Abstract

An aluminum-free nitride laser diode (LD) operating at a wavelength of λ = 452 nm with a threshold current density of jth = 4.2 kA/cm2 grown by plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy is demonstrated. Aluminum is successfully eliminated from the cladding layers and the electron blocking layer. The lifetime of the devices with and without aluminum are studied. It is found that aluminum, which is highly susceptible to oxidation, has no influence on the degradation mechanism of nitride optoelectronic devices. Furthermore, comprehensive theoretical calculations are presented to show the impact of removal of aluminum from the structure on LD properties.

© 2017 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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    [Crossref]
  35. C. Skierbiszewski, H. Turski, G. Muziol, M. Siekacz, M. Sawicka, G. Cywiński, Z. R. Wasilewski, and S. Porowski, “Nitride-based laser diodes grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 47(7), 073001 (2014).
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    [Crossref]

2017 (1)

A. Bojarska, G. Muzioł, C. Skierbiszewski, E. Grzanka, P. Wiśniewski, I. Makarowa, R. Czernecki, T. Suski, and P. Perlin, “Influence of the growth method on degradation of InGaN laser diodes,” ‎,” Appl. Phys. Express 10(9), 091001 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (2)

J. J. Wierer, N. Tansu, A. J. Fischer, and J. Y. Tsao, “III-nitride quantum dots for ultra-efficient solid-state lighting,” Laser Photonics Rev. 10(4), 612–622 (2016).
[Crossref]

G. Muziol, H. Turski, M. Siekacz, S. Grzanka, P. Perlin, and C. Skierbiszewski, “Elimination of leakage of optical modes to GaN substrate in nitride laser diodes using a thick InGaN waveguide,” ‎,” Appl. Phys. Express 9(9), 092103 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (3)

G. Muziol, H. Turski, M. Siekacz, P. Wolny, S. Grzanka, E. Grzanka, P. Perlin, and C. Skierbiszewski, “Enhancement of optical confinement factor by InGaN waveguide in blue laser diodes grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy,” ‎,” Appl. Phys. Express 8(3), 032103 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. A. Hurni, A. David, M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, B. Ellis, K. Huang, A. Tyagi, R. A. DeLille, M. D. Craven, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “Bulk GaN flip-chip violet light-emitting diodes with optimized efficiency for high-power operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 031101 (2015).
[Crossref]

W. W. Chow and M. H. Crawford, “Analysis of lasers as a solution to efficiency droop in solid-state lighting,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(14), 141107 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

C. Skierbiszewski, H. Turski, G. Muziol, M. Siekacz, M. Sawicka, G. Cywiński, Z. R. Wasilewski, and S. Porowski, “Nitride-based laser diodes grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 47(7), 073001 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (4)

H.-Y. Ryu and J.-M. Lee, “Effects of two-step Mg doping in p-GaN on efficiency characteristics of InGaN blue light-emitting diodes without AlGaN electron-blocking layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(18), 181115 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Iveland, L. Martinelli, J. Peretti, J. S. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Direct Measurement of Auger Electrons Emitted from a Semiconductor Light-Emitting Diode under Electrical Injection: Identification of the Dominant Mechanism for Efficiency Droop,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(17), 177406 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. J. Wierer, J. Y. Tsao, and D. S. Sizov, “Comparison between blue lasers and light-emitting diodes for future solid-state lighting,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(6), 963–993 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Skierbiszewski, M. Siekacz, H. Turski, G. Muziol, M. Sawicka, P. Perlin, Z. R. Wasilewski, and S. Porowski, “MBE fabrication of III-N-based laser diodes and its development to industrial system,” J. Cryst. Growth 378, 278–282 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

C. Skierbiszewski, M. Siekacz, H. Turski, G. Muzioł, M. Sawicka, A. Feduniewicz-Żmuda, G. Cywiński, C. Cheze, S. Grzanka, P. Perlin, P. Wiśniewski, Z. R. Wasilewski, and S. Porowski, “AlGaN-Free Laser Diodes by Plasma-Assisted Molecular Beam Epitaxy,” ‎,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(2), 022104 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

M. Meneghini, C. de Santi, N. Trivellin, K. Orita, S. Takigawa, T. Tanaka, D. Ueda, G. Meneghesso, and E. Zanoni, “Investigation of the deep level involved in InGaN laser degradation by deep level transient spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(9), 093506 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (4)

J. Dorsaz, A. Castiglia, G. Cosendey, E. Feltin, M. Rossetti, M. Duelk, C. Velez, J. F. Carlin, and N. Grandjean, “AlGaN-Free Blue III–Nitride Laser Diodes Grown on c -Plane GaN Substrates,” ‎,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(9), 092102 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. Tyagi, R. M. Farrell, K. M. Kelchner, C.-Y. Huang, P. S. Hsu, D. A. Haeger, M. T. Hardy, C. Holder, K. Fujito, D. A. Cohen, H. Ohta, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “AlGaN-Cladding Free Green Semipolar GaN Based Laser Diode with a Lasing Wavelength of 506.4 nm‎,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(1), 011002 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Piprek, “Efficiency droop in nitride-based light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 207(10), 2217–2225 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Meneghini, N. Trivellin, K. Orita, S. Takigawa, T. Tanaka, D. Ueda, G. Meneghesso, and E. Zanoni, “Degradation of InGaN-based laser diodes analyzed by means of electrical and optical measurements,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(26), 263501 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

S. Pimputkar, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Prospects for LED lighting,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 180–182 (2009).
[Crossref]

S.-H. Han, D.-Y. Lee, S.-J. Lee, C.-Y. Cho, M.-K. Kwon, S. P. Lee, D. Y. Noh, D.-J. Kim, Y. C. Kim, and S.-J. Park, “Effect of electron blocking layer on efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(23), 231123 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (3)

R. Dwiliński, R. Doradziński, J. Garczyński, L. P. Sierzputowski, A. Puchalski, Y. Kanbara, K. Yagi, H. Minakuchi, and H. Hayashi, “Excellent crystallinity of truly bulk ammonothermal GaN,” J. Cryst. Growth 310(17), 3911–3916 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. Meneghini, G. Meneghesso, N. Trivellin, E. Zanoni, K. Orita, M. Yuri, and D. Ueda, “Extensive Analysis of the Degradation of Blu-Ray Laser Diodes,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 29(6), 578–581 (2008).
[Crossref]

U. Strauss, C. Eichler, C. Rumbolz, A. Lell, S. Lutgen, S. Tautz, M. Schillgalies, and S. Brüninghoff, “Beam quality of blue InGaN laser for projection,” Phys. Status Solidi., C Curr. Top. Solid State Phys. 5(6), 2077–2079 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (3)

V. Laino, F. Roemer, B. Witzigmann, C. Lauterbach, U. T. Schwarz, C. Rumbolz, M. O. Schillgalies, M. Furitsch, A. Lell, and V. Harle, “Substrate Modes of (Al,In)GaN Semiconductor Laser Diodes on SiC and GaN Substrates,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43(1), 16–24 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and Future of High-Power Light-Emitting Diodes for Solid-State Lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 3(2), 160–175 (2007).
[Crossref]

D. F. Feezell, M. C. Schmidt, R. M. Farrell, K. Kim, M. Saito, K. Fujito, D. A. Cohen, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “AlGaN-Cladding-Free Nonpolar InGaN/GaN Laser Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(4), L284–L286 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

L. Marona, P. Wisniewski, P. Prystawko, I. Grzegory, T. Suski, S. Porowski, P. Perlin, R. Czernecki, and M. Leszczyński, “Degradation mechanisms in InGaN laser diodes grown on bulk GaN crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(20), 201111 (2006).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

M. Ikeda, T. Mizuno, M. Takeya, S. Goto, S. Ikeda, T. Fujimoto, Y. Ohfuji, and T. Hashizu, “High-power GaN-based semiconductor lasers,” Phys. Status Solidi, C Conf. Crit. Rev. 1(6), 1461–1467 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (3)

M. Takeya, T. Mizuno, T. Sasaki, S. Ikeda, T. Fujimoto, Y. Ohfuji, K. Oikawa, Y. Yabuki, S. Uchida, and M. Ikeda, “Degradation in AlGaInN lasers,” Phys. Status Solidi, C Conf. Crit. Rev. 0(7), 2292–2295 (2003).
[Crossref]

S. Tomiya, S. Goto, M. Takeya, and M. Ikeda, “Defects in degraded GaN-based laser diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi, A Appl. Res. 200(1), 139–142 (2003).
[Crossref]

G. Hatakoshi, “Analysis of Beam Quality Factor for Semiconductor Lasers,” Opt. Rev. 10(4), 307–314 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

M. Yamada, T. Mitani, Y. Narukawa, S. Shioji, I. Niki, S. Sonobe, K. Deguchi, M. Sano, and T. Mukai, “InGaN-based near-ultraviolet and blue-light-emitting diodes with high external quantum efficiency using a patterned sapphire substrate and a mesh electrode,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41(Part 2, No. 12B), L1431–L1433 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

G. M. Laws, E. C. Larkins, I. Harrison, C. Molloy, and D. Somerford, “Improved refractive index formulas for the AlxGa1−xN and InyGa1−yN alloys,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(2), 1108–1115 (2001).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

M. J. Bergmann and H. C. Casey., “Optical-field calculations for lossy multiple-layer AlxGa1−xN/InxGa1−xN laser diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 84(3), 1196–1203 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

J. Diaz, H. J. Yi, M. Razeghi, and G. T. Burnham, “Long-term reliability of Al-free InGaAsP/GaAs (λ=808 nm) lasers at high-power high-temperature operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(21), 3042–3044 (1997).
[Crossref]

1994 (2)

S. Nakamura, T. Mukai, and M. Senoh, “Candela-class high-brightness InGaN/AlGaN double-heterostructure blue-light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(13), 1687–1689 (1994).
[Crossref]

M. Razeghi, “High-power laser diodes based on InGaAsP alloys,” Nature 369(6482), 631–633 (1994).
[Crossref]

1978 (1)

T. Yuasa, M. Ogawa, K. Endo, and H. Yonezu, “Degradation of (AlGa)As DH lasers due to facet oxidation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 32(2), 119–121 (1978).
[Crossref]

Aldaz, R. I.

C. A. Hurni, A. David, M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, B. Ellis, K. Huang, A. Tyagi, R. A. DeLille, M. D. Craven, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “Bulk GaN flip-chip violet light-emitting diodes with optimized efficiency for high-power operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 031101 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bergmann, M. J.

M. J. Bergmann and H. C. Casey., “Optical-field calculations for lossy multiple-layer AlxGa1−xN/InxGa1−xN laser diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 84(3), 1196–1203 (1998).
[Crossref]

Bojarska, A.

A. Bojarska, G. Muzioł, C. Skierbiszewski, E. Grzanka, P. Wiśniewski, I. Makarowa, R. Czernecki, T. Suski, and P. Perlin, “Influence of the growth method on degradation of InGaN laser diodes,” ‎,” Appl. Phys. Express 10(9), 091001 (2017).
[Crossref]

Brüninghoff, S.

U. Strauss, C. Eichler, C. Rumbolz, A. Lell, S. Lutgen, S. Tautz, M. Schillgalies, and S. Brüninghoff, “Beam quality of blue InGaN laser for projection,” Phys. Status Solidi., C Curr. Top. Solid State Phys. 5(6), 2077–2079 (2008).
[Crossref]

Burnham, G. T.

J. Diaz, H. J. Yi, M. Razeghi, and G. T. Burnham, “Long-term reliability of Al-free InGaAsP/GaAs (λ=808 nm) lasers at high-power high-temperature operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(21), 3042–3044 (1997).
[Crossref]

Carlin, J. F.

J. Dorsaz, A. Castiglia, G. Cosendey, E. Feltin, M. Rossetti, M. Duelk, C. Velez, J. F. Carlin, and N. Grandjean, “AlGaN-Free Blue III–Nitride Laser Diodes Grown on c -Plane GaN Substrates,” ‎,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(9), 092102 (2010).
[Crossref]

Casey, H. C.

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M. Meneghini, G. Meneghesso, N. Trivellin, E. Zanoni, K. Orita, M. Yuri, and D. Ueda, “Extensive Analysis of the Degradation of Blu-Ray Laser Diodes,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 29(6), 578–581 (2008).
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M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and Future of High-Power Light-Emitting Diodes for Solid-State Lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 3(2), 160–175 (2007).
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G. Muziol, H. Turski, M. Siekacz, S. Grzanka, P. Perlin, and C. Skierbiszewski, “Elimination of leakage of optical modes to GaN substrate in nitride laser diodes using a thick InGaN waveguide,” ‎,” Appl. Phys. Express 9(9), 092103 (2016).
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G. Muziol, H. Turski, M. Siekacz, P. Wolny, S. Grzanka, E. Grzanka, P. Perlin, and C. Skierbiszewski, “Enhancement of optical confinement factor by InGaN waveguide in blue laser diodes grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy,” ‎,” Appl. Phys. Express 8(3), 032103 (2015).
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C. Skierbiszewski, H. Turski, G. Muziol, M. Siekacz, M. Sawicka, G. Cywiński, Z. R. Wasilewski, and S. Porowski, “Nitride-based laser diodes grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 47(7), 073001 (2014).
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C. Skierbiszewski, M. Siekacz, H. Turski, G. Muziol, M. Sawicka, P. Perlin, Z. R. Wasilewski, and S. Porowski, “MBE fabrication of III-N-based laser diodes and its development to industrial system,” J. Cryst. Growth 378, 278–282 (2013).
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C. Skierbiszewski, M. Siekacz, H. Turski, G. Muzioł, M. Sawicka, A. Feduniewicz-Żmuda, G. Cywiński, C. Cheze, S. Grzanka, P. Perlin, P. Wiśniewski, Z. R. Wasilewski, and S. Porowski, “AlGaN-Free Laser Diodes by Plasma-Assisted Molecular Beam Epitaxy,” ‎,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(2), 022104 (2012).
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S. Pimputkar, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Prospects for LED lighting,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 180–182 (2009).
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[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

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M. Yamada, T. Mitani, Y. Narukawa, S. Shioji, I. Niki, S. Sonobe, K. Deguchi, M. Sano, and T. Mukai, “InGaN-based near-ultraviolet and blue-light-emitting diodes with high external quantum efficiency using a patterned sapphire substrate and a mesh electrode,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41(Part 2, No. 12B), L1431–L1433 (2002).
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S.-H. Han, D.-Y. Lee, S.-J. Lee, C.-Y. Cho, M.-K. Kwon, S. P. Lee, D. Y. Noh, D.-J. Kim, Y. C. Kim, and S.-J. Park, “Effect of electron blocking layer on efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(23), 231123 (2009).
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[Crossref]

M. Takeya, T. Mizuno, T. Sasaki, S. Ikeda, T. Fujimoto, Y. Ohfuji, K. Oikawa, Y. Yabuki, S. Uchida, and M. Ikeda, “Degradation in AlGaInN lasers,” Phys. Status Solidi, C Conf. Crit. Rev. 0(7), 2292–2295 (2003).
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M. Meneghini, C. de Santi, N. Trivellin, K. Orita, S. Takigawa, T. Tanaka, D. Ueda, G. Meneghesso, and E. Zanoni, “Investigation of the deep level involved in InGaN laser degradation by deep level transient spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(9), 093506 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Meneghini, N. Trivellin, K. Orita, S. Takigawa, T. Tanaka, D. Ueda, G. Meneghesso, and E. Zanoni, “Degradation of InGaN-based laser diodes analyzed by means of electrical and optical measurements,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(26), 263501 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Meneghini, G. Meneghesso, N. Trivellin, E. Zanoni, K. Orita, M. Yuri, and D. Ueda, “Extensive Analysis of the Degradation of Blu-Ray Laser Diodes,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 29(6), 578–581 (2008).
[Crossref]

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S.-H. Han, D.-Y. Lee, S.-J. Lee, C.-Y. Cho, M.-K. Kwon, S. P. Lee, D. Y. Noh, D.-J. Kim, Y. C. Kim, and S.-J. Park, “Effect of electron blocking layer on efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(23), 231123 (2009).
[Crossref]

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J. Iveland, L. Martinelli, J. Peretti, J. S. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Direct Measurement of Auger Electrons Emitted from a Semiconductor Light-Emitting Diode under Electrical Injection: Identification of the Dominant Mechanism for Efficiency Droop,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(17), 177406 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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[Crossref]

G. Muziol, H. Turski, M. Siekacz, S. Grzanka, P. Perlin, and C. Skierbiszewski, “Elimination of leakage of optical modes to GaN substrate in nitride laser diodes using a thick InGaN waveguide,” ‎,” Appl. Phys. Express 9(9), 092103 (2016).
[Crossref]

G. Muziol, H. Turski, M. Siekacz, P. Wolny, S. Grzanka, E. Grzanka, P. Perlin, and C. Skierbiszewski, “Enhancement of optical confinement factor by InGaN waveguide in blue laser diodes grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy,” ‎,” Appl. Phys. Express 8(3), 032103 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Skierbiszewski, M. Siekacz, H. Turski, G. Muziol, M. Sawicka, P. Perlin, Z. R. Wasilewski, and S. Porowski, “MBE fabrication of III-N-based laser diodes and its development to industrial system,” J. Cryst. Growth 378, 278–282 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Skierbiszewski, M. Siekacz, H. Turski, G. Muzioł, M. Sawicka, A. Feduniewicz-Żmuda, G. Cywiński, C. Cheze, S. Grzanka, P. Perlin, P. Wiśniewski, Z. R. Wasilewski, and S. Porowski, “AlGaN-Free Laser Diodes by Plasma-Assisted Molecular Beam Epitaxy,” ‎,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(2), 022104 (2012).
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L. Marona, P. Wisniewski, P. Prystawko, I. Grzegory, T. Suski, S. Porowski, P. Perlin, R. Czernecki, and M. Leszczyński, “Degradation mechanisms in InGaN laser diodes grown on bulk GaN crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(20), 201111 (2006).
[Crossref]

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S. Pimputkar, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Prospects for LED lighting,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 180–182 (2009).
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C. Skierbiszewski, H. Turski, G. Muziol, M. Siekacz, M. Sawicka, G. Cywiński, Z. R. Wasilewski, and S. Porowski, “Nitride-based laser diodes grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 47(7), 073001 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Skierbiszewski, M. Siekacz, H. Turski, G. Muziol, M. Sawicka, P. Perlin, Z. R. Wasilewski, and S. Porowski, “MBE fabrication of III-N-based laser diodes and its development to industrial system,” J. Cryst. Growth 378, 278–282 (2013).
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C. Skierbiszewski, M. Siekacz, H. Turski, G. Muzioł, M. Sawicka, A. Feduniewicz-Żmuda, G. Cywiński, C. Cheze, S. Grzanka, P. Perlin, P. Wiśniewski, Z. R. Wasilewski, and S. Porowski, “AlGaN-Free Laser Diodes by Plasma-Assisted Molecular Beam Epitaxy,” ‎,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(2), 022104 (2012).
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L. Marona, P. Wisniewski, P. Prystawko, I. Grzegory, T. Suski, S. Porowski, P. Perlin, R. Czernecki, and M. Leszczyński, “Degradation mechanisms in InGaN laser diodes grown on bulk GaN crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(20), 201111 (2006).
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L. Marona, P. Wisniewski, P. Prystawko, I. Grzegory, T. Suski, S. Porowski, P. Perlin, R. Czernecki, and M. Leszczyński, “Degradation mechanisms in InGaN laser diodes grown on bulk GaN crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(20), 201111 (2006).
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R. Dwiliński, R. Doradziński, J. Garczyński, L. P. Sierzputowski, A. Puchalski, Y. Kanbara, K. Yagi, H. Minakuchi, and H. Hayashi, “Excellent crystallinity of truly bulk ammonothermal GaN,” J. Cryst. Growth 310(17), 3911–3916 (2008).
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V. Laino, F. Roemer, B. Witzigmann, C. Lauterbach, U. T. Schwarz, C. Rumbolz, M. O. Schillgalies, M. Furitsch, A. Lell, and V. Harle, “Substrate Modes of (Al,In)GaN Semiconductor Laser Diodes on SiC and GaN Substrates,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43(1), 16–24 (2007).
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Rossetti, M.

J. Dorsaz, A. Castiglia, G. Cosendey, E. Feltin, M. Rossetti, M. Duelk, C. Velez, J. F. Carlin, and N. Grandjean, “AlGaN-Free Blue III–Nitride Laser Diodes Grown on c -Plane GaN Substrates,” ‎,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(9), 092102 (2010).
[Crossref]

Rumbolz, C.

U. Strauss, C. Eichler, C. Rumbolz, A. Lell, S. Lutgen, S. Tautz, M. Schillgalies, and S. Brüninghoff, “Beam quality of blue InGaN laser for projection,” Phys. Status Solidi., C Curr. Top. Solid State Phys. 5(6), 2077–2079 (2008).
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V. Laino, F. Roemer, B. Witzigmann, C. Lauterbach, U. T. Schwarz, C. Rumbolz, M. O. Schillgalies, M. Furitsch, A. Lell, and V. Harle, “Substrate Modes of (Al,In)GaN Semiconductor Laser Diodes on SiC and GaN Substrates,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43(1), 16–24 (2007).
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Ryu, H.-Y.

H.-Y. Ryu and J.-M. Lee, “Effects of two-step Mg doping in p-GaN on efficiency characteristics of InGaN blue light-emitting diodes without AlGaN electron-blocking layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(18), 181115 (2013).
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D. F. Feezell, M. C. Schmidt, R. M. Farrell, K. Kim, M. Saito, K. Fujito, D. A. Cohen, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “AlGaN-Cladding-Free Nonpolar InGaN/GaN Laser Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(4), L284–L286 (2007).
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Sano, M.

M. Yamada, T. Mitani, Y. Narukawa, S. Shioji, I. Niki, S. Sonobe, K. Deguchi, M. Sano, and T. Mukai, “InGaN-based near-ultraviolet and blue-light-emitting diodes with high external quantum efficiency using a patterned sapphire substrate and a mesh electrode,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41(Part 2, No. 12B), L1431–L1433 (2002).
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Sasaki, T.

M. Takeya, T. Mizuno, T. Sasaki, S. Ikeda, T. Fujimoto, Y. Ohfuji, K. Oikawa, Y. Yabuki, S. Uchida, and M. Ikeda, “Degradation in AlGaInN lasers,” Phys. Status Solidi, C Conf. Crit. Rev. 0(7), 2292–2295 (2003).
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C. Skierbiszewski, H. Turski, G. Muziol, M. Siekacz, M. Sawicka, G. Cywiński, Z. R. Wasilewski, and S. Porowski, “Nitride-based laser diodes grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 47(7), 073001 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Skierbiszewski, M. Siekacz, H. Turski, G. Muziol, M. Sawicka, P. Perlin, Z. R. Wasilewski, and S. Porowski, “MBE fabrication of III-N-based laser diodes and its development to industrial system,” J. Cryst. Growth 378, 278–282 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Skierbiszewski, M. Siekacz, H. Turski, G. Muzioł, M. Sawicka, A. Feduniewicz-Żmuda, G. Cywiński, C. Cheze, S. Grzanka, P. Perlin, P. Wiśniewski, Z. R. Wasilewski, and S. Porowski, “AlGaN-Free Laser Diodes by Plasma-Assisted Molecular Beam Epitaxy,” ‎,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(2), 022104 (2012).
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Schillgalies, M.

U. Strauss, C. Eichler, C. Rumbolz, A. Lell, S. Lutgen, S. Tautz, M. Schillgalies, and S. Brüninghoff, “Beam quality of blue InGaN laser for projection,” Phys. Status Solidi., C Curr. Top. Solid State Phys. 5(6), 2077–2079 (2008).
[Crossref]

Schillgalies, M. O.

V. Laino, F. Roemer, B. Witzigmann, C. Lauterbach, U. T. Schwarz, C. Rumbolz, M. O. Schillgalies, M. Furitsch, A. Lell, and V. Harle, “Substrate Modes of (Al,In)GaN Semiconductor Laser Diodes on SiC and GaN Substrates,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43(1), 16–24 (2007).
[Crossref]

Schmidt, M. C.

D. F. Feezell, M. C. Schmidt, R. M. Farrell, K. Kim, M. Saito, K. Fujito, D. A. Cohen, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “AlGaN-Cladding-Free Nonpolar InGaN/GaN Laser Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(4), L284–L286 (2007).
[Crossref]

Schwarz, U. T.

V. Laino, F. Roemer, B. Witzigmann, C. Lauterbach, U. T. Schwarz, C. Rumbolz, M. O. Schillgalies, M. Furitsch, A. Lell, and V. Harle, “Substrate Modes of (Al,In)GaN Semiconductor Laser Diodes on SiC and GaN Substrates,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43(1), 16–24 (2007).
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S. Nakamura, T. Mukai, and M. Senoh, “Candela-class high-brightness InGaN/AlGaN double-heterostructure blue-light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(13), 1687–1689 (1994).
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M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and Future of High-Power Light-Emitting Diodes for Solid-State Lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 3(2), 160–175 (2007).
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M. Yamada, T. Mitani, Y. Narukawa, S. Shioji, I. Niki, S. Sonobe, K. Deguchi, M. Sano, and T. Mukai, “InGaN-based near-ultraviolet and blue-light-emitting diodes with high external quantum efficiency using a patterned sapphire substrate and a mesh electrode,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41(Part 2, No. 12B), L1431–L1433 (2002).
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Siekacz, M.

G. Muziol, H. Turski, M. Siekacz, S. Grzanka, P. Perlin, and C. Skierbiszewski, “Elimination of leakage of optical modes to GaN substrate in nitride laser diodes using a thick InGaN waveguide,” ‎,” Appl. Phys. Express 9(9), 092103 (2016).
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G. Muziol, H. Turski, M. Siekacz, P. Wolny, S. Grzanka, E. Grzanka, P. Perlin, and C. Skierbiszewski, “Enhancement of optical confinement factor by InGaN waveguide in blue laser diodes grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy,” ‎,” Appl. Phys. Express 8(3), 032103 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Skierbiszewski, H. Turski, G. Muziol, M. Siekacz, M. Sawicka, G. Cywiński, Z. R. Wasilewski, and S. Porowski, “Nitride-based laser diodes grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 47(7), 073001 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Skierbiszewski, M. Siekacz, H. Turski, G. Muziol, M. Sawicka, P. Perlin, Z. R. Wasilewski, and S. Porowski, “MBE fabrication of III-N-based laser diodes and its development to industrial system,” J. Cryst. Growth 378, 278–282 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Skierbiszewski, M. Siekacz, H. Turski, G. Muzioł, M. Sawicka, A. Feduniewicz-Żmuda, G. Cywiński, C. Cheze, S. Grzanka, P. Perlin, P. Wiśniewski, Z. R. Wasilewski, and S. Porowski, “AlGaN-Free Laser Diodes by Plasma-Assisted Molecular Beam Epitaxy,” ‎,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(2), 022104 (2012).
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Sierzputowski, L. P.

R. Dwiliński, R. Doradziński, J. Garczyński, L. P. Sierzputowski, A. Puchalski, Y. Kanbara, K. Yagi, H. Minakuchi, and H. Hayashi, “Excellent crystallinity of truly bulk ammonothermal GaN,” J. Cryst. Growth 310(17), 3911–3916 (2008).
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Sizov, D. S.

J. J. Wierer, J. Y. Tsao, and D. S. Sizov, “Comparison between blue lasers and light-emitting diodes for future solid-state lighting,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(6), 963–993 (2013).
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Skierbiszewski, C.

A. Bojarska, G. Muzioł, C. Skierbiszewski, E. Grzanka, P. Wiśniewski, I. Makarowa, R. Czernecki, T. Suski, and P. Perlin, “Influence of the growth method on degradation of InGaN laser diodes,” ‎,” Appl. Phys. Express 10(9), 091001 (2017).
[Crossref]

G. Muziol, H. Turski, M. Siekacz, S. Grzanka, P. Perlin, and C. Skierbiszewski, “Elimination of leakage of optical modes to GaN substrate in nitride laser diodes using a thick InGaN waveguide,” ‎,” Appl. Phys. Express 9(9), 092103 (2016).
[Crossref]

G. Muziol, H. Turski, M. Siekacz, P. Wolny, S. Grzanka, E. Grzanka, P. Perlin, and C. Skierbiszewski, “Enhancement of optical confinement factor by InGaN waveguide in blue laser diodes grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy,” ‎,” Appl. Phys. Express 8(3), 032103 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Skierbiszewski, H. Turski, G. Muziol, M. Siekacz, M. Sawicka, G. Cywiński, Z. R. Wasilewski, and S. Porowski, “Nitride-based laser diodes grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 47(7), 073001 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Skierbiszewski, M. Siekacz, H. Turski, G. Muziol, M. Sawicka, P. Perlin, Z. R. Wasilewski, and S. Porowski, “MBE fabrication of III-N-based laser diodes and its development to industrial system,” J. Cryst. Growth 378, 278–282 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Skierbiszewski, M. Siekacz, H. Turski, G. Muzioł, M. Sawicka, A. Feduniewicz-Żmuda, G. Cywiński, C. Cheze, S. Grzanka, P. Perlin, P. Wiśniewski, Z. R. Wasilewski, and S. Porowski, “AlGaN-Free Laser Diodes by Plasma-Assisted Molecular Beam Epitaxy,” ‎,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(2), 022104 (2012).
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Somerford, D.

G. M. Laws, E. C. Larkins, I. Harrison, C. Molloy, and D. Somerford, “Improved refractive index formulas for the AlxGa1−xN and InyGa1−yN alloys,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(2), 1108–1115 (2001).
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Sonobe, S.

M. Yamada, T. Mitani, Y. Narukawa, S. Shioji, I. Niki, S. Sonobe, K. Deguchi, M. Sano, and T. Mukai, “InGaN-based near-ultraviolet and blue-light-emitting diodes with high external quantum efficiency using a patterned sapphire substrate and a mesh electrode,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41(Part 2, No. 12B), L1431–L1433 (2002).
[Crossref]

Speck, J. S.

J. Iveland, L. Martinelli, J. Peretti, J. S. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Direct Measurement of Auger Electrons Emitted from a Semiconductor Light-Emitting Diode under Electrical Injection: Identification of the Dominant Mechanism for Efficiency Droop,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(17), 177406 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Tyagi, R. M. Farrell, K. M. Kelchner, C.-Y. Huang, P. S. Hsu, D. A. Haeger, M. T. Hardy, C. Holder, K. Fujito, D. A. Cohen, H. Ohta, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “AlGaN-Cladding Free Green Semipolar GaN Based Laser Diode with a Lasing Wavelength of 506.4 nm‎,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(1), 011002 (2010).
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S. Pimputkar, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Prospects for LED lighting,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 180–182 (2009).
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D. F. Feezell, M. C. Schmidt, R. M. Farrell, K. Kim, M. Saito, K. Fujito, D. A. Cohen, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “AlGaN-Cladding-Free Nonpolar InGaN/GaN Laser Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(4), L284–L286 (2007).
[Crossref]

Steranka, F. M.

C. A. Hurni, A. David, M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, B. Ellis, K. Huang, A. Tyagi, R. A. DeLille, M. D. Craven, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “Bulk GaN flip-chip violet light-emitting diodes with optimized efficiency for high-power operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 031101 (2015).
[Crossref]

Strauss, U.

U. Strauss, C. Eichler, C. Rumbolz, A. Lell, S. Lutgen, S. Tautz, M. Schillgalies, and S. Brüninghoff, “Beam quality of blue InGaN laser for projection,” Phys. Status Solidi., C Curr. Top. Solid State Phys. 5(6), 2077–2079 (2008).
[Crossref]

Suski, T.

A. Bojarska, G. Muzioł, C. Skierbiszewski, E. Grzanka, P. Wiśniewski, I. Makarowa, R. Czernecki, T. Suski, and P. Perlin, “Influence of the growth method on degradation of InGaN laser diodes,” ‎,” Appl. Phys. Express 10(9), 091001 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. Marona, P. Wisniewski, P. Prystawko, I. Grzegory, T. Suski, S. Porowski, P. Perlin, R. Czernecki, and M. Leszczyński, “Degradation mechanisms in InGaN laser diodes grown on bulk GaN crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(20), 201111 (2006).
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Takeya, M.

M. Ikeda, T. Mizuno, M. Takeya, S. Goto, S. Ikeda, T. Fujimoto, Y. Ohfuji, and T. Hashizu, “High-power GaN-based semiconductor lasers,” Phys. Status Solidi, C Conf. Crit. Rev. 1(6), 1461–1467 (2004).
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M. Takeya, T. Mizuno, T. Sasaki, S. Ikeda, T. Fujimoto, Y. Ohfuji, K. Oikawa, Y. Yabuki, S. Uchida, and M. Ikeda, “Degradation in AlGaInN lasers,” Phys. Status Solidi, C Conf. Crit. Rev. 0(7), 2292–2295 (2003).
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S. Tomiya, S. Goto, M. Takeya, and M. Ikeda, “Defects in degraded GaN-based laser diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi, A Appl. Res. 200(1), 139–142 (2003).
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Takigawa, S.

M. Meneghini, C. de Santi, N. Trivellin, K. Orita, S. Takigawa, T. Tanaka, D. Ueda, G. Meneghesso, and E. Zanoni, “Investigation of the deep level involved in InGaN laser degradation by deep level transient spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(9), 093506 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Meneghini, N. Trivellin, K. Orita, S. Takigawa, T. Tanaka, D. Ueda, G. Meneghesso, and E. Zanoni, “Degradation of InGaN-based laser diodes analyzed by means of electrical and optical measurements,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(26), 263501 (2010).
[Crossref]

Tanaka, T.

M. Meneghini, C. de Santi, N. Trivellin, K. Orita, S. Takigawa, T. Tanaka, D. Ueda, G. Meneghesso, and E. Zanoni, “Investigation of the deep level involved in InGaN laser degradation by deep level transient spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(9), 093506 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Meneghini, N. Trivellin, K. Orita, S. Takigawa, T. Tanaka, D. Ueda, G. Meneghesso, and E. Zanoni, “Degradation of InGaN-based laser diodes analyzed by means of electrical and optical measurements,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(26), 263501 (2010).
[Crossref]

Tansu, N.

J. J. Wierer, N. Tansu, A. J. Fischer, and J. Y. Tsao, “III-nitride quantum dots for ultra-efficient solid-state lighting,” Laser Photonics Rev. 10(4), 612–622 (2016).
[Crossref]

Tautz, S.

U. Strauss, C. Eichler, C. Rumbolz, A. Lell, S. Lutgen, S. Tautz, M. Schillgalies, and S. Brüninghoff, “Beam quality of blue InGaN laser for projection,” Phys. Status Solidi., C Curr. Top. Solid State Phys. 5(6), 2077–2079 (2008).
[Crossref]

Tomiya, S.

S. Tomiya, S. Goto, M. Takeya, and M. Ikeda, “Defects in degraded GaN-based laser diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi, A Appl. Res. 200(1), 139–142 (2003).
[Crossref]

Trivellin, N.

M. Meneghini, C. de Santi, N. Trivellin, K. Orita, S. Takigawa, T. Tanaka, D. Ueda, G. Meneghesso, and E. Zanoni, “Investigation of the deep level involved in InGaN laser degradation by deep level transient spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(9), 093506 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Meneghini, N. Trivellin, K. Orita, S. Takigawa, T. Tanaka, D. Ueda, G. Meneghesso, and E. Zanoni, “Degradation of InGaN-based laser diodes analyzed by means of electrical and optical measurements,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(26), 263501 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Meneghini, G. Meneghesso, N. Trivellin, E. Zanoni, K. Orita, M. Yuri, and D. Ueda, “Extensive Analysis of the Degradation of Blu-Ray Laser Diodes,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 29(6), 578–581 (2008).
[Crossref]

Tsao, J. Y.

J. J. Wierer, N. Tansu, A. J. Fischer, and J. Y. Tsao, “III-nitride quantum dots for ultra-efficient solid-state lighting,” Laser Photonics Rev. 10(4), 612–622 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. J. Wierer, J. Y. Tsao, and D. S. Sizov, “Comparison between blue lasers and light-emitting diodes for future solid-state lighting,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(6), 963–993 (2013).
[Crossref]

Turski, H.

G. Muziol, H. Turski, M. Siekacz, S. Grzanka, P. Perlin, and C. Skierbiszewski, “Elimination of leakage of optical modes to GaN substrate in nitride laser diodes using a thick InGaN waveguide,” ‎,” Appl. Phys. Express 9(9), 092103 (2016).
[Crossref]

G. Muziol, H. Turski, M. Siekacz, P. Wolny, S. Grzanka, E. Grzanka, P. Perlin, and C. Skierbiszewski, “Enhancement of optical confinement factor by InGaN waveguide in blue laser diodes grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy,” ‎,” Appl. Phys. Express 8(3), 032103 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Skierbiszewski, H. Turski, G. Muziol, M. Siekacz, M. Sawicka, G. Cywiński, Z. R. Wasilewski, and S. Porowski, “Nitride-based laser diodes grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 47(7), 073001 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Skierbiszewski, M. Siekacz, H. Turski, G. Muziol, M. Sawicka, P. Perlin, Z. R. Wasilewski, and S. Porowski, “MBE fabrication of III-N-based laser diodes and its development to industrial system,” J. Cryst. Growth 378, 278–282 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Skierbiszewski, M. Siekacz, H. Turski, G. Muzioł, M. Sawicka, A. Feduniewicz-Żmuda, G. Cywiński, C. Cheze, S. Grzanka, P. Perlin, P. Wiśniewski, Z. R. Wasilewski, and S. Porowski, “AlGaN-Free Laser Diodes by Plasma-Assisted Molecular Beam Epitaxy,” ‎,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(2), 022104 (2012).
[Crossref]

Tyagi, A.

C. A. Hurni, A. David, M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, B. Ellis, K. Huang, A. Tyagi, R. A. DeLille, M. D. Craven, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “Bulk GaN flip-chip violet light-emitting diodes with optimized efficiency for high-power operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 031101 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Tyagi, R. M. Farrell, K. M. Kelchner, C.-Y. Huang, P. S. Hsu, D. A. Haeger, M. T. Hardy, C. Holder, K. Fujito, D. A. Cohen, H. Ohta, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “AlGaN-Cladding Free Green Semipolar GaN Based Laser Diode with a Lasing Wavelength of 506.4 nm‎,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(1), 011002 (2010).
[Crossref]

Uchida, S.

M. Takeya, T. Mizuno, T. Sasaki, S. Ikeda, T. Fujimoto, Y. Ohfuji, K. Oikawa, Y. Yabuki, S. Uchida, and M. Ikeda, “Degradation in AlGaInN lasers,” Phys. Status Solidi, C Conf. Crit. Rev. 0(7), 2292–2295 (2003).
[Crossref]

Ueda, D.

M. Meneghini, C. de Santi, N. Trivellin, K. Orita, S. Takigawa, T. Tanaka, D. Ueda, G. Meneghesso, and E. Zanoni, “Investigation of the deep level involved in InGaN laser degradation by deep level transient spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(9), 093506 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Meneghini, N. Trivellin, K. Orita, S. Takigawa, T. Tanaka, D. Ueda, G. Meneghesso, and E. Zanoni, “Degradation of InGaN-based laser diodes analyzed by means of electrical and optical measurements,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(26), 263501 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Meneghini, G. Meneghesso, N. Trivellin, E. Zanoni, K. Orita, M. Yuri, and D. Ueda, “Extensive Analysis of the Degradation of Blu-Ray Laser Diodes,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 29(6), 578–581 (2008).
[Crossref]

Velez, C.

J. Dorsaz, A. Castiglia, G. Cosendey, E. Feltin, M. Rossetti, M. Duelk, C. Velez, J. F. Carlin, and N. Grandjean, “AlGaN-Free Blue III–Nitride Laser Diodes Grown on c -Plane GaN Substrates,” ‎,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(9), 092102 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wasilewski, Z. R.

C. Skierbiszewski, H. Turski, G. Muziol, M. Siekacz, M. Sawicka, G. Cywiński, Z. R. Wasilewski, and S. Porowski, “Nitride-based laser diodes grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 47(7), 073001 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Skierbiszewski, M. Siekacz, H. Turski, G. Muziol, M. Sawicka, P. Perlin, Z. R. Wasilewski, and S. Porowski, “MBE fabrication of III-N-based laser diodes and its development to industrial system,” J. Cryst. Growth 378, 278–282 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Skierbiszewski, M. Siekacz, H. Turski, G. Muzioł, M. Sawicka, A. Feduniewicz-Żmuda, G. Cywiński, C. Cheze, S. Grzanka, P. Perlin, P. Wiśniewski, Z. R. Wasilewski, and S. Porowski, “AlGaN-Free Laser Diodes by Plasma-Assisted Molecular Beam Epitaxy,” ‎,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(2), 022104 (2012).
[Crossref]

Weisbuch, C.

J. Iveland, L. Martinelli, J. Peretti, J. S. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Direct Measurement of Auger Electrons Emitted from a Semiconductor Light-Emitting Diode under Electrical Injection: Identification of the Dominant Mechanism for Efficiency Droop,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(17), 177406 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wierer, J. J.

J. J. Wierer, N. Tansu, A. J. Fischer, and J. Y. Tsao, “III-nitride quantum dots for ultra-efficient solid-state lighting,” Laser Photonics Rev. 10(4), 612–622 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. J. Wierer, J. Y. Tsao, and D. S. Sizov, “Comparison between blue lasers and light-emitting diodes for future solid-state lighting,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(6), 963–993 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wisniewski, P.

A. Bojarska, G. Muzioł, C. Skierbiszewski, E. Grzanka, P. Wiśniewski, I. Makarowa, R. Czernecki, T. Suski, and P. Perlin, “Influence of the growth method on degradation of InGaN laser diodes,” ‎,” Appl. Phys. Express 10(9), 091001 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Skierbiszewski, M. Siekacz, H. Turski, G. Muzioł, M. Sawicka, A. Feduniewicz-Żmuda, G. Cywiński, C. Cheze, S. Grzanka, P. Perlin, P. Wiśniewski, Z. R. Wasilewski, and S. Porowski, “AlGaN-Free Laser Diodes by Plasma-Assisted Molecular Beam Epitaxy,” ‎,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(2), 022104 (2012).
[Crossref]

L. Marona, P. Wisniewski, P. Prystawko, I. Grzegory, T. Suski, S. Porowski, P. Perlin, R. Czernecki, and M. Leszczyński, “Degradation mechanisms in InGaN laser diodes grown on bulk GaN crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(20), 201111 (2006).
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G. Muziol, H. Turski, M. Siekacz, P. Wolny, S. Grzanka, E. Grzanka, P. Perlin, and C. Skierbiszewski, “Enhancement of optical confinement factor by InGaN waveguide in blue laser diodes grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy,” ‎,” Appl. Phys. Express 8(3), 032103 (2015).
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M. Takeya, T. Mizuno, T. Sasaki, S. Ikeda, T. Fujimoto, Y. Ohfuji, K. Oikawa, Y. Yabuki, S. Uchida, and M. Ikeda, “Degradation in AlGaInN lasers,” Phys. Status Solidi, C Conf. Crit. Rev. 0(7), 2292–2295 (2003).
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M. Yamada, T. Mitani, Y. Narukawa, S. Shioji, I. Niki, S. Sonobe, K. Deguchi, M. Sano, and T. Mukai, “InGaN-based near-ultraviolet and blue-light-emitting diodes with high external quantum efficiency using a patterned sapphire substrate and a mesh electrode,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41(Part 2, No. 12B), L1431–L1433 (2002).
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J. Diaz, H. J. Yi, M. Razeghi, and G. T. Burnham, “Long-term reliability of Al-free InGaAsP/GaAs (λ=808 nm) lasers at high-power high-temperature operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(21), 3042–3044 (1997).
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T. Yuasa, M. Ogawa, K. Endo, and H. Yonezu, “Degradation of (AlGa)As DH lasers due to facet oxidation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 32(2), 119–121 (1978).
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M. Meneghini, G. Meneghesso, N. Trivellin, E. Zanoni, K. Orita, M. Yuri, and D. Ueda, “Extensive Analysis of the Degradation of Blu-Ray Laser Diodes,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 29(6), 578–581 (2008).
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M. Meneghini, C. de Santi, N. Trivellin, K. Orita, S. Takigawa, T. Tanaka, D. Ueda, G. Meneghesso, and E. Zanoni, “Investigation of the deep level involved in InGaN laser degradation by deep level transient spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(9), 093506 (2011).
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M. Meneghini, N. Trivellin, K. Orita, S. Takigawa, T. Tanaka, D. Ueda, G. Meneghesso, and E. Zanoni, “Degradation of InGaN-based laser diodes analyzed by means of electrical and optical measurements,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(26), 263501 (2010).
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M. Meneghini, G. Meneghesso, N. Trivellin, E. Zanoni, K. Orita, M. Yuri, and D. Ueda, “Extensive Analysis of the Degradation of Blu-Ray Laser Diodes,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 29(6), 578–581 (2008).
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M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and Future of High-Power Light-Emitting Diodes for Solid-State Lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 3(2), 160–175 (2007).
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Appl. Phys. Express (6)

A. Bojarska, G. Muzioł, C. Skierbiszewski, E. Grzanka, P. Wiśniewski, I. Makarowa, R. Czernecki, T. Suski, and P. Perlin, “Influence of the growth method on degradation of InGaN laser diodes,” ‎,” Appl. Phys. Express 10(9), 091001 (2017).
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G. Muziol, H. Turski, M. Siekacz, S. Grzanka, P. Perlin, and C. Skierbiszewski, “Elimination of leakage of optical modes to GaN substrate in nitride laser diodes using a thick InGaN waveguide,” ‎,” Appl. Phys. Express 9(9), 092103 (2016).
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G. Muziol, H. Turski, M. Siekacz, P. Wolny, S. Grzanka, E. Grzanka, P. Perlin, and C. Skierbiszewski, “Enhancement of optical confinement factor by InGaN waveguide in blue laser diodes grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy,” ‎,” Appl. Phys. Express 8(3), 032103 (2015).
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S.-H. Han, D.-Y. Lee, S.-J. Lee, C.-Y. Cho, M.-K. Kwon, S. P. Lee, D. Y. Noh, D.-J. Kim, Y. C. Kim, and S.-J. Park, “Effect of electron blocking layer on efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(23), 231123 (2009).
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J. Diaz, H. J. Yi, M. Razeghi, and G. T. Burnham, “Long-term reliability of Al-free InGaAsP/GaAs (λ=808 nm) lasers at high-power high-temperature operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(21), 3042–3044 (1997).
[Crossref]

T. Yuasa, M. Ogawa, K. Endo, and H. Yonezu, “Degradation of (AlGa)As DH lasers due to facet oxidation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 32(2), 119–121 (1978).
[Crossref]

M. Meneghini, N. Trivellin, K. Orita, S. Takigawa, T. Tanaka, D. Ueda, G. Meneghesso, and E. Zanoni, “Degradation of InGaN-based laser diodes analyzed by means of electrical and optical measurements,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(26), 263501 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Meneghini, C. de Santi, N. Trivellin, K. Orita, S. Takigawa, T. Tanaka, D. Ueda, G. Meneghesso, and E. Zanoni, “Investigation of the deep level involved in InGaN laser degradation by deep level transient spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(9), 093506 (2011).
[Crossref]

L. Marona, P. Wisniewski, P. Prystawko, I. Grzegory, T. Suski, S. Porowski, P. Perlin, R. Czernecki, and M. Leszczyński, “Degradation mechanisms in InGaN laser diodes grown on bulk GaN crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(20), 201111 (2006).
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M. Meneghini, G. Meneghesso, N. Trivellin, E. Zanoni, K. Orita, M. Yuri, and D. Ueda, “Extensive Analysis of the Degradation of Blu-Ray Laser Diodes,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 29(6), 578–581 (2008).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

V. Laino, F. Roemer, B. Witzigmann, C. Lauterbach, U. T. Schwarz, C. Rumbolz, M. O. Schillgalies, M. Furitsch, A. Lell, and V. Harle, “Substrate Modes of (Al,In)GaN Semiconductor Laser Diodes on SiC and GaN Substrates,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43(1), 16–24 (2007).
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R. Dwiliński, R. Doradziński, J. Garczyński, L. P. Sierzputowski, A. Puchalski, Y. Kanbara, K. Yagi, H. Minakuchi, and H. Hayashi, “Excellent crystallinity of truly bulk ammonothermal GaN,” J. Cryst. Growth 310(17), 3911–3916 (2008).
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C. Skierbiszewski, M. Siekacz, H. Turski, G. Muziol, M. Sawicka, P. Perlin, Z. R. Wasilewski, and S. Porowski, “MBE fabrication of III-N-based laser diodes and its development to industrial system,” J. Cryst. Growth 378, 278–282 (2013).
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M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and Future of High-Power Light-Emitting Diodes for Solid-State Lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 3(2), 160–175 (2007).
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J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. (1)

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M. Yamada, T. Mitani, Y. Narukawa, S. Shioji, I. Niki, S. Sonobe, K. Deguchi, M. Sano, and T. Mukai, “InGaN-based near-ultraviolet and blue-light-emitting diodes with high external quantum efficiency using a patterned sapphire substrate and a mesh electrode,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41(Part 2, No. 12B), L1431–L1433 (2002).
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SiLENSe 5.4 package. http://www.str-soft.com/products/SiLENSe/

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic design of LD (a) with and (b) without aluminum. The MQW region is composed of three 2.6 nm thick In0.17Ga0.83N quantum wells separated by 8 nm thick In0.08Ga0.92N quantum barriers.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Calculated optical confinement factor Γ as a function of InGaN waveguide composition and thickness for (a) LD with AlGaN claddings, (b) Aluminum free LD. The stars indicate the compositions and thicknesses of the manufactured LDs. The brown dotted line in Fig. 2 (a) represents the boundary above which leakage of the optical mode to GaN substrate is fully suppressed.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Calculated band profiles at a current density of j = 5 kA/cm2 for (a) LD with Al0.15Ga0.85N EBL, (b) Aluminum free LD. The height of the energetic barrier EB preventing the electron overflow is marked in the figure.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Calculated injection efficiency ηi as a function of current density for different designs of waveguide and EBL.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Large area HAADF-STEM cross-section image of aluminum free LD. (b) LIV characteristic of aluminum free laser diode. Insert shows the high resolution lasing spectra collected slightly above threshold.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Threshold current as a function of time collected during aging tests of LDs with and without aluminum. The trend in the change of threshold current with time is nearly identical indicating a common degradation mechanism. The tests were conducted at room temperature and the optical power was stabilized at 15 mW. The dashed lines present linear approximations of the degradation rate.

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