Abstract

Colloidal silver nanocubes in solution were analyzed by the Z-scan technique in the resonant and non-resonant regimes. Three different systems with particle sizes of 56, 99 and 215 nm, and concentrations of 0.378, 0.831 and 0.715 mg/mL, respectively, were obtained by the polyol method. Nonlinear excitation of the samples was performed with laser pulses of 26 ps, at a repetition rate of 10 Hz, and using three different wavelenghts (355, 532 and 1064 nm), exciting only the electronic part of the optical nonlinearity, and avoiding induced thermal loading of the samples. Whenever observable, samples showed saturable absorption for all wavelengths, which was dependent, in general, on concentration and incident intensity. For samples featuring sizes of 55 and 99 nm, saturable absorption could be observed for wavelengths close to their dipolar surface plasmon resonances; while, for samples with sizes of 99 and 215 nm, saturable absorption and positive nonlinear optical refraction (only for size of 215 nm) could be observed at 1064 nm. Besides, for some samples, nonlinear optical response followed the incident intensity profile at wavelengths close to resonance. On the contrary, for wavelengths out of resonance, the nonlinear optical behavior showed to be nonlocal, ie, its profile was narrower than the incident one.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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2016 (2)

H. Sánchez-Esquivel, B. Can-Uc, R. Rangel-Rojo, M. J. Oviedo-Bandera, and J. M. Romo-Herrera, “Third-order nonlinear response in cubic concave gold nanoparticles,” Int. J. Nanotechnol. 13(1/2/3), 80–90 (2016).
[Crossref]

B. A. Martínez Irivas, M. L. Arroyo Carrasco, M. M. Méndez Otero, R. Ramos García, and M. D. Iturbe Castillo, “Far-field diffraction patterns by a thin nonlinear absorptive nonlocal media,” Opt. Express 23(11), 14036–14043 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (1)

K. Zhang, Z-L. Huang, H-W. Dai, Z-W. Ma, J-B Han, H-M. Gong, and Y-B. Han, “Surface plasmon enhanced third-order optical nonlinearity of silver nanocubes,” Opt. Mat. Express 5(11), 2649–2654 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

D. Ramírez-Martínez, E. Alvarado-Méndez, M. Trejo-Durán, and M. A. Vázquez-Guevara, “Nonlocal nonlinear refraction in Hibiscus Sabdariffa with large phase shifts,” Opt. Express 22(21), 25161–25170 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Aloukos, I. Papagiannouli, A. B. Bourlinos, R. Zboril, and S. Couris, “Third-order nonlinear optical response and optical limiting of colloidal carbon dots,” Opt. Express 10(2), 12013–12027 (2014).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

Y. Wang, Y. Zheng, C. Z. Huang, and Y. Xia, “Synthesis of Ag nanocubes 18–32nm in edge length: The effects of Polyol on reduction kinetics, size control and reproducibility,” J. A. Chem. Soc. 135(5), 1941–1951 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. C. Fernández Hernández, R. Gleason Villagran, C. Torres Torres, L. Rodríguez Fernández, A. Crespo Sosa, J. C. Cheang Wong, A. López Suárez, R. Rangel Rojo, A. Oliver, and J. A. Reyes Esqueda, “On the physical contributions to the third-order nonlinear optical response in plasmonic nanocomposites,” J. Opt. 14(12), 125203 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

K. M. Mayer and J. H. Hafner, “Localized surface plasmon resonance sensors,” Chem. Rev. 111(6), 3828–3857 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Rycenga, C. M. Cobley, J. Zeng, W. Li, C. H. Moran, Q. Zhang, D. Qin, and Y. Xia, “Controlling the synthesis and assembly of silver nanostructures for plasmonic applications,” Chem. Rev. 111, 3669–3712 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. V. García Ramírez, M. L. Arroyo Carrasco, M. M. Méndez Otero, E. Reynoso Lara, S. Chavez-Cerda, and M. D. Iturbe Castillo, “Z-scan and spatial self-phase modulation of a gaussian beam in a thin nonlocal nonlinear media,” J. Opt. 13(8), 085203 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (3)

Q. Zhang, W. Li, L-P. Wen, J. Chen, and Y. Xia, “Facile synthesis of Ag nanocubes of 30 to 70 nm in edge length with CF3COOAg as a precursor,” Chem. 16(33), 10234–10239 (2010).
[Crossref]

P. Christopher and S. Linc, “Shape-and size-specific chemistry of Ag nanostructuresin catalytic ethylene epoxidation,” ChemCatChem. 2(1), 78–83 (2010).
[Crossref]

G. Chatzikyriakos, K. Iliopoulos, A. Bakandritsos, and S. Couris, “Nonlinear optical properties of aqueous dispersions of ferromagnetic γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 493(4), 314–318 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

D. Crespy and K. Landfester, “Synthesis of polyvinylpyrrolidone/silver nanoparticles hybrid latex in non-aqueous miniemulsion at high temperature,” Polymer 50(7), 1616–1620 (2009).
[Crossref]

Y. H. Lee, Y. Yan, L. Polavarapu, and Q-H Xu, “Nonlinear optical switching behavior of Au nanocubes and nano-octahedra investigated by femtosecond Z-scan measurements,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(2), 023105 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

U. Gurudas, E. Brooks, D. M. Bubb, S. Heiroth, T. Lippert, and A. Wokaun, “Saturable and reverse saturable absorption in silver nanodots at 532nm using picosencond laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(7), 073107 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. R. Tao, S. Habas, and P. Yang, “Shape Control of Colloidal Metal Nanocrystals,” Small 4(3), 310–325 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (5)

K. Aslan, M. Wu, J. R. Lakowicz, and C. D. Geddes, “Fluorescent core shell Ag@SiO2 nanocomposites for metal-enhanced fluorescence and single nanoparticle sensing platforms,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129(6), 1524–1525 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. L. González and C. Noguez, “Influence of morphology on the optical properties of metal nanoparticles,” J. Comp. Theor. Nanosci. 4, 231–238 (2007).
[Crossref]

S. Pal, Y. K. Tak, and J. M. Song, “Does the antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles depend on the shape of the nanoparticle? A study of the gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli,” Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 73(6), 1712–1720 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Chaudret and K. Philippot, “Organometallic nanoparticles of metals or metal oxides,” Oil Gas Sci. Technolo. 62(6), 799–817 (2007).
[Crossref]

C. Noguez, “Surface plasmons on metal nanoparticles: The influence of shape and physical environment,” J. Phys. Chem. C 111(10), 3806–3819 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

E. Ozbay, “Plasmonics: Merging photonics and electronics at nanoscale dimensions,” Science,  311(5758), 189–193 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. J. Wiley, S. H. Im, Z.-Y. Li, J. McLellan, A. Siekkinen, and Y. Xia, “Maneuvering the surface plasmon resonance of silver nanostructures through shape-controlled synthesis,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110(32), 15666–15675 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (5)

S. H. Im, Y. T. Lee, B. Wiley, and Y. Xia, “Large-scale synthesis of silver nanocubes: The role of HCl in promoting cube perfection and monodispesity,” Angew. Chem. 117, 2192–2195 (2005).
[Crossref]

B. Wiley, Y. Sun, B. Mayers, and Y. Xia, “Shape-controlled synthesis of metal nanostructures: The case of silver,” Chem. Eur. J. 11(2), 454–463 (2005).
[Crossref]

C. L. Haynes, A. D. McFarland, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 77(17), 338A–346A (2005).
[Crossref]

C. Sönnichsen, B. M. Reinhard, J. Liphardt, and A. P. Alivisatos, “A molecular ruler based on plasmon coupling of single gold and silver nanoparticles,” Nat. Biotechnol. 23(6), 741–745 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Gao, X. Zhang, Y. Li, H. Liu, Y. Wang, Q. Chang, W. Jiao, and Y. Song,“Saturable absorption and reverse saturable absorption in platinum nanoparticles,” Opt. Commun. 251(4–6), 429–433 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (3)

M. C. Daniel and D. Astruc, “Gold nanoparticles: Assembly, supramolecular chemistry, quantum-size-related properties, and applications toward Biology, Catalysis and Nanotechnology,” Chem. Rev. 104(1), 293–346 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. K. Sau and C. J. Murphy, “Room temperature, high-yield synthesis of multiple shapes of gold nanoparticles in aqueous solution,” J. Am. Chem Soc. 126(28), 8648–8649 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Krolikowski, O. Bang, N. I. Nikolov, D. Neshev, J. Wyller, J. J. Rasmussen, and D. Edmundson, “Modulational instability, solitons and beam propagation in spatially nonlocal nonlinear media,” J. Opt. B: Quantum Semiclass. Opt. 6(5), S288–S294 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

B. Yin, H. Ma, S. Wang, and S. Chen, “Electrochemical synthesis of silver nanoparticles under protection of Poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone),” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(34), 8898–8904 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

Y. Sun and Y. Xia, “Shape-controlled synthesis of gold and silver nanoparticles,” Science 298(5601), 2176–2179 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

C. B. Murray, C. R. Kagan, and M.G. Bawendy, “Synthesis and characterization of monodisperse nanocrystals and close packed nanocrystals assembleis,” Ann. Rev. Mater. Sci. 30, 545–610 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

S. Link and M. A. El-Sayed,“Spectral properties and relaxation dynamics of surface plasmon electronic oscillations in gold and silver nanodots and nanorods,” J. Phys. Chem. B 103(40), 8410–8426 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

1996 (1)

H. H. Huang, X. P. Ni, G. Loy, C. H. Chew, K. L. Tanm, F.C. Loh, J. F. Deng, and G. Q. Xu, “Photochemical formation of silver nanoparticles in Poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone),” Langmuir 12(4), 909–912 (1996).
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[Crossref]

1989 (1)

F. Fievèt, J. P. Lagier, B. Blin, B. Beaundoin, and M. Fliglarz, “Homogeneous and heterogeneous nucleations in the polyol process for the preparation of micron and submicron size metal particles,” Solid State Ion. 32–33, 198–205 (1989).
[Crossref]

1983 (1)

1975 (1)

R. Fuch, “Theory of the optical properties of ionic crystal cubes,” Phys. Rev. B 11(4), 1732–1739 (1975).
[Crossref]

1965 (1)

J. P. Gordon, R. C. C. Leite, R. S. Moore, S. P. Porto, and J. R Whinnery, “Long-transient effects in lasers with inserted liquid samples,” J. Appl. Phys. 36(1), 3 (1965).
[Crossref]

Alivisatos, A. P.

C. Sönnichsen, B. M. Reinhard, J. Liphardt, and A. P. Alivisatos, “A molecular ruler based on plasmon coupling of single gold and silver nanoparticles,” Nat. Biotechnol. 23(6), 741–745 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aloukos, P.

P. Aloukos, I. Papagiannouli, A. B. Bourlinos, R. Zboril, and S. Couris, “Third-order nonlinear optical response and optical limiting of colloidal carbon dots,” Opt. Express 10(2), 12013–12027 (2014).
[Crossref]

Alvarado-Méndez, E.

Arroyo Carrasco, M. L.

B. A. Martínez Irivas, M. L. Arroyo Carrasco, M. M. Méndez Otero, R. Ramos García, and M. D. Iturbe Castillo, “Far-field diffraction patterns by a thin nonlinear absorptive nonlocal media,” Opt. Express 23(11), 14036–14043 (2016).
[Crossref]

E. V. García Ramírez, M. L. Arroyo Carrasco, M. M. Méndez Otero, E. Reynoso Lara, S. Chavez-Cerda, and M. D. Iturbe Castillo, “Z-scan and spatial self-phase modulation of a gaussian beam in a thin nonlocal nonlinear media,” J. Opt. 13(8), 085203 (2011).
[Crossref]

Aslan, K.

K. Aslan, M. Wu, J. R. Lakowicz, and C. D. Geddes, “Fluorescent core shell Ag@SiO2 nanocomposites for metal-enhanced fluorescence and single nanoparticle sensing platforms,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129(6), 1524–1525 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Astruc, D.

M. C. Daniel and D. Astruc, “Gold nanoparticles: Assembly, supramolecular chemistry, quantum-size-related properties, and applications toward Biology, Catalysis and Nanotechnology,” Chem. Rev. 104(1), 293–346 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bakandritsos, A.

G. Chatzikyriakos, K. Iliopoulos, A. Bakandritsos, and S. Couris, “Nonlinear optical properties of aqueous dispersions of ferromagnetic γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 493(4), 314–318 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bang, O.

W. Krolikowski, O. Bang, N. I. Nikolov, D. Neshev, J. Wyller, J. J. Rasmussen, and D. Edmundson, “Modulational instability, solitons and beam propagation in spatially nonlocal nonlinear media,” J. Opt. B: Quantum Semiclass. Opt. 6(5), S288–S294 (2004).
[Crossref]

Bawendy, M.G.

C. B. Murray, C. R. Kagan, and M.G. Bawendy, “Synthesis and characterization of monodisperse nanocrystals and close packed nanocrystals assembleis,” Ann. Rev. Mater. Sci. 30, 545–610 (2000).
[Crossref]

Beaundoin, B.

F. Fievèt, J. P. Lagier, B. Blin, B. Beaundoin, and M. Fliglarz, “Homogeneous and heterogeneous nucleations in the polyol process for the preparation of micron and submicron size metal particles,” Solid State Ion. 32–33, 198–205 (1989).
[Crossref]

Blin, B.

F. Fievèt, J. P. Lagier, B. Blin, B. Beaundoin, and M. Fliglarz, “Homogeneous and heterogeneous nucleations in the polyol process for the preparation of micron and submicron size metal particles,” Solid State Ion. 32–33, 198–205 (1989).
[Crossref]

Bourlinos, A. B.

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F. Fievèt, J. P. Lagier, B. Blin, B. Beaundoin, and M. Fliglarz, “Homogeneous and heterogeneous nucleations in the polyol process for the preparation of micron and submicron size metal particles,” Solid State Ion. 32–33, 198–205 (1989).
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K. Aslan, M. Wu, J. R. Lakowicz, and C. D. Geddes, “Fluorescent core shell Ag@SiO2 nanocomposites for metal-enhanced fluorescence and single nanoparticle sensing platforms,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129(6), 1524–1525 (2007).
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J. P. Gordon, R. C. C. Leite, R. S. Moore, S. P. Porto, and J. R Whinnery, “Long-transient effects in lasers with inserted liquid samples,” J. Appl. Phys. 36(1), 3 (1965).
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M. Rycenga, C. M. Cobley, J. Zeng, W. Li, C. H. Moran, Q. Zhang, D. Qin, and Y. Xia, “Controlling the synthesis and assembly of silver nanostructures for plasmonic applications,” Chem. Rev. 111, 3669–3712 (2011).
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Y. Gao, X. Zhang, Y. Li, H. Liu, Y. Wang, Q. Chang, W. Jiao, and Y. Song,“Saturable absorption and reverse saturable absorption in platinum nanoparticles,” Opt. Commun. 251(4–6), 429–433 (2005).
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B. J. Wiley, S. H. Im, Z.-Y. Li, J. McLellan, A. Siekkinen, and Y. Xia, “Maneuvering the surface plasmon resonance of silver nanostructures through shape-controlled synthesis,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110(32), 15666–15675 (2006).
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Y. Gao, X. Zhang, Y. Li, H. Liu, Y. Wang, Q. Chang, W. Jiao, and Y. Song,“Saturable absorption and reverse saturable absorption in platinum nanoparticles,” Opt. Commun. 251(4–6), 429–433 (2005).
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K. Zhang, Z-L. Huang, H-W. Dai, Z-W. Ma, J-B Han, H-M. Gong, and Y-B. Han, “Surface plasmon enhanced third-order optical nonlinearity of silver nanocubes,” Opt. Mat. Express 5(11), 2649–2654 (2015).
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K. M. Mayer and J. H. Hafner, “Localized surface plasmon resonance sensors,” Chem. Rev. 111(6), 3828–3857 (2011).
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E. V. García Ramírez, M. L. Arroyo Carrasco, M. M. Méndez Otero, E. Reynoso Lara, S. Chavez-Cerda, and M. D. Iturbe Castillo, “Z-scan and spatial self-phase modulation of a gaussian beam in a thin nonlocal nonlinear media,” J. Opt. 13(8), 085203 (2011).
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J. P. Gordon, R. C. C. Leite, R. S. Moore, S. P. Porto, and J. R Whinnery, “Long-transient effects in lasers with inserted liquid samples,” J. Appl. Phys. 36(1), 3 (1965).
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M. Rycenga, C. M. Cobley, J. Zeng, W. Li, C. H. Moran, Q. Zhang, D. Qin, and Y. Xia, “Controlling the synthesis and assembly of silver nanostructures for plasmonic applications,” Chem. Rev. 111, 3669–3712 (2011).
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S. Pal, Y. K. Tak, and J. M. Song, “Does the antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles depend on the shape of the nanoparticle? A study of the gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli,” Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 73(6), 1712–1720 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Papagiannouli, I.

P. Aloukos, I. Papagiannouli, A. B. Bourlinos, R. Zboril, and S. Couris, “Third-order nonlinear optical response and optical limiting of colloidal carbon dots,” Opt. Express 10(2), 12013–12027 (2014).
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B. Chaudret and K. Philippot, “Organometallic nanoparticles of metals or metal oxides,” Oil Gas Sci. Technolo. 62(6), 799–817 (2007).
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Y. H. Lee, Y. Yan, L. Polavarapu, and Q-H Xu, “Nonlinear optical switching behavior of Au nanocubes and nano-octahedra investigated by femtosecond Z-scan measurements,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(2), 023105 (2009).
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J. P. Gordon, R. C. C. Leite, R. S. Moore, S. P. Porto, and J. R Whinnery, “Long-transient effects in lasers with inserted liquid samples,” J. Appl. Phys. 36(1), 3 (1965).
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Qin, D.

M. Rycenga, C. M. Cobley, J. Zeng, W. Li, C. H. Moran, Q. Zhang, D. Qin, and Y. Xia, “Controlling the synthesis and assembly of silver nanostructures for plasmonic applications,” Chem. Rev. 111, 3669–3712 (2011).
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Ramos García, R.

Rangel Rojo, R.

R. C. Fernández Hernández, R. Gleason Villagran, C. Torres Torres, L. Rodríguez Fernández, A. Crespo Sosa, J. C. Cheang Wong, A. López Suárez, R. Rangel Rojo, A. Oliver, and J. A. Reyes Esqueda, “On the physical contributions to the third-order nonlinear optical response in plasmonic nanocomposites,” J. Opt. 14(12), 125203 (2012).
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H. Sánchez-Esquivel, B. Can-Uc, R. Rangel-Rojo, M. J. Oviedo-Bandera, and J. M. Romo-Herrera, “Third-order nonlinear response in cubic concave gold nanoparticles,” Int. J. Nanotechnol. 13(1/2/3), 80–90 (2016).
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Rasmussen, J. J.

W. Krolikowski, O. Bang, N. I. Nikolov, D. Neshev, J. Wyller, J. J. Rasmussen, and D. Edmundson, “Modulational instability, solitons and beam propagation in spatially nonlocal nonlinear media,” J. Opt. B: Quantum Semiclass. Opt. 6(5), S288–S294 (2004).
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C. Sönnichsen, B. M. Reinhard, J. Liphardt, and A. P. Alivisatos, “A molecular ruler based on plasmon coupling of single gold and silver nanoparticles,” Nat. Biotechnol. 23(6), 741–745 (2005).
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Reyes Esqueda, J. A.

R. C. Fernández Hernández, R. Gleason Villagran, C. Torres Torres, L. Rodríguez Fernández, A. Crespo Sosa, J. C. Cheang Wong, A. López Suárez, R. Rangel Rojo, A. Oliver, and J. A. Reyes Esqueda, “On the physical contributions to the third-order nonlinear optical response in plasmonic nanocomposites,” J. Opt. 14(12), 125203 (2012).
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E. V. García Ramírez, M. L. Arroyo Carrasco, M. M. Méndez Otero, E. Reynoso Lara, S. Chavez-Cerda, and M. D. Iturbe Castillo, “Z-scan and spatial self-phase modulation of a gaussian beam in a thin nonlocal nonlinear media,” J. Opt. 13(8), 085203 (2011).
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R. C. Fernández Hernández, R. Gleason Villagran, C. Torres Torres, L. Rodríguez Fernández, A. Crespo Sosa, J. C. Cheang Wong, A. López Suárez, R. Rangel Rojo, A. Oliver, and J. A. Reyes Esqueda, “On the physical contributions to the third-order nonlinear optical response in plasmonic nanocomposites,” J. Opt. 14(12), 125203 (2012).
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H. Sánchez-Esquivel, B. Can-Uc, R. Rangel-Rojo, M. J. Oviedo-Bandera, and J. M. Romo-Herrera, “Third-order nonlinear response in cubic concave gold nanoparticles,” Int. J. Nanotechnol. 13(1/2/3), 80–90 (2016).
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M. Rycenga, C. M. Cobley, J. Zeng, W. Li, C. H. Moran, Q. Zhang, D. Qin, and Y. Xia, “Controlling the synthesis and assembly of silver nanostructures for plasmonic applications,” Chem. Rev. 111, 3669–3712 (2011).
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M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
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H. Sánchez-Esquivel, B. Can-Uc, R. Rangel-Rojo, M. J. Oviedo-Bandera, and J. M. Romo-Herrera, “Third-order nonlinear response in cubic concave gold nanoparticles,” Int. J. Nanotechnol. 13(1/2/3), 80–90 (2016).
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T. K. Sau and C. J. Murphy, “Room temperature, high-yield synthesis of multiple shapes of gold nanoparticles in aqueous solution,” J. Am. Chem Soc. 126(28), 8648–8649 (2004).
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E. W Van Stryland and M Sheik-Bahae, Z-scan Measurements of Optical Nonlinearities: Characterization Techniques and Tabulations for Organic Nonlinear Materials (Marcel Dekker, Inc.1998).

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M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
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B. J. Wiley, S. H. Im, Z.-Y. Li, J. McLellan, A. Siekkinen, and Y. Xia, “Maneuvering the surface plasmon resonance of silver nanostructures through shape-controlled synthesis,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110(32), 15666–15675 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Song, J. M.

S. Pal, Y. K. Tak, and J. M. Song, “Does the antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles depend on the shape of the nanoparticle? A study of the gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli,” Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 73(6), 1712–1720 (2007).
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Song, Y.

Y. Gao, X. Zhang, Y. Li, H. Liu, Y. Wang, Q. Chang, W. Jiao, and Y. Song,“Saturable absorption and reverse saturable absorption in platinum nanoparticles,” Opt. Commun. 251(4–6), 429–433 (2005).
[Crossref]

Sönnichsen, C.

C. Sönnichsen, B. M. Reinhard, J. Liphardt, and A. P. Alivisatos, “A molecular ruler based on plasmon coupling of single gold and silver nanoparticles,” Nat. Biotechnol. 23(6), 741–745 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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B. Wiley, Y. Sun, B. Mayers, and Y. Xia, “Shape-controlled synthesis of metal nanostructures: The case of silver,” Chem. Eur. J. 11(2), 454–463 (2005).
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Y. Sun and Y. Xia, “Shape-controlled synthesis of gold and silver nanoparticles,” Science 298(5601), 2176–2179 (2002).
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S. Pal, Y. K. Tak, and J. M. Song, “Does the antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles depend on the shape of the nanoparticle? A study of the gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli,” Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 73(6), 1712–1720 (2007).
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H. H. Huang, X. P. Ni, G. Loy, C. H. Chew, K. L. Tanm, F.C. Loh, J. F. Deng, and G. Q. Xu, “Photochemical formation of silver nanoparticles in Poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone),” Langmuir 12(4), 909–912 (1996).
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A. R. Tao, S. Habas, and P. Yang, “Shape Control of Colloidal Metal Nanocrystals,” Small 4(3), 310–325 (2008).
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R. C. Fernández Hernández, R. Gleason Villagran, C. Torres Torres, L. Rodríguez Fernández, A. Crespo Sosa, J. C. Cheang Wong, A. López Suárez, R. Rangel Rojo, A. Oliver, and J. A. Reyes Esqueda, “On the physical contributions to the third-order nonlinear optical response in plasmonic nanocomposites,” J. Opt. 14(12), 125203 (2012).
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E. W Van Stryland and M Sheik-Bahae, Z-scan Measurements of Optical Nonlinearities: Characterization Techniques and Tabulations for Organic Nonlinear Materials (Marcel Dekker, Inc.1998).

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M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
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B. Yin, H. Ma, S. Wang, and S. Chen, “Electrochemical synthesis of silver nanoparticles under protection of Poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone),” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(34), 8898–8904 (2003).
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Wang, Y.

Y. Wang, Y. Zheng, C. Z. Huang, and Y. Xia, “Synthesis of Ag nanocubes 18–32nm in edge length: The effects of Polyol on reduction kinetics, size control and reproducibility,” J. A. Chem. Soc. 135(5), 1941–1951 (2012).
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Y. Gao, X. Zhang, Y. Li, H. Liu, Y. Wang, Q. Chang, W. Jiao, and Y. Song,“Saturable absorption and reverse saturable absorption in platinum nanoparticles,” Opt. Commun. 251(4–6), 429–433 (2005).
[Crossref]

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M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
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Q. Zhang, W. Li, L-P. Wen, J. Chen, and Y. Xia, “Facile synthesis of Ag nanocubes of 30 to 70 nm in edge length with CF3COOAg as a precursor,” Chem. 16(33), 10234–10239 (2010).
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J. P. Gordon, R. C. C. Leite, R. S. Moore, S. P. Porto, and J. R Whinnery, “Long-transient effects in lasers with inserted liquid samples,” J. Appl. Phys. 36(1), 3 (1965).
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B. Wiley, Y. Sun, B. Mayers, and Y. Xia, “Shape-controlled synthesis of metal nanostructures: The case of silver,” Chem. Eur. J. 11(2), 454–463 (2005).
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S. H. Im, Y. T. Lee, B. Wiley, and Y. Xia, “Large-scale synthesis of silver nanocubes: The role of HCl in promoting cube perfection and monodispesity,” Angew. Chem. 117, 2192–2195 (2005).
[Crossref]

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B. J. Wiley, S. H. Im, Z.-Y. Li, J. McLellan, A. Siekkinen, and Y. Xia, “Maneuvering the surface plasmon resonance of silver nanostructures through shape-controlled synthesis,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110(32), 15666–15675 (2006).
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U. Gurudas, E. Brooks, D. M. Bubb, S. Heiroth, T. Lippert, and A. Wokaun, “Saturable and reverse saturable absorption in silver nanodots at 532nm using picosencond laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(7), 073107 (2008).
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K. Aslan, M. Wu, J. R. Lakowicz, and C. D. Geddes, “Fluorescent core shell Ag@SiO2 nanocomposites for metal-enhanced fluorescence and single nanoparticle sensing platforms,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129(6), 1524–1525 (2007).
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W. Krolikowski, O. Bang, N. I. Nikolov, D. Neshev, J. Wyller, J. J. Rasmussen, and D. Edmundson, “Modulational instability, solitons and beam propagation in spatially nonlocal nonlinear media,” J. Opt. B: Quantum Semiclass. Opt. 6(5), S288–S294 (2004).
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Y. Wang, Y. Zheng, C. Z. Huang, and Y. Xia, “Synthesis of Ag nanocubes 18–32nm in edge length: The effects of Polyol on reduction kinetics, size control and reproducibility,” J. A. Chem. Soc. 135(5), 1941–1951 (2012).
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M. Rycenga, C. M. Cobley, J. Zeng, W. Li, C. H. Moran, Q. Zhang, D. Qin, and Y. Xia, “Controlling the synthesis and assembly of silver nanostructures for plasmonic applications,” Chem. Rev. 111, 3669–3712 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Zhang, W. Li, L-P. Wen, J. Chen, and Y. Xia, “Facile synthesis of Ag nanocubes of 30 to 70 nm in edge length with CF3COOAg as a precursor,” Chem. 16(33), 10234–10239 (2010).
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B. J. Wiley, S. H. Im, Z.-Y. Li, J. McLellan, A. Siekkinen, and Y. Xia, “Maneuvering the surface plasmon resonance of silver nanostructures through shape-controlled synthesis,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110(32), 15666–15675 (2006).
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S. H. Im, Y. T. Lee, B. Wiley, and Y. Xia, “Large-scale synthesis of silver nanocubes: The role of HCl in promoting cube perfection and monodispesity,” Angew. Chem. 117, 2192–2195 (2005).
[Crossref]

B. Wiley, Y. Sun, B. Mayers, and Y. Xia, “Shape-controlled synthesis of metal nanostructures: The case of silver,” Chem. Eur. J. 11(2), 454–463 (2005).
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Y. Sun and Y. Xia, “Shape-controlled synthesis of gold and silver nanoparticles,” Science 298(5601), 2176–2179 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, G. Q.

H. H. Huang, X. P. Ni, G. Loy, C. H. Chew, K. L. Tanm, F.C. Loh, J. F. Deng, and G. Q. Xu, “Photochemical formation of silver nanoparticles in Poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone),” Langmuir 12(4), 909–912 (1996).
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Xu, Q-H

Y. H. Lee, Y. Yan, L. Polavarapu, and Q-H Xu, “Nonlinear optical switching behavior of Au nanocubes and nano-octahedra investigated by femtosecond Z-scan measurements,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(2), 023105 (2009).
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Yan, Y.

Y. H. Lee, Y. Yan, L. Polavarapu, and Q-H Xu, “Nonlinear optical switching behavior of Au nanocubes and nano-octahedra investigated by femtosecond Z-scan measurements,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(2), 023105 (2009).
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Yang, P.

A. R. Tao, S. Habas, and P. Yang, “Shape Control of Colloidal Metal Nanocrystals,” Small 4(3), 310–325 (2008).
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B. Yin, H. Ma, S. Wang, and S. Chen, “Electrochemical synthesis of silver nanoparticles under protection of Poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone),” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(34), 8898–8904 (2003).
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P. Aloukos, I. Papagiannouli, A. B. Bourlinos, R. Zboril, and S. Couris, “Third-order nonlinear optical response and optical limiting of colloidal carbon dots,” Opt. Express 10(2), 12013–12027 (2014).
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Zeng, J.

M. Rycenga, C. M. Cobley, J. Zeng, W. Li, C. H. Moran, Q. Zhang, D. Qin, and Y. Xia, “Controlling the synthesis and assembly of silver nanostructures for plasmonic applications,” Chem. Rev. 111, 3669–3712 (2011).
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Q. Zhang, W. Li, L-P. Wen, J. Chen, and Y. Xia, “Facile synthesis of Ag nanocubes of 30 to 70 nm in edge length with CF3COOAg as a precursor,” Chem. 16(33), 10234–10239 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.

Y. Gao, X. Zhang, Y. Li, H. Liu, Y. Wang, Q. Chang, W. Jiao, and Y. Song,“Saturable absorption and reverse saturable absorption in platinum nanoparticles,” Opt. Commun. 251(4–6), 429–433 (2005).
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Y. Wang, Y. Zheng, C. Z. Huang, and Y. Xia, “Synthesis of Ag nanocubes 18–32nm in edge length: The effects of Polyol on reduction kinetics, size control and reproducibility,” J. A. Chem. Soc. 135(5), 1941–1951 (2012).
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C. L. Haynes, A. D. McFarland, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 77(17), 338A–346A (2005).
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S. H. Im, Y. T. Lee, B. Wiley, and Y. Xia, “Large-scale synthesis of silver nanocubes: The role of HCl in promoting cube perfection and monodispesity,” Angew. Chem. 117, 2192–2195 (2005).
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Y. H. Lee, Y. Yan, L. Polavarapu, and Q-H Xu, “Nonlinear optical switching behavior of Au nanocubes and nano-octahedra investigated by femtosecond Z-scan measurements,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(2), 023105 (2009).
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Y. Wang, Y. Zheng, C. Z. Huang, and Y. Xia, “Synthesis of Ag nanocubes 18–32nm in edge length: The effects of Polyol on reduction kinetics, size control and reproducibility,” J. A. Chem. Soc. 135(5), 1941–1951 (2012).
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K. Aslan, M. Wu, J. R. Lakowicz, and C. D. Geddes, “Fluorescent core shell Ag@SiO2 nanocomposites for metal-enhanced fluorescence and single nanoparticle sensing platforms,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129(6), 1524–1525 (2007).
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J. Appl. Phys. (2)

U. Gurudas, E. Brooks, D. M. Bubb, S. Heiroth, T. Lippert, and A. Wokaun, “Saturable and reverse saturable absorption in silver nanodots at 532nm using picosencond laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(7), 073107 (2008).
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[Crossref]

Opt. Express (3)

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[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of Ag nanocubes (a) S1, (b) S2, (c) S3; (d), (e), and (f) show the corresponding edge length histograms.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Absorption spectra for the studied samples; the inset shows the spectrum of S3 on large scale, (b) SPRs position.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Z-scan curves for Ag nanocubes: Nonlinear optical absorption for (a) λ = 532 nm, with I0 = 1.24 GW/cm2; and (b) λ = 355 nm, with I0 = 4.15 GW/cm2.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 SA curves for sample S2 at different irradiances: (a) 532 nm, (b) 355 nm.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Comparison between fittings obtained with equations (5) and (6) under same conditions: ΔΨ0 = −0.35, using m = 2, which corresponds to the local case. Experimental results were obtained for sample S3 at I0 = 23.33 GW/cm2 (black dots).
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Nonlinear optical response for S3 (black dots). (a) Saturable absorption, and (b) positive nonlinear refraction, for I0 = 23.33 GW/cm2. Fittings were obtained for different values of m in equation (6). (c) Saturable absorption, and (d) positive nonlinear refraction, for I0 = 26.67 GW/cm2, with their corresponding nonlocal fittings.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Nonlinear optical response for S2 (black dots): Saturable absorption for (a) I0 = 15.56 GW/cm2, and (b) I0 = 18.76 GW/cm2. Fittings were obtained using m = 5 in both cases, with ΔΨ0 = −0.31 for (a), and ΔΨ0 = −0.45 for (b).

Tables (5)

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Table 1 Nanocubes characteristic parameters.

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Table 2 Beam parameters.

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Table 3 Linear absorption coefficients.

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Table 4 β coefficients.

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Table 5 Nonlinear optical coefficients and all-optical switching figures of merit for sample S3 at 1064 nm.

Equations (8)

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n = n 0 + γ I
α = α 0 + β I ,
T ( z , Δ Φ 0 ) 1 - 4 Δ Φ 0 ( z / Z 0 ) [ ( z / Z 0 ) 2 + 9 ] [ ( z / Z 0 ) 2 + 1 ] ,
Δ Φ 0 = 2 π λ γ I 0 L eff .
T ( z , S = 1 ) = n = 0 [ - q 0 ( z , 0 ) ] n ( n + 1 ) 3 / 2 ,
E out = E ( r , z ) exp ( - α 0 L / 2 ) [ 1 + q m ] ( - i ( Δ Φ 0 / Δ Ψ 0 ) - 1 / 2 )
q m = Δ Ψ 0 G loc m / 2
G loc = exp ( - 2 r 2 ω 2 ) 1 + ( z / Z 0 ) 2 ,

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