mouse brain in action,” Nat. Methods 12(5), 407–410 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, Y.

Y. Liu, X. Yang, H. Gong, B. Jiang, H. Wang, G. Xu, and Y. Deng, “Assessing the effects of norepinephrine on single cerebral microvessels using optical-resolution photoacoustic microscope,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(7), 076007 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Liu, C. Zhang, and L. V. Wang, “Effects of light scattering on optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(12), 126014 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Luo, Q.

Maslov, K.

K. Maslov, H. F. Zhang, S. Hu, and L. V. Wang, “Optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy for in vivo imaging of single capillaries,” Opt. Lett. 33(9), 929–931 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Functional photoacoustic microscopy for high-resolution and noninvasive in vivo imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol. 24(7), 848–851 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Maslov, K. I.

J. Yao, L. Wang, J. M. Yang, K. I. Maslov, T. T. W. Wong, L. Li, C. H. Huang, J. Zou, and L. V. Wang, “High-speed label-free functional photoacoustic microscopy of mouse brain in action,” Nat. Methods 12(5), 407–410 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Yeh, B. Soetikno, S. Hu, K. I. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, “Microvascular quantification based on contour-scanning photoacoustic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(9), 096011 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yao, K. I. Maslov, E. R. Puckett, K. J. Rowland, B. W. Warner, and L. V. Wang, “Double-illumination photoacoustic microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 37(4), 659–661 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McLeod, E.

Mermillod-Blondin, A.

Noordam, C.

J. Shi, L. Wang, C. Noordam, and L. V. Wang, “Bessel-beam Grueneisen relaxation photoacoustic microscopy with extended depth of field,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(11), 116002 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pang, Y.

X. Wang, Y. Pang, G. Ku, X. Xie, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Noninvasive laser-induced photoacoustic tomography for structural and functional in vivo imaging of the brain,” Nat. Biotechnol. 21(7), 803–806 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Puckett, E. R.

Qin, H.

Rowland, K. J.

Shi, J.

J. Shi, L. Wang, C. Noordam, and L. V. Wang, “Bessel-beam Grueneisen relaxation photoacoustic microscopy with extended depth of field,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(11), 116002 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Soetikno, B.

C. Yeh, B. Soetikno, S. Hu, K. I. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, “Microvascular quantification based on contour-scanning photoacoustic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(9), 096011 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stoica, G.

H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Functional photoacoustic microscopy for high-resolution and noninvasive in vivo imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol. 24(7), 848–851 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Wang, Y. Pang, G. Ku, X. Xie, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Noninvasive laser-induced photoacoustic tomography for structural and functional in vivo imaging of the brain,” Nat. Biotechnol. 21(7), 803–806 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, H.

Y. Liu, X. Yang, H. Gong, B. Jiang, H. Wang, G. Xu, and Y. Deng, “Assessing the effects of norepinephrine on single cerebral microvessels using optical-resolution photoacoustic microscope,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(7), 076007 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, L.

J. Shi, L. Wang, C. Noordam, and L. V. Wang, “Bessel-beam Grueneisen relaxation photoacoustic microscopy with extended depth of field,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(11), 116002 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yao, L. Wang, J. M. Yang, K. I. Maslov, T. T. W. Wong, L. Li, C. H. Huang, J. Zou, and L. V. Wang, “High-speed label-free functional photoacoustic microscopy of mouse brain in action,” Nat. Methods 12(5), 407–410 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, L. V.

J. Yao, L. Wang, J. M. Yang, K. I. Maslov, T. T. W. Wong, L. Li, C. H. Huang, J. Zou, and L. V. Wang, “High-speed label-free functional photoacoustic microscopy of mouse brain in action,” Nat. Methods 12(5), 407–410 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Shi, L. Wang, C. Noordam, and L. V. Wang, “Bessel-beam Grueneisen relaxation photoacoustic microscopy with extended depth of field,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(11), 116002 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Yeh, B. Soetikno, S. Hu, K. I. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, “Microvascular quantification based on contour-scanning photoacoustic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(9), 096011 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yao, K. I. Maslov, E. R. Puckett, K. J. Rowland, B. W. Warner, and L. V. Wang, “Double-illumination photoacoustic microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 37(4), 659–661 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Liu, C. Zhang, and L. V. Wang, “Effects of light scattering on optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(12), 126014 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. V. Wang and S. Hu, “Photoacoustic tomography: in vivo imaging from organelles to organs,” Science 335(6075), 1458–1462 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yao and L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustic tomography: fundamentals, advances and prospects,” Contrast Media Mol. Imaging 6(5), 332–345 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Hu and L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustic imaging and characterization of the microvasculature,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(1), 011101 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. V. Wang, “Prospects of photoacoustic tomography,” Med. Phys. 35(12), 5758–5767 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Maslov, H. F. Zhang, S. Hu, and L. V. Wang, “Optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy for in vivo imaging of single capillaries,” Opt. Lett. 33(9), 929–931 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Functional photoacoustic microscopy for high-resolution and noninvasive in vivo imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol. 24(7), 848–851 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Wang, Y. Pang, G. Ku, X. Xie, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Noninvasive laser-induced photoacoustic tomography for structural and functional in vivo imaging of the brain,” Nat. Biotechnol. 21(7), 803–806 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, X.

X. Wang, Y. Pang, G. Ku, X. Xie, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Noninvasive laser-induced photoacoustic tomography for structural and functional in vivo imaging of the brain,” Nat. Biotechnol. 21(7), 803–806 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Warner, B. W.

Wong, T. T. W.

J. Yao, L. Wang, J. M. Yang, K. I. Maslov, T. T. W. Wong, L. Li, C. H. Huang, J. Zou, and L. V. Wang, “High-speed label-free functional photoacoustic microscopy of mouse brain in action,” Nat. Methods 12(5), 407–410 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xie, X.

X. Wang, Y. Pang, G. Ku, X. Xie, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Noninvasive laser-induced photoacoustic tomography for structural and functional in vivo imaging of the brain,” Nat. Biotechnol. 21(7), 803–806 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xing, D.

Xu, G.

Y. Liu, X. Yang, H. Gong, B. Jiang, H. Wang, G. Xu, and Y. Deng, “Assessing the effects of norepinephrine on single cerebral microvessels using optical-resolution photoacoustic microscope,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(7), 076007 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, J. M.

J. Yao, L. Wang, J. M. Yang, K. I. Maslov, T. T. W. Wong, L. Li, C. H. Huang, J. Zou, and L. V. Wang, “High-speed label-free functional photoacoustic microscopy of mouse brain in action,” Nat. Methods 12(5), 407–410 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, S.

Yang, X.

B. Jiang, X. Yang, and Q. Luo, “Reflection-mode Bessel-beam photoacoustic microscopy for in vivo imaging of cerebral capillaries,” Opt. Express 24(18), 20167–20176 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Liu, X. Yang, H. Gong, B. Jiang, H. Wang, G. Xu, and Y. Deng, “Assessing the effects of norepinephrine on single cerebral microvessels using optical-resolution photoacoustic microscope,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(7), 076007 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yao, J.

J. Yao, L. Wang, J. M. Yang, K. I. Maslov, T. T. W. Wong, L. Li, C. H. Huang, J. Zou, and L. V. Wang, “High-speed label-free functional photoacoustic microscopy of mouse brain in action,” Nat. Methods 12(5), 407–410 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yao, K. I. Maslov, E. R. Puckett, K. J. Rowland, B. W. Warner, and L. V. Wang, “Double-illumination photoacoustic microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 37(4), 659–661 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yao and L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustic tomography: fundamentals, advances and prospects,” Contrast Media Mol. Imaging 6(5), 332–345 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yeh, C.

C. Yeh, B. Soetikno, S. Hu, K. I. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, “Microvascular quantification based on contour-scanning photoacoustic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(9), 096011 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zemp, R. J.

Zhang, C.

Y. Liu, C. Zhang, and L. V. Wang, “Effects of light scattering on optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(12), 126014 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, H. F.

K. Maslov, H. F. Zhang, S. Hu, and L. V. Wang, “Optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy for in vivo imaging of single capillaries,” Opt. Lett. 33(9), 929–931 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Functional photoacoustic microscopy for high-resolution and noninvasive in vivo imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol. 24(7), 848–851 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zou, J.

J. Yao, L. Wang, J. M. Yang, K. I. Maslov, T. T. W. Wong, L. Li, C. H. Huang, J. Zou, and L. V. Wang, “High-speed label-free functional photoacoustic microscopy of mouse brain in action,” Nat. Methods 12(5), 407–410 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Contrast Media Mol. Imaging (1)

J. Yao and L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustic tomography: fundamentals, advances and prospects,” Contrast Media Mol. Imaging 6(5), 332–345 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Interface Focus (1)

P. Beard, “Biomedical photoacoustic imaging,” Interface Focus 1(4), 602–631 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (5)

S. Hu and L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustic imaging and characterization of the microvasculature,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(1), 011101 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Liu, C. Zhang, and L. V. Wang, “Effects of light scattering on optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(12), 126014 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Yeh, B. Soetikno, S. Hu, K. I. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, “Microvascular quantification based on contour-scanning photoacoustic microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(9), 096011 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Shi, L. Wang, C. Noordam, and L. V. Wang, “Bessel-beam Grueneisen relaxation photoacoustic microscopy with extended depth of field,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(11), 116002 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Liu, X. Yang, H. Gong, B. Jiang, H. Wang, G. Xu, and Y. Deng, “Assessing the effects of norepinephrine on single cerebral microvessels using optical-resolution photoacoustic microscope,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(7), 076007 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Med. Phys. (1)

L. V. Wang, “Prospects of photoacoustic tomography,” Med. Phys. 35(12), 5758–5767 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Biotechnol. (2)

X. Wang, Y. Pang, G. Ku, X. Xie, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Noninvasive laser-induced photoacoustic tomography for structural and functional in vivo imaging of the brain,” Nat. Biotechnol. 21(7), 803–806 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Functional photoacoustic microscopy for high-resolution and noninvasive in vivo imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol. 24(7), 848–851 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Methods (1)

J. Yao, L. Wang, J. M. Yang, K. I. Maslov, T. T. W. Wong, L. Li, C. H. Huang, J. Zou, and L. V. Wang, “High-speed label-free functional photoacoustic microscopy of mouse brain in action,” Nat. Methods 12(5), 407–410 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Science (1)

L. V. Wang and S. Hu, “Photoacoustic tomography: in vivo imaging from organelles to organs,” Science 335(6075), 1458–1462 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Scheme of the system. AL, acoustic lens; ASC, axial scanning circuit; BS, beam sampler; DAQ, data acquisition card ;FP, fiber port; FG, function generator; GS, glass slide; M1 and M2, mirrors; L1, L2, L3, L4 and L5, optical lenses; Obj1 and Obj2, objectives; PD, photodiode; PH, pinhole; PSO, position synchronized output signal; S, sample; SH, sample holder; SMF, single mode fiber; TAG, TAG lens; UT, ultrasonic transducer; W, water tank; WS, work station.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Schematic diagram of the axial scanning circuit. D, D-type flip-flop; DD, dual D-type edge-triggered flip-flop; MUX, multiplexer; VC, voltage comparator; VON, voltage offset unit.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 The focal plane shifts periodically with each step in a B scan. The red and blue dots represent maximum and minimum focal shift, respectively.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Schematic diagram for determining lens power of TAG lens using a wavefront sensor. DG, digital delay and pulse generator; D, D type flip-flop; FG1 and FG2, function generator; M, mirror; TAG, tunable acoustic gradient index of refraction lens; WS, wavefront sensor.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Lens power of TAG lens as a function of time for a 10 V driving signal at a frequency of 707 kHz. The solid curve shows a two-parameter (amplitude and phase) sinusoidal fit to the data.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Lateral resolution of the system. (a) PA image of a bar edge on the resolution target. (b) Edge spread function (ESF) and line spread function (LSF) extracted from (a). NPA, normalized photoacoustic amplitude.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Distribution of lateral resolution along the depth direction. (a) and (b) are MAP images of a vertically tilted carbon fiber when TAG lens is on and off, respectively. (c) Linear relation between vertical distance Δz and planar distance Δy. (d) and (e), Distribution of the lateral resolution along the depth direction of (a) and (b), respectively. f1, f2, f2’ and f3, focal planes indicated by white arrows ; The yellow dashed line in (b) indicates the position of the focus f2; NPA, normalized photoacoustic amplitude.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Images of the head of a zebrafish acquired with our system. (a) and (b) are the MAP images of the head of a zebrafish when TAG lens was on and off, respectively. (c) and (d) are close-up images of the areas indicated by the yellow dashed rectangles in (a) and (b), respectively; (e) and (f) are close-up images of the areas indicated by the white dashed rectangles in (a) and (b), respectively. (g)–(i) are cross-sectional B images through the yellow, green and white dashed lines in (a), respectively; (j)–(l) show cross-sectional B images through the yellow, green and white dashed lines in (b), respectively. NPA, normalized photoacoustic amplitude.

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