Abstract

A compact ppb-level SO2 photoacoustic sensor was developed for the application of SF6 decomposition detection in electric power systems. The selection of the SO2 target spectrum is discussed in detail in the infrared (IR) and ultraviolet (UV) spectral regions. Based on the result of the spectrum selection, a small-sized UV-band diode-pumped solid-state laser (DPSSL) emitting at 303.6 nm with an output power of 5 mW was developed. A differential photoacoustic cell (PAC) was designed to match the output optical beam, obtain a high Q-factor and reduce the system flow noise in the SF6 buffer gas. The performance of the sensor system was assessed in terms of gas flow rate, linearity and detection sensitivity. A SO2 detection limit (1σ) of 74 ppbv was achieved with a 1-s integration time, which corresponds to a normalized noise equivalent absorption (NNEA) coefficient of 1.15 × 10−9 cm−1WHz-1/2.

© 2017 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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2017 (8)

H. P. Wu, L. Dong, H. D. Zheng, Y. J. Yu, W. G. Ma, L. Zhang, W. B. Yin, L. T. Xiao, S. T. Jia, and F. K. Tittel, “Calibration-free fast quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy based on beat frequency effect for continuous trace gas monitoring,” Nat. Commun. 8, 15331 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. F. Ma, Y. He, L. G. Zhang, X. Yu, J. B. Zhang, R. Sun, and F. K. Tittel, “Ultra-high sensitive acetylene detection using quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy with a fiber amplified diode laser and a 30.72 kHz quartz tuning fork,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(3), 031107 (2017).
[Crossref]

Z. Wang, Q. Wang, Y. Ching, J. Wu, G. Zhang, and W. Ren, “A portable low-power QEPAS-based CO2 isotope sensor using a fiber-coupled interband cascade laser,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 246, 710–715 (2017).
[Crossref]

Z. Li, Z. Wang, Y. Qi, W. Jin, and W. Ren, “Improved evanescent-wave quartz-enhanced photoacoustic CO sensor using an optical fiber taper,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 248, 1023–1028 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. K. Yin, L. Dong, H. P. Wu, H. D. Zheng, W. G. Ma, L. Zhang, W. B. Yin, S. T. Jia, and F. K. Tittel, “Sub-ppb nitrogen dioxide detection with a large linear dynamic range by use of a differential photoacoustic cell and a 3.5 W blue multimode diode laser,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 247, 329–335 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. P. Wu, X. K. Yin, L. Dong, K. L. Pei, A. Sampaolo, P. Patimisco, H. D. Zheng, W. G. Ma, L. Zhang, W. B. Yin, L. T. Xiao, V. Spagnolo, S. T. Jia, and F. K. Tittel, “Simultaneous dual-gas QEPAS detection based on a fundamental and overtone combined vibration of quartz tuning fork,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(12), 121104 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. K. Yin, L. Dong, H. P. Wu, W. G. Ma, L. Zhang, W. B. Yin, X. L. Tuan, S. T. Jia, and F. K. Tittel, “Ppb-level H2S detection for SF6 decomposition based on a fiber-amplified telecommunication diode laser and a background-gas-induced high-Q photoacoustic cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(03), 031109 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Zheng, M. Lou, L. Dong, H. Wu, W. Ye, X. Yin, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, W. W. Bewley, C. D. Merritt, C. L. Canedy, M. V. Warren, I. Vurgaftman, J. R. Meyer, and F. K. Tittel, “Compact photoacoustic module for methane detection incorporating interband cascade light emitting device,” Opt. Express 25(14), 16761–16770 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (2)

X. Yin, L. Dong, H. Zheng, X. Liu, H. Wu, Y. Yang, W. Ma, L. Zhang, W. Yin, L. Xiao, and S. Jia, “Impact of humidity on quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy based CO detection using a near-IR telecommunication diode laser,” Sensors (Basel) 16(2), 162 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Kottmann, J. M. Rey, and M. W. Sigrist, “Mid-Infrared photoacoustic detection of glucose in human skin: towards non-invasive diagnostics,” Sensors (Basel) 16(10), 1663–1677 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (3)

J. Luo, Y. H. Fang, Y. D. Zhao, A. J. Wang, D. C. Li, Y. Y. Li, Y. Liu, F. X. Cui, J. Wu, and J. X. Liu, “Research on the detection of SF6 decomposition products based on non-resonant photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Anal. Methods 7(3), 1200–1207 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Berer, M. Brandstetter, A. Hochreiner, G. Langer, W. Märzinger, P. Burgholzer, and B. Lendl, “Remote mid-infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy with a quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Lett. 40(15), 3476–3479 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. D. Zheng, L. Dong, X. K. Yin, X. L. Liu, H. P. Wu, L. Zhang, W. G. Ma, W. B. Yin, and S. T. Jia, “Ppb-level QEPAS NO2 sensor by use of electrical modulation cancellation method with a high power blue LED,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 208, 173–179 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

J. P. Waclawek, R. Lewicki, H. Moser, M. Brandstetter, F. K. Tittel, and B. Lendl, “Quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy-based sensor system for sulfur dioxide detection using a CW DFB-QCL,” Appl. Phys. B 117(1), 113 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Patimisco, G. Scamarcio, F. K. Tittel, and V. Spagnolo, “Quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy: a review,” Sensors (Basel) 14(4), 6165–6206 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (4)

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner,“The HITRAN 2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. R. Whitehill, C. Xie, X. Hu, D. Xie, H. Guo, and S. Ono, “Vibronic origin of sulfur mass-independent isotope effect in photoexcitation of SO2 and the implications to the early earth’s atmosphere,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 110(44), 17697–17702 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Keller-Rudek, G. K. Moortgat, R. Sander, and R. Sörensen, “The MPI-Mainz UV/VIS spectral atlas of gaseous molecules of atmospheric interest,” Earth Syst. Sci. Data 5(2), 365–373 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Peng, G. Wu, W. Song, and Q. Wang, “Application of flower-like Zno nanorods gas sensor detecting SF6 decomposition products,” J. Nanomater. 2013(1), 875 (2013).

2012 (1)

X. Zhang, B. Yang, X. Wang, and C. Luo, “Effect of plasma treatment on multi-walled carbon nanotubes for the detection of H2S and SO2.,” Sensors (Basel) 12(7), 9375–9385 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

H. F. Dai, P. Xiao, and Q. Lou, “Application of SnO2/MWCNTs nanocomposite for SF6 decomposition gas sensor,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 208(7), 1714–1717 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. Yi, K. Liu, W. Chen, T. Tan, L. Wang, and X. Gao, “Application of a broadband blue laser diode to trace NO2 detection using off-beam quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 36(4), 481–483 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

E. Duffour, “Molecular dynamic simulations of the collision between copper ions, SF6 molecules and a polyethylene surface: A study of decomposition products and an evaluation of the self-diffusion coefficients,” Macromol. Theory Simul. 19, 88–99 (2010).

2008 (1)

A. Foltynowicz, F. M. Schmidt, W. G. Ma, and O. Axner, “Noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectroscopy: Current status and future potential,” Appl. Phys. B 92(3), 313–326 (2008).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

G. Somesfalean, Z. G. Zhang, M. Sjöholm, and S. Svanberg, “All-diode-laser ultraviolet absorption spectroscopy for sulfur dioxide detection,” Appl. Phys. B 80(8), 1021–1025 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

J. P. Besson, S. Schilt, and L. Thévenaz, “Multi-gas sensing based on photoacoustic spectroscopy using tunable laser diodes,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 60(14), 3449–3456 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

M. W. Sigrist, “Trace gas monitoring by laser photoacoustic spectroscopy and related techniques (plenary),” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74(1), 486–490 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (2)

R. Kurte, C. Beyer, H. M. Heise, and D. Klockow, “Application of infrared spectroscopy to monitoring gas insulated high-voltage equipment: electrode material-dependent SF6 decomposition,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 373(7), 639–646 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Schmohl, A. Miklós, and P. Hess, “Detection of ammonia by photoacoustic spectroscopy with semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Opt. 41(9), 1815–1823 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (3)

1998 (1)

A. Perrin, J. Flaud, A. Goldman, C. Camy-Peyret, W. Lafferty, P. Arcas, and C. P. Rinsland, “NO2 and SO2 line parameters: 1996 HITRAN update and new results,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 60(5), 839–850 (1998).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

J. Olthoff, R. Van Brunt, J. Herron, and I. Sauers, “Detection of trace disulfur decafluoride in sulfur hexafluoride by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry,” Anal. Chem. 63(7), 726–732 (1991).
[Crossref]

1989 (1)

A. Derdouri, J. Casanovas, R. Hergli, R. Grob, and J. Mathieu, “Study of the decomposition of wet SF6, subjected to 50-Hz ac corona discharges,” J. Appl. Phys. 65(5), 1852–1857 (1989).
[Crossref]

1980 (1)

J. Heicklen, N. Kelly, and K. Partymiller, “The photophysics and photochemistry of SO2,” Rev. Chem. Intermed. 3(3), 315–404 (1980).
[Crossref]

Arcas, P.

A. Perrin, J. Flaud, A. Goldman, C. Camy-Peyret, W. Lafferty, P. Arcas, and C. P. Rinsland, “NO2 and SO2 line parameters: 1996 HITRAN update and new results,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 60(5), 839–850 (1998).
[Crossref]

Axner, O.

A. Foltynowicz, F. M. Schmidt, W. G. Ma, and O. Axner, “Noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectroscopy: Current status and future potential,” Appl. Phys. B 92(3), 313–326 (2008).
[Crossref]

Babikov, Y.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner,“The HITRAN 2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Barbe, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner,“The HITRAN 2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Berer, T.

Bernath, P. F.

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Bewley, W. W.

Beyer, C.

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Birk, M.

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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner,“The HITRAN 2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Campargue, A.

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Casanovas, J.

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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner,“The HITRAN 2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Ching, Y.

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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner,“The HITRAN 2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Coudert, L. H.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner,“The HITRAN 2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
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X. K. Yin, L. Dong, H. P. Wu, H. D. Zheng, W. G. Ma, L. Zhang, W. B. Yin, S. T. Jia, and F. K. Tittel, “Sub-ppb nitrogen dioxide detection with a large linear dynamic range by use of a differential photoacoustic cell and a 3.5 W blue multimode diode laser,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 247, 329–335 (2017).
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Fang, Y. H.

J. Luo, Y. H. Fang, Y. D. Zhao, A. J. Wang, D. C. Li, Y. Y. Li, Y. Liu, F. X. Cui, J. Wu, and J. X. Liu, “Research on the detection of SF6 decomposition products based on non-resonant photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Anal. Methods 7(3), 1200–1207 (2015).
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Fayt, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner,“The HITRAN 2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Flaud, J.

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Flaud, J.-M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner,“The HITRAN 2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Gamache, R. R.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner,“The HITRAN 2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Gao, X.

Goldman, A.

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Gondal, M. A.

Gordon, I. E.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner,“The HITRAN 2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Grob, R.

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X. K. Yin, L. Dong, H. P. Wu, W. G. Ma, L. Zhang, W. B. Yin, X. L. Tuan, S. T. Jia, and F. K. Tittel, “Ppb-level H2S detection for SF6 decomposition based on a fiber-amplified telecommunication diode laser and a background-gas-induced high-Q photoacoustic cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(03), 031109 (2017).
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H. D. Zheng, L. Dong, X. K. Yin, X. L. Liu, H. P. Wu, L. Zhang, W. G. Ma, W. B. Yin, and S. T. Jia, “Ppb-level QEPAS NO2 sensor by use of electrical modulation cancellation method with a high power blue LED,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 208, 173–179 (2015).
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X. Yin, L. Dong, H. Zheng, X. Liu, H. Wu, Y. Yang, W. Ma, L. Zhang, W. Yin, L. Xiao, and S. Jia, “Impact of humidity on quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy based CO detection using a near-IR telecommunication diode laser,” Sensors (Basel) 16(2), 162 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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H. P. Wu, L. Dong, H. D. Zheng, Y. J. Yu, W. G. Ma, L. Zhang, W. B. Yin, L. T. Xiao, S. T. Jia, and F. K. Tittel, “Calibration-free fast quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy based on beat frequency effect for continuous trace gas monitoring,” Nat. Commun. 8, 15331 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. P. Wu, X. K. Yin, L. Dong, K. L. Pei, A. Sampaolo, P. Patimisco, H. D. Zheng, W. G. Ma, L. Zhang, W. B. Yin, L. T. Xiao, V. Spagnolo, S. T. Jia, and F. K. Tittel, “Simultaneous dual-gas QEPAS detection based on a fundamental and overtone combined vibration of quartz tuning fork,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(12), 121104 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. K. Yin, L. Dong, H. P. Wu, H. D. Zheng, W. G. Ma, L. Zhang, W. B. Yin, S. T. Jia, and F. K. Tittel, “Sub-ppb nitrogen dioxide detection with a large linear dynamic range by use of a differential photoacoustic cell and a 3.5 W blue multimode diode laser,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 247, 329–335 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. K. Yin, L. Dong, H. P. Wu, W. G. Ma, L. Zhang, W. B. Yin, X. L. Tuan, S. T. Jia, and F. K. Tittel, “Ppb-level H2S detection for SF6 decomposition based on a fiber-amplified telecommunication diode laser and a background-gas-induced high-Q photoacoustic cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(03), 031109 (2017).
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[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. K. Yin, L. Dong, H. P. Wu, H. D. Zheng, W. G. Ma, L. Zhang, W. B. Yin, S. T. Jia, and F. K. Tittel, “Sub-ppb nitrogen dioxide detection with a large linear dynamic range by use of a differential photoacoustic cell and a 3.5 W blue multimode diode laser,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 247, 329–335 (2017).
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X. K. Yin, L. Dong, H. P. Wu, W. G. Ma, L. Zhang, W. B. Yin, X. L. Tuan, S. T. Jia, and F. K. Tittel, “Ppb-level H2S detection for SF6 decomposition based on a fiber-amplified telecommunication diode laser and a background-gas-induced high-Q photoacoustic cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(03), 031109 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. D. Zheng, L. Dong, X. K. Yin, X. L. Liu, H. P. Wu, L. Zhang, W. G. Ma, W. B. Yin, and S. T. Jia, “Ppb-level QEPAS NO2 sensor by use of electrical modulation cancellation method with a high power blue LED,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 208, 173–179 (2015).
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Wu, J.

Z. Wang, Q. Wang, Y. Ching, J. Wu, G. Zhang, and W. Ren, “A portable low-power QEPAS-based CO2 isotope sensor using a fiber-coupled interband cascade laser,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 246, 710–715 (2017).
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X. Yin, L. Dong, H. Zheng, X. Liu, H. Wu, Y. Yang, W. Ma, L. Zhang, W. Yin, L. Xiao, and S. Jia, “Impact of humidity on quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy based CO detection using a near-IR telecommunication diode laser,” Sensors (Basel) 16(2), 162 (2016).
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Xie, D.

A. R. Whitehill, C. Xie, X. Hu, D. Xie, H. Guo, and S. Ono, “Vibronic origin of sulfur mass-independent isotope effect in photoexcitation of SO2 and the implications to the early earth’s atmosphere,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 110(44), 17697–17702 (2013).
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Yang, B.

X. Zhang, B. Yang, X. Wang, and C. Luo, “Effect of plasma treatment on multi-walled carbon nanotubes for the detection of H2S and SO2.,” Sensors (Basel) 12(7), 9375–9385 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, Y.

X. Yin, L. Dong, H. Zheng, X. Liu, H. Wu, Y. Yang, W. Ma, L. Zhang, W. Yin, L. Xiao, and S. Jia, “Impact of humidity on quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy based CO detection using a near-IR telecommunication diode laser,” Sensors (Basel) 16(2), 162 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ye, W.

Yi, H.

Yin, W.

X. Yin, L. Dong, H. Zheng, X. Liu, H. Wu, Y. Yang, W. Ma, L. Zhang, W. Yin, L. Xiao, and S. Jia, “Impact of humidity on quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy based CO detection using a near-IR telecommunication diode laser,” Sensors (Basel) 16(2), 162 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yin, W. B.

H. P. Wu, L. Dong, H. D. Zheng, Y. J. Yu, W. G. Ma, L. Zhang, W. B. Yin, L. T. Xiao, S. T. Jia, and F. K. Tittel, “Calibration-free fast quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy based on beat frequency effect for continuous trace gas monitoring,” Nat. Commun. 8, 15331 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. K. Yin, L. Dong, H. P. Wu, H. D. Zheng, W. G. Ma, L. Zhang, W. B. Yin, S. T. Jia, and F. K. Tittel, “Sub-ppb nitrogen dioxide detection with a large linear dynamic range by use of a differential photoacoustic cell and a 3.5 W blue multimode diode laser,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 247, 329–335 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. P. Wu, X. K. Yin, L. Dong, K. L. Pei, A. Sampaolo, P. Patimisco, H. D. Zheng, W. G. Ma, L. Zhang, W. B. Yin, L. T. Xiao, V. Spagnolo, S. T. Jia, and F. K. Tittel, “Simultaneous dual-gas QEPAS detection based on a fundamental and overtone combined vibration of quartz tuning fork,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(12), 121104 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. K. Yin, L. Dong, H. P. Wu, W. G. Ma, L. Zhang, W. B. Yin, X. L. Tuan, S. T. Jia, and F. K. Tittel, “Ppb-level H2S detection for SF6 decomposition based on a fiber-amplified telecommunication diode laser and a background-gas-induced high-Q photoacoustic cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(03), 031109 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. D. Zheng, L. Dong, X. K. Yin, X. L. Liu, H. P. Wu, L. Zhang, W. G. Ma, W. B. Yin, and S. T. Jia, “Ppb-level QEPAS NO2 sensor by use of electrical modulation cancellation method with a high power blue LED,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 208, 173–179 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yin, X.

H. Zheng, M. Lou, L. Dong, H. Wu, W. Ye, X. Yin, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, W. W. Bewley, C. D. Merritt, C. L. Canedy, M. V. Warren, I. Vurgaftman, J. R. Meyer, and F. K. Tittel, “Compact photoacoustic module for methane detection incorporating interband cascade light emitting device,” Opt. Express 25(14), 16761–16770 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Yin, L. Dong, H. Zheng, X. Liu, H. Wu, Y. Yang, W. Ma, L. Zhang, W. Yin, L. Xiao, and S. Jia, “Impact of humidity on quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy based CO detection using a near-IR telecommunication diode laser,” Sensors (Basel) 16(2), 162 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yin, X. K.

H. P. Wu, X. K. Yin, L. Dong, K. L. Pei, A. Sampaolo, P. Patimisco, H. D. Zheng, W. G. Ma, L. Zhang, W. B. Yin, L. T. Xiao, V. Spagnolo, S. T. Jia, and F. K. Tittel, “Simultaneous dual-gas QEPAS detection based on a fundamental and overtone combined vibration of quartz tuning fork,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(12), 121104 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. K. Yin, L. Dong, H. P. Wu, H. D. Zheng, W. G. Ma, L. Zhang, W. B. Yin, S. T. Jia, and F. K. Tittel, “Sub-ppb nitrogen dioxide detection with a large linear dynamic range by use of a differential photoacoustic cell and a 3.5 W blue multimode diode laser,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 247, 329–335 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. K. Yin, L. Dong, H. P. Wu, W. G. Ma, L. Zhang, W. B. Yin, X. L. Tuan, S. T. Jia, and F. K. Tittel, “Ppb-level H2S detection for SF6 decomposition based on a fiber-amplified telecommunication diode laser and a background-gas-induced high-Q photoacoustic cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(03), 031109 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. D. Zheng, L. Dong, X. K. Yin, X. L. Liu, H. P. Wu, L. Zhang, W. G. Ma, W. B. Yin, and S. T. Jia, “Ppb-level QEPAS NO2 sensor by use of electrical modulation cancellation method with a high power blue LED,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 208, 173–179 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yu, X.

Y. F. Ma, Y. He, L. G. Zhang, X. Yu, J. B. Zhang, R. Sun, and F. K. Tittel, “Ultra-high sensitive acetylene detection using quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy with a fiber amplified diode laser and a 30.72 kHz quartz tuning fork,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(3), 031107 (2017).
[Crossref]

Yu, Y. J.

H. P. Wu, L. Dong, H. D. Zheng, Y. J. Yu, W. G. Ma, L. Zhang, W. B. Yin, L. T. Xiao, S. T. Jia, and F. K. Tittel, “Calibration-free fast quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy based on beat frequency effect for continuous trace gas monitoring,” Nat. Commun. 8, 15331 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, G.

Z. Wang, Q. Wang, Y. Ching, J. Wu, G. Zhang, and W. Ren, “A portable low-power QEPAS-based CO2 isotope sensor using a fiber-coupled interband cascade laser,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 246, 710–715 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhang, J. B.

Y. F. Ma, Y. He, L. G. Zhang, X. Yu, J. B. Zhang, R. Sun, and F. K. Tittel, “Ultra-high sensitive acetylene detection using quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy with a fiber amplified diode laser and a 30.72 kHz quartz tuning fork,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(3), 031107 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhang, L.

H. P. Wu, L. Dong, H. D. Zheng, Y. J. Yu, W. G. Ma, L. Zhang, W. B. Yin, L. T. Xiao, S. T. Jia, and F. K. Tittel, “Calibration-free fast quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy based on beat frequency effect for continuous trace gas monitoring,” Nat. Commun. 8, 15331 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. P. Wu, X. K. Yin, L. Dong, K. L. Pei, A. Sampaolo, P. Patimisco, H. D. Zheng, W. G. Ma, L. Zhang, W. B. Yin, L. T. Xiao, V. Spagnolo, S. T. Jia, and F. K. Tittel, “Simultaneous dual-gas QEPAS detection based on a fundamental and overtone combined vibration of quartz tuning fork,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(12), 121104 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. K. Yin, L. Dong, H. P. Wu, H. D. Zheng, W. G. Ma, L. Zhang, W. B. Yin, S. T. Jia, and F. K. Tittel, “Sub-ppb nitrogen dioxide detection with a large linear dynamic range by use of a differential photoacoustic cell and a 3.5 W blue multimode diode laser,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 247, 329–335 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. K. Yin, L. Dong, H. P. Wu, W. G. Ma, L. Zhang, W. B. Yin, X. L. Tuan, S. T. Jia, and F. K. Tittel, “Ppb-level H2S detection for SF6 decomposition based on a fiber-amplified telecommunication diode laser and a background-gas-induced high-Q photoacoustic cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(03), 031109 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. Yin, L. Dong, H. Zheng, X. Liu, H. Wu, Y. Yang, W. Ma, L. Zhang, W. Yin, L. Xiao, and S. Jia, “Impact of humidity on quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy based CO detection using a near-IR telecommunication diode laser,” Sensors (Basel) 16(2), 162 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. D. Zheng, L. Dong, X. K. Yin, X. L. Liu, H. P. Wu, L. Zhang, W. G. Ma, W. B. Yin, and S. T. Jia, “Ppb-level QEPAS NO2 sensor by use of electrical modulation cancellation method with a high power blue LED,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 208, 173–179 (2015).
[Crossref]

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Y. F. Ma, Y. He, L. G. Zhang, X. Yu, J. B. Zhang, R. Sun, and F. K. Tittel, “Ultra-high sensitive acetylene detection using quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy with a fiber amplified diode laser and a 30.72 kHz quartz tuning fork,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(3), 031107 (2017).
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[Crossref] [PubMed]

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H. P. Wu, L. Dong, H. D. Zheng, Y. J. Yu, W. G. Ma, L. Zhang, W. B. Yin, L. T. Xiao, S. T. Jia, and F. K. Tittel, “Calibration-free fast quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy based on beat frequency effect for continuous trace gas monitoring,” Nat. Commun. 8, 15331 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. P. Wu, X. K. Yin, L. Dong, K. L. Pei, A. Sampaolo, P. Patimisco, H. D. Zheng, W. G. Ma, L. Zhang, W. B. Yin, L. T. Xiao, V. Spagnolo, S. T. Jia, and F. K. Tittel, “Simultaneous dual-gas QEPAS detection based on a fundamental and overtone combined vibration of quartz tuning fork,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(12), 121104 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. K. Yin, L. Dong, H. P. Wu, H. D. Zheng, W. G. Ma, L. Zhang, W. B. Yin, S. T. Jia, and F. K. Tittel, “Sub-ppb nitrogen dioxide detection with a large linear dynamic range by use of a differential photoacoustic cell and a 3.5 W blue multimode diode laser,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 247, 329–335 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. D. Zheng, L. Dong, X. K. Yin, X. L. Liu, H. P. Wu, L. Zhang, W. G. Ma, W. B. Yin, and S. T. Jia, “Ppb-level QEPAS NO2 sensor by use of electrical modulation cancellation method with a high power blue LED,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 208, 173–179 (2015).
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[Crossref]

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X. K. Yin, L. Dong, H. P. Wu, W. G. Ma, L. Zhang, W. B. Yin, X. L. Tuan, S. T. Jia, and F. K. Tittel, “Ppb-level H2S detection for SF6 decomposition based on a fiber-amplified telecommunication diode laser and a background-gas-induced high-Q photoacoustic cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(03), 031109 (2017).
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[Crossref]

H. D. Zheng, L. Dong, X. K. Yin, X. L. Liu, H. P. Wu, L. Zhang, W. G. Ma, W. B. Yin, and S. T. Jia, “Ppb-level QEPAS NO2 sensor by use of electrical modulation cancellation method with a high power blue LED,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 208, 173–179 (2015).
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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Pure SF6 absorbance spectra (blue line) observed by a FTIR spectrometer with a 10 cm gas cell (spectral resolution 0.5 cm−1). SO2 absorbance spectra (red line) according to the HITRAN database (at 296 K and atmospheric pressure).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 SO2 (blue) and H2S (red) absorption bands between 170 nm-330 nm. Inset: higher resolution absorption spectrum of the first allowed band of SO2 (blue), and the spectral emission of the DPSSL (magenta).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Two-dimensional intensity distribution of the CW UV-band DPSSL laser beam. (b) Three-dimensional laser beam profile.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 The response curve of the PAC as a function of frequency. A SO2:SF6 mixture was used to generate the photoacoustic signals.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Schematic of a SO2 trace gas sensor system in the presence of a SF6 buffer gas. NV: Needle valve; PAC: photoacoustic cell. (a) a symmetrical differential structure of the PAC.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Dependence of the signal and noise on the gas flow rate within the range of 20-200 sccm. The signal was obtained with 50 ppm SO2:SF6 gas mixture. The noise was acquired in pure SF6 or pure N2 using either a differential PAC or a single resonator PAC.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (a) SO2 photoacoustic signal amplitudes at different concentrations of SO2:SF6 gas mixture within the range of 5-50 ppm. (b) The linearity of the SO2 photoacoustic senor system.

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